WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected washing treatments

  1. Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ... with regard to the optimal retention of the crude protein and fat levels of the dried dagaa. ... are accessible to most of the households involved in dried fish processing.

  2. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  3. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment pl...

  4. Bacterial selection during the formation of early-stage aerobic granules in wastewater treatment systems operated under wash-out dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gregory Weissbrodt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s-1 was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s-1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in

  5. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  6. Soil washing and post-wash biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Alok

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory scale study was conducted to investigate the treatability of petroleum contaminated soils by soil washing and subsequent biological treatment of the different soil fractions. In addition to soils obtained from contaminated sites, studies were also performed on soils contaminated in the laboratory. Soil washing was performed using a bench-scale soil washing system. Washing was carried out with simultaneous fractionation of the bulk soil into sand, silt and clay fractions. Cl...

  7. Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Selection of washing chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Sugahara, Kazuo; Sakurai, Yasuhiro; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Sasaki, Kouta; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of neutral salts, strong acids, and chelates were tested for extracting cadmium (Cd) from three paddy soils. The higher the selectivity of the cations of the added neutral salts toward soil adsorption sites, the lower the pH in the extracts and the more soil Cd could be extracted. In addition, soil carbon and nitrogen contents and mineral composition were closely associated with the amount of Cd extracted. Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were selected as wash chemicals to restore Cd-contaminated paddy soils in situ. Washing with calcium chloride led to the formation of Cd chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. The washing also substantially decreased soil levels of exchangeable and acid-soluble Cd, which are the major forms of bioavailable Cd for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The optimum conditions for in situ soil washing were also determined for calcium chloride. - Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were useful for the in situ washing of Cd-contaminated paddy soils

  8. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  9. Distillery spent wash: Treatment technologies and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Acharya, Bhavik K.; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-01-01

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors

  10. WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mallow

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention control (IPC protocols.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing WASH/IPC activity data routinely recorded on paper forms or white boards at ETUs during the outbreak and later merged into a database from two IMC-run ETUs in Sierra Leone between December 2014 and December 2015.The IMC WASH/IPC database contains data from over 369 days. Our results highlight parameters key to designing and maintaining an ETU. High concentration chlorine solution usage was highly correlated with both daily patient occupancy and high-risk zone staff entries; low concentration chlorine usage was less well explained by these measures. There is high demand for laundering and disinfecting of personal protective equipment (PPE on a daily basis and approximately 1 (0-4 piece of PPE is damaged each day.Lack of standardization in the type and format of data collected at ETUs made constructing the WASH/IPC database difficult. However, the data presented here may help inform humanitarian response operations in future epidemics.

  11. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Selected Hydrologic Data for Sand Cove Wash, Washington County, Utah

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norton, Aaron; Susong, David D

    2004-01-01

    .... Hydrologic data collected in this study are described and listed in this report. Six boreholes were drilled in Sand Cove Wash to determine the vertical and spatial distribution of the alluvial deposits and their hydrologic...

  13. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    According to common belief, supported by the authority of the World Health Organization - WHO, the common (social) hand washing is the simplest, cheapest and the most effective way of reduction the hospital-acquired infections. For this purpose products of"liquid soaps", present in a large number on the market, are most often applied. Microbiological status (microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity) of"liquid soaps" available on the Polish market is not known, because relevant routinely studies have not been performed. Only the antibacterial and / or antifungal activity of certain formulations is sometimes assessed, especially when the manufacturer suggests the standardized application of the products for surgical or hygienic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality, especially microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity of the selected hands washing products, presents on the Polish market. The 12 selected commercial products, available on the market in Poland, dedicated for hands washing were included into study. Microbiological purity test was carried out in accordance with the Polish Pharmacopoeia (FP) monograph (FP monograph numbers correspond to numbers of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph- Ph. Eur.) No 2.6.12 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumaration tests", and the monograph of FP No. 2.6.13 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: test for specified microorganisms". The following physico-chemical properties of soaps were examined: the pH of the formulations was measured according to the monograph FP No. 2.2.3. "Potentiometric determination of pH", the density of products was assayed according to the monograph FPNo. 2.2.5. "Relative density" and determination the water activity was performed by monograph FP No 2.9.39 "Water-solid interactions: determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and of water activity". Next, antibacterial and antifungal

  14. Comparing effects of washing, thermal treatments and gamma irradiation on quality of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag Zaied, S.E.A.; Aziz, N.H.; Ali, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of 5 selected spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and anise (Pimpinella anisum) seeds, and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes, obtained from the local market, were washed with pure tap water then dried at room temperature, subjected to a thermal treatment at 70 degrees C for 15 minutes or exposed to a gamma radiation source (5.0 or 10 kGy). The treatments were evaluated using microbiological and chemical studies

  15. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkx, H.; Iedema, P.; Reissland, B.; van Velzen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  16. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  17. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira da Mota, Izabel; de Castro, José Adilson; de Góes Casqueira, Rui; de Oliveira Junior, Angelo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Electroflotation method (EFM) for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it...

  18. New alternative processes for the treatment of the alkaline solvent wash waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Cumming, I.W.; Gasparini, G.; Dozol, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    The separate treatment of the solvent wash alkaline waste (ASWW) from the other low and medium level liquid wastes generated during reprocessing operations has been investigated through the development of three alternative processes dealing with solvent extraction, chemical precipitation combined with ultrafiltration and inorganic ion exchange. On the basis of lab-scale experiments performed on the same genuine ASWW sample, a comparison has been made between the respective performances of each of these processes in terms of selectivity, decontamination and volume reduction factors. From this assessment, it evolved that solvent extraction and chemical precipitation combined with utrafiltration processes are good competitors for implementing such kind of treatment although for the alpha DF, solvent extraction appears more flexible. To be really attractive, inorganic ion exchange should exhibit better VRF and DF possibly by pretreating the ASWW. 10 refs

  19. Performance of a Small-scale Treatment Wetland for Treatment of Landscaping Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. J.; Fayed, E.; Fish, W.

    2011-12-01

    A large number of lawn mowers and related equipment must be cleaned each day by commercial landscaping operations and state and local highway maintenance crews. Washing these devices produces wastewater that contains high amounts of organic matter and potentially problematic nutrients, as well as oil and grease and other chemicals and metals that come from the machinery itself. Dirty water washes off the mowers, flows off the pavement and into nearby storm drains without any kind of treatment. A better idea would be to collect such wastewater, retain it in an appropriate catchment such as an engineered wetland where natural processes could break down any pollutants in the wash water, and allow the water to naturally evaporate or percolate into the soil where it could recharge ground water resources safely. This research examines the performance of a small-scale treatment wetland tailored to remove nitrogen from landscaping wash water by incorporating both aerobic and anaerobic phases. Contaminants are analyzed through physical and chemical methods. Both methods involve collection of samples, followed by standardized, validated analytical laboratory tests for measuring total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease, and metals (Zn and Cu). High levels of total solids, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrates, total and dissolved phosphorus, COD, BOD, oil and grease are found. Zinc and copper levels are low. Wetland treatment removes 99% total solids, 77% total kjeldahl nitrogen, 100% nitrates, 94% total phosphorus, 86% dissolved phosphorus, 94% COD, 97% BOD, and 76% oil and grease. The results will be a critical step towards developing a sustainable low-energy system for treating such wastewater that could be used by private landscaping companies and government agencies.

  20. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  1. The Development of Treatment Process Technology for Uranium Soil washing Leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Dong Bin; Kim, Gye Nam; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Ki Won; Moon, Jeik won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Electrokinetic treatment technology is a good method for removing radioactive substances such as U, Co, Cs: but it has a weakness. It takes a long time to get high removal efficiency. The Soil washing method compensates for this weak point with its short reaction time and with this method it is possible to remove a lot of uranium-contaminated soil. But a great deal of leachate is generated. That is, about more amounts of leachate are generated for the decontamination of the same volume of radioactive soil using the electrokinetic equipment. Therefore, the development of a treatment process for The Soil washing leachate is important so that there is a reduction of leachate waste volume and a choice of process. Previously, studies for liquid radioactive waste were in process at various nuclear facilities. Nuclear fuel plant survey appropriate cohesion quantity of liquid waste of radioactive. Nuclear power plants manage liquid radioactive waste with centrifugation equipment. In this study, the treatment technology for uranium Soil washing leachate generated on Soil washing decontamination for the soil contaminated with uranium was developed. A treatment process suitable to the contamination characteristics of Soil washing leachate was proposed

  2. Selective Removal of Uranium from the Washing Solution of Uranium-Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study examined selective removal methods of uranium from the waste solution by ion exchange resins or solvent extraction methods to reduce amount of the 2{sup nd} waste. Alamine-336, known as an excellent extraction reagent of uranium from the leaching solution of uranium ore, did not remove uranium from the acidic washing solution of soil. Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on ampholyte resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a washing with 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 60 .deg. C. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. A great amount of uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil had been generated from the decommissioning of a uranium conversion plant. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods to decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions.

  3. Wastewater Treatment Model in Washing Stations for Vehicles Transporting Dangerous Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Car washing is a task performed by every passenger carowner more or less frequently, mainly to achieve a finer appearanceof the vehicle rather than for the need for cleanness.In the transport business, the owner's concern is to presentclean and orderly vehicles on the road as a relevant external elementof order, implying good corporate image to customers. Onthe other hand, in dangerous goods transportation there areother reasons requiring special technology of washing, applicableto the transport means used, depending on the change oftype of goods in carriage, the preliminary preparation of a vehicleto load the cargo, or to undergo maintenance.Water applied in the technology of washing collects the residueof goods carried in the vehicle and is polluted to such an extentthat it cannot be discharged into sewers - nor directly into awatercourse - without previous treatment.The paper presents a solution model and a sequence oftechnological procedures involved in an efficient treatment ofthe polluted wastewater in tank wash stations, in which mostlyvehicles carrying ADR goods are washed.

  4. Treatment of liquids of exchange resins washing from RA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, F.L.; Menghini, J.; Rodriguez, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work nanometric magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrochemical co-precipitation method to achieve the adsorption and extraction of the contaminant species present in the water coming from the regeneration of exchange resins in Research Reactor RA6. It has been possible to obtain a mean nanoparticle size of 16 nm, necessary to increase the specific surface area of the material and thus, its adsorbent capability. The synthesis parameters and adsorption conditions made it possible to achieve a treatment efficiency superior to 80% for Cs-137 (author)

  5. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; Hullebusch, Eric D. van; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween"® 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween"® 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R"2 > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween"® 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween"® 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  6. Photocatalytic and electrochemical combined treatment of textile wash water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelavannan, M.G.; Revathi, M.; Ahmed Basha, C.

    2007-01-01

    Various chemical and physical processes for treatment of textile effluent are not destructive but they only transfer the contaminants from one form to another. The presence of high concentration of organic dye and total dissolved solids (TDS) in the effluent that are not removed by biological treatment must be eliminated by an alternative method to the conventional ones is the advanced oxidation process (AOP). A procion blue dye effluent was treated by photo and electrochemical oxidation process as well as by combining photocatalytic degradation using TiO 2 suspensions. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal can be used to follow the degradation of the organic pollutant. The effects of pH, current density, flow rate of effluent that passes into the reactor and supporting electrolyte were studied. Comparative studies were carried out on photocatalytic and electrochemical process to degrade the procion blue. The maximum COD reduction and colour removal were 96 and 100%, respectively. Photodegradation efficiency of dye was high when photolysis was carried out in the presence of 40 mg/l of TiO 2

  7. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  8. Fenton oxidation treatment of spent wash-off liquor for reuse in reactive dying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangat, A.; Shaikh, I.A.; Ahmed, F.; Baqar, M

    2014-01-01

    The use of clean and high quality water in textile dyeing process is very expensive. In this study, the potential of reusing Fenton treated wash-off wastewater generated at the end of reactive dyeing was investigated. The treated wastewater was used in several dyeings employing three widely used reactive dyes, C. I. Reactive Yellow 145, C. I. Reactive Red 194, and C. I. Reactive Blue 221. Experimental results showed that at acidic pH (3.5) using optimized quantities of FeSO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Fenton process yielded a significant reduction (80-99%) of colour and COD in 30 minutes of treatment time. New dyeings were then carried out in Fenton decolourized wash-off wastewater, and dyed fabric samples were subjected to quality evaluations in terms of wash fastness, crock fastness, and colour difference properties (delta L*, delta c*, delta h*, and delta E*). This study concluded that Fenton oxidation was an efficient method for the treatment of textile wash-off wastewater, and treated liquor can be effectively recycled in next dyeing, without compromising quality parameters. This method proved to be an eco-friendly process owing to the fact that it did not use any fresh water. (author)

  9. Microbiological evaluation of sludge during an improvement process applying the washing technique (selective pressure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, Francisco; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Gonzalez, Luz Catalina

    2001-01-01

    In this investigation, the microbial consortiums were evaluated by using characterization by trophic groups and related groups by their sensibility to oxygen, as well as the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of an acclimated sludge, starting from an aerobium sludge corning from a residual water treatment plant. Later, the technique of improvement by washing was applicated to this sludge, getting inoculum for the starting of an anaerobic reactor of the kind UASB (treatment reactor). At the same time, a control reactor was operated, inoculated with acclimated sludge. Both reactors were operated during 120 days, using brown sugar as substrate, the experimental phase included dates up to 70 operation days, characterizing the sludge at the end of this period. The SMA was analysed using acetic and formic acids as substrates. The results showed activities between 0,45 and 1,39 g DQO-CH 4 /SSV -d. for both substrates. At the end of the experimental phase of the UASB reactor, the sulphate reducer bacteria from the acetate and the lactate were observed as predominant group, followed by the methanogenic hydrogenophilic bacteria. It is important to notice that, with the application of the sludge washing technique, all the tropic groups were increased, with the exception of the lactate fermentative bacteria

  10. Efficacy of household washing treatments for the control of Listeria monocytogenes on salad vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastou, Aikaterini; Rhoades, Jonathan; Smirniotis, Petros; Makri, Ioanna; Kontominas, Michael; Likotrafiti, Eleni

    2012-10-15

    The efficacy of household decontamination methods at reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) was studied. Inoculated vegetable pieces were immersed in washing solutions and surviving L. monocytogenes enumerated. Parameters investigated were storage temperature prior to washing, dipping water temperature, agitation, acetic acid concentration and immersion time. The results indicated that the storage temperature significantly affects the efficacy of dipping vegetables in water for the control of L. monocytogenes, as the reduction in count was greatest when products had been stored at cooler temperatures. Decontamination with acetic acid (up to 2.0% v/v) was shown to have some effect in most cases, but the highest observed decrease in count was 2.6 log cfu/g. Experiments investigating the effect of exposure time to acetic acid (0.5% and 1.0% v/v, up to 30 min immersion) indicated that immersing the vegetables for more than 10 min is of minimal benefit. The most significant factor affecting washing and decontamination efficacy was the vegetable itself: L. monocytogenes colonizing cucumber epidermis was far more resistant to removal by washing and to acid treatment than that on the leafy vegetables, and L. monocytogenes on parsley was the most susceptible. This shows that published decontamination experiments (often performed with lettuce) cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other vegetables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  12. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  13. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel de Oliveira da Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroflotation method (EFM for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it is possible to remove these heavy metals by electrocoagulation/electroflotation (ECF attaining 97% of removal using stainless steel mesh electrodes with a power consumption of 14 kWh m−3. The optimal conditions of treatment were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in a molar ratio 3:1, current density around 350 A m−2, ionic strength 3.2 × 10−3 M, pH = 10.0 and 20 min of ECF. This study newly indicated that the proposed method is adequate to simultaneously treat the common heavy metals found in the drilling fluids oil wells.

  14. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  16. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in clay bricks-effect of washing and electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Klupsch, Ewa; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a hazardous waste due to presence and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). In 2000, approximately 25 Mt/year of fly ash was generated in USA, Japan and EU...... (Reijnders 2005). Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) is one technique for MSWI fly ash treatment (Ferreira et al. 2005), where an electric DC field is applied to an ash-water suspension to extract and separate heavy metal by migration towards anode or cathode through ion exchange membranes. Ferreira et al....... (2008) observed that in MSWI ash treated by water washing and EDR, metals were mainly in the strongly bonded and residual phases, indicating a reduction in the ash’s environmental risk. Belmonte et al. (2016) made Greenlandic bricks (∼2 g discs) containing 20% and 40% of EDR treated MSWI fly ash...

  17. Treatment of Wastewater From Car Washes Using Natural Coagulation and Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Johari, M. R.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater generated from carwash is one of the main wastewater resources, which contribute effectively in the increasing of environmental contamination due to the chemical characteristics of the car wastes. The present work aimed to develop an integrated treatment system for carwash wastewater based on coagulation and flocculation using Moringa oleifera and Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as well as natural filtration system. The carwash wastewater samples were collected from carwash station located at Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia. The treatment system of car wash wastewater was designed in the lab scale in four stages included, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. The coagulation and flocculation unit was carried out using different dosage (35, 70, 105 and 140 mg L-1) of M. oleifera and FeSO4.7H2O, respectively. The efficiency of the integrated treatment system to treat carwash wastewater and to meet Environmental Quality Act (EQA 1974) was evaluated based on the analysis of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity (NTU). The integrated treatment system was efficient for treatment of raw carwash wastewater. The treated carwash wastewaters meet EQA 1974 regulation 2009 (Standards A) in the term of pH and DO while, turbidity and COD reduced in the wastewater to meet Standards B. The integrated treatment system designed here with natural coagulant (M. oleifera) and filtration unit were effective for primary treatment of carwash wastewater before the final disposal or to be reused again for carwash process.

  18. Evaluation of different water-washing treatments effects on wheat straw combustion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-12-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the effects of various water-washing solid-liquid ratios (1:50 and 1:10) and the stirring on wheat straw (WS) combustion properties. Comparing different solid-liquid ratio groups, a 16% increment in the higher heating value was obtained for 1:50 groups and only 5% for 1:10 groups relative to the raw material. Moreover, energy was lost 4-26 times greater in 1:10 groups than 1:50 groups. While water-washing reduced the comprehensive combustibility index by 14.89%-32.09%, the index values of washed WS were all higher than 2, indicating good combustion performance. The combustion activation energy of four washed WS were 175, 172, 186, and 176kJ/mol, which were all higher than the 160kJ/mol of WS. The fouling/slagging propensity of washed WS reduced to a lower possibility compared to medium of untreated WS. Overall, the recommended condition for washing WS before combustion is 1:50 ratio without stirring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Combined process of electrocoagulation and photocatalytic degradation for the treatment of olive washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Hasan; Dizge, Nadir; Yatmaz, H Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an electrocoagulation reactor (ECR) and photocatalytic reactor (PCR) were tested to understand the performance of combined electrocoagulation and photocatalytic-degradation of olive washing wastewater (OWW). The effects of initial pH (6.0, 6.9, 8.0, 9.0), applied voltage (10.0, 12.5, 15.0 V), and operating time (30, 60, 90, 120 min) were investigated in the electrocoagulation reactor when aluminum electrodes were used as both anode and cathode. The pH, conductivity, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phenol were measured versus time to determine the efficiency of the ECR and PCR process. It was observed that electrocoagulation as a single treatment process supplied the COD removal of 62.5%, color removal of 98.1%, and total phenol removal of 87% at optimum conditions as pH 6.9, applied voltage of 12.5 V, and operating time of 120 min. Moreover, final pH and conductivity were 7.7 and 980 μS/cm, respectively. On the other hand, the effect of semiconductor catalyst type (TiO 2 and ZnO) and loading (1, 2, 3 g/L) were tested using PCR as a stand-alone technique. It was found that photocatalytic degradation as a single treatment process when using 1 g/L ZnO achieved the COD removal of 46%, color removal of 99% with a total phenol removal of 41% at optimum conditions. Final pH and conductivity were 6.2 and 915 μS/cm, respectively. Among semiconductor catalysts, TiO 2 and ZnO performed identical efficiencies for both COD and total phenol removal. Moreover, combination in which electrochemical degradation was employed as a pre-treatment to the photocatalytic degradation process obtained high COD removal of 88% and total phenol, as well as color removal of 100% for the OWW. The electrochemical treatment alone was not effective, but in combination with the photocatalytic process, led to a high-quality effluent. Finally, sludge collected from the electrocoagulation process was characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared and X

  20. Experimental evaluation of washing for treatment of combustible plutonium-contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.; Wisbey, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out in order to assess the potential of washing as a method for removing plutonium from contaminated combustible wastes. A wide range of aqueous (eg 1 M HNO 3 , 1 M NaOH) and organic (1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane) reagents have been investigated. Both synthetically contaminated and real wastes have been investigated. The preferred wash reagent has been identified as 1 M sodium hydroxide solution; plutonium recoveries of ca.80 to 90% can be achieved. (author)

  1. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1995-02-01

    Precipitation totals of 245 and 210 mm were measured at UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 and UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 respectively, during the 1992 water year, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Approximately ninety percent of the precipitation fell during the period December 27 to April 2. Localized streamflow was generated in the Fortymile Wash drainage basin during the February 12-15, 1992 and March 31, 1992 precipitation, and infiltrated into the streambed materials. The streamflow went across the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 neutron-access borehole location and within several meters of the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 location. Neutron logging in these boreholes showed increases in the volumetric water content of the unsaturated alluvium and indicated streamflow infiltrated to a depth of approximately 5 meters. The volumetric water content in the upper 5 meters then gradually decreased during the remaining part of the water year. Ground-water levels rose over one meter in wells UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and UE-29 a{number_sign}2, and one-half meter in neutron-access borehole LJE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 following the streamflows. Water level declines of 0.5 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and rises of 0.2 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}2 and 0.1 meter in UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 coincided with a June 29, 1992 earthquake at the Little Skull Mountain, located approximately 27 kilometers southeast of the wells.

  2. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation totals of 245 and 210 mm were measured at UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 and UE-29 UZN number-sign 92 respectively, during the 1992 water year, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Approximately ninety percent of the precipitation fell during the period December 27 to April 2. Localized streamflow was generated in the Fortymile Wash drainage basin during the February 12-15, 1992 and March 31, 1992 precipitation, and infiltrated into the streambed materials. The streamflow went across the UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 neutron-access borehole location and within several meters of the UE-29 UZN number-sign 92 location. Neutron logging in these boreholes showed increases in the volumetric water content of the unsaturated alluvium and indicated streamflow infiltrated to a depth of approximately 5 meters. The volumetric water content in the upper 5 meters then gradually decreased during the remaining part of the water year. Ground-water levels rose over one meter in wells UE-29 a number-sign 1 and UE-29 a number-sign 2, and one-half meter in neutron-access borehole LJE-29 UZN number-sign 91 following the streamflows. Water level declines of 0.5 meter in UE-29 a number-sign 1 and rises of 0.2 meter in UE-29 a number-sign 2 and 0.1 meter in UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 coincided with a June 29, 1992 earthquake at the Little Skull Mountain, located approximately 27 kilometers southeast of the wells

  3. Anaerobic treatment of distillery spent wash - a study on upflow anaerobic fixed film bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bhavik K; Mohana, Sarayu; Madamwar, Datta

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from a distillery industry having very high COD (1,10,000-1,90,000 mg/L) and BOD (50,000-60,000 mg/L) was studied in a continuously fed, up flow fixed film column reactor using different support materials such as charcoal, coconut coir and nylon fibers under varying hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates. The seed consortium was prepared by enrichment with distillery spent wash in a conventional type reactor having working capacity of 3 L and was used for charging the anaerobic column reactor. Amongst the various support materials studied the reactor having coconut coir could treat distillery spent wash at 8d hydraulic retention time with organic loading rate of 23.25 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) leading to 64% COD reduction with biogas production of 7.2 m3 m(-3)d(-1) having high methane yield without any pretreatment or neutralization of the distillery spent wash. This study indicates fixed film biomethanation of distillery spent wash using coconut coir as the support material appears to be a cost effective and promising technology for mitigating the problems caused by distillery effluent.

  4. Flexographic newspaper deinking : treatment of wash filtrate effluent by membrane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Chabot; G.A. Krishnagopalan; S. Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafiltration was investigated as a means to remove flexographic ink pigments from wash filtrate effluent generated from various mixtures of flexographic and offset old newspapers from deinking operations. Membrane separation efficiency was assessed from permeate flux, fouling rate, and ease of membrane regeneration (cleaning). Ultrafiltration was capable of...

  5. Synthesis of stable TiO2 nanotubes: effect of hydrothermal treatment, acid washing and annealing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zavala, Miguel Ángel; Lozano Morales, Samuel Alejandro; Ávila-Santos, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Effect of hydrothermal treatment, acid washing and annealing temperature on the structure and morphology of TiO 2 nanotubes during the formation process was assessed. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were conducted to describe the formation and characterization of the structure and morphology of nanotubes. Hydrothermal treatment of TiO 2 precursor nanoparticles and acid washing are fundamental to form and define the nanotubes structure. Hydrothermal treatment causes a change in the crystallinity of the precursor nanoparticles from anatase phase to a monoclinic phase, which characterizes the TiO 2 nanosheets structure. The acid washing promotes the formation of high purity nanotubes due to Na + is exchanged from the titanate structure to the hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. The annealing temperature affects the dimensions, structure and the morphology of the nanotubes. Annealing temperatures in the range of 400 °C and 600 °C are optimum to maintain a highly stable tubular morphology of nanotubes. Additionally, nanotubes conserve the physicochemical properties of the precursor Degussa P25 nanoparticles. Temperatures greater than 600 °C alter the morphology of nanotubes from tubular to an irregular structure of nanoparticles, which are bigger than those of the precursor material, i.e., the crystallinity turn from anatase phase to rutile phase inducing the collapse of the nanotubes.

  6. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. Two operating scenarios were evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-VSL-T01A/B ultrafiltration feed vessels, identified as Integrated Test A. The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-VSL-T02A ultrafiltration feed preparation vessel, identified as Integrated Test B. Washing operations in PEP Integrated Tests A and B were conducted successfully as per the approved run sheets. However, various minor instrumental problems occurred, and some of the process conditions specified in the run sheet were not met during the wash operations, such as filter-loop flow-rate targets not being met. Five analytes were selected based on full solubility and monitored in the post-caustic-leach wash as successful indicators of washing efficiency. These were aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and free hydroxide. Other analytes, including sodium, oxalate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. In the post-oxidative-leach wash, two analytes with full solubility were selected as suitable indicators of washing

  7. Influence of bentonite in polymer membranes for effective treatment of car wash effluent to protect the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S Aditya; Arthanareeswaran, G; Thuyavan, Y Lukka; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, modified polyethersulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were used in the treatment of car wash effluent using ultrafiltration. Hydrophilic sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and bentonite as nanoclay were used as additives for the PES and CA membrane modification. Performances of modified membranes were compared with commercial PES membrane with 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO). The influencing parameters like stirrer speed (250-750rpm) and transmembrane pressure (100-600kPa) (TMP) were varied and their effects were studied as a function of flux. In the treatment of car wash effluent, a higher permeate flux of 52.3L/m(2)h was obtained for modified CA membrane at TMP of 400kPa and stirrer speed of 750rpm. In comparison with modified PES membrane and commercial PES membrane, modified CA membranes showed better performance in terms of flux and flux recovery ratio. The highest COD removal (60%) was obtained for modified CA membrane and a lowest COD removal (47%) was observed for commercial PES membrane. The modified membranes were better at removing COD, turbidity and maintained more stable flux than commercial PES membrane, suggesting they will provide better economic performance in car wash effluent reclamation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of real wastewater produced from Mobil car wash station using electrocoagulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z; Amin, N K; Fouad, Y O

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the electrocoagulation of real wastewater produced from a car wash station using a new cell design featuring a horizontal spiral anode placed above a horizontal disc cathode. The study dealt with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and turbidity removal using electrodes in a batch mode. Various operating parameters such as current density, initial pH, NaCl concentration, temperature, and electrode material were examined to optimize the performance of the process. Also, characterization of sludge formed during electrocoagulation was carried out. The results indicated that the COD reduction and turbidity removal increase with increasing the current density and NaCl concentration; pH from 7 to 8 was found to be optimum for treating the wastewater. Temperature was found to have an insignificant effect on the process. Aluminum was superior to iron as a sacrificial electrode material in treating car wash wastewater. Energy consumption based on COD reduction ranged from 2.32 to 15.1 kWh/kg COD removed depending on the operating conditions. Finally, the sludge produced during electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis.

  9. Soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.S.; Diel, B.N.; Halpern, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  10. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Washing water treatment process for UF_6 cylinder by adjusting evaporation technology in a low temperature and low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-tae; Ju, Young-jong; Cho, Nam-chan; Kim, Yun-kwan; Jin, Chang-suk

    2016-01-01

    The liquid waste is treated in this procedure; 1) Add NaOH to the liquid waste and filter the mixture with a screen. 2) Screened residue is dried and then stored in a uranium storage. 3) liquid part is moved to a storage tank and radioactivity is measured in the liquid. 5) If the concentration of radioactivity is lower than corresponding regulation limit, the liquid moved to a reaction tank and evaporated with additional low concentration HF in 105℃. 6) Radioactivity of distillate is measured and the value is lower than regulation, it is treated with a thermal decomposition process and discharged to the atmosphere in gas state. 7) Solid waste produced in the evaporation step is managed as solid nuclear waste. The treatment procedure mentioned above has disadvantageous points, producing large amount of solid waste as well as, high energy and chemical consumption. In this study, liquid waste from a real scaled cylinder wash process is applied to evaporation system to confirm feasibility of the application of evaporation and, to reduce waste production and energy consumption. Liquid radioactive wastewater from a real scaled UF6 cylinder wash process was applied to evaporation treatment system. Radioactive concentration in gross alpha was removed 99.9% in the evaporation system. And the concentration in distillate was lower than the discharge regulation. Removal of U-235 was 99.9% in the process. And 15 other kinds of radionuclides in the raw wastewater were removed completely. Secondary waste production of the evaporation system is 15g/L

  12. Efficacies of sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium sanitizers for reduction of norovirus and selected bacteria during ware-washing operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanel Feliciano

    Full Text Available Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1, Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine, quaternary ammonium (QAC and tap water (control. During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua.

  13. Probabilistics since WASH-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Literature since the issuing of WASH-1400 reactor safety study shows that although the methodology has been attacked, it stands criticism well. Contrary to the aim of the study, which was to give a realistic, rather than a conservative risk estimate, there are many conservatisms in it. The strongly attacked treatment of common mode failure involving the square bounding model is shown here to be very likely to give correct results - and the applications of it in WASH-1400 do not often give results different from using the mean instead of the median. The Three-Mile Island accident is not such as to change the conclusions of WASH-1400 regarding core melt probabilities

  14. Technology evaluation report: Biotrol Soil Washing System for treatment of a wood-preserving site. Volume 2, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.; Evans, J.; Kitaplioglu, O.; McPherson, J.

    1991-12-01

    The SITE Program demonstration of one configuration of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS) was conducted to obtain reliable performance and cost data that can be used to evaluate the potential applicability of the technology as a remediation alternative for sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. The BSWS treatment train used in the study consists of three technologies: a soil washer; an aqueous treatment system; and a slurry bio-reactor. The demonstration was carried out at the MacGillis and Gibbs Superfund site in New Brighton, MN. The report analyzes the results from the SITE demonstration. It includes discussion of the operation of the three separate treatment technologies (SW, SBR, and BATS) evaluated in the test and provides flow diagrams, a summary of the sampling and analytical programs, an economic analysis, and a quality assurance/quality control evaluation of the data. Conclusions were reached concerning the technology's suitability for use in remediations involving both similar and different materials at other sites

  15. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water years 1993--94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Yucca Mountain area is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy for its suitability to store high-level nuclear waste in a mined, underground repository. Hydrologic data are being collected by the US Geological Survey throughout a 150 Km{sup 2} study area about 15- Km northwest of Las Vegas in southern Nevada for site characterization studies. Ongoing hydrologic studies are investigating atmospheric precipitation, stream-flow, movement of water through the unsaturated zone, movement of water through the saturated zone, and paleohydrology. This study at Fortymile Wash involves some components of each of these studies. Fortymile Wash is an ephemeral stream near Yucca Mountain with tributaries draining the east side of Yucca Mountain and then forming a distributary system in the Amargosa Desert. An objective of the study is to determine the amount of recharge from Fortymile Wash to the ground-water flow system that has been proposed. Understanding the ground-water flow system is important because it is a possible mechanism for radionuclide migration from the repository to the accessible environment. An adequate understanding of the ground-water flow system is necessary for an evaluation of the safety issues involved in siting the potential repository.

  16. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Antov Mirjana G.; Klašnja Mile T.; Šćiban Marina B.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH ...

  17. Conductivity enhancement of silver nanowire networks via simple electrolyte solution treatment and solvent washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiahui; Wang, Xuelin; Chen, Hongtao; Yang, Shihua; Feng, Huanhuan; Ma, Xing; Ji, Hongjun; Wei, Jun; Li, Mingyu

    2018-06-01

    As a promising replacement material for indium tin oxide in flexible electronics, silver nanowires (AgNWs) usually need complicated post-treatment to reduce the high contact resistance across the intersections when used as transparent conductive films. In this work, a widely applicable nano-joining method for improving the overall conductivity of AgNW networks with different kinds of electrolyte solutions is presented. By treatment with an electrolyte solution with appropriate ionic strengths, the insulating surfactant layer (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) on the AgNWs could be desorbed, and the AgNW network could be densified. The sheet resistance of the AgNW film on a glass slide is reduced by 60.9% (from 67.5 to 26.4 Ohm sq‑1) with a transmittance of 92.5%. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that atomic diffusion occurs at the intersection of two AgNWs. Thus, metallurgical bonding on the nanometer scale is achieved across the junctions of the AgNWs, leading to a significant enhancement in the conductivity of the AgNW network.

  18. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  19. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  20. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of pollutant build-up and wash-off from selected land uses at the Port of Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kitchen, Brad

    2009-02-01

    The quality of stormwater runoff from seaports can be an important source of pollution to the marine environment. Currently, little knowledge exists with regards to the pollutant generation capacity specific to seaports as they do not necessarily compare well with conventional urban land use. The research project focussed on the assessment of pollutant build-up and wash-off. The study was undertaken using rainfall simulation and small impervious plots for different port land uses with the results obtained compared to typical urban land uses. The study outcomes confirmed that the Port land uses exhibit comparatively lower pollutant concentrations. However, the pollutant characteristics varied across different land uses. Hence, the provision of stereotypical water quality improvement measures could be of limited value. Particle size < 150microm was predominant in suspended solids. Therefore, if suspended solids are targeted as the surrogate parameter for water quality improvement, this particle size range needs to be removed.

  2. Wash-resistance of pirimiphos-methyl insecticide treatments of window screens and eave baffles for killing indoor-feeding malaria vector mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial, South East of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinula, Dingani; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Zulu, Reuben; Reimer, Lisa; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kiware, Samson; Okumu, Fredros O; Killeen, Gerry

    2018-04-13

    The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control is threatened by resistance to commonly used pyrethroid insecticides. Rotations, mosaics, combinations, or mixtures of insecticides from different complementary classes are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for mitigating against resistance, but many of the alternatives to pyrethroids are prohibitively expensive to apply in large national IRS campaigns. Recent evaluations of window screens and eave baffles (WSEBs) treated with pirimiphos-methyl (PM), to selectively target insecticides inside houses, demonstrated malaria vector mortality rates equivalent or superior to IRS. However, the durability of efficacy when co-applied with polyacrylate-binding agents (BA) remains to be established. This study evaluated whether WSEBs, co-treated with PM and BA have comparable wash resistance to LLINs and might therefore remain insecticidal for years rather than months. WHO-recommended wire ball assays of insecticidal efficacy were applied to polyester netting treated with or without BA plus 1 or 2 g/sq m PM. They were then tested for insecticidal efficacy using fully susceptible insectary-reared Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, following 0, 5, 10, 15, then 20 washes as per WHO-recommended protocols for accelerated ageing of LLINs. This was followed by a small-scale field trial in experimental huts to measure malaria vector mortality achieved by polyester netting WSEBs treated with BA and 2 g/sq m PM after 0, 10 and then 20 standardized washes, alongside recently applied IRS using PM. Co-treatment with BA and either dosage of PM remained insecticidal over 20 washes in the laboratory. In experimental huts, WSEBs treated with PM plus BA consistently killed similar proportions of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes to PM-IRS (both consistently ≥ 94%), even after 20 washes. Co-treating WSEBs with both PM and BA results in wash

  3. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: Phase II. Selection and/or Modification of COTS Field Portable Waste Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Michael; Mertz, Carol; Kivenas, Nadia; Magnuson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    After an accidental or malicious release of radioactivity, large urban areas may be contaminated, compromising response efforts by first responders and law enforcement officials. In addition, some public services (e.g., drinking water and wastewater treatment, electrical power distribution, etc.) may be disrupted. In such an event, it may be important to deploy mitigation efforts in certain areas to restore response activities and public services (Fig. S-1). This report explores the state-of-the-art approach for a system to rapidly return critical infrastructure components to service following a cesium-137 (Cs-137) radiological dispersal device (RDD) release while avoiding the spread of Cs-137 beyond its original deposition area and minimizing the amount of Cs-137-contaminated wastewater. Specifically, we describe a wash system consisting of chemical additives added to fire hydrant water and irreversible solid sequestering agents added as the water is collected and treated for recycle in situ. The wash system is intended to be a rapidly deployable, cost-effective means of mitigating an urban setting for the purpose of restoring critical infrastructure and operational activities after a radiological release.

  4. Design of full scale debris washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dosani, M.A.; Wentz, J.A.; Patkar, A.N.; Barkley, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, IT Environmental Programs Inc. (ITEP, a subsidiary of International Technology Corporation) in conjunction with EPA/RREL in Cincinnati, Ohio, have been developing and conducting bench scale and pilot scale testing of a transportable debris washing system which can be used on-site for the decontamination of debris. During the initial phase of the debris decontamination project, a series of bench scale tests were performed in the laboratory to assess the ability of the system to remove contaminants from debris and to facilitate selection of the most efficient surfactant solution. Five nonionic, non-toxic, low foaming, surfactant solution (BG-5, MC-2000, LF-330, BB-100, and L-433) were selected for an experimental evaluation to determine their capacity to solubilize and remove contaminants from the surfaces of corroded steel places. The pieces of corroded steel were coated with a heavy grease mixture prepared in the laboratory and these pieces of debris were placed in a bench scale spray tank on a metal tray and subjected in a high-pressure spray for each surfactant solution for 15 minutes. At the end of the spray cycle, The tray was transferred to a second bench scale system, a high-turbulence wash tank, where the debris was washed for 30 minutes with the same surfactant solution as the used in the spray tank. After the was cycle was completed, the tray was removed from the wash tank and the debris was allowed to air-dry. Before and after treatment, surface-wipe samples were obtained from each of the six pieces of debris and were analyzed for oil and graese. Based on the results, BG-5 was selected as the solution best suited for cleaning grease-laden, metallic debris. 2 refs

  5. Utility of 67Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of 67 Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment

  6. Late Washing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO 2 - ] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO 2 - ] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft 2 for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec

  7. Phenomenology and treatment of selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Selective mutism is a multidimensional childhood disorder in which, according to the most recent studies, biologically mediated temperament and anxiety components seem to play a major role. Several psychotherapy methods have been reported in case studies to be useful, but the disorder is commonly seen to be resistant to change, particularly in cases of long duration. Currently, behaviour modification and other cognitive methods, together with cooperation with the family and the school personnel, are recommended in the treatment of selective mutism. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors have also been reported to be helpful when treating children with selective mutism. At the moment, pharmacotherapy cannot be recommended as the treatment of first choice but if other methods of treatment are not helpful, medication can be included in the treatment scheme. Comprehensive evaluation and treatment of possible primary and comorbid problems that require treatment are also essential.

  8. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  9. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  10. Effect of Chemical Washing Pre-treatment of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) biochar on Characterization of Hydrogel Biochar composite as Bioadsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meri, N. H.; Alias, A. B.; Talib, N.; Rashid, Z. A.; Wan, W. A.; Ghani, Ab Karim

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogel biochar composite (HBC) is a recent interest among researchers because of the hydrophilic characteristic which can adsorb chemical fluid and showed a versatile potential as adsorbent in removing hazardous material in wastewater and gas stream. In this study, the effect of chemical washing pre-treatment by using two different type of chemical agent Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) was analysed and investigated. The raw EFB biochar was prepared using microwave assisted pyrolysis under 1000W for 30 min under N2 flow with 150 mL/min. To improve the adsoprtion ability, the EFB biochar has been chemical washed pre-treatment with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) before polymerization process with acrylamide (AAm) as monomer, N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The characterization has studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). FTIR result shows that, the formation of Raw EFB to Hydrogel Biochar Composite (Raw EFB > EFB Biochar > Treated Biochars (HCl & H2O2) > Hydrogel Biochar Composite) have changed in functional group. For DSC result it shows that the thermal behaviour of all samples is endothermic process and have high thermal resistance.

  11. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlum Çöpür

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Some authors suggest that selective mutism should be considered as a variant of social phobia or a disorder in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Recent studies indicate that pharmacological treatments may be effective in the treatment of selective mutism. In this article, four cases who were treated with citalopram and escitalopram are presented. The results indicate that the drugs were well tolerated, and the level of social and verbal interactions improved significantly. These findings have shown that citalopram and escitalopram can be considered in medication of selective mutism; nevertheless, it is essential that research be done with more cases than previous ones, in order to prove their accuracy

  12. Tomato type and post-treatment water rinse affect efficacy of acid washes against Salmonella enterica inoculated on stem scars of tomatoes and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Gurtler, Joshua B; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

    2018-09-02

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of post-treatment rinsing with water on the inactivation efficacy of acid treatments against Salmonella inoculated onto stem scar areas of two types of tomatoes. In addition, impact on fruit quality was investigated during 21 days post-treatment storage at 10 °C. A four-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica (S. Montevideo, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul, and S. Typhimurium) was inoculated onto stem scar areas of grape and large round tomatoes. The inoculated fruits were then treated for 2 min with the following solutions: water, 2% lactic acid +2% acetic acid +2% levulinic acid, 1.7% lactic acid +1.7% acetic acid +1.7% levulinic acid, and 3% lactic acid +3% acetic acid. After treatments, half of the fruits were rinsed with water while another half were not rinsed. Non-inoculated grape tomatoes for quality analysis were treated with the same solutions with and without subsequent water rinse. Results demonstrated that the acid combinations reduced populations of Salmonella enterica on the stem scar area of grape tomatoes by 1.52-1.90 log CFU/fruit, compared with the non-treated control while water wash and rinse removed the bacterium by only 0.23-0.30 log CFU/fruit. On the stem scar of large round tomatoes, the same acid treatments achieved 3.54 log CFU/fruit reduction of the pathogen. The varying response to the acid washes between grape and large round tomatoes seems to be related to the differences in surface characteristics of stem scar areas observed with SEM. Rinsing with water after acid combination treatments did not significantly affect the efficacy of the treatments in either grape or large round tomatoes. Acidic off-odor was detected on fruits treated with acid combination without water rinse 1 day after treatment while water rinse eliminated the off-odor. The acid treatments with and without water rinse did not consistently affect appearance, color, firmness, or lycopene or ascorbic acid contents of

  13. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  14. Combined mild soil washing and compost-assisted phytoremediation in treatment of silt loams contaminated with copper, nickel, and chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Menghau; Lee, Chi-Yi; Lee, Suen-Zone

    2011-06-15

    A new soil remediation option, combining the soil washing process using pure water followed by the compost-assisted phytoextraction, is evaluated using silt loams contaminated with plating wastewater containing Cu, Ni, and Cr. Plants utilized in this study are the rapeseeds, sunflowers, tomatoes, and soapworts. Phytoextraction operation was carried out in pot experiments over a period of 4 months. Metal concentrations in roots and shoots of plants were analyzed upon completion of each pot experiment. Hypothesis testing was employed in assessing the significance of difference in the experimental data. Results indicated that the rapeseed, a hyperaccumulator, is most effective in extracting metals from the compost-amended silt loams. The fast-growing sunflowers and tomatoes are comparable to rapeseeds in accumulating metals despite their relatively low metal concentrations in tissues. Bioaccumulation coefficients obtained for all plants are less than one, indicating that phytostabilization rather than phytoextraction is the dominant mechanism at this simulated final-phase condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  16. Washing water treatment process for UF{sub 6} cylinder by adjusting evaporation technology in a low temperature and low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-tae; Ju, Young-jong; Cho, Nam-chan [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-kwan; Jin, Chang-suk [Jeontech CO., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The liquid waste is treated in this procedure; 1) Add NaOH to the liquid waste and filter the mixture with a screen. 2) Screened residue is dried and then stored in a uranium storage. 3) liquid part is moved to a storage tank and radioactivity is measured in the liquid. 5) If the concentration of radioactivity is lower than corresponding regulation limit, the liquid moved to a reaction tank and evaporated with additional low concentration HF in 105℃. 6) Radioactivity of distillate is measured and the value is lower than regulation, it is treated with a thermal decomposition process and discharged to the atmosphere in gas state. 7) Solid waste produced in the evaporation step is managed as solid nuclear waste. The treatment procedure mentioned above has disadvantageous points, producing large amount of solid waste as well as, high energy and chemical consumption. In this study, liquid waste from a real scaled cylinder wash process is applied to evaporation system to confirm feasibility of the application of evaporation and, to reduce waste production and energy consumption. Liquid radioactive wastewater from a real scaled UF6 cylinder wash process was applied to evaporation treatment system. Radioactive concentration in gross alpha was removed 99.9% in the evaporation system. And the concentration in distillate was lower than the discharge regulation. Removal of U-235 was 99.9% in the process. And 15 other kinds of radionuclides in the raw wastewater were removed completely. Secondary waste production of the evaporation system is 15g/L.

  17. [Silvicultural treatments and their selection effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, G

    1973-01-01

    Selection can be defined in terms of its observable consequences as the non random differential reproduction of genotypes (Lerner 1958). In the forest stands we are selecting during the improvements-fellings and reproduction treatments the individuals surpassing in growth or in production of first-class timber. However the silvicultural treatments taken in forest stands guarantee a permanent increase of forest production only in such cases, if they have been taken with respect to the principles of directional (dynamic) selection. These principles require that the trees determined for further growing and for forest regeneration are selected by their hereditary properties, i.e. by their genotypes.For making this selection feasible, our study deals with the genetic parameters and gives some examples of the application of the response, the selection differential, the heritability in the narrow and in the broad sense, as well as of the genetic and genotypic gain. On the strength of this parameter we have the possibility to estimate the economic success of several silvicultural treatments in forest stands.The mentioned examples demonstrate that the selection measures of a higher intensity will be manifested in a higher selection differential, in a higher genetic and genotypic gain and that the mentioned measures show more distinct effects in the variable populations - in natural forest - than in the population characteristic by a smaller variability, e.g. in many uniform artificially established stands.The examples of influences of different selection on the genotypes composition of population prove that genetics instructs us to differentiate the different genotypes of the same species and gives us at the same time a new criterions for evaluating selectional treatments. These criterions from economic point of view is necessary to consider in silviculture as advantageous even for the reason that we can judge from these criterions the genetical composition of forest stands

  18. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. Treatment of selective mutism: focus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakeh, Yaman; Stumpf, Janice L

    2008-02-01

    Abstract Selective mutism is a pediatric psychiatric disorder that occurs when a child consistently fails to speak in specific situations in which speaking is expected, such as at school and social gatherings, but speaks appropriately in other settings. Selective mutism often is diagnosed when a child starts school and does not talk to teachers or peers, but talks to family members at home; the condition is frequently accompanied by anxiety and shyness. Although the underlying etiology of the condition remains unclear, psychotherapy is the preferred initial treatment, with the support of parents and teachers. If the child does not respond to psychotherapy, addition of pharmacologic treatment should be considered, depending on the severity of symptoms and presence of other illnesses. Although data are limited to case reports and trials with small patient populations and short follow-up periods, some patients with selective mutism respond to therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fluoxetine is the most studied SSRI as treatment for the condition, although further investigation is required to determine the optimal dosage and duration of therapy.

  20. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  1. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  2. Sustainable decontamination of an actual-site aged PCB-polluted soil through a biosurfactant-based washing followed by a photocatalytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occulti, Fabio; Roda, Giovanni Camera; Berselli, Sara; Fava, Fabio

    2008-04-15

    A two phases process consisting of a soya lecithin (SL)-based soil washing process followed by the photocatalytic treatment of resulting effluents was developed and applied at the laboratory scale in the remediation of an actual-site soil historically contaminated by 0.65 g/kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Triton X-100 (TX) was employed in the same process as a control surfactant. SL and TX, both applied as 2.25 g/L aqueous solutions, displayed a comparable ability to remove PCBs from the soil. However, SL solution displayed a lower ecotoxicity, a lower ability to mobilize soil constituents and a higher soil detoxification capacity with respect to the TX one. The photocatalytic treatment resulted in marked depletions (from 50% to 70%) of total organic carbon (TOC) and PCBs initially occurring in the SL and TX contaminated effluents. Despite the ability of SL to adversely affect the rate of TOC and PCB photodegradation, higher PCB depletion and dechlorination yields along with lower increases of ecotoxicity were observed in SL-containing effluents with respect to the TX ones at the end of 15 days of treatment. The two phases process developed and tested for the first time in this study seems to have the required features to become, after a proper optimization and scale up, a challenging procedure for the sustainable remediation of actual site, poorly biotreatable PCB-contaminated soils. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th) Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be effectively

  4. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Nabléni Ouattara

    Full Text Available One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1 and a domestic washing (method-2 on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient.Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography.The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide.Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be

  5. Treatment selection for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Yuan Kuo

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Both primary surgery and RT/CRT organ preservation are effective treatments for tonsillar SCC. Single modality treatment, either surgery or RT/CRT, can typically be provided for stage I–II diseases. Although RT/CRT organ preservation is used more frequently for stage III–IV tonsillar SCC in recent years, primary surgery combined with adjuvant therapy still achieves equivalent outcomes. Multidisciplinary pretreatment counseling and the facilities and personnel available are therefore important for decision-making. In addition, if RT/CRT organ preservation is selected as the primary treatment, tumor tonsillectomy is not indicated.

  6. Understanding road surface pollutant wash-off and underlying physical processes using simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2008-01-01

    Pollutant wash-off is one of the key pollutant processes that detailed knowledge is required in order to develop successful treatment design strategies for urban stormwater. Unfortunately, current knowledge relating to pollutant wash-off is limited. This paper presents the outcomes of a detailed investigation into pollutant wash-off on residential road surfaces. The investigations consisted of research methodologies formulated to overcome the physical constraints due to the heterogeneity of urban paved surfaces and the dependency on naturally occurring rainfall. This entailed the use of small road surface plots and artificially simulated rainfall. Road surfaces were selected due to its critical importance as an urban stormwater pollutant source. The study results showed that the influence of initially available pollutants on the wash-off process was limited. Furthermore, pollutant wash-off from road surfaces can be replicated using an exponential equation. However, the typical version of the exponential wash-off equation needs to be modified by introducing a non dimensional factor referred to as 'capacity factor' CF. Three rainfall intensity ranges were identified where the variation of CF can be defined. Furthermore, it was found that particulate density rather than size is the critical parameter that influences the process of pollutant wash-off. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Granular activated carbon adsorption and microwave regeneration for the treatment of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl in simulated soil-washing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xitao; Yu Gang; Han Wenya

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29) in simulated soil-washing solution by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and microwave (MW) regeneration was investigated in this study. The PCB29 adsorption process was carried out in a continuous flow adsorption column. After adsorption, the PCB29-loaded GAC was dried at 103 deg. C, and regenerated in a quartz reactor by 2450 MHz MW irradiation at 700 W for 5 min. The efficacy of this procedure was analyzed by determining the rates and amounts of PCB29 adsorbed in successive adsorption/MW regeneration cycles. Effects of the regeneration on the textural properties and the PCB29 adsorption capacity of GAC were examined. It was found that after several adsorption/MW regeneration cycles, the adsorption rate of GAC increased, whereas, the adsorption capacity decreased, which could be explained according to the change of textural properties. Most of the PCB29 adsorbed on GAC was degraded within 3 min under MW irradiation, and the analysis of degradation products by GC-MS demonstrated that PCB29 experienced dechlorination during this treatment

  8. Benign meningiomas: primary treatment selection affects survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condra, Kellie S.; Buatti, John M.; Mendenhall, William M.; Friedman, William A.; Marcus, Robert B.; Rhoton, Albert L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of primary treatment selection on outcomes for benign intracranial meningiomas at the University of Florida. Methods and Materials: For 262 patients, the impact of age, Karnofsky performance status, pathologic features, tumor size, tumor location, and treatment modality on local control and cause-specific survival was analyzed (minimum potential follow-up, 2 years; median follow-up, 8.2 years). Extent of surgery was classified by Simpson grade. Treatment groups: surgery alone (n = 229), surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) (n = 21), RT alone (n = 7), radiosurgery alone (n = 5). Survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier method with univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: At 15 years, local control was 76% after total excision (TE) and 87% after subtotal excision plus RT (SE+RT), both significantly better (p = 0.0001) than after SE alone (30%). Cause-specific survival at 15 years was reduced after treatment with SE alone (51%), compared with TE (88%) or SE+RT (86%) (p = 0.0003). Recurrence after primary treatment portended decreased survival, independent of initial treatment group or salvage treatment selection (p = 0.001). Atypical pathologic features predicted reduced 15-year local control (54 vs. 71%) and cause-specific survival rates (57 vs. 86%). Multivariate analysis for cause-specific survival revealed treatment group (SE vs. others; p = 0.0001), pathologic features (atypical vs. typical; p = 0.0056), and Karnofsky performance status (≥80 vs. <80; p = 0.0153) as significant variables. Conclusion: Benign meningiomas are well managed by TE or SE+RT. SE alone is inadequate therapy and adversely affects cause-specific survival. Atypical pathologic features predict a poorer outcome, suggesting possible benefit from more aggressive treatment. Because local recurrence portends lower survival rates, primary treatment choice is important

  9. Soil washing technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  10. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  11. Fast pyrolysis of corn stover using ZnCl2: Effect of washing treatment on the furfural yield and solvent extraction of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-01-01

    To produce a bio-oil having a high concentration of furfural, corn stover was fast-pyrolyzed using ZnCl 2 in a fluidized bed reactor at 330–430 °C. The effects of various parameters such as reaction temperature, water- and acid-washing prior to pyrolysis, and ZnCl 2 content on the product and furfural yields were investigated. Moreover, solvent extraction was conducted using toluene at different mass ratios of bio-oil/toluene to recover furfural from the obtained bio-oil. The maximum yield of bio-oil was 59 wt%. The bio-oil mainly comprised acetic acid, α-hydroxyketones, and furfural. The maximum furfural yield was 11.5 wt% when the feed material was water-washed, impregnated with 18.5 wt% ZnCl 2 , and pyrolyzed. Although acid-washing removed alkali and alkaline earth metals much more efficiently than water-washing, water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. Toluene extraction was very effective to recover furfural from bio-oil. The maximum recovery rate (82%) was achieved at a bio-oil/toluene ratio of 1:4. - Highlights: • Corn stover pretreated and impregnated with ZnCl 2 was successfully pyrolyzed. • Furfural was recovered from bio-oil by extraction using toluene. • Water-washing was better than acid-washing for the furfural production. • The highest furfural yield was 11.5 wt% of the product. • The highest furfural recovery rate was 82%

  12. Constrained treatment planning using sequential beam selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woudstra, E.; Storchi, P.R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is described for automated treatment plan generation. The algorithm aims at delivery of the prescribed dose to the target volume without violation of constraints for target, organs at risk and the surrounding normal tissue. Pre-calculated dose distributions for all candidate orientations are used as input. Treatment beams are selected in a sequential way. A score function designed for beam selection is used for the simultaneous selection of beam orientations and weights. In order to determine the optimum choice for the orientation and the corresponding weight of each new beam, the score function is first redefined to account for the dose distribution of the previously selected beams. Addition of more beams to the plan is stopped when the target dose is reached or when no additional dose can be delivered without violating a constraint. In the latter case the score function is modified by importance factor changes to enforce better sparing of the organ with the limiting constraint and the algorithm is run again. (author)

  13. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  14. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city's sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils

  15. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  16. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  17. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  19. Treatment of Selective Mutism: A Best-Evidence Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Beth Pionek; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Sladezcek, Ingrid; Serlin, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Presents systematic analysis of the major treatment approaches used for selective mutism. Based on nonparametric statistical tests of effect sizes, major findings include the following: treatment of selective mutism is more effective than no treatment; behaviorally oriented treatment approaches are more effective than no treatment; and no…

  20. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study

  1. Waste treatment by selective mineral ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polito, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    STMI, subsidiary company of the AREVA Group with over 40 years in the D and D business, has been continuously innovating and developing new decontamination techniques, with the objectives of achieving more efficient decontaminations on a growing spectrum of media. In the field of liquid waste treatment, STMI manufactures uses and commercialises selective inorganic ion exchangers (RAN). These are hydrated synthetic inorganic compounds prepared from very pure raw materials. Different types of RANs (POLYAN, OXTAIN, Fe-Cu, Fe-CoK, Si-Fe-CoK) can be used to trap a large number of radioactive elements in contaminated effluents. Different implementations could be applied depending on technical conditions. STMI's offers consist in building global solution and preliminary design of installation either in dispersed form (batch) or in column (cartridge filtration). Those products are used all over the world not only in the nuclear business (Canada, US, Belgium, France...) but also in other fields. Indeed, it provides competitive solutions to many domains of application especially water pollution control, liquid waste treatment in the nuclear business by decreasing the activity level of waste. The following paper will focus on the theoretical principle of the mineral exchanger, its implementation and the feed back collected by STMI. (author)

  2. WASH and gender in health care facilities: The uncharted territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Petra; Renggli, Samuel; Lüthi, Christoph

    2017-11-08

    Health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries are high-risk settings, and face special challenges to achieving sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services. Our applied interdisciplinary research conducted in India and Uganda analyzed six dimensions of WASH services in selected health care facilities, including menstrual hygiene management. To be effective, WASH monitoring strategies in health care facilities must include gender sensitive measures. We present a novel strategy, showing that applied gender sensitive multitool assessments are highly productive in assessments of WASH services and facilities from user and provider perspectives. We discuss its potential for applications at scale and as an area of future research.

  3. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  4. Soil washing: From characterization to implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, F.L.; Groenendijk, E.

    1995-01-01

    Only recently has soil washing begun to be applied to remediation of contaminated soils in the US. The experience gained during full-scale and large pilot-scale projects points to the importance of soil and site characterization in correctly evaluating the applicability of soil washing to a site and determining accurate cost estimates for its implementation. This paper will discuss actual case studies of various treatability and pilot study approaches that led to successful evaluation and implementation of soil washing remedies. Soil washing is applicable to a broad variety of chemical contaminants. Target contaminants include metals, radionuclides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as combinations of these contaminants. Because the contaminants noted above are deposited in the soils in a variety of forms, the unit operations necessary to treat the soil vary. It is the diversity of the available treatment alternatives, and the ability to use the units in a variety of process flow configurations that result in a very broad definition of soil washing

  5. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus--hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Korpela, Terttu; Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Amiryousefi, Ali; Ziegler, Thedi; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-03-01

    Ethanol-containing hand rubs are used frequently as a substitute for hand washing with water and soap. However, not all viruses are inactivated by a short term rubbing with alcohol. The capacity of a single round of instructed and controlled hand cleaning with water and soap or ethanol-containing hand rub, respectively, was tested for removal of human rhinovirus administered onto the skin of healthy volunteers on the back of the hands. Hand washing with soap and water appeared to be much more efficient for removing rhinoviruses from skin than rubbing hands with an ethanol-containing disinfectant. After washing with soap and water the virus was detected in 3/9 (33.3%) test persons from the left hand and 1/9 (11.1%) cases from the right hand, whereas the virus was detected invariably by real-time RT-PCR from both hands after cleaning with alcohol hand rub (P-value soap can clean efficiently hands contaminated with the virus responsible for an extensive share of common cold episodes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The efficiency of subset selection of an almost best treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1991-01-01

    A generalized goal using subset selection is discussed for the location parameter case. This goal is to select a non-empty subset from a set of k (k \\geq 2) treatments that contains at least one \\epsilon-best treatment with confidence level P*. For a set of treatments an \\epsilon-best treatment is

  7. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  8. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  9. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Always wash your hands before: Preparing food or eating Treating wounds or caring for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ...

  10. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  11. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  12. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  14. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  15. Selective Mutism: Definition, Issues, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Frederick J.; Cole, Jane E.

    This paper reviews definitions and issues in selective mutism in children and summarizes results of interventions conducted and published since 1982. Definitions and diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (1994)" and the World Health Organization's…

  16. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  17. Behavior Observations for Linking Assessment to Treatment for Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Mark D.; Segool, Natasha; Gortmaker, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Selective mutism is a childhood disorder that most school psychologists and educational providers will come across at least once in their careers. Selective mutism is associated with significant impairment in educational settings where speaking is necessary for academic and social skill development. Effective treatments for selective mutism…

  18. Selection of medical treatment in stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardissino, D; Savonitto, S; Egstrup, K

    1995-01-01

    pectoris. BACKGROUND: The characteristics of anginal symptoms and the results of exercise testing are considered of great importance for selecting medical treatment in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. However, little information is available on how this first evaluation may be used to select....... CONCLUSIONS: The results of a baseline exercise test, but not the characteristics of anginal symptoms, may offer useful information for selecting medical treatment in stable angina pectoris....

  19. Apparatus for washing out halogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Hahn, J; Kroenig, W

    1941-03-26

    An apparatus is described for washing out of halogens and the like or liquid halogen compounds from the products, which are formed on pressure hydrogenation or splitting of carbon-containing material in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of a washing apparatus installed between the reaction vessel and the hot separator, which is inclined in relatively small space for steam regulation and contains, with the steam, arranged baffles, especially spirals.

  20. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  1. Remediation of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with calcium chloride: Verification of on-site washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki; Sasaki, Kouta; Maejima, Yuji; Sugahara, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We developed a new, three-step soil-wash method to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields. The method comprises (1) chemically washing the field soil with a CaCl 2 solution; (2) washing the treated soil with water to eliminate residual Cd and CaCl 2 ; and (3) on-site treatment of wastewater using a portable wastewater treatment system. Cd concentrations in the treated water were below Japan's environmental quality standard (0.01 mg Cd L -1 ), and the removal of Cd from the exchangeable fraction was 55% and from the acid-soluble fraction 15%. While soil fertility properties were affected by the soil washing, adverse effects were not crucial and could be corrected. The washing had no affect on rice growth, and reduced the average Cd concentration in rice grains by about two-thirds compared to a control plot. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the soil-wash method in remediating Cd-contaminated paddy fields. - In situ soil washing in a paddy field using an on-site wastewater treatment system resulted in an effective decrease of Cd in soil and rice grains without affecting rice yield

  2. The selective external carotid arterial embolization treatment of uncontrollable epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Qunli; Liu Yizhi; Ni Caifang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the selective external carotid arterial embolization of uncontrollable epistaxis. Methods: 27 procedures of super-selective external carotid arterial embolization were performed with absorbable gelfoam by using Seldinger's method in 26 cases with uncontrollable epistaxis. Results: 27 procedures of super-selective intra-arterial embolization of uncontrollable epistaxis were all successful without any serious complication. Conclusions: Selective external carotid arterial embolization is safe, effective and successful in the treatment of severe epistaxis. (authors)

  3. Practical Study on Treatment of Selected Decorated Tapestry in Applied Art Museum, Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Kamal FAHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of treatment of tapestry textile, that considers the most common technique used in decoration of textile since the new kingdom until now, it is called Kabaty. The paper deals with selected piece of museum of Applied Art Faculty in Cairo. Treatment procedure was performed by several stages; firstly, Dating by comparing the decoration technique, the type of material and the decorative motifs existed in the object with another one known its date. Then samples taken from object were examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope to identify type of fibers and surface morphology .x-ray analysis was performed to identify mordant and dust. FTIR analysis to identify dyes in dyed samples. Then, the paper deal with the treatment of tapestry pieces by testing sensitive of fiber to water, mechanical cleaning and chemical cleaning to remove stain, washing stage using distilled water, and finally consolidation the object by fixed on support of natural linen which was stretched on wooden frame treated by anti-fungal substance.

  4. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a distilling...

  5. Membrane processes for the reuse of car washing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Uçar

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates alternative treatments of car wash effluents. The car wash wastewater was treated by settling, filtration, and membrane filtration processes. During settling, total solid concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 hours and then remained constant. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity were decreased by 10% and 4%, respectively. After settling, wastewater was filtered throughout a 100 μm filter. It was found that filtration had a negligible effect on COD...

  6. Process for washing electromagnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guittet, Maurice; Treille, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This process concerns the washing of an electro-magnetic filter used, inter alia, for filtering the drain-off waters of nuclear power station steam generators, by means of a washing water used in closed circuit and freed, after each cleaning, of the solids in suspension it contains, by settlement of these solids. This invention enables the volume of water to be evaporated to be divided by 50, thereby providing a solid assurance of better safety, apart from a very significant saving [fr

  7. Friction Surface Treatment Selection: Aggregate Properties, Surface Characteristics, Alternative Treatments, and Safety Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long term performance of the selected surface friction treatments, including high friction surface treatment (HFST) using calcined bauxite and steel slag, and conventional friction surfacing, in particular pavement pr...

  8. Selective embolization in the treatment of intractable epistaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Juul; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    : This was a retrospective review. Post-treatment effects and complications were evaluated by means of a questionnaire and a telephone interview. Owing to the different treatment strategies used, the results were evaluated for 2 groups of patients: Group A, 9 patients with HHT; and Group B, 13 patients with causes...... the bleeding may present difficulties. Several methods are used to control posterior epistaxis, one of the latest treatment strategies being selective embolization of the nasal arteries. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of selective embolization in 22 patients treated with a total of 30...... procedures at the ENT Department of Odense University Hospital between January 1995 and March 2004. To our knowledge this is the first Nordic work in which selective embolization has been used as a treatment strategy for patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  9. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika F Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis, lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma. Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities.

  10. WASH-1400: quantifying the uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, R.C.; Leverenz, F.L. Jr.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on the limitations of the WASH-1400 analysis in estimating the risk from light water reactors (LWRs). This assessment attempts to modify the quantification of the uncertainty in and estimate of risk as presented by the RSS (reactor safety study). 8 refs

  11. Selective mutism: a review of etiology, comorbidities, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Priscilla

    2010-03-01

    Selective mutism is a rare and multidimensional childhood disorder that typically affects children entering school age. It is characterized by the persistent failure to speak in select social settings despite possessing the ability to speak and speak comfortably in more familiar settings. Many theories attempt to explain the etiology of selective mutism.Comorbidities and treatment. Selective mutism can present a variety of comorbidities including enuresis, encopresis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, premorbid speech and language abnormalities, developmental delay, and Asperger's disorders. The specific manifestations and severity of these comorbidities vary based on the individual. Given the multidimensional manifestations of selective mutism, treatment options are similarly diverse. They include individual behavioral therapy, family therapy, and psychotherapy with antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications.Future directions. While studies have helped to elucidate the phenomenology of selective mutism, limitations and gaps in knowledge still persist. In particular, the literature on selective mutism consists primarily of small sample populations and case reports. Future research aims to develop an increasingly integrated, multidimensional framework for evaluating and treating children with selective mutism.

  12. IVF or IUI as first-line treatment in unexplained subfertility: the conundrum of treatment selection markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Tajik, P; Zafarmand, M H; Bensdorp, A J; Bossuyt, P M M; Oosterhuis, G J E; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Lambers, M D A; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W; van Wely, M

    2017-05-01

    Are there treatment selection markers that could aid in identifying couples, with unexplained or mild male subfertility, who would have better chances of a healthy child with IVF with single embryo transfer (IVF-SET) than with IUI with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS)? We did not find any treatment selection markers that were associated with better chances of a healthy child with IVF-SET instead of IUI-OS in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility. A recent trial, comparing IVF-SET to IUI-OS, found no evidence of a difference between live birth rates and multiple pregnancy rates. It was suggested that IUI-OS should remain the first-line treatment instead of IVF-SET in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility and female age between 18 and 38 years. The question remains whether there are some couples that may have higher pregnancy chances if treated with IVF-SET instead of IUI. We performed our analyses on data from the INeS trial, where couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility and an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception were randomly allocated to IVF-SET, IVF in a modified natural cycle or IUI-OS. In view of the aim of this study, we only used data of the comparison between IVF-SET (201 couples) and IUI-OS (207 couples). We pre-defined the following baseline characteristics as potential treatment selection markers: female age, ethnicity, smoking status, type of subfertility (primary/secondary), duration of subfertility, BMI, pre-wash total motile count and Hunault prediction score. For each potential treatment selection marker, we explored the association with the chances of a healthy child after IVF-SET and IUI-OS and tested if there was an interaction with treatment. Given the exploratory nature of our analysis, we used a P-value of 0.1. None of the markers were associated with higher chances of a healthy child from IVF-SET compared to IUI-OS (P-value for interaction >0.10). Since this is the first large study that looked at

  13. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  14. Soil washing for brine removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  15. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine). Th...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  16. Qualification testing and full-scale demonstration of titanium-treated zeolite for sludge wash processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, W.J.

    1997-06-30

    Titanium-treated zeolite is a new ion-exchange material that is a variation of UOP (formerly Union Carbide) IONSIV IE-96 zeolite (IE-96) that has been treated with an aqueous titanium solution in a proprietary process. IE-96 zeolite, without the titanium treatment, has been used since 1988 in the West Valley Demonstration Project`s (WVDP) Supernatant Treatment System (STS) ion-exchange columns to remove Cs-137 from the liquid supernatant solution. The titanium-treated zeolite (TIE-96) was developed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Following successful lab-scale testing of the PNL-prepared TIE-96, UOP was selected as a commercial supplier of the TIE-96 zeolite. Extensive laboratory tests conducted by both the WVDP and PNL indicate that the TIE-96 will successfully remove comparable quantities of Cs-137 from Tank 8D-2 high-level radioactive liquid as was done previously with IE-96. In addition to removing Cs-137, TIE-96 also removes trace quantities of Pu, as well as Sr-90, from the liquid being processed over a wide range of operating conditions: temperature, pH, and dilution. The exact mechanism responsible for the Pu removal is not fully understood. However, the Pu that is removed by the TIE-96 remains on the ion-exchange column under anticipated sludge wash processing conditions. From May 1988 to November 1990, the WVDP processed 560,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive supernatant waste stored in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant is an aqueous salt solution comprised primarily of soluble sodium salts. The second stage of the high-level waste treatment process began November 1991 with the initiation of sludge washing. Sludge washing involves the mixing of Tank 8D-2 contents, both sludge and liquid, to dissolve the sulfate salts present in the sludge. Two sludge washes were required to remove sulfates from the sludge.

  17. Multimethod Behavioral Treatment of Long-Term Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T. Steuart; Kramer, Jack J.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted single-subject, experimental research to examine efficacy of treating severe, long-term selective mutism in nine-year-old male using shaping, multiple reinforcers, natural consequences, stimulus fading, and mild aversives. Implemented different treatment regimens in home and school environments. Home intervention resulted in increase in…

  18. Assessment and Treatment of Selective Mutism with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Ashley M.; Dowdy, Erin; Knights, Kezia; Rebelez, Jennica

    2015-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a type of anxiety disorder that involves the persistent failure to speak in contexts where speech is typically expected (e.g., school), despite speaking in other contexts (e.g., home). Research on the etiology and treatment of SM is limited, as it is a rare disorder and few clinical trials evaluating SM interventions have…

  19. Trends in pharmacotherapy selection for the treatment of alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The selection of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal remains a clinical challenge. Research continues into the underlying pathophysiology of dependence and withdrawal. A spectrum of clinical presentations of alcohol dependence is emerging, yet recommendations and guidelines have ...

  20. Appropriate selection for omalizumab treatment in patients with severe asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Leo; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Madsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Omalizumab improves asthma control in patients with uncontrolled severe allergic asthma; however, appropriate patient selection is crucial. Information in this field is sparse. Objective: We aimed to estimate whether potential omalizumab candidates were appropriately selected according...... to guidelines, and the clinical effect of omalizumab treatment over time. Design: We performed a retrospective observational study on adult patients with asthma treated with omalizumab during 2006-2015 at the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Odense University Hospital (OUH), Denmark. Data were obtained...... from the Electronic Patient Journal of OUH and Odense Pharmaco-Epidemiological Database. Guideline criteria for omalizumab treatment were used to evaluate the appropriateness of omalizumab candidate selection, and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) to assess the clinical effects of omalizumab at weeks 16...

  1. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Potential of activated carbon to recover randomly-methylated-β-cyclodextrin solution from washing water originating from in situ soil flushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniegowski, K; Vanhecke, M; D'Huys, P-J; Braeken, L

    2014-07-01

    Despite the overall high efficacy of cyclodextrins to accelerate the treatment of soil aquifer remediation by in-situ soil flushing, the use in practice remains limited because of the high costs of cyclodextrin and high concentrations needed to significantly reduce the treatment time. The current study tested the potential of activated carbon to treat washing water originating from soil flushing in order to selectively separate hydrocarbon contaminants from washing water containing cyclodextrin and subsequently reuse the cyclodextrin solution for reinfiltration. A high recovery of the cyclodextrin from the washing water would reduce the costs and would make the technique economically feasible for soil remediation. This study aimed to investigate whether cyclodextrin can pass through the activated carbon filter without reducing the cyclodextrin concentration when the contaminated washing water is treated and whether the presence of cyclodextrin negatively affects the purification potential of activated carbon to remove the organic pollutants from the pumped soil water. Lab-scale column experiments showed that with the appropriate activated carbon 100% of cyclodextrin (randomly-methylated-β-cyclodextrin) can be recovered from the washing water and that the effect on the efficiency of activated carbon to remove the hydrocarbon contaminants remains limited. These results show that additional field tests are useful to make in-situ soil flushing with cyclodextrin both a technical and an economical interesting technique. These results might stimulate the application of cyclodextrin in soil treatment technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  4. Individual treatment selection for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisenhofer, Anne-Katharina; Delgadillo, Jaime; Rubel, Julian A; Böhnke, Jan R; Zimmermann, Dirk; Schwartz, Brian; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2018-04-16

    Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (Tf-CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) are two highly effective treatment options for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, on an individual level, PTSD patients vary substantially in treatment response. The aim of the paper is to test the application of a treatment selection method based on a personalized advantage index (PAI). The study used clinical data for patients accessing treatment for PTSD in a primary care mental health service in the north of England. PTSD patients received either EMDR (N = 75) or Tf-CBT (N = 242). The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used as an outcome measure for depressive symptoms associated with PTSD. Variables predicting differential treatment response were identified using an automated variable selection approach (genetic algorithm) and afterwards included in regression models, allowing the calculation of each patient's PAI. Age, employment status, gender, and functional impairment were identified as relevant variables for Tf-CBT. For EMDR, baseline depressive symptoms as well as prescribed antidepressant medication were selected as predictor variables. Fifty-six percent of the patients (n = 125) had a PAI equal or higher than one standard deviation. From those patients, 62 (50%) did not receive their model-predicted treatment and could have benefited from a treatment assignment based on the PAI. Using a PAI-based algorithm has the potential to improve clinical decision making and to enhance individual patient outcomes, although further replication is necessary before such an approach can be implemented in prospective studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Volume 9 No. 3 2009 May 2009 830 EFFECT OF SELECTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF SELECTED WASHING TREATMENTS AND DRYING ... chlorinated solutions (100ppm) and potable tap water (control). Results indicated that ... The constraints to effective and hygienic production of sun-dried dagaa indicate need.

  6. Assessment of washing procedure for determination some of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was proposed to assess the suitability of washing technique to distinguish between airborne and soil borne several metal contaminants. For this reason, six plant species which grew under Mobarakeh Steel Company emissions were selected. Aluminum, iron, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and lead ...

  7. When to Intervene in Selective Mutism: The Multimodal Treatment of a Case of Persistent Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Shawn; Dalley, Mahlono

    1995-01-01

    An identification and treatment model differentiating transient mutism from persistent selective mutism is proposed. The case study of a six-year-old girl is presented, who was treated with a multimodal approach combining behavioral techniques with play therapy and family involvement. At posttreatment and follow-up, she was talking in a manner…

  8. Applicability of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) to LMFBR risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, K.A.; Feller, K.G.; Fleischer, L.; Greebler, P.; McDonald, A.; Sultan, P.; Temme, M.I.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of applying the WASH-1400 methods and data to LMFBR risk assessment is evaluated using the following approach for a selected LMFBR: (1) Structuring the LMFBR risk assessment problem in a modular form similar to WASH-1400; (2) Comparing the predictive tools applicable to each module; (3) Comparing the dependencies among the various modules. It is concluded that the WASH-1400 applicability is limited due to LWR-LMFBR differences in operating environments and accident phenomena. WASH-1400 and LMFBR specific methods applicable to LMFBR risk assessments are indicated

  9. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.

    2017-10-01

    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  10. SELECTION OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR OILY WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When selecting a chemical treatment program for wastewater to achieve an effective flocculation and coagulation is crucial to understand how individual colloids interact. The coagulation process requires a rapid mixing while flocculation process needs a slow mixing. The behavior of colloids in water is strongly influenced by the electrokinetic charge, where each colloidal particle carries its own charge, which in its nature is usually negative. Polymers, which are long chains of high molecular weight and high charge, when added to water begin to form longer chains, allowing removing numerous particles of suspended matter. A study of physico-chemical treatment by addition of coagulant and flocculant was carried out in order to determine a chemical program for oily wastewater coming from the gravity separation process in a crude oil refinery. The tests were carried out in a Jar Test equipment, where commercial products: aluminum polychloride (PAC, aluminum sulfate and Sintec D50 were evaluated with five different flocculants. The selected chemical program was evaluated with fluids at three temperatures to know its sensitivity to this parameter and the mixing energy in the coagulation and flocculation. The chemical program and operational characteristics for physico-chemical treatment with PAC were determined, obtaining a removal of more than 93% for suspended matter and 96% for total hydrocarbons for the selected coagulant / flocculant combination.

  11. Soil washing treatability testing for rad-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leis, K.S.; Lear, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Soil washing treatability testing was successfully completed on soil contaminated with Ra-226 and Th-232. The objective of the soil washing study was to determine if the radiologically contaminated fraction of the soil could be separated from the bulk of the soil material. The cleanup criteria was 38 microm) fraction was allowed to settle and was washed to separate it from the highly contaminated fine (< 38 microm) fraction. The clean coarse fraction comprised 85.7% of the total solids and had less than 15 pCi/g of Ra-226 and Th-232. This material was to be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D disposal facility. The suspended fines were flocculated and dewatered to minimize the amount of highly contaminated material produced by the soil washing. The dewatered fines would require disposal at a low-level radiological disposal facility. Mass balance calculations were made to determine production rates and chemical and equipment requirements for the full-scale soil washing treatment

  12. Treatment selection in a randomized clinical trial via covariate-specific treatment effect curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunbei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    For time-to-event data in a randomized clinical trial, we proposed two new methods for selecting an optimal treatment for a patient based on the covariate-specific treatment effect curve, which is used to represent the clinical utility of a predictive biomarker. To select an optimal treatment for a patient with a specific biomarker value, we proposed pointwise confidence intervals for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between covariate-specific treatment effect curves of two treatments. Furthermore, to select an optimal treatment for a future biomarker-defined subpopulation of patients, we proposed confidence bands for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between each pair of covariate-specific treatment effect curve over a fixed interval of biomarker values. We constructed the confidence bands based on a resampling technique. We also conducted simulation studies to evaluate finite-sample properties of the proposed estimation methods. Finally, we illustrated the application of the proposed method in a real-world data set.

  13. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-01-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  14. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  15. 100 Areas soil washing tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    The complex nature of cost analysis and systems work demands a level of effort to ensure that decisions made support the best interests of all parties. This tradeoff study will act as a formal decision analysis method for the evaluation of many variables. The documentation of the decision rationale and system design is essential for successful planning and implementation of any system. The Hanford Site offers unique problems for economic analysis of remediation alternatives. The variations in the size of sites, geographic locations, and possible cleanup scenarios all add to the complexity of the tradeoff analysis. A thorough examination of all alternatives must be held to a level of detail appropriate to current regulatory and budgetary considerations. This study will compare the economics of two specific alternatives for remediation of soils at the Hanford Site. Remove and dispose is compared to remove, treat, and dispose. The treatment analyzed in this study is volume reduction through soil washing

  16. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  17. Detecting wash trade in the financial market

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yi; Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Sonya; Belatreche, Ammar; McGinnity, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Wash trade refers to the activities of traders who utilise deliberately designed collusive transactions to increase the trading volumes for creating active market impression. Wash trade can be damaging to the proper functioning and integrity of capital markets. Existing work focuses on collusive clique detections based on certain assumptions of trading behaviours. Effective approaches for analysing and detecting wash trade in a real-life market have yet to be developed. T...

  18. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water system...

  19. Selected Physical Therapy Modalities for the treatment of Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, S.; Sayed, N.; Al-Gazzar, S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of using selected physical therapy modalities for the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Thirty patients participated in this study. Patients were randomly divided into study group (ten males and five females) and control group (six males and nine females). The study group received interferential current on the lumbosacral region, followed by repeated contraction as specific technique of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) to the anterior tibial group muscles. The control group did not receive physical therapy treatment. The treatment for the study group was conducted three times per week, for a period of six weeks. The patients were assessed for intensity of pain, manual muscle testing of the anterior tibial group muscles, and the level of superficial sensation on their feet. Patients were assessed the beginning of the treatment session and after the last session. The result of this study showed a significant decrease in the pain intensity, increase anterior tibial group muscles strength and increase level of superficial sensation in patients of study group in comparison to the control group at the end of the treatment. The control group did not show significant changes. It can be concluded that the combination of interferential current and repeated contraction (specific technique of PNF to the anterior tibial group muscles) is effective in decreasing the pain, increasing anterior tibial group muscles strength and the level of superficial sensation in patients suffering from diabetic polyneuropathy. (author)

  20. Selection tests of rubber coatings for the purpose of washing towers and other components in flue gas desulfurization installations. Selectietesten van rubberdeklagen ten behoeve van wastorens en andere componenten in rookgasontzwavelingsinstallaties; Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, B.A.; Van Manen, J. (KEMA Inspecties en Materialen, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    It has appeared that the service life of chloroprene-based rubber coatings in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installations in coal-fired power plants in the Netherlands is short. A number of rubber coating types, applied in washing towers, pipelines, pumps and boilers of FGD installations, is tested on a laboratory scale. Use has been made of the KEMA-developed accelerated test method, the Delta-T-Tube Test. In this test a rubber foil is attached to the outside of a tube. The tube is internally cooled and the outside is exposed to a test medium. Also use has been made of the KEMA-FGD test facility to expose the pipes in the washing tank and in the flue gas canal. Plates, coated with a rubber foil, are tested in so-called Atlas cells. The tubes and the plates were controlled for blister and crack formation and for erosion. Thermal analyses methods and mechanical tests were carried out to characterize the plates and the tubes before and after the exposures. It is concluded that butyl-based rubbers show better results than chloroprene-based rubbers

  1. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Felix JF Herth,1,2 Maren Schuhmann1 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, 2Translational Lung Research Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. Keywords: lung emphysema, valve treatment, collateral ventilation, patient selection, outcome

  2. Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy: an innovative treatment for lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Jin, Yunbo; Chen, Hui; Li, Suolan; Ma, Gang; Hu, Xiaojie; Qiu, Yajing; Yu, Wenxin; Chang, Lei; Wang, Tianyou; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2014-08-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa that presents as translucent vesicles of varying size with a pink, red, or black hue. Lymphangioma circumscriptum causes not only cosmetic problems but also refractory rupture, infection, lymphorrhea, and bleeding. Various invasive methods, such as surgical excision, lasers, and sclerotherapy, have been used in the past to treat LC with varying success. Herein, we report a new treatment for the management of LC. This study reports the outcomes of 12 patients (aged 4-31 years) with LC treated by electrocoagulation using a special isolated needle. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, radiologic findings, treatment course, and clinical responses are recorded. All 12 patients who were treated with the highly selective electrocoagulation therapy achieved near-complete clearance. Minimal intra- and postoperative sequelae were observed. The local complications included mild pain (n = 9), proliferous scarring (n = 1), and ulceration (n = 1) with no systemic side effects. The mean follow-up period was 8.25 months (3-14 months). Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy is an innovative, minimally invasive technique that seems to be safe and effective for the treatment of LC; the results from our limited study population seem promising, and the observed complications are acceptable.

  3. Selection of efficient etchants for nondestructive treatment of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Fomin, A.V.; Tomashik, Z.F.

    1996-01-01

    The scheme for studying etching processes of semiconductor materials and developing new etchants for different semiconductors is proposed. The scheme includes the experiment mathematical planning, computerized physicochemical modeling, kinetic studies, investigation of surface layers, formed by etching. Such on approach makes it possible to optimize the etchant composition in every concrete cage. The scheme is tested in the course of developing optimal methodologies of preepitaxial treatment and selection of etchants composition for semiconductor compounds of the A 1 B 6 and A 3 B 5 type. 13 refs., 4 figs

  4. Using AHP for Selecting the Best Wastewater Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolReza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method that is based on expert knowledge is used for the selection of the optimal anaerobic wastewater treatment process in industrial estates. This method can be applied for complicated multi-criteria decision making to obtain reasonable results. The different anaerobic processes employed in Iranian industrial estates consist of UASB, UAFB, ABR, Contact process, and Anaerobic Lagoons. Based on the general conditions in wastewater treatment plants in industrial estates and on expert judgments and using technical, economic, environmental, and administrative criteria, the processes are weighted and the results obtained are assessed using the Expert Choice Software. Finally, the five processes investigated are ranked as 1 to 5 in a descending order of UAFB, ABR, UASB, Anaerobic Lagoon, and Contact Process. Sensitivity analysis showing the effects of input parameters on changes in the results was applied for technical, economic, environmental, and administrative criteria.

  5. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-15

    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of selectively etched halloysite nanotubes by acid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Daniel; Ferri, Jose M.; Ripoll, Laura; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Lopez-Martinez, Juan; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are a type of naturally occurring inorganic nanotubes that are characterized by a different composition between their external and internal walls. The internal walls are mainly composed of alumina whilst external walls are composed of silica. This particular structure offers a dual surface chemistry that allows different selective surface treatments which can be focused on increasing the lumen, increasing porosity, etc. In this work, HNTs were chemically treated with different acids (sulphuric, acetic and acrylic acid), for 72 h at a constant temperature of 50 °C. As per the obtained results, the treatment with sulphuric acid is highly aggressive and the particular shape of HNTs is almost lost, with a remarkable increase in porosity. The BET surface area increases from 52.9 (untreated HNTs) up to 132.4 m2 g-1 with sulphuric acid treatment, thus showing an interesting potential in the field of catalysis. On the other hand, the treatment with acetic acid led to milder effects with a noticeable increase in the lumen diameter that changed from 13.8 nm (untreated HNTs) up to 18.4 nm which the subsequent increase in the loading capacity by 77.8%. The aluminium content was measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The final results using two systems, suggest a good correlation between the acid strength and the aluminium reduction. Consequently, is possible to conclude that new applications for HNTs can be derived from selective etching with acids. Sulphuric acid widens the potential of HNTs in the field of catalysis while weak acids such as acetic and acrylic acids give a controlled and homogeneous lumen increase with the corresponding increase in the loading capacity.

  7. Selection of treatment and surgical approach for vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Kuniki; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakoda, Eiichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described are the present state of selection of stereotactic radiotherapy or surgical treatment and their combination for schwannomas in the title, and authors' policy of surgery as a first choice treatment. The policy stands on the concept that surgery is useful for the controllability thereafter of the tumor, of which size is at first larger than 25 mm diameter, and radiotherapy like a gamma-knife is applicable to the residual tissue grown after operation and to the tissue with less than the size before surgery because the smaller the size, the better is thought the control by the knife (reportedly 100% for the tissue of <14 mm diameter). The basis of authors' selection of two surgical approaches of through-lower lateral occiput and trans-labyrinthine, and their outcomes like hearing loss are described and discussed in details for 24 patients (two underwent radiotherapy before surgery) during the period Sep. 2003-Aug. 2006 of authors' hospital. Radiotherapy is thought essentially useful for the control of the tumor with a small or surgically reduced size. (R.T.)

  8. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  9. Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.J.

    1998-09-28

    The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

  10. Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction

  11. Selection criteria for wastewater treatment technologies to protect drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water bodies used as sources for drinking water is intimately linked to the adoption of adequate technologies for the treatment of the wastewater generated in the catchment area. The paper presents a general overview of the main technologies used for the treatment of domestic sewage, with a special emphasis on developing countries, and focussing on the main parameters of interest, such as BOD, coliforms and nutrients. A series of tables, figures and charts that can be used for the preliminary selection of treatment technologies is presented. The systems analysed are: stabilisation ponds, activated sludge, trickling filters, anaerobic systems and land disposal. Within each system, the main process variants are covered. Two summary tables are presented, one for quantitative analysis, including easily usable information based on per capita values (US$/cap, Watts/cap, m2 area/cap, m3 sludge/cap), and another for a qualitative comparison among the technologies, based on a one-to-five-star scoring system. The recent trend in tropical countries in the use of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors is also discussed.

  12. Counter current decantation washing of HLW sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 51 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks with typical dimensions 25.9 meters (85 feet) diameter and 10 meters (33 feet) high. Nearly 114 million liters (30 M gallons) of HLW waste is stored in these tanks in the form of insoluble solids called sludge, crystallized salt called salt cake, and salt solutions. This waste is being converted to waste forms stable for long term storage. In one of the processes, soluble salts are washed from HLW sludge in preparation for vitrification. At present, sludge is batch washed in a waste tank with one or no reuse of the wash water. Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite are added to the wash water for tank corrosion protection; the large volumes of spent wash water are recycled to the evaporator system; additional salt cake is produced; and sodium carbonate is formed in the washed sludge during storage by reaction with CO 2 from the air. High costs and operational concerns with the current washing process prompts DOE and WSRC to seek an improved washing method. A new method should take full advantage of the physical/chemical properties of sludge, experience from other technical disciplines, processing rate requirements, inherent process safety, and use of proven processes and equipment. Counter current solids washing is a common process in the minerals processing and chemical industries. Washing circuits can be designed using thickeners, filters or centrifuges. Realizing the special needs of nuclear work and the low processing rates required, a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit is proposed using small thickeners and fluidic pumps

  13. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  14. Removal of uranium from gravel using soil washing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ilgook; Kim, Kye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The development of nuclear technology has led to increasing radioactive waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the nuclear sites. Fine grained soils with a size of less than 4 mm are normally decontaminated using soil washing and electro-kinetic technologies. However, there have been few studies on the decontamination of gravels with a size of more than 4 mm. Therefore, it is necessary to study the decontamination of gravel contaminated with radionuclides. The main objective of the present study on soil washing was to define the optimal condition for acid treatment of uranium-polluted gravel. In this study, soil washing method was applied to remove uranium from gravel. The gravel was crushed and classified as particle sizes. The gravel particles were treated with sulfuric acid in a shaking incubator at 60 .deg. C and 150 rpm for 3 h. The optimal particle size of gravel for soil washing in removal of uranium was between 0.45 and 2.0 mm.

  15. Threat-Related Selective Attention Predicts Treatment Success in Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); V.L. Kallen (Victor); G.C. Dieleman (Gwen); P.D.A. Treffers (Philip); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether threat-related selective attention was predictive of treatment success in children with anxiety disorders and whether age moderated this association. Specific components of selective attention were examined in treatment responders

  16. Threat-related selective attention predicts treatment success in childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether threat-related selective attention was predictive of treatment success in children with anxiety disorders and whether age moderated this association. Specific components of selective attention were examined in treatment responders and nonresponders. Participants

  17. Improving understanding of the underlying physical process of sediment wash-off from urban road surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Manoranjan; Tait, Simon; Schellart, Alma; Beg, Md Nazmul Azim; Carvalho, Rita F.; de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2018-02-01

    Among the urban aquatic pollutants, the most common is sediment which also acts as a transport medium for many contaminants. Hence there is an increasing interest in being able to better predict the sediment wash-off from urban surfaces. The exponential wash-off model is the most widely used method to predict the sediment wash-off. Although a number of studies proposed various modifications to the original exponential wash-off equation, these studies mostly looked into one parameter in isolation thereby ignoring the interactions between the parameters corresponding to rainfall, catchment and sediment characteristics. Hence in this study we aim (a) to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, surface slope and initial load on wash-off load in an integrated and systematic way and (b) to subsequently improve the exponential wash-off equation focusing on the effect of the aforementioned three parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a full-scale setup, comprising of a rainfall simulator, a 1 m2 bituminous road surface, and a continuous wash-off measuring system. Five rainfall intensities ranging from 33 to 155 mm/h, four slopes ranging from 2 to 16% and three initial loads ranging from 50 to 200 g/m2 were selected based on values obtained from the literature. Fine sediment with a size range of 300-600 μm was used for all of the tests. Each test was carried out for one hour with at least 9 wash-off samples per test collected. Mass balance checks were carried out for all the tests as a quality control measure to make sure that there is no significant loss of sand during the tests. Results show that the washed off sediment load at any given time is proportional to initial load for a given combination of rainfall intensity and surface slope. This indicates the importance of dedicated modelling of build-up so as to subsequently predict wash-off load. It was also observed that the maximum fraction that is washed off from the surface increases

  18. Late washing filter cleaning cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.; McCabe, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The DWPF Late Washing Facility will filter cesium and potassium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) solids using a Mott sintered metal filter, identical to the filter now used in the In-tank Precipitation Facility. The purpose of the late wash step is primarily to remove the nitrite salts from the slurry prior to delivery to DWPF. Periodic chemical cleaning of the filter will be required, presumably after each batch although the actual required frequency could not be determined on the lab-scale. Minimization of chemical cleaning solution volumes is key to maximizing the attainment of the Late Wash facility. This report summarizes work completed in experiments designed to identify minimum cleaning solution requirements

  19. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small

  20. Genesis Eco Systems, Inc. soil washing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cena, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Genesis soil washing system is an integrated system of modular design allowing for maximum material handling capabilities, with optimized use of space for site mobility. The Surfactant Activated Bio-enhanced Remediation Equipment-Generation 1 (SABRE-1, Patent Applied For) modification was developed specifically for removing petroleum byproducts from contaminated soils. Scientifically formulated surfactants, introduced by high pressure spray nozzles, displace the contaminant from the surface of the soil particles into the process solution. Once the contaminant is dispersed into the liquid fraction of the process, it is either mechanically removed, chemically oxidized, or biologically oxidized. The contaminated process water is pumped through the Genesis Biosep (Patent Applied For) filtration system where the fines portion is flocculated, and the contaminant-rich liquid portion is combined with an activated mixture of nutrients and carefully selected bacteria to decompose the hydrocarbon fraction. The treated soil and dewatered fines are transferred to a bermed stockpile where bioremediation continues during drying. The process water is reclaimed, filtered, and recycled within the system

  1. Recovery of silver from X-ray washings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S.; Zeb, P.A.; Sharif, Q.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the enhanced recovery of silver from polymers and gelatin in X-ray washings by treating with activated carbon at different temperatures and optimizing the parameters as temperature, pH and acid base concentrations. It was found that at pilot scale silver recovery increased through treatment with activated carbon and in comparison to the temperature of 20 degree C, at 50 degree C, the recovery increased from 82.57% to 94.04%. (author)

  2. Toxicological assessment and management options for boat pressure-washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Kollar, Robert; Franekić, Jasna; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-04-01

    Boats are washed periodically for maintenance in order to remove biofoulants from hulls, which results in the generation of wastewater. This study aimed at evaluating the cyto/genotoxic and mutagenic properties of wastewater produced by pressure washing of boats. The chemical characterisation of this wastewater showed that Cu, Zn, V, Cr, Fe, Pb, and select organic contaminants exceeded the maximum allowable values from 1.7 up to 96 times. The wastewater produced negative effects on human lymphocytes resulting in decreased cell viability after 4 and 24h of exposure. Chromosome aberration, micronucleus, and comet assay parameters were significantly higher after 24h of exposure. At the same time, the Salmonella typhimurium test showed negative for both TA98 and TA100 strains at all of the concentrations tested. After the treatment of wastewater using electrochemical methods/ozonation during real scale treatment plant, removal rates of colour, turbidity and heavy metals ranged from 99.4% to 99.9%, while the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was above 85%. This was reflected in the removal of the wastewater's cyto/genotoxicity, which was comparable to negative controls in all of the conducted tests, suggesting that such plants could be implemented in marinas to minimise human impact on marine systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  4. UO2 production process with methanol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondermann, T.

    1978-01-01

    The invention refers to a process for the recovery of methanol used for washing the ammonium uranyl carbonate obtained during UO 2 production. The methanol contains about 50% H 2 O, about 10% (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and is radioactive. According to the invention the methanol is purified at reduced pressure in a distillation unit and then led back to the washing unit. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MBE [de

  5. Status and progress in sludge washing: A pivotal pretreatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, W.B.; MacLean, G.T.; Meng, C.D.; Winkler, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Separation of the bulk soluble chemical salts from the insoluble metal hydroxides and radionuclides is central to the strategy of disposing Hanford tank waste. Sludge washing and caustic leaching have been selected as the primary methods for processing the 230 million L (61,000,000 gal) of Hanford tank waste. These processes are very similar to those selected for processing waste at the West Valley Site in New York and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The purpose of sludge washing is to dissolve and remove the soluble salts in the waste. Leaching of the insoluble solids with caustic will be used to dissolve aluminum hydroxide and chromium hydroxide, and convert insoluble bismuth phosphate to soluble phosphate. The waste will be separated into a high-level solids fraction and a liquid fraction that can be disposed of as low-level waste after cesium removal. The washing and leaching operations involve batchwise mixing, settling, and decanting within the existing underground storage tanks

  6. An evaluation of different soil washing solutions for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Changsheng; Wu, Bin; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2017-04-01

    Soil washing is a promising way to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Most research has mostly focused on seeking efficient extractants for removing arsenic, but not concerned with any changes in soil properties when using this technique. In this study, the removal of arsenic from a heavily contaminated soil employing different washing solutions including H 3 PO 4 , NaOH and dithionite in EDTA was conducted. Subsequently, the changes in soil physicochemical properties and phytotoxicity of each washing technique were evaluated. After washing with 2 M H 3 PO 4 , 2 M NaOH or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA, the soil samples' arsenic content met the clean-up levels stipulated in China's environmental regulations. H 3 PO 4 washing decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations but increased TN and TP contents. NaOH washing increased soil pH but decreased soil TOC, TN and TP contents. Dithionite in EDTA washing reduced soil TOC, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn and TP contents. A drastic color change was observed when the soil sample was washed with H 3 PO 4 or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA. After adjusting the soil pH to neutral, wheat planted in the soil sample washed by NaOH evidenced the best growth of all three treated soil samples. These results will help with selecting the best washing solution when remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis after Hand Washing with Antimicrobial and Nonantimicrobial Soap and Persistence of These Bacteria in Rinsates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garza, J; García, S; Heredia, N

    2017-10-01

    Food handlers are important sources of contamination in the agricultural environment. This study was conducted (i) to evaluate the activity of antimicrobial soaps against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis using a hand washing model with soiled hands and (ii) to determine the survival and persistence of these bacteria in rinsates. Sterilized agricultural soil from tomato and pepper farms was inoculated with E. coli or E. faecalis at 10 3 or 10 6 CFU/g. Decontaminated hands were placed in contact with contaminated soil for 2 min and were then washed with soaps with or without antimicrobial compounds (citric extracts, chloroxylenol, triclosan, or chlorhexidine gluconate). As the control, hands were washed with sterile distilled water. The levels of bacteria remaining on the hands and recovered from the rinsates were determined using a membrane filtration method and selective media. Antimicrobial soaps removed levels of E. coli similar to those removed by distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap on hands contaminated with E. coli at 10 3 CFU/g. However, when hands were contaminated with E. coli at 10 6 CFU/g, more E. coli was removed with the chlorhexidine gluconate soap. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 3 CFU/g, bacteria were removed more effectively with soaps containing chloroxylenol or chlorhexidine gluconate. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 6 CFU/g, all of the antimicrobial soaps were more effective for removing the bacteria than were distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap. E. coli grew in all of the hand washing rinsates except that containing triclosan, whereas E. faecalis from the 10 6 CFU/g treatments grew in rinsates containing chlorhexidine gluconate and in the distilled water rinsates. Washing with antimicrobial soap was more effective for reducing bacteria on soiled hands than was washing with water or nonantimicrobial soap. However, persistence or growth of bacteria in these rinsates poses health risks.

  8. Selective Mutism: A Review of Etiology, Comorbidities, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Selective mutism is a rare and multidimensional childhood disorder that typically affects children entering school age. It is characterized by the persistent failure to speak in select social settings despite possessing the ability to speak and speak comfortably in more familiar settings. Many theories attempt to explain the etiology of selective mutism.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of closed-loop wash-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.M.; Greer, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Effluent from vehicle and equipment cleaning is known to contain a variety of potential pollutants, the most common being hydrocarbons and suspended solids. Proper treatment and discharge of this effluent is a growing concern as environmental awareness increases. In the United States, discharge of this effluent to municipal sewage treatment systems requires a permit from local authorities, discharge to surface waters requires a federal permit and, in most cases, discharge to the ground in prohibited. Furthermore, discharge to ground and surface waters can cause soil or groundwater contamination resulting in property devaluation, adverse impact on human health, fines from regulatory agencies, expensive cleanup and negative publicity. Effluent from vehicle washing typically does not meet the minimum pollutant levels allowed by regulatory agencies for discharge to surface waters or sewage treatment plants. Because of the liability associated with discharge to ground and surface waters and the difficulty in meeting municipal sewer discharge permit requirements, closed-loop wastewater treatment is an attractive alternative to discharge. Evaluation and comparison of systems from each category constitute the basis of this paper. Factors involved in selecting a system and available water-treatment technologies are discussed. The conclusion summarizes the results of the system comparison and makes recommendations for selecting and installing closed-loop water treatment systems for vehicle and equipment cleaning

  10. Effect of egg washing on the cuticle quality of brown and white table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, S; Messens, W; De Reu, K; De Preter, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Baerdemaeker, J; Michiels, C W; Bain, M

    2011-10-01

    Egg washing is currently not permitted within the European Union, with few exceptions. This is mainly because there are concerns that cuticle damage could occur during or after the washing process, as a result of a suboptimal operation. In this study, the cuticle coverage levels of 400 washed or unwashed eggs, derived from either a brown or a white egg-laying flock at the end of lay, were compared. The eggs from older hens inherently have poorer cuticle coverage and as a result arguably constitute a greater risk to consumer safety if they are then washed. Thus, the effects of the washing procedure used in this study on cuticle quality were tested under the worst-case scenario. A standard Swedish egg washing process was used. The cuticle coverage of the eggs was assessed by a colorimeter by quantifying the color difference before and after staining with Tartrazine and Green S. The cuticle of an additional 30 eggs from each of the four groups was then visually assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The staining characteristics of the cuticle varied greatly within each group of eggs and showed that the washing process did not lead to cuticle damage. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that there was no irreversible damage to the cuticle of the washed eggs and that it was not possible to correctly assign the treatment (washed or not) based on a visual assessment. In conclusion, no evidence could be found to suggest that the washing procedure used in this investigation irreversibly changed the quality of the cuticle.

  11. Remediation of 137Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin

    2017-10-15

    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with 137 Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K + and 137 Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm -3 of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bevacizumab in the treatment of NSCLC: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo AE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alessia E Russo,1 Domenico Priolo,1 Giovanna Antonelli,1 Massimo Libra,2 James A McCubrey,3 Francesco Ferraù1 1Medical Oncology Department, San Vincenzo Hospital, Taormina (Messina, Italy; 2Laboratory of Translational Oncology & Functional Genomics, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA Abstract: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents about 85% of all lung cancers, and more than half of NSCLCs are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Chemotherapy has reached a plateau in the overall survival curve of about 10 months. Therefore, in last decade novel targeted approaches have been developed to extend survival of these patients, including antiangiogenic treatment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway plays a dominant role in stimulating angiogenesis, which is the main process promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Bevacizumab (bev; Avastin® is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that neutralizes VEGF’s biologic activity through a steric blocking of its binding with VEGF receptor. Currently, bev is the only antiangiogenic agent approved for the first-line treatment of advanced or recurrent nonsquamous NSCLC in “bev-eligible” patients. The ineligibility to receive bev is related to its toxicity. In the pivotal trials of bev in NSCLC, fatal bleeding events including pulmonary hemorrhage were observed with rates higher in the chemotherapy-plus-bev group. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of severe pulmonary hemorrhage, numerous exclusion criteria have been characteristically applied for bev such as central tumor localization or tumor cavitation, use of anticoagulant therapy, presence of brain metastases, age of patients (elderly. Subsequent studies designed to evaluate the safety of bev have demonstrated that this agent is safe and

  13. Optimizing the selection of small-town wastewater treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Siqi

    2018-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment is energy-intensive. This high energy consumption causes high sewage treatment plant operating costs and increases the energy burden. To mitigate the adverse impacts of China’s development, sewage treatment plants should adopt effective energy-saving technologies. Artificial fortified natural water treatment and use of activated sludge and biofilm are all suitable technologies for small-town sewage treatment. This study features an analysis of the characteristics of small and medium-sized township sewage, an overview of current technologies, and a discussion of recent progress in sewage treatment. Based on this, an analysis of existing problems in municipal wastewater treatment is presented, and countermeasures to improve sewage treatment in small and medium-sized towns are proposed.

  14. Comparison of Different Methods of Denim Stone Washing by Pumice Stone, Acid Cellulases and Neutral Cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montazer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Denim is a casual garment normally used by young people and extremely influential in shaping the fashion industry. Among various garments, these garments are subjected to innovations. This work is an attempt to compare the different methods of stone washing using pumice stones, acid cellulases and neutral cellulases or in combination of these methods. The effects of different processing conditions on the garment are compared and reported. Color differences of samples are probed by reflective colorimeter on the front side as well as the backside and also the white pocket of the garment.The abrasion resistance, tensile strength and crease recovery angle of samples are also reported. The XRD spectra are used to calculate the crystalline degrees of the selected samples. Moreover, fiber surfaces of some treated samples have been observed by SEM. The results indicate that treatment of denim with pumice stone with equal weight of garment causes a small color differences. The addition of cellulases to the washing, however, accelerates the color fading. Also, lower staining observed on the white pocket when the garment was treated with cellulases. However, the neutralcellulases increase the garment fading and decrease the staining on the white pocket. It is also observed that pumice stone with cellulases damages the fabric surface, although it is of a minimal damage.

  15. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  16. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  17. Ultrafiltration to reuse laundering wash water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giagnorio, Mattia; Søtoft, Lene Fjerbæk; Tiraferri, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Laundering industry consumes and discharges large amounts of water and surfactants, and the demand of surface active agents used for washing is increasing worldwide. Some of these substances are considered contaminants of emerging concern, as they persist in the environment. This work aimed...... at evaluating the feasibility of ultrafiltration as a method to treat the wash wastewater and possibly reuse the surfactant-rich permeate stream in laundry facilities. In particular, evaluation of surfactant recovery was performed through analysis of the permeate flux and properties obtained through polymeric...... and ceramic membranes. Wash water samples were collected at an industrial laundering facility for hospital linen and filtered through different ultrafiltration membranes with varying molecular weight cut-off. The critical micelle concentration of the detergent was quantified, and capillarity measurements were...

  18. Disinfection potential of ozone, ultraviolet-C and their combination in wash water for the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María V; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María A; Gil, María I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the disinfection efficacy of ozone (O(3)) and UV-C illumination (UV), and their combination (O(3)-UV) for reducing microbial flora of fresh-cut onion, escarole, carrot, and spinach wash waters collected from the industry. Furthermore, the influence of water physicochemical parameters on the decontamination efficacy and the effect of these technologies on physicochemical quality of wash water were analyzed. O(3), UV, and O(3)-UV were effective disinfection treatments on vegetable wash water, with a maximum microbial reduction of 6.6 log CFU mL(-1) after 60 min treatment with O(3)-UV. However, maximum total microbial reductions achieved by UV and O(3) treatments after 60 min were 4.0 and 5.9 log CFU mL(-1), lower than by O(3)-UV treatment. Furthermore, turbidity of wash water was reduced significantly by O(3) and O(3)-UV treatments, while UV treatment did not affect the physicochemical quality of the water. Conclusions derived from this study illustrate that O(3) and O(3)-UV are alternatives to other sanitizers used in the fresh-cut washing processes. The use of these technologies would allow less frequent changing of spent water and the use of much lower sanitizer doses. Nevertheless, in specific applications such as carrot wash water, where levels of undesirable microbial and chemical constituents are lower than other vegetable wash water, UV treatment could be an appropriate treatment considering cost-effectiveness criteria.

  19. Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    540Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig

  20. Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Francesca; Gullo, Maria Pia; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Pace, Emilia; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gelabert, Laura; Brouta-Agnésa, Marolda; Rovira, Angels; Escudero, Rosa; Villalba, Raquel; Mossotti, Raffaella; Montarsolo, Alessio; Gavignano, Sara; Tonin, Claudio; Avella, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release. In particular, an analytical protocol was set up, based on the filtration of the washing water of synthetic fabrics and on the analysis of the filters by scanning electron microscopy. The quantification of the microfibre shedding from three different synthetic fabric types, woven polyester, knitted polyester, and woven polypropylene, during washing trials simulating domestic conditions, was achieved and statistically analysed. The highest release of microplastics was recorded for the wash of woven polyester and this phenomenon was correlated to the fabric characteristics. Moreover, the extent of microfibre release from woven polyester fabrics due to different detergents, washing parameters and industrial washes was evaluated. The number of microfibres released from a typical 5 kg wash load of polyester fabrics was estimated to be over 6,000,000 depending on the type of detergent used. The usage of a softener during washes reduces the number of microfibres released of more than 35%. The amount and size of the released microfibres confirm that they could not be totally retained by wastewater treatments plants, and potentially affect the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  2. The diagnosis and treatment of tubal pregnancy with selective salpingography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qunying

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study feasibility of diagnosing and treating tubal pregnancy with selective salpingography. methods: 13 women diagnosed clinically as ectopic pregnancy without abdominal bleeding were studied and confirmed as tubal pregnancy with selective salpingography, MTX was then injected through fallopian tube. Urine hCG, blood β-hCG and US were studied during follow-up. Results: 12 cases tubal pregnancy were confirmed as well as 1 case of intra-uterine pregnancy. X-ray showed a localized dilation of fallopian tube, half-loop, ring-like or irregular shaped filling defect. In one case, cluster of grapes appearance of contrast medium could be seen at the umbrella end of fallopian tube. Of the 12 cases of tubal pregnancy, 10 were successfully treated, the successful rate was 83%. Conclusion: Selective salpingography is a simple safe and effective method of diagnosing and treating tubal pregnancy

  3. Anhedonia Predicts Poorer Recovery among Youth with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L.; Olino, Thomas M.; Porta, Giovanna; Dietz, Laura J.; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Gregory; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan R.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Spirito, Anthony; Keller, Martin; Lynch, Frances L.; Dickerson, John F.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify symptom dimensions of depression that predict recovery among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment-resistant adolescents undergoing second-step treatment. Method: The Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial included 334 SSRI treatment-resistant youth randomized to a medication…

  4. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  5. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  8. A method for treating clayless wash fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deykalo, T A; Dzhumagaliyev, T N; Skvortsov, D S

    1980-02-18

    To increase the heat and salt resistance of a wash fluid, monoethanolamine processed waste of licorice production - grist in a volume of 5-8% by weight, is introduced into it as the disperse phase. The processing of the grist is conducted for 1-2 hours at 20-100/sup 0/C and the volume of the monoethanolamine is 0.05-0.1% by weight. The properties of the washing fluids treated by the grist with the introduction of 20% CaC1/sub 2/ into them were not deteriorated, while complete coagulation was achieved with its introduction into washing fluids on the basis of KMTs. Grist washing liquids do not deteriorate their own properties to a temperature of 200/sup 0/C, do not cause equipment corrosion, are inert to swelling clay rocks and with the introduction of KMTs at a temperature above 130-140/sup 0/C cause insignificant destruction of the reagent which is accompanied by a change in the color of the solutions and a drop in the degree of polymerization and viscosity.

  9. Trends in pharmacotherapy selection for the treatment of alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    worked in private general practice, specialist psychiatry practice, in a state hospital or in a treatment centre. Results. ... Type 4 (model of adaptation) dependence does not respond well to any ..... syndrome increases mortality. The use of.

  10. The integration of innovative technologies into a physical-separation-based soil washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative system's approach to the treatment of soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has been proposed to effectively and cost competitively treat a significant mass of soil. The use of an integrated soil treatment system to decontaminate FEMP soils is a unique application of the soil washing technology. Due to the unfavorable soil particle size distribution and the ubiquitous distribution of uranium among these particle size fractions, conventional soil washing processes commonly used on predominantly sandy soils alone may not achieve the desirable waste minimization level without the inclusion of innovative technologies. This objective of this paper is to briefly describe the physical separation and chemical extraction process commonly used in soil washing operation and to present the baseline soil washing approach used on FEMP soils. Noting the successful and not-so-successful processes within the soil washing operation at the FEMP, a proposed innovative system's approach to treating FEMP soils will be described. This system's approach will integrate a conventional soil washing operation with proposed innovative technologies

  11. Obstacles to HIV prevention, treatment and care in selected public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa, like the rest of Southern Africa, is ravaged by AIDS. Higher education in South Africa has a significant role to play in the fight against the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article reports the factors contributing to the spread of HIV and AIDS in three selected public universities in South Africa. To achieve the stated ...

  12. European soil washing for U.S. applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Michael J [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Tampa, PL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the introduction of a new soil treatment technology to the U.S. market. For the purposes of this presentation, I would like to introduce a concept of three tiers of contaminated soil treatment; traditional treatment technologies, alternative treatment technologies and emerging treatment technologies. Traditional treatment consists of landfilling, incineration, and stabilization. Alternative technologies consist of low-temperature thermal treatment, bioremediation, vapor extraction, and physical screening and separation to achieve volume reduction...the essence of soil washing. Emerging technologies currently include in-situ vitrification, RF processes, dechlorination, and possibly some extraction techniques. This paper focuses on the alternative soil technologies. One of the most important lessons we have learned over the past decade is that no single technology provides a broad enough capability to solve all the soil situations that we encounter - the key to feasible and cost-effective site solutions is the ability to optimize the use of reasonable alternatives in a site-specific matrix of use. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recognized this need and particularly with SARA, emphasized the importance of 'on-site' treatment technologies. This policy was initially stimulated through the development of the SITES program and most recently expanded by the formation of the Technology Innovation Office. Still, all technologies have their limitations. The limitations that are most commonly encountered are: The volume of soil is too big or too small; The contaminants species and/or concentration is not process-compatible; Organics and inorganics cannot be handled in the same treatment train; The process has little or no commercial operations experience. This document is intended to provide a description of a commercial soil-washing facility operating in Holland for the past seven years and to demonstrate

  13. Augmented Self-Modeling as a Treatment for Children with Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Madaus, Melissa R.; Baratta, Victoria S.; Bray, Melissa A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the treatment of three children experiencing selective mutism. The procedure utilized incorporated self-modeling, mystery motivators, self-reinforcement, stimulus fading, spacing, and antidepressant medication. All three children evidenced a complete cessation of selective mutism and maintained their treatment gains at follow-up.…

  14. Treatment selection for stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, L.R.; Cooper, D.; Cox, E.B.; Kapp, D.S.; Farber, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Two treatment policies for the therapy of patients with Stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease are compared. From 1969-1976, 49 newly diagnosed and pathologically staged IIIA patients received total nodal irradiation (TNI) alone (no liver irradiation). Although actuarial survival was 80% at 5 years and 68% at 10 years, actuarial freedom from relapse was only 38% at 5 years. Accordingly, a new treatment policy was instituted in 1976. Patients with either CS IIIA disease, multiple splenic nodules, IIIA with a large mediastinal mass or III 2 , received combined modality therapy (combination chemotherapy and irradiation). All others received TNI. Thirty-six patients have been treated under the new program. The actuarial survival is 90% at 5 years and the relapse-free survival is 87%, suggesting the superiority of this approach. Complications from the treatments are discussed

  15. [Outpatient treatment of selective mutism: long-standing selective mutism in a 17-year-old male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdener-Pinnekamp, Katharina; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The present case report describes the successful treatment of a 17 year old male adolescent suffering for 10 years from selective mutism. Following a summary review of recent publications on therapy approaches, the report describes the treatment concept in the present case, including detailed assessment of co-morbid disorders, motivation for change, behaviour therapy with supporting drug intervention, and intensive co-operation with parents and other caretakers.

  16. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both 137 Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report

  17. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4 · Na 2 CO 3 ). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form

  18. Selective electrothermolysis of the sebaceous glands: treatment of facial seborrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Tamada, Shinji

    2007-02-01

    There are few publications on facial seborrhea treatment. A focused therapy is needed. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of electrothermolysis of the sebaceous glands. In the preliminary studies, histologic changes in the cheek skin by electrothermolysis were examined by light microscopy. In the clinical studies, 15 adult women subjects with facial seborrhea were treated four times by the same procedure. A 1.50-mm-long needle with a 0.45-mm base insulation was inserted into pores in the forehead and cheeks, and a high-frequency electrical current was applied for 0.25 to 0.50 seconds with an output of 40 W. Each treatment took 60 to 90 minutes. The subjects returned for 6-months follow-up after their fourth treatment. Histology 1 and 6 months later showed fewer sebaceous glands and the development of fibrosis. All 12 subjects who completed the 6-month follow-up gave a subjective assessment of continuous reduction of facial seborrhea. On a scale of 0.0 to 3.0, the mean improvement score was 1.67+/-0.75. The mean reduction rate of skin surface lipids was 31.5% by sebumeter (pfacial seborrhea treatment.

  19. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-09-03

    Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants).Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with

  20. Effect and Removal Mechanisms of 6 Different Washing Agents for Building Wastes Containing Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xing-run

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the building wastes contaminated by chromium in Haibei Chemical Plan in China as objects, we studied the contents of total Cr and Cr (VI of different sizes, analyzed the effect of 6 different washing agents, discussed the removal mechanisms of 6 different washing agents for Cr in various forms, and finally selected applicable washing agent. As per the results, particle size had little impact on the contents of total Cr and Cr (VI; after one washing with water, the removal rate of total Cr and Cr (VI was 75% and 78%, respectively, and after the second washing with 6 agents, the removal rate of citric acid was the highest, above 90% for total Cr and above 99% for hexavalent chromium; the pH of building wastes were reduced by citric acid, and under acid condition, hexavalent chromium was reduced to trivalent chromium spontaneously by organic acid, which led to better removal rate of acid soluble Cr and reducible Cr; due to the complexing action, citric acid had best removal rate for oxidizable trivalent chromium. In conclusion, citric acid is the most applicable second washing agent for building wastes.

  1. Combined soil washing and CDEO for the removal of atrazine from soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira dos Santos, Elisama [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova CEP 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Sáez, Cristina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha, Enrique Costa Building, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova CEP 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel Andres [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha, Enrique Costa Building, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Sequential soil washing-waste electrolysis is an efficient treatment for removing atrazine. • Ratio surfactant/soil influences on the size of micelles and organic load. • Electrolysis with diamond anodes oxidizes pollutants from soils washing wastes. • Electrolysis of soil washing fluids promotes the reduction in size of micelles. • Sulphate ions release from the oxidation of SDS participates in the oxidation process. - Abstract: In this work, it is studied the removal of atrazine from spiked soils by soil washing using surfactant fluids, followed by the treatment of the resulting washing waste by electrolysis with boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. Results confirm that combination of both technologies is efficient for the removal and total mineralization of atrazine. Ratio surfactant/soil is a key parameter for the removal of atrazine from soil and influences significantly in the characteristic of the wastewater produced, affecting not only to the total organic load but also to the mean size of micelles. The higher the ratio surfactant soil, the lower is the size of the particles. Electrolyses of this type of waste attain the complete mineralization. TOC and COD are removed from the start of the treatment but the key of the treatment is the reduction in size of the micelles, which lead to a higher negative charge in the surface and to the faster depletion of the surfactant as compared with the pesticide.

  2. Hydraulic washing removal efficiencies of Orimulsion from rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Ward, S.; Sergy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to determine the efficiency of hydraulic washing under different water temperatures and pressures to remove bitumen from rocky shorelines. The results of the study make it possible to assess the physical effectiveness of the method and to determine the range of effective operational parameters. The coating protocol was refined to create uniform coating of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen of rock surfaces. The use of a chemical agent for enhancing removal efficiency was also assessed. Orimulsion could reach shorelines as low concentration dispersions of bitumen particles suspended in a water column, or as a high concentration mixture of bitumen, water and air. Granite tiles were coated with uniform coatings of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen. They were then washed under different pressures, temperatures and other treatments. Temperatures of more than 40 degrees C and pressures of more than 76 kPa were needed to effectively remove the bitumen coatings. Weathering significantly increased coating tenacity for dispersed coatings, but did not affect coalesced coating tenacity. Immediate washing was found to be very effective for removing dispersed coating, but not for coalesced coating. Coating tenacity was also affected by submergence times. Pre-treatment of the coating with a dispersion called Corexit significantly improved the removal efficiencies of dispersed coatings, but not coalesced coatings. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment in general internal medicine. Curriculum selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, E R; Vázquez, E N; Husni, C

    1994-01-01

    In our country general internists are the providers of adult medical care in urban areas. In the past twenty years, with the increasing subspecialization within internal medicine and the development of advances in technology, the role of the general internist seems to be endangered. Recently much attention has been focused on this area and Divisions and Programs of General Internal Medicine have been established in most medical schools in the USA. The University of Buenos Aires instituted a Program of General Internal Medicine in its major teaching hospital in 1987. One of its purposes was to offer an educational experience to residents in the field of internal medicine primary care. This paper summarizes how this program was carried out and the subjects proposed in the area of Diagnosis and Treatment. The Program of General Internal Medicine is performed in the Outpatient Division and it is staffed by 3 faculty members and 4 fellows. Residents in Internal Medicine have a three month, full-time block rotation in the Program. A young, city dwelling, lower middle class population participates in the Program, with almost 10000 visits a year. The Program offers an experience that includes supervised patient care, an average of 100 office visits a month, and seminars and/or workshops covering topics of "Diagnosis and Treatment", "Case Presentations", "Clinical Epidemiology", "Prevention", and "Doctor-Patient Interview". In the area of Diagnosis and Treatment, the criteria used were: 1-frequency of diagnosis as determined by previous investigations, 2-relevant clinical conditions absent from the frequency list as determined by a consensus process by faculty members.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Sifat E; Dey, Nepal C

    2013-01-30

    Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC's water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme areas over time. This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006), midline (2009) and end-line (2011) surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i) 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii) 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey) for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  5. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbi Sifat E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC’s water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH programme areas over time. Methods This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006, midline (2009 and end-line (2011 surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. Results A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Conclusion Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  6. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely ... East African Medical Journal ... There was a high uptake of households with treated drinking water (92%), availability of hand washing facilities in ...

  7. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Health Journal ... Rates of hand washing are low world wide even amongst health care workers who are should know about its importance. The aim of ... The greatest motivation for hand washing was fear of contracting disease, whilst ...

  8. Targeting cancer cells using 3-bromopyruvate for selective cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam H Baghdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment deserves more research efforts despite intensive conventional treatment modalities for many types of malignancies. Metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy receive a lot of global research efforts. The current advances in cancer biology may improve targeting the critical metabolic differences that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Cancer cells are highly glycolytic for energy production, exhibit the Warburg effect, establish aggressive acidic microenvironment, maintain cancer stem cells, exhibit resistance to chemotherapy, have low antioxidant systems but different ΔΨm (delta psi, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, express P-glycoprotein for multidrug resistance, upregulate glucose transporters and monocarboxylate transporters and are under high steady-state reactive oxygen species conditions. Normal cells differ in all these aspects. Lactate produced through the Warburg effect helps cancer metastasis. Targeting glycolysis reactions for energy production in cancer cells seems promising in decreasing the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. 3-bromopyruvate makes use of cancer biology in treating cancer cells, cancer stem cells and preventing metastasis in human cancer as discussed in this review. Updated advances are analyzed here, which include research analysis of background, experience, readings in the field of cancer biology, oncology and biochemistry.

  9. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  10. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  11. Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both the quality of the experimental washing protocol and adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. Results We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of the number of washing cycles. For calibration and analysis of the intensity data we make use of the 'hook' method which allows intensity contributions due to non-specific and specific hybridization of perfect match (PM and mismatch (MM probes to be disentangled in a sequence specific manner. On average, washing according to the standard protocol removes about 90% of the non-specific background and about 30-50% and less than 10% of the specific targets from the MM and PM, respectively. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. It depends on the intensity contribution due to specific and non-specific hybridization per probe which can be estimated for each probe using existing methods. The washing function allows probe intensities to be calibrated for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures, especially in the limit of small and large values. Conclusions Washing is among the factors which potentially distort expression measures. The proposed first-order correction method allows direct implementation in existing calibration algorithms for microarray data. We provide an experimental

  12. The sequential use of washing and an electrochemical reduction process for the remediation of lead-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aydeniz; Köleli, Nurcan

    2013-01-01

    A two-step method for the remediation of three different types of lead (Pb)-contaminated soil was evaluated. The first step included soil washing with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to remove Pb from soils. The washing experiments were performed with 0.05 M Na2EDTA at 1:10 soil to liquid ratio. Following the washing, Pb removal efficiency from soils ranged within 50-70%. After the soil washing process, Pb2+ ions in the washing solution were reduced electrochemically in a fixed-bed reactor. Lead removal efficiency with the electrochemical reduction at -2.0 V potential ranged within 57-76%. The overall results indicate that this two-step method is an environmentally-friendly and effective technology to remediate Pb-contaminated soils, as well as Pb-contaminated wastewater treatment due to the transformation of toxic Pb2+ ions into a non-hazardous metallic form (Pb(0)).

  13. Selecting the Best Frontline Treatment in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Musa; Abaza, Yasmin; Jabbour, Elias

    2017-01-01

    With the discovery of Philadelphia chromosome, understanding of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) pathobiology has tremendously increased. Development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting the BCR/ABL1 oncoprotein has changed the landscape of the disease. Today, the expected survival of CML patients, if properly managed, is likely to be similar to the general population. Imatinib is the first approved TKI in CML treatment, and for several years, it was the only option in the frontline setting. Four years ago, second generation TKIs (nilotinib and dasatinib) were approved as alternative frontline options. Now, clinicians are faced the challenge of making decision for which TKI to chose upfront. Second generation TKIs have been demonstrated to induce deeper and faster responses compared to imatinib, however, none of 3 TKIs have been shown to have a clear survival advantage, they all are reasonable options. In contrast, when considering therapy in individual patients, the case may be stronger for a specific TKI. Co-morbidities of the patient and side effect profile of the TKI of interest should be an important consideration in decision making. At present, the cost nilotinib or dasatinib is not remarkably different from imatinib. However, patent for imatinib is expected to expire soon, and it will be available as a generic. Clinicians, then, need to weigh the advantages some patients gain with nilotinib or dasatinib in the frontline setting against the difference in cost. Whatever TKI is chosen as frontline, intolerance, non-compliance or treatment failure should be recognized early as a prompt intervention increases the chance of achieving best possible response. PMID:25921387

  14. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b...

  15. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  16. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  17. Threat-related selective attention predicts treatment success in childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S; Tulen, Joke H M; Kallen, Victor L; Dieleman, Gwen C; Treffers, Philip D A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined whether threat-related selective attention was predictive of treatment success in children with anxiety disorders and whether age moderated this association. Specific components of selective attention were examined in treatment responders and nonresponders. Participants consisted of 131 children with anxiety disorders (aged 8-16 years), who received standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy. At pretreatment, a pictorial dot-probe task was administered to assess selective attention. Both at pretreatment and posttreatment, diagnostic status of the children was evaluated with a semistructured clinical interview (the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children). Selective attention for severely threatening pictures at pretreatment assessment was predictive of treatment success. Examination of the specific components of selective attention revealed that nonresponders showed difficulties to disengage their attention away from severe threat. Treatment responders showed a tendency not to engage their attention toward severe threat. Age was not associated with selective attention and treatment success. Threat-related selective attention is a significant predictor of treatment success in children with anxiety disorders. Clinically anxious children with difficulties disengaging their attention away from severe threat profit less from cognitive-behavioral therapy. For these children, additional training focused on learning to disengage attention away from anxiety-arousing stimuli may be beneficial.

  18. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine.

  19. Radiotracer study of wash load movement in a drum-type fabric washing machine using a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balt, A.P.; Brekel, L.D.M. van den; Vandecasteele, C.; Kolar, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the movement of the wash loads in a drum-type washing machine. For this purpose a sup(99m)Tc source was attached to one or two separate textile pieces and the subsequent source positions were determined by means of a gamma-camera. The wash load movement pattern appears to depend on the type of textile material and its amount, as well as on the volume of water present in the washing machine. (author)

  20. Selection of response criteria for clinical trials of sarcoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Scott M; Baker, Laurence H; Benjamin, Robert S; Canetta, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissues. A large number of new therapies are being evaluated in patients with sarcomas, and consensus criteria defining treatment responses are essential for comparison of results from studies completed by different research groups. The 1979 World Health Organization (WHO) handbook set forth operationally defined criteria for response evaluation in solid tumors that were updated in 2000 with the publication of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). There have been significant advances in tumor imaging, however, that are not reflected in the RECIST. For example, computed tomography (CT) slice thickness has been reduced from 10 mm to < or =2.5 mm, allowing for more reproducible and accurate measurement of smaller lesions. Combination of imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG-PET) and CT can provide investigators and clinicians with both anatomical and functional information regarding tumors, and there is now a large body of evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of PET/CT and other newer imaging methods for the detection and staging of tumors as well as early determination of responses to therapy. The application of newer imaging methods has the potential to decrease both the sample sizes required for, and duration of, clinical trials by providing an early indication of therapeutic response that is well correlated with clinical outcomes, such as time to tumor progression or overall survival. The results summarized in this review support the conclusion that the RECIST and the WHO criteria for evaluation of response in solid tumors need to be modernized. In addition, there is a current need for prospective trials to compare new response criteria with established endpoints and to validate imaging-based response rates as surrogate endpoints for clinical trials of new agents for sarcoma and other solid

  1. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Heintzelman, J.; Squires, L.; Meservey, R.

    2009-01-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in about 100,000 gallons of wash water. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to evaluate alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. A brainstorming session was held to identify possible alternative treatment methods that would meet the primary functions and criteria of neutralizing the hazards, maximizing byproduct removal and minimizing waste generation. An initial list of some 20 probable alternatives was evaluated and refined down

  2. How do intake clinicians use patient characteristics to select treatment for patients with personality disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Visbach, Geny; Ziegler, Uli; Gerritsen, Ad; Van Rossum, Bert; Rijnierse, Piet; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2008-11-01

    Treatment selection in clinical practice is a poorly understood, often largely implicit decision process, perhaps especially for patients with personality disorders. This study, therefore, investigated how intake clinicians use information about patient characteristics to select psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with personality disorder. A structured interview with a forced-choice format was administered to 27 experienced intake clinicians working in five specialist mental health care institutes in the Netherlands. Substantial consensus was evident among intake clinicians. The results revealed that none of the presented patient characteristics were deemed relevant for the selection of the suitable treatment setting. The appropriate duration and intensity are selected using severity or personal strength variables. The theoretical orientation is selected using personal strength variables.

  3. [Professor WANG Fuchun's experience in the acupoint selection of clinical treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hailin; Liu, Chengyu; Ha, Lijuan; Li, Tie

    2017-11-12

    Professor WANG Fuchun 's experience in the acupoint selection of clinical treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion was summarized. The main acupoints are selected by focusing on the chief symptoms of disease, the supplementary points are selected by differentiating the disorders. The acupoints are modified in terms of the changes of sickness. The effective acupoints are selected flexibly in accordance with the specific effects of points. The summary on the acupoint selection reflects professor WANG Fuchun 's academic thoughts and clinical experience and effectively instructs the clinical practice of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  4. Holmium laser use in the treatment of selected dry eye syndrome complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecik, Dariusz; Kecik, Tadeusz; Kasprzak, Jan; Kecik, Mariusz

    1996-03-01

    The authors present initial results of treatment selected complications of dry eye syndrome with holmium laser. The lacrimal puncta obliteration and coagulation of the corneal ulcer surface were done.

  5. Use of pulsed neutron logging to evaluate perforation washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of pulsed neutron logging techniques before and after perforation washing operations are performed to evaluate the degree of success of the perforation washing operations. Well logging operations of a type designed to respond to the difference between a formation immediately behind the well sheath and voids in the formation are performed both before and after the perforation washing operation. differences between the two resulting logs are then indicative of voids created by perforation washing. In a preferred embodiment, pulsed neutron logging is used as the logging technique, while a weighted brine having a high absorption cross section to pulsed neutrons is used as the perforation washing fluid

  6. The impact of aqueous washing on the ability of βFeOOH to corrode iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, D E; Emmerson, N J

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the corrosion of historical and archaeological ferrous metal objects presents a significant challenge to conservators. Chloride is a major corrosion accelerator in coastal areas for historic ferrous metal structures and for the many chloride-containing archaeological objects within museums. Corrosion reactions involve the formation of akaganéite (βFeOOH) which incorporates chloride within its crystal structure and adsorbs it onto its surface. The mobility of the surface-adsorbed chloride in aqueous systems and atmospheric moisture means βFeOOH can itself cause iron to corrode. The extraction of chloride from βFeOOH by aqueous Soxhlet hot wash and aqueous room temperature washing is measured. The impact of this washing on the ability of βFeOOH to corrode iron is quantitatively investigated by determining the oxygen consumption of unwashed, Soxhlet-washed and room temperature-washed samples of βFeOOH mixed with iron powder and exposed to 80 % relative humidity. This acts as a proxy measurement for the corrosion rate of iron. The results are discussed relative to climatic factors for outdoor heritage objects and the treatment of archaeological iron in museums. Delivering better understanding of the properties of βFeOOH supports the development of evidence-based treatments and management procedures in heritage conservation.

  7. Threat-Related Selective Attention Predicts Treatment Success in Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Legerstee, Jeroen; Tulen, Joke; Kallen, Victor; Dieleman, Gwen; Treffers, Philip; Verhulst, Frank; Utens, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether threat-related selective attention was predictive of treatment success in children with anxiety disorders and whether age moderated this association. Specific components of selective attention were examined in treatment responders and nonresponders. METHOD: Participants consisted of 131 children with anxiety disorders (aged 8-16 years), who received standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy. At pretreatment, a pictorial dot-pr...

  8. Decision support systems in water and wastewater treatment process selection and design: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, M A; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    2009-01-01

    The continuously changing drivers of the water treatment industry, embodied by rigorous environmental and health regulations and the challenge of emerging contaminants, necessitates the development of decision support systems for the selection of appropriate treatment trains. This paper explores a systematic approach to developing decision support systems, which includes the analysis of the treatment problem(s), knowledge acquisition and representation, and the identification and evaluation of criteria controlling the selection of optimal treatment systems. The objective of this article is to review approaches and methods used in decision support systems developed to aid in the selection, sequencing of unit processes and design of drinking water, domestic wastewater, and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Not surprisingly, technical considerations were found to dominate the logic of the developed systems. Most of the existing decision-support tools employ heuristic knowledge. It has been determined that there is a need to develop integrated decision support systems that are generic, usable and consider a system analysis approach.

  9. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  10. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fresno, Ana Herrero; Zachariasen, Camilla; Norholm, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered...

  11. Membrane processes for the reuse of car washing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Uçar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates alternative treatments of car wash effluents. The car wash wastewater was treated by settling, filtration, and membrane filtration processes. During settling, total solid concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 hours and then remained constant. Chemical oxygen demand (COD and conductivity were decreased by 10% and 4%, respectively. After settling, wastewater was filtered throughout a 100 μm filter. It was found that filtration had a negligible effect on COD removal. Finally, wastewater was filtered by four ultrafiltration membranes of varying molecular weight cutoff (MWCO (1, 5, 10 and 50 kDa and one nanofiltration membrane (NF270, MWCO = 200–400 Da. The permeate COD concentrations varied between 64.5 ± 3.2 and 85.5 ± 4.3 mg L−1 depending on UF pore size. When the NF270 nanofiltration membrane was used, the permeate COD concentration was 8.1 ± 0.4 mg L−1 corresponding to 97% removal. FeCl3 precipitation and activated carbon adsorption techniques were also applied to the retentate and 60–76% COD removals were obtained for activated carbon adsorption and FeCl3 precipitation, respectively.

  12. Social determinants of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents in a rural Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobe, Madhumita; Mandal, Ram Narayan; Jha, Ayan

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected villages to assess prevalence of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents, and describe the social determinants. The prevalence of adolescent GHP was 32.1% (95% CI = 27.1, 37.1). Logistic regression established 5 significant positive predictors-maternal GHP, presence of sanitary latrine, availability of soap at hand-washing locations, in-house water supply, and higher per capita income. Our research provides a scope for better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of GHP in a rural Indian setting, and may find implications in the Total Sanitation Campaign launched by Government of India.

  13. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  14. Treatment of Selective Mutism: Applications in the Clinic and School through Conjoint Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela D.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychosocial approach to the treatment of Selective Mutism (SM). Four children with SM along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. A comprehensive assessment was completed; manualized treatment was implemented through a conjoint behavioral consultation approach,…

  15. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  16. Treatment Seeking for Alcohol Use Disorders : Treatment Gap or Adequate Self-Selection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; Ten Have, Margreet; Van Den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; De Graaf, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examines whether it is harmful that subjects with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the general population rarely seek treatment. Methods: Baseline and 3-year follow-up data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 were used. Treatment utilization

  17. Treatment Seeking for Alcohol Use Disorders: Treatment Gap or Adequate Self-Selection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether it is harmful that subjects with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the general population rarely seek treatment. Baseline and 3-year follow-up data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 were used. Treatment utilization covered a 4-year period. The

  18. Treatment of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Predictors and Moderators of Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Spirito, Anthony; Vitiello, Benedetto; Iyengar, Satish; Shamseddeen, Wael; Ritz, Louise; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; Mayes, Taryn; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Suddath, Robert; Leonard, Henrietta; Porta, Giovanna; Keller, Martin; Brent, David

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents who did not improve with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) were provided an alternative SSRI plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The superiority of the CBT/combined treatment as compared to medication alone is more evident in youths who had more comorbid disorders, no abuse history, and lower hopelessness.

  19. Levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 in the sera and peritoneal washing of patients undergoing surgical treatment for gastric carcinoma Níveis do antígeno carcinoembriônico e do CA 19-9 no soro e no lavado peritonial em doentes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico do carcinoma gástrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Crepaldi-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early peritoneal recurrence of gastric carcinoma following curative resection remains a great challenge in the treatment and prevention of this disease. AIM: To analyze the relationship between levels of tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and CA 19-9 in the sera and peritoneal washing, and anatomopathological aspects of the gastric carcinoma. METHODS: Of the 46 patients in the study, 29 (63.0% were males and 17 (37.0% females. Mean age was 63.6 ± 11.7 years (31 to 91 years. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the upper limb vein from both patient groups after anesthetic induction, in order to determine serum levels of CEA and CA 19-9. After the end of the procedure, 50 mL of physiologic solution was introduced into the bottom of the Douglas sack and a portion aspirated to determine CEA and CA 19-9 levels in the peritoneal washing. Levels of CEA and CA 19-9 in the sera and peritoneal washing were compared to the following variables: lesion diameter ≤4 cm or >4 cm, lymph node involvement, angiolymphatic invasion, depth of invasion into gastric wall, and initial or late stage. RESULTS: Sera CEA levels were significantly higher in patients with lesions >5 cm. CEA levels in the sera and peritoneal washing were significantly greater in patients with signet ring cell gastric carcinoma. In addition, levels of CEA in peripheral blood and peritoneal washing showed significant association with the degree of carcinoma penetration into the gastric wall, while sera CEA was significantly higher in patients at more advanced stages. There was no significant difference between sera and peritoneal CEA values regarding grade of differentiation. Patients with gastric lesions measuring > 5cm and more differentiated lesions had significantly higher sera CA 19-9 values. In patients with lymph nodes invasion by gastric carcinoma, CA 19-9 levels in peritoneal washing were significantly higher than in peripheral blood. Levels of CA

  20. Enhanced salmonella reduction on tomatoes washed in chlorinated water with wash aid T-128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used by the fresh and fresh-cut produce industries to reduce microbial populations and to prevent potential pathogen cross contamination during produce washing. However, the organic materials released from produce quickly react with chlorine and degrade its efficacy for pathogen i...

  1. Electrodialytic versus acid extraction of heavy metals from soil washing residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille E.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Allard, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of electrodialytic remediation (EDR) for treatment of suspended sludge after soil washing is in focus in the present paper. Five industrially contaminated soils were treated in laboratory scale remediation experiments, and the toxic elements of the investigation were: As, Cd, Cu, ...

  2. "Wash leather scrotum" (scrotal dermatitis): a treatable cause of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, W F; Munro, D D

    1990-02-01

    A group of 16 male patients with infertility had dermatitis of the scrotum and groins giving lichenified oedematous skin; the resulting thickening and loss of rugosity produced a characteristic appearance that we have termed wash leather scrotum. Treatment of the dermatosis resulted in an improvement in sperm count and motility in most patients, and 5 couples produced one or more pregnancies.

  3. Alternatives for OSAHS treatment: selection of patients for upper airway surgery and oral appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boudewyns

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is considered to represent the standard treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS, poor treatment compliance and/or refusal is an issue in 20–30% of these patients. As an alternative to life-long CPAP treatment, conservative procedures exist with dental appliances for mandibular advancement, as well as curative surgical techniques. Surgical treatment of OSAHS can be divided into the following two main groups: 1 upper airway surgery by soft tissue resection (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, etc., and 2 skeletal procedures, such as maxillo-mandibular advancement. Proper selection of patients for the different treatment modalities is the key for full treatment success. Patient-related factors, such as the site of upper airway collapse, craniofacial characteristics, dental health, obesity, age, profession and positional dependence, as well as treatment-related factors, should be evaluated before a final proposal for these treatment alternatives is formulated.

  4. Physical properties of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) surimi: effect of washing cycle at different salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, N; Sarbon, N M; Amin, A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 2-5 wash cycles and the addition of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) (0 %, 0.05 Surimi% and 0.1 % w/w)-with or without the addition of 0.4 % calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the physical properties such as texture, colour, expressible moisture and microstructure of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) surimi gel. The highest breaking force (484.85 g) was obtained with the addition 0.1 % TSPP alone on the fifth wash. However, a combination of 0.1 and 0.4 % CaCl2 in surimi gels at wash cycle 5 resulted in the highest degree of whiteness (86.8 %), as well as total expressible moisture (2.785 %) and deformation (17.11 mm). The highest surimi gel strength (6,923 g.mm) was obtained after three wash cycles with the addition of 0.1 % TSPP +0.4 % CaCl2. The physical properties of Cobia fish surimi gels were affected by the number of wash cycles and treatments with TSPP and CaCl2.

  5. Metal (Cu, Cd and Zn) removal and stabilization during multiple soil washing by saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of multiple saponin washing on copper, cadmium and zinc removal and stability in three types of soils (loamy sand, loam, silty clay) was investigated. Distribution of metals and their mobility measured as the ratio of exchangeable form to the sum of all fractions in soils was differential. After single washing the highest efficiency of metal removal was obtained in loamy sand (82-90%) and loam (67-88%), whereas the lowest in silty clay (39-62%). In loamy sand and loam metals had higher mobility factors (44-61% Cu, 60-76% Cd, and 68-84% Zn) compared to silty clay (9% Cu, 28% Cd and 36% Zn). Triplicate washing led to increase both efficiency of metal removal and percentage content of their stable forms. In consequence, fractional patterns for metals before and after treatment changed visibly as a result of their redistribution. Based on the redistribution index, the most stable metal (mainly in residual and organic fractions) after triplicate washing was Cu in loamy sand and loam. For silty clay contaminated with Cd, effective metal removal and its stabilization required a higher number of washings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-01-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg -1 soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg -1 Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8±1.3 mg kg -1 Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg -1 exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53±0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates

  7. [Comparison of reactive oxygen species production in neat semen and washed spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, M; Oborná, I; Fingerová, H; Novotný, J; Brezinová, J; Radová, L; Vyslouzilová, J; Horáková, J; Grohmannová, J

    2009-12-01

    To determine Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production in neat semen and spermatozoa suspension using chemiluminescence and to examine correlation between both methods. Prospective laboratory study. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. The study included fertile volunteers (FV, n = 17), men from infertile couples (NM, n = 19) and men with idiopathic infertility (NMI, n = 15). ROS levels were determined by the same method in neat and washed semen samples. The ROS production in neat semen was lower than that in spermatozoa suspension. There was no significant diference in ROS production between volunteers and males from infertile couples. There was a significant correlation between log ROS in neat semen and in spermatozoa suspension in studied groups (FV r = 0.85, p = 1.5 x 10(-5); NM r = 0.76, p neat semen is simpler, faster and better reflecting the actual level of oxidative stress than the same measurement in spermatozoa suspension. The implementation of this method can complement the algorithm of diagnostics and treatment of male infertility and be helpful in selection of patients for antioxidant or antibiotic treatment.

  8. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig...... by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracyclineresistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated...

  10. Removal of oxyfluorfen from ex-situ soil washing fluids using electrolysis with diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Sáez, Cristina; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel Andres

    2016-04-15

    In this research, firstly, the treatment of soil spiked with oxyfluorfen was studied using a surfactant-aided soil-washing (SASW) process. After that, the electrochemical treatment of the washing liquid using boron doped diamond (BDD) anodes was performed. Results clearly demonstrate that SASW is a very efficient approach in the treatment of soil, removing the pesticide completely by using dosages below 5 g of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) per Kg of soil. After that, complete mineralization of organic matter (oxyflourfen, SDS and by-products) was attained (100% of total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removals) when the washing liquids were electrolyzed using BDD anodes, but the removal rate depends on the size of the particles in solution. Electrolysis of soil washing fluids occurs via the reduction in size of micelles until their complete depletion. Lower concentrations of intermediates are produced (sulfate, chlorine, 4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenol and ortho-nitrophenol) during BDD-electrolyzes. Finally, it is important to indicate that, sulfate (coming from SDS) and chlorine (coming from oxyfluorfen) ions play an important role during the electrochemical organic matter removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of washing on the plasma membrane and on stress reactions of cultured rose cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Y.C.; Nguyen, T.; Murphy, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured cells of Rosa damascena have been used as a model for studies of responses of plant cells to various stresses, including UV radiation, protein-synthesis inhibitors, and elicitors from pathogens. Many of the responses involve reactions at the plasma membrane: efflux of K + , changes in the acid balance between cytoplasm and external medium, synthesis of H 2 O 2 , and inhibition of ferricyanide reduction. In previous studies, the cells have typically been washed with a solution of low ionic strength. We now show that this washing procedure results in changes in the protein composition of the plasma membrane, in the labeling of the proteins in the plasma membrane, and in the specific activity of ATPase in purified plasma membrane vesicles. Also, compared to the unwashed cells, the washed cells show less net K + efflux after UV-C and Phytophthora elicitor treatments; more synthesis of H 2 O 2 after UV-C and a pattern of accumulation of H 2 O 2 after elicitor treatment that shows a delayed but higher peak; and more inhibition of ferricyanide reduction after UV-C, but not after elicitor treatment. The results suggest that washing has differential effects on the mechanisms by which cultured plant cells perceive or respond to two stresses, UV-C and elicitor

  12. Innovative Technology for Preparing Washing Liquid During Well Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydenko A.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Technology of washings liquid preparation is worked out. Prospects of the hydrodynamic supercavitation use for preparation of washing liquids during well drilling are substantiated. Theoretical research make it possible to set parameters and work out the construction of cavitational dispergator. The results of theoretical research found their confirmation during practical examinations and became the basis for creation of the technique of washing liquid preparation and construction of cavitational dispergator tested in production conditions.

  13. Group therapy for selective mutism - a parents' and children's treatment group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Louise; Mc Nicholas, Fiona; Barry, Edwina; Begley, Maire; Ahern, Sinead

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of group therapy for children with selective mutism and their parents. Five children (mean age 6.1 years) with a diagnosis of selective mutism were administered group therapy over an 8-week period. Parents simultaneously attended a second group, aimed at providing education and advice on managing selective mutism in everyday situations, and in the school environment. At post-treatment, all children increased their level of confident speaking in school, clinic and community settings. Parents indicated a reduction in their own anxiety levels, from pre- to post-treatment on self-rating scales. Findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of group therapy for children with selective mutism and their parents.

  14. [Evaluation and selection of VOCs treatment technologies in packaging and printing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Chun-Lei; Nie, Lei; Hao, Zheng-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in urban air pollution. Activities of industries including the packaging and printing industries are regarded as the major sources. How to select the suitable treating techniques is the major problem for emission control. In this article, based on the VOCs emission characteristics of the packaging and printing industry and the existing treatment technologies, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, an evaluation system for VOCs selection was established and all the technologies used for treatment were assessed. It showed that the priority selection was in the following order: Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption > Granular Carbon Adsorption-Desorption > Thermal Combustion > Regenerative Combustion > Catalytic combustion > Rotary adsorption-concentration and combustion > Granular Carbon adsorption-concentration and combustion. Carbon Fiber Adsorption-Desorption was selected as the best available technology due to its highest weight among those technologies.

  15. [Preservative-free glaucoma treatment : Selection of the correct treatment in 1 min].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennigsdorf, S; Eschstruth, P

    2016-05-01

    The presence of preservatives in topical glaucoma treatments may impact ocular surface function and structure. For treatment to be effective, side effects need to be minimized, in order to promote compliance and allow continuation of therapy. Therefore, in daily clinical practice, it needs to be decided on an individual basis whether a preservative-free treatment is required. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire which helps to quickly and easily identify patients who require preservative-free treatment. A questionnaire was prepared to collect relevant clinical findings needed to make a therapeutic decision (preservative-free required? Yes/No). Moreover, a rating scheme was developed to enable efficient final assessment of the collected data. To check their practicability in daily clinical practice, both instruments were tested in 11 ophthalmological centers in Germany. The questionnaire and rating scheme were easy to use, integrated efficiently into everyday routine, and performed in about 1 min. Data of 1150 glaucoma patients were collected and preservative-free eyedrops recommended for 586 (51 %). Parameters most frequently associated with such a recommendation were a reduced tear film break-up time of preservative-free glaucoma threatment should be recommended. Individualized therapy decisions can thus be made, allowing goal-oriented use of preservative-free antiglaucomatosa. This might help to promote compliance and lead to reduced progression of glaucoma.

  16. A Comparison Study of the Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Waters by Chemical Oxidation Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    F. Javier Benitez; Juan Luis Acero; Francisco J. Real; Gloria Roldan; Francisco Casas

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in some water matrices was studied by using several chemical treatments. The pharmaceuticals selected were the beta-blocker metoprolol, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory naproxen, the antibiotic amoxicillin, and the analgesic phenacetin; and their degradations were conducted by using UV radiation alone, ozone, Fenton-s reagent, Fenton-like system, photo-Fenton system, and combinations of UV radiation and ozone with H2O2, TiO2, ...

  17. Eye wash water flow direction study: an evaluation of the effectiveness of eye wash devices with opposite directional water flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Jennifer S; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Barr, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    New designs of eye wash stations have been developed in which the direction of water flow from the fountain has been reversed, with two water streams originating nasally in both eyes and flowing toward the temporal side of each eye. No study has been done to determine the ideal direction of water flow coming from the eye wash in relation to the eye. Ophthalmic eye examinations were conducted before and after the use of two eye wash stations with opposite water flow directionality. Fluorescein was instilled in both eyes before using an eye wash to measure the effectiveness of the water flow. Subjects were surveyed upon their experiences using the eye washes. Ophthalmic examination found no significant difference in the efficacy of the eye washes with nasal-to-temporal water flow when compared to temporal-to-nasal water flow direction.

  18. Rapid washing of filter paper discs in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay with a constant flow washing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, D.M.; West, F.B.

    1982-01-01

    A machine has been developed for the rapid washing of the cellulose filter paper discs that are used in a number of radioimmunoassays. The machine is simple in design, easy to use, and is capable of washing 96 filter paper discs simultaneously. The efficiency of the machine is demonstrated by a RAST assay for measuring IgE antibodies to the venom. Time taken to wash the discs was reduced 3-fold without loss of sensitivity or reproducibility. (Auth.)

  19. Criteria for selecting children with special needs for dental treatment under general anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nova García, M. Joaquín de; Gallardo López, Nuria E.; Martín Sanjuán, Carmen; Mourelle Martínez, M. Rosa; Alonso García, Yolanda; Carracedo Cabaleiro, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study criteria for helping to select children with special needs for dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Materials and methods: Group of 30 children (aged under 18) examined on the Course at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) (Specialisation on holistic dental treatment of children with special needs) and subsequently referred to the Disabled Children’s Oral Health Unit (DCOHU) within Primary Health Care Area 2 of the Madrid Health Service (SERMAS) where dental ...

  20. Bacterial flora of processed broiler chicken skin after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur; Cason, John A

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the size of populations of different groups of bacteria composing the normal flora of processed broiler skin were examined after each of five consecutive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Portions of skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses were washed in distilled water (control) or in mixtures of 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA by using a stomacher laboratory blender to agitate the skin in the solutions. After each wash, skin was transferred to fresh solutions, and washing was repeated to provide samples washed one to five times in each solution. Bacteria in rinsates of the washed skin were enumerated on plate count (PC) agar, Staphylococcus (STA) agar, Levine eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) agar, and Perfringens (PER) agar with TSC supplement. Selected isolates recovered on each medium were identified. Overall, no significant differences were observed in numbers of bacteria recovered on PC, STA, or EMB agars from skin after repeated washing in water, but there were significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on LAB and PER agars. Repeated washing of skin in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA generally produced significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on all media. Furthermore, no bacteria were recovered on PER agar from skin washed five times in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA. Likewise, no bacteria were recovered on EMB or LAB agars from skin washed three or more times in 0.5% KOH-1% LA or on PER agar from skin washed four or five times in this solution. Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the skin isolates with the highest degree of resistance to the bactericidal activity of KOH-LA. Findings indicate that although bacteria may be continually shed from poultry skin after repeated washings, bactericidal surfactants can be used to remove and kill several types of bacteria found on the surface of the skin of processed broilers.

  1. Improvement of selective removal of heavy metals in cyanobacteria by NaOH treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Hiroyasu; Inthorn, Duangrat; Oda, Aiko; Nishimura, Jun; Kajiwara, Yumiko; Park, Myong-Oku; Hirata, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa

    2005-04-01

    In the freshwater cyanobacterium, Tolypothrix tenuis, treatment with 0.1 M NaOH increased its Cd-selective adsorption ability in the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). The selective adsorption was also achieved by other alkaline treatments. Energy-distributed spectroscopy analysis revealed that Cd(2+) was found mainly on the surface of non-treated cells, whereas it was distributed throughout the cell after NaOH treatment. The alkaline treatment was effective in increasing the selective adsorption ability of the cyanobacterium for other bivalent heavy metals such as Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Zn(2+). The treatment was also applicable to Anabaena variabilis and Microcystis aeruginosa, which are typical cyanobacteria causing algal blooms. The main binding site of Cd(2+) in NaOH-treated cells is assumed to be the carboxyl groups because the binding ability of the cells was diminished by the esterification of carboxyl groups. These results suggest that alkaline treatment of cyanobacteria is a useful technique for producing biosorbents having highly specific binding abilities for heavy metals.

  2. Decontamination of electronic waste-polluted soil by ultrasound-assisted soil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Yang, Baodan; Ma, Jing; Qu, Junfeng; Liu, Gangjun

    2016-10-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of a washing process using the combination of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and tea saponin (TS) for simultaneous desorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and heavy metals from an electronic waste (e-waste) site. Ultrasonically aided mixing of the field contaminated soil with a combination of MCD and TS solutions simultaneously mobilizes most of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the analyte metal (Pb, Cu, and Ni) burdens. It is found that 15 g/L MCD and 10 g/L TS is an efficient reagent combination reconciling extraction performance and reagent costs. Under these conditions, the removal efficiencies of HOCs and heavy metals are 93.5 and 91.2 %, respectively, after 2 cycles of 60-min ultrasound-assisted washing cycles. By contrast, 86.3 % of HOCs and 88.4 % of metals are removed from the soil in the absence of ultrasound after 3 cycles of 120-min washing. The ultrasound-assisted soil washing could generate high removal efficiency and decrease the operating time significantly. Finally, the feasibility of regenerating and reusing the spent washing solution in extracting pollutants from the soil is also demonstrated. By application of this integrated technology, it is possible to recycle the washing solution for a purpose to reduce the consumption of surfactant solutions. Collectively, it has provided an effective and economic treatment of e-waste-polluted soil.

  3. Scrubbing water treatment for simultaneous SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ removal from gases, with an integrated stage for reducing Fe-III to Fe-II in the washing liquid circuit by lowering the pH and circulation of SO/sub 2/. Waschwasseraufbereitung fuer die simultane SO/sub 2/- und NO/sub x/-Gasreinigung mit integrierter Stufe zur Reduktion von Eisen-III zu Eisen-II im Waschfluessigkeitskreislauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-08

    In the patent application P 3519681.5 a method for washing water treatment and recovery of valuable material in the simultaneous removal of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ from flue gas is described. In this method sulphuric acid and air are supplied in the oxidation chamber so that after filtration marketable gypsum is produced as a final product. Surprisingly, it was found out that with a sufficiently high reduction of the pH value to the strongly basic range by addition of sulphuric acid in the range of pH less than 3, iron-III is reduced to iron-II.

  4. Possibilities of soil washing for decontamination at Belgoprocess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Wouter [Belgoprocess, Dessel, Antwerp (Belgium); De Bruecker, Thomas; Lytek, Anna [DEC - DEME Environmental Contractor, Zwijndrecht, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Contaminated soils form a large part of the nuclear waste arising from decommissioning activities. The storage and disposal of these large volumes of waste is costly. For this reason techniques which can decontaminate this waste stream to free release levels are economically very interesting. A feasibility study of the possibilities of soil washing to decontaminate such soils was ordered by NIRAS/ONDRAF and performed at Belgoprocess in collaboration with DEC. Initial contamination level and particle size distributions of contaminated soils from three different sources were determined. The main isotopes detected with gamma spectrometry contained in the waste were {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 60}Co and {sup 232}Th. The particle size distribution revealed that more than half of the mass of the quartz sand that makes up the soil has a particle size between 125 and 212 μm. This fraction is less contaminated than the fractions containing smaller particles. However, separation of the fines fraction (< 125 μm) was not enough to achieve the free release limit. Soil attrition was tested as an extra decontamination step for the sand fraction. The removal efficiencies for the different radionuclides contained in the soil were measured. The process conditions were optimized to achieve maximum removal and a treatment method for the secondary waste coming from this process step was determined. The soil washing process was not only performed with water but also with nitric acid to assess the possibilities of a combination of a mechanical and a chemical decontamination process. Reduction efficiencies of 60-80% for the most relevant radionuclides were recorded. (authors)

  5. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana; Folkesson, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-06-15

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis -induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock

  6. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in

  7. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  8. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  9. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  10. SELECTIVE INTRA-ARTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY (IAC IN TREATMENT AT CHILDREN WITH THE INTRAOCULAR RETYNOBLASTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Pogrebnyakov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma is challenging. It requires a multidisciplinary personalized approach that includes focal treatments, chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. Today, the focus of therapy has shifted to eye preservation with the major aim to save the child’s life and to preserve the eyeball as a functioning organ of vision with minimal complications. One of the most promising therapy approaches is selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC, by which a cytostatic agent is given directly into the eye. This treatment modality has been shown to provide survival benefit and improvement of quality of life, reducing toxicity and minimizing side effects.

  11. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ramesh

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear.To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts.A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed.Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS and 35% using household water treatment (HWT. All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions. 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence.The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in

  12. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian

  13. Selective Mutism: A Team Approach to Assessment and Treatment in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzurick, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    The school nurse plays a pivotal role in the assessment and treatment of selective mutism (SM), a rare disorder found in elementary school children. Due to anxiety, children with SM do not speak in uncomfortable situations, primarily the school setting. Diagnosis of SM is often missed in the formative years because the child does speak at home.…

  14. Threat Related Selective Attention Predicts Treatment Success in Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Threat-related selective attention was found to predict the success of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders through administering a pictorial dot-probe task to 131 children with anxiety disorders prior to cognitive behavioral therapy. The diagnostic status of the subjects was evaluated with a semistructured clinical interview at both pre-…

  15. Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Parental Treatment of Children's Food Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiverling, Laura; Williams, Keith; Sturmey, Peter; Hart, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    We used behavioral skills training to teach parents of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity to conduct a home-based treatment package that consisted of taste exposure, escape extinction, and fading. Parent performance following training improved during both taste sessions and probe meals and was reflected in increases in…

  16. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  17. Hand Washing Practices and Compliance among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand washing is the simplest, most inexpensive and most effective method of reducing the incidence of hospital-acquired infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Several reports have shown a relationship between improved hand washing practices and reduced infection rates. We conducted a prospective, ...

  18. Evaluation of washing machine load potential for smart grid integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, E.A.M.; Kobus, C.B.A.; Huijkelom, M.; Frunt, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from a smart wash pilot, conducted with 24 employees of distribution system operator Enexis, who were equipped with an energy computer, smart washing machine, photovoltaic panels and smart meter. The pilot goal was to gain experience and knowledge about the

  19. Diffusion and Perfusion MR Imaging in Acute Stroke: Clinical Utility and Potential Limitations for Treatment Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, Mathew; Slater, Lee-Anne; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) offer unique insight into acute ischemic stroke pathophysiology. These techniques may offer the ability to apply pathophysiology to accurately individualize acute stroke reperfusion treatment, including ...... to be investigated in ongoing randomized controlled trials, and continued research into these techniques will help achieve the goal of tissue-based decision making and individualized acute stroke treatment....... extending the opportunity of reperfusion treatment to well beyond the current time-based treatment windows. This review examines the use of DWI and PWI in the major stroke trials, their current clinical utility, and potential limitations for reperfusion treatment selection. DWI and PWI continue...

  20. Effect of different oral oxytetracycline treatment regimes on selection of antimicrobial resistant coliforms in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Zachariasen, Camilla; Nørholm, Nanna; Holm, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-09-01

    A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions. Statistical modeling was applied to analyze trends in the proportion of TET-R coliforms. In the experimental study, no statistical difference in proportion of TET-R coliforms was observed between treatments at the end of the trial (day 18) and compared to day 0. In the field study, treatment had a significant effect on the proportion of TET-R bacteria two days after the end of treatment (2dAT) with the regimes "low dose-six days" and "medium dose-three days" yielding the highest and lowest proportions of TET-R strains, respectively. No indication of co-selection for ampicillin- and sulphonamide -R bacteria was observed for any treatment at 2dAT. By the end of the nursery period, the proportion of TET-R bacteria was not significantly different between treatments and compared to day 0. Our results suggest that similar resistance levels might be obtained by using different treatment regimes regardless of the combinations of oral dose-duration of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  2. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  3. Wash-off effects in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Steger, F.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of the activity distributed in urban areas in three Austrian cities after a radioactive fall-out, by run-off and wash-off effects from stabilised surfaces and the resulting dose reduction to the population were investigated four years after the Chernobyl fall-out to predict the long term external exposure of the population. The measurements were performed in cities with different fractions of dry and wet deposition after the Chernobyl accident in order to determine whether any differences in radionuclide removal with regard to wet and dry fall-out was observable. High resolution in situ gamma spectroscopy was employed to measure the gamma flux from 137 Cs and 134 Cs at points over stabilised surfaces, which was then compared with undisturbed grass surfaces. The average reduction of the place activity on stabilised surfaces amounted to a factor of 10±5 compared to the original deposition after the fall-out. Asphalt showed the highest reduction factor (11.4), concrete less (8.1), stone slabs and cobblestone only about 4.5 and gravel virtually no reduction (1.1). Only very little variation of this reduction with dry or wet deposition was observed. (author)

  4. Evaluation of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings leachates. Laboratory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of selected neutralizing agents for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions. Highly acidic tailings solutions (pH 3 ) reagent grade; Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ] reagent grade; Magnesium oxide (MgO) reagent grade; Sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) reagent grade; and Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reagent grade. Evaluation of the effectiveness for the treatment of uranium tailings solutions for the selected neutralizing agents under controlled laboratory conditions was based on three criteria. The criteria are: (1) treated effluent water quality, (2) neutralized sludge handling and hydraulic properties, and (3) reagent costs and acid neutralizing efficiency. On the basis of these limited laboratory results calcium hydroxide or its dehydrated form CaO (lime) appears to be the most effective option for treatment of uranium tailings solutions

  5. Xamoterol, a new selective beta-1-adrenoceptor partial agonist, in the treatment of postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Trap-Jensen, J

    1986-01-01

    Three patients severely disabled from postural hypotension were treated with xamoterol, a selective beta-1-adrenoceptor antagonist with a high degree of partial agonist activity. Oral treatment (200 mg b.i.d.) was chosen on the basis of the effects of acute intravenous administration of xamoterol...... and pindolol, a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with partial agonist activity. In these patients pindolol had a predominantly antagonist effect, whereas xamoterol had a predominantly agonist effect after intravenous administration. Oral treatment was carried out with placebo control in a single......, supine). During the placebo period (2 weeks) heart rate decreased to pretreatment levels and mean blood pressure was reduced by only 14 mmHg. The patients reported substantial improvement in their condition during active medication. Xamoterol seems to be a useful alternative in the treatment of postural...

  6. Effect of acid washing on pyrolysis of Cladophora socialis alga in microtubing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Hoang Vu; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Jinsoo; Choi, Jae Hyung; Woo, Hee Chul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of macroalgae Cladophora socialis was conducted in micro tubular reactor. • Acid washing affected the pyrolysis behavior of Cladophora socialis. • Pyrolysis of raw and acid washed C. socialis produced bio-oils with different compositions. • Pyrolysis reaction pathway was from C. socialis to liquid and then to gas (C_1–C_4). - Abstract: Cladophora socialis is a unique macroalga that is widely grown in the coastal regions of Vietnam. In this work, the pyrolysis characteristics of C. socialis were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis in a tubing reactor. Macroalgae have a high content of inorganic compounds. These compounds result in high char content during pyrolysis of the macroalgae, which degrades the quality of the product bio-oil. In order to study this effect, C. socialis was demineralized by acid washing to remove the inorganic compounds. The effect of acid washing on the pyrolysis product distribution and the selectivity of composition in pyrolysis oil was carefully investigated. The kinetic parameters and the primary reaction pathways were also determined based on experimental data using nonlinear least-squares regression assuming a first-order kinetics model.

  7. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  8. Influence of the washing program on the blood processing performance of a continuous autotransfusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chiyul; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ko, Sung Ho; Ahn, Wonsik; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-03-01

    The continuous autotransfusion system has been widely used in surgical operations. It is known that if oil is added to blood, and this mixture is then processed by an autotransfusion device, the added oil is removed and reinfusion of fat is prevented by the device. However, there is no detailed report on the influence of the particular washing program selected on the levels of blood components including blood fat after continuous autotransfusion using such a system. Fresh bovine blood samples were processed by a commercial continuous autotransfusion device using the "emergency," "quality," and "high-quality" programs, applied in random order. Complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry were analyzed to determine how the blood processing performance of the device changes with the washing program applied. There was no significant difference in the CBC results obtained with the three washing programs. Although all of the blood lipids in the processed blood were decreased compared to those in the blood before processing, the levels of triglyceride, phospholipid, and total cholesterol after processing via the emergency program were significantly higher than those present after processing via the quality and high-quality programs. Although the continuous autotransfusion device provided consistent hematocrit quality, the levels of some blood lipid components showed significant differences among the washing programs.

  9. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume VI, pavement treatment trigger tables/decision trees and treatment candidate selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of Task 5 was the development of pavement treatment trigger tables and the treatment candidate selection process. : The input to the trigger tables entails such factors as an overall condition indicator, smoothness, individual distress ...

  10. Treatment of selective mutism based on cognitive behavioural therapy, psychopharmacology and combination therapy - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Kasper Rud

    2018-02-15

    Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating childhood anxiety disorder characterized by a persistent lack of speech in certain social settings and is considered hard to treat. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments are the best described treatments in the literature. To test whether there is evidence on treatment based on CBT, medication or a combination of these. Systematic and critical review of the literature on CBT and/or pharmacological treatments of SM. Literature was sought on PubMed, Embase and Psycinfo in March 2017. Of the included studies, six examined CBT, seven pharmacologic treatment and two a combination of these. Using CBT 53/60 children improved symptomatically whilst respectively 55/67 and 6/7 improved using pharmacologic- and combination-treatment. Pharmacologic treatment and especially CBT showed promising results supported by some degree of evidence, which combination treatment lacks. Yet small numbers, few RCTs, heterogeneous study designs, lack of consistent measures, short treatment and follow-up periods, generally limits the evidence. This needs focus in future research.

  11. Modification of the Selectivity Properties of Tubular Ceramic Membranes after Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Dutournié

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the selectivity modification of ceramic membranes after a mild alkaline treatment. Filtration of pure salt-water solutions was carried out with commercial titania membranes before and after the treatment. After treatment, the rejection of NaF significantly decreased, while the rejection of NaCl and NaBr increased. Additionally, NaI and Na2SO4 remained close to zero. Pore size and electrical charge being almost unchanged, only significant modifications in the dielectric effects can explain this modification of selectivity. Therefore, the surface chemistry and the interaction (nature and magnitude with the solvent and with the species present in the solution appear to be modified by the alkaline treatment. This trend is also illustrated by discussing the electric and the dielectric properties that were numerically identified before and after treatment. The alkaline treatment significantly decreased the apparent dielectric constant of NaCl-water solution in the pore, highlighting the rejection of sodium chloride. Contrariwise, the modification of the surface chemistry increased the apparent dielectric constant of NaF-water solution by promoting fluoride transmission.

  12. Health-Care Waste Treatment Technology Selection Using the Interval 2-Tuple Induced TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Health-care waste (HCW management is a major challenge for municipalities, particularly in the cities of developing nations. Selecting the best treatment technology for HCW can be regarded as a complex multi-criteria decision making (MCDM issue involving a number of alternatives and multiple evaluation criteria. In addition, decision makers tend to express their personal assessments via multi-granularity linguistic term sets because of different backgrounds and knowledge, some of which may be imprecise, uncertain and incomplete. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to propose a new hybrid decision making approach combining interval 2-tuple induced distance operators with the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS for tackling HCW treatment technology selection problems with linguistic information. The proposed interval 2-tuple induced TOPSIS (ITI-TOPSIS can not only model the uncertainty and diversity of the assessment information given by decision makers, but also reflect the complex attitudinal characters of decision makers and provide much more complete information for the selection of the optimum disposal alternative. Finally, an empirical example in Shanghai, China is provided to illustrate the proposed decision making method, and results show that the ITI-TOPSIS proposed in this paper can solve the problem of HCW treatment technology selection effectively.

  13. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmann PK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Paige K Kuhlmann,1 Kenneth J DeLay,2 James Anaissie,2 Wayne JG Hellstrom,2 Faysal A Yafi3 1University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, 2Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Urology, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA, USA Abstract: The safety and efficacy of the use of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease has been confirmed over the past several years. However, identification of the ideal patient population for use of this treatment is not well established. Multiple studies have attempted to delineate various patient-specific factors that may predict response to treatment with CCH, with the intent of enhancing patient selection. To date, these include baseline curvature severity, duration of disease, disease phase at presentation, plaque calcification, baseline erectile function, plaque size, age, comorbid diabetes, previous penile trauma, responsiveness to first treatment cycle, baseline penile shortening or pain, prior treatment with intralesional injection, compliance with plaque modeling, and atypical curvature. In addition, other studies have sought to explore various aspects of treatment with CCH that may affect patient perspective of treatment. They have focused on patient-reported outcomes, female partner considerations, cost of treatment, and potential confounders of patient satisfaction. This review provides a summary and analysis of currently available literature on topics of patient selection and perspectives in regard to treatment of Peyronie’s disease with CCH. Keywords: Peyronie’s disease, collagenase Clostridium histolyticum, Peyronie’s disease questionnaire, curvature deformity, intralesional injection, erectile function

  14. Minimization of storage and disposal volumes by treatment of liquids by highly selective ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.; Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Novel highly selective inorganic ion exchangers provide new efficient methods for the treatment of nuclear waste liquids. These methods have several advantages compared to conventional technologies such as evaporation, direct solidification or treatment by organic ion exchange resins. Due to high selectivity, the radionuclides can be concentrated to a very small volume even from high-salt effluents. This means that the volume waste will be very small compared to other methods, which brings considerable savings in the cost of intermediate storage and final disposal. Process equipment are highly compact and require little supervision, which brings down the capital and operation costs. The new selective inorganic ion exchangers CsTreat, SrTreat and CoTreat (manufactured by Fortum Engineering Ltd., Finland) have the highest selectivities and processing capacities, exceeding those of zeolites by several orders of magnitude. The materials are now in use in a number of nuclear sites worldwide, including those in the USA, Europe and Japan. Installations include mobile and stationary systems. Considerable experience has been gained in the use of these new materials. Lessons learned, as well as advantages and economic benefits of these highly selective exchangers will be discussed in this paper. (authors)

  15. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Krysta, Krzysztof; Drzyzga, Karolina; Barańska, Justyna; Kucia, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Gender differences in schizophrenia have been recognized for a long time and it has been widely accepted that sex steroid hormones, especially estradiol, are strongly attributed to this fact. Two hypotheses regarding estradiol action in psychoses gained special research attention - the estrogen protection hypothesis and hypoestrogenism hypothesis. A growing number of studies have shown benefits in augmenting antipsychotic treatment with estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). This review is focused on the role of selective estrogen receptor modulators in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. In order to achieve this result PubMed was searched using the following terms: schizophrenia, raloxifene, humans. We reviewed only randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator was identified as useful to improve negative, positive, and general psychopathological symptoms, and also cognitive functions. All reviewed studies indicated improvement in at least one studied domain. Augmentation with raloxifene was found to be a beneficial treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia both in female and male patients, however potential side effects (a small increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism and endometrial cancer) should be carefully considered. SERMs could be an effective augmentation strategy in the treatment of both men women with schizophrenia, although further research efforts are needed to study potential long-term side effects.

  16. Flame treatment for the selective wetting and separation of PVC and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, R D; O'Connell, B

    2003-01-01

    Flame treatment has been used for many years to modify the surface of plastics to allow coatings to be added. The effect of the treatment is to produce hydrophilic species on the surface of the plastic making it water-wettable. The production of hydrophilic plastic surfaces is also required in the selective separation of plastics by froth flotation. For the process to be selective one plastic must be rendered hydrophilic while another remains hydrophobic. In this study the potential for separation of PVC and PET has been investigated. Flame treatment was shown to be very effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on both plastics, although the process was not selective under the conditions investigated. Raising the temperature of the plastics above their softening point produced a hydrophobic recovery. As the softening point of PVC was significantly lower than for PET it was possible to produce a significant difference in hydrophobicity, as judged using contact angle measurement. When immersed in water the contact angle of the PVC was found to be strongly dependent on the pH. Good separation efficiency of the two plastics was achieved by froth flotation from pH 4 to 9. One particular advantage of the technique is that no chemical reagents may be required in the flotation stage. The practicalities of designing a flake treatment system however have to be addressed before considering it to be a viable industrial process.

  17. Flame treatment for the selective wetting and separation of PVC and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, R.D.; O'Connell, B.

    2003-01-01

    Flame treatment has been used for many years to modify the surface of plastics to allow coatings to be added. The effect of the treatment is to produce hydrophilic species on the surface of the plastic making it water-wettable. The production of hydrophilic plastic surfaces is also required in the selective separation of plastics by froth flotation. For the process to be selective one plastic must be rendered hydrophilic while another remains hydrophobic. In this study the potential for separation of PVC and PET has been investigated. Flame treatment was shown to be very effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on both plastics, although the process was not selective under the conditions investigated. Raising the temperature of the plastics above their softening point produced a hydrophobic recovery. As the softening point of PVC was significantly lower than for PET it was possible to produce a significant difference in hydrophobicity, as judged using contact angle measurement. When immersed in water the contact angle of the PVC was found to be strongly dependent on the pH. Good separation efficiency of the two plastics was achieved by froth flotation from pH 4 to 9. One particular advantage of the technique is that no chemical reagents may be required in the flotation stage. The practicalities of designing a flake treatment system however have to be addressed before considering it to be a viable industrial process

  18. Studying oily sludge treatment by thermo chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guolin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays surfactants were used to wash oily sludge and reclaim oil. This paper presents the optimum conditions for washing oily sludge with surfactant solutions using the single factor experiment. The agents tested are AEO-9, Peregal O, TritonX-100, sodium metasilicate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS. In the experiments, four factors affecting residual oil rate are investigated which include liquid/solid mass rate, reaction temperature, reaction time and eluent mass fraction. Results obtained through experimental runs were compared and used to select a kind of agent, in order to get the best cleaning effect. The optimum parameters of these agents are different from others, and under the optimum conditions their treatment effects are better. And the washing effect of Na2SiO3·9H2O is best and its residual oil rate is only about 1.6%.

  19. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9 with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7 without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a fungus (Candida albicans were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound.

  20. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. -- Highlights: • The alternative and advancement in extraction agents to remove PAHs from soil using soil washing technology is summarised. • The soil regulations for PAH level in various countries are summarized for reference to researchers. • The concentration levels of PAHs in soil at present and the need for soil remediation is presented. -- The efficiency of the extraction agent plays a significant role in soil washing of PAH-contaminated soil

  1. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullinger, Heather L; Kennedy, Marla J; Schneider, William H; Miller, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  2. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Ullinger

    Full Text Available The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  3. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse....../ml was used in the rabbit tissue cage model. During the different treatment regimens, the differences in numbers of CFU between treated and control animals were calculated to measure the efficacies of the regimens. Selective media with erythromycin or different penicillin concentrations were used to quantify...

  4. Natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis: updated recommendations for patient selection and monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappos, Ludwig; Bates, David; Edan, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Natalizumab, a highly specific α4-integrin antagonist, is approved for treatment of patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). It is generally recommended for individuals who have not responded to a currently available first-line disease-modifying therapy or who have very......, based on additional long-term follow-up of clinical studies and post-marketing observations, including appropriate patient selection and management recommendations.......Natalizumab, a highly specific α4-integrin antagonist, is approved for treatment of patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). It is generally recommended for individuals who have not responded to a currently available first-line disease-modifying therapy or who have very...... active disease. The expected benefits of natalizumab treatment have to be weighed against risks, especially the rare but serious adverse event of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. In this Review, we revisit and update previous recommendations on natalizumab for treatment of patients with RRMS...

  5. Inactivation of Salmonella in tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21 d...

  6. A Study on the Removal of Cesium in Soil Contaminated with Radiation Using a Soil Washing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ukryang; Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Moon, Jaikwon

    2013-01-01

    The first principle is related with the washing process which is carried out to transfer the contaminated mass from the soil to water by dissolving it with a cleansing solution. The second is concerned with the size of the separation process which focuses on the reduction of the volume by separating the subject matters based on the different sizes of the soil. The complex agents used in the soil washing process include HCl, Oxalic acid, Citric acid, CaCl 2 , BaCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and NaOH. It is known that the complex-forming capacity of such complex agents and radionuclides influences the decontamination from the soil. Also, since the forms of the chemical species related with the complex agents and the surface potential of the soil vary based on the changes of acidity observed in the cleansing solution, the level of acidity in the cleansing solution can be regarded as a factor that influences the decontamination. Therefore, in this study, H 2 SO 4 was selected as the complex agent and used to check the influence of the temperature when the subject contaminated soil was washed. Then, by applying the sieve grading process with a sieve-shaker, the size separation process was carried out to measure the level of radiation for each size. By washing the contaminated soil separated into different sizes with the complex agent H 2 SO 4 , the different removal tendencies for each size were considered. After selecting the complex agent H 2 SO 4 and checking the influence of temperature when the contaminated soil was washed based on the solid-liquid ratio of 1g:2ml, it was found that the heat washing process at a temperature of 95 .deg. C showed a higher level of efficiency for the removal of Cs compared to the case of the non-heat washing process. Also, according to the results given by the process of considering the different removal tendencies for each size based on the heat washing process after the sieve grading process was applied with the sieve-shaker prior for the size

  7. A Study on the Removal of Cesium in Soil Contaminated with Radiation Using a Soil Washing Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ukryang; Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Moon, Jaikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The first principle is related with the washing process which is carried out to transfer the contaminated mass from the soil to water by dissolving it with a cleansing solution. The second is concerned with the size of the separation process which focuses on the reduction of the volume by separating the subject matters based on the different sizes of the soil. The complex agents used in the soil washing process include HCl, Oxalic acid, Citric acid, CaCl{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, and NaOH. It is known that the complex-forming capacity of such complex agents and radionuclides influences the decontamination from the soil. Also, since the forms of the chemical species related with the complex agents and the surface potential of the soil vary based on the changes of acidity observed in the cleansing solution, the level of acidity in the cleansing solution can be regarded as a factor that influences the decontamination. Therefore, in this study, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was selected as the complex agent and used to check the influence of the temperature when the subject contaminated soil was washed. Then, by applying the sieve grading process with a sieve-shaker, the size separation process was carried out to measure the level of radiation for each size. By washing the contaminated soil separated into different sizes with the complex agent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the different removal tendencies for each size were considered. After selecting the complex agent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and checking the influence of temperature when the contaminated soil was washed based on the solid-liquid ratio of 1g:2ml, it was found that the heat washing process at a temperature of 95 .deg. C showed a higher level of efficiency for the removal of Cs compared to the case of the non-heat washing process. Also, according to the results given by the process of considering the different removal tendencies for each size based on the heat washing process after the sieve grading process was

  8. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  9. The effect of antenatal depression and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on nerve growth factor signaling in human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaihola, Helena; Olivier, Jocelien; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Åkerud, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms during pregnancy are common and may have impact on the developing child. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed antidepressant treatment, but unfortunately, these treatments can also negatively affect the behavioral development and health of a

  10. Laboratory testing in-tank sludge washing, summary letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.V.; Torres-Ayala, F.

    1994-09-01

    In-tank washing is being considered as a means of pretreating high-level radioactive waste sludges, such as neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) sludge. For this process, the contents of the tank will be allowed to settle, and the supernatant solution will be decanted and removed. A dilute sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrite wash solution will be added to the settled sludge and the tank contents will be mixed with a mixer pump system to facilitate washing of the sludge. After thorough mixing, the mixer pumps will be shut off and the solids will be allowed to re-settle. After settling, the supernatant solution will be withdrawn from the tank, and the wash cycle will be repeated several times with fresh wash solution. Core sample data of double shell tank 241-AZ-101 indicate that settling of NCAW solids may be very slow. A complicating factor is that strong thermal currents are expected to be generated from heat produced by radionuclides in the sludge layer at the bottom of the tank. Additionally, there are concerns that during the settling period (i.e., while mixing pumps and air-lift re-circulators are shut off), the radionuclides may heat the residual interstitial water in the sludge to the extent that violent steam discharges (steam bumping) could occur. Finally, there are concerns that during the washing steps sludge settling may be hindered as a result of the reduced ionic strength of the wash solution. To overcome the postulated reduced settling rates during the second and third washing steps, the use of flocculants is being considered. To address the above concerns and uncertainties associated with in-tank washing, PNL has conducted laboratory testing with simulant tank waste to investigate settling rates, steam bump potential, and the need for and use of flocculating agents

  11. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors.

  12. A Selective Mutism Arising from First Language Attrition, Successfully Treated with Paroxetine-CBT Combination Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Agostino; Di Mauro, Paola; Andaloro, Claudio; Maiolino, Luigi; Pavone, Piero; Cocuzza, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words and may experience a decrease in its proficiency, this phenomenon, in the non-pathological form, is known as first language attrition. Self-perception of this low native-language proficiency and apprehension occurring when speaking is expected and, may sometimes lead these people to a state of social anxiety and, in extreme forms, can involve the withholding of speech as a primitive tool for self-protection, linking them to selective mutism. We report an unusual case of selective mutism arising from first language attrition in an Italian girl after attending a two-year "German language school", who successfully responded to a paroxetine-cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) combination treatment.

  13. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  14. The impact of WASH-1400 on reactor safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Trends in reactor safety evaluation in France following the publication of WASH-1400 (the Rasmussen Report) are presented. What is called 'the meteorite case' is first schematically presented as follows: WASH-1400 shows nuclear risk equivalent to meteorite risk and reasonable corrections cannot make many orders of magnitude, consequently present safety rules are adequate. The very impact of WASH-1400 on safety approach is then discussed as for: assistance to deterministic safety analysis, introduction of probabilistic safety criteria, acceptable level of risk, and the use of results in research and reactor operating experience

  15. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  16. Two quantitative character selection following neutron and EMS treatment in malt barley. An applied micromutation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, H; Simon, W; Ehrendorfer, K [Hochschule fuer Bodenkultur, Vienna (Austria)

    1975-01-01

    Mutation experiments in spring barley are described aimed at increasing the grain yield and ''classification'' (i.e. weight percent of caryopsis greater than 2.5 mm). The course of selection up to the M/sub 8/-generation obtained by self-pollination is given. A comparison is presented with materials obtained after neutron and ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The possibilities are also discussed of using the methods of micromutation breeding for barley crop yield and its malt quality improvement.

  17. Ball Milling Treatment of Black Dross for Selective Dissolution of Alumina in Sodium Hydroxide Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Thuy Nhi Nguyen; Man Seung Lee; Thi Hong Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    A process consisting of ball milling followed by NaOH leaching was developed to selectively dissolve alumina from black dross. From the ball milling treatment, it was found that milling speed greatly affected the leaching behavior of silica and the oxides of Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti present in dross. The leaching behavior of the mechanically activated dross was investigated by varying NaOH concentration, leaching temperature and time, and pulp density. In most of the leaching conditions, only alumi...

  18. EFFECTS OF BEHAVIORAL SKILLS TRAINING ON PARENTAL TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S FOOD SELECTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Seiverling, Laura; Williams, Keith; Sturmey, Peter; Hart, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    We used behavioral skills training to teach parents of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity to conduct a home-based treatment package that consisted of taste exposure, escape extinction, and fading. Parent performance following training improved during both taste sessions and probe meals and was reflected in increases in children's acceptance of bites and decreases in their disruptive behavior. Parents also reported that increases in diet variety were maintained at fo...

  19. Remediation of soils polluted with lindane using surfactant-aided soil washing and electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Morales, M; Braojos, M; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-10-05

    In this work the complete treatment of soil spiked with lindane is studied using surfactant-aided soil-washing (SASW) to exhaust lindane from soil and electrolysis with diamond anodes to mineralize lindane from the soil washing fluid (SWF) waste. Results demonstrated that this technological approach is efficient and allow to remove this hazardous pollutant from soil. They also pointed out the significance of the ratio surfactant/soil in the efficiency of the SASW process and in the performance of the later electrolysis used to mineralize the pollutant. Larger values of this parameter lead to effluents that undergo a very efficient treatment which allows the depletion of lindane for applied charges lower than 15AhL -1 and the recovery of more than 70% of the surfactant for the regeneration of the SWF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: Traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  1. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  2. The selective angiographic diagnosis and endovascular embolization treatment of severe epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiquan; Lu Yonghong; Sun Jinghua; Guo Deqiang; Li Yuzhen; Wei Aihua

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate selective angiographic diagnosis and embolization of severe epistaxis in 57 cases. Methods: 41 cases with spontaneous haemorrhage, 11 cases with traumatic haemorrhage, 3 cases with haemorrhage of nasopharyngeal fibroangioma, and 2 case with haemorrhage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included in the study. Selective angiographic diagnosis and embolization of epistaxis were performed with absorbable gelatin sponge or balloon or spring coil by using Seldinger's method. Results: 59 procedure of angiographic diagnosis and embolization were performed in 57 cases. Both maxillaris internal artery embolization was performed in 6 cases. After embolization, satisfactory results were achieved immediately in 55 cases. After 6 months to 2 years' follow-up, no haemorrhage recurred. In 4 cases with traumatic haemorrhage in the face, simple maxillaris internal artery embolization was performed in 2 cases. Conclusion: Selective angiographic diagnosis and embolization are safe, effective, and successful method of choices in the treatment of severe epistaxis

  3. Coupled variable selection for regression modeling of complex treatment patterns in a clinical cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, I; Elsäßer, A; Weinmann, A; Binder, H

    2014-12-30

    For determining a manageable set of covariates potentially influential with respect to a time-to-event endpoint, Cox proportional hazards models can be combined with variable selection techniques, such as stepwise forward selection or backward elimination based on p-values, or regularized regression techniques such as component-wise boosting. Cox regression models have also been adapted for dealing with more complex event patterns, for example, for competing risks settings with separate, cause-specific hazard models for each event type, or for determining the prognostic effect pattern of a variable over different landmark times, with one conditional survival model for each landmark. Motivated by a clinical cancer registry application, where complex event patterns have to be dealt with and variable selection is needed at the same time, we propose a general approach for linking variable selection between several Cox models. Specifically, we combine score statistics for each covariate across models by Fisher's method as a basis for variable selection. This principle is implemented for a stepwise forward selection approach as well as for a regularized regression technique. In an application to data from hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the coupled stepwise approach is seen to facilitate joint interpretation of the different cause-specific Cox models. In conditional survival models at landmark times, which address updates of prediction as time progresses and both treatment and other potential explanatory variables may change, the coupled regularized regression approach identifies potentially important, stably selected covariates together with their effect time pattern, despite having only a small number of events. These results highlight the promise of the proposed approach for coupling variable selection between Cox models, which is particularly relevant for modeling for clinical cancer registries with their complex event patterns. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  4. Treatment efficacy, treatment failures and selection of macrolide resistance in patients with high load of Mycoplasma genitalium during treatment of male urethritis with josamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschin, Alexander; Ryzhikh, Pavel; Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Gomberg, Mikhail; Unemo, Magnus

    2015-02-03

    Azithromycin has been widely used for Mycoplasma genitalium treatment internationally. However, the eradication efficacy has substantially declined recent decade. In Russia, josamycin (another macrolide) is the recommended first-line treatment for M. genitalium infections, however, no data regarding treatment efficacy with josamycin and resistance in M. genitalium infections have been internationally published. We examined the M. genitalium prevalence in males attending an STI clinic in Moscow, Russia from December 2006 to January 2008, investigated treatment efficacy with josamycin in male urethritis, and monitored the M. genitalium DNA eradication dynamics and selection of macrolide resistance in M. genitalium during this treatment. Microscopy and real-time PCRs were used to diagnose urethritis and non-viral STIs, respectively, in males (n = 320). M. genitalium positive patients were treated with recommended josamycin regimen and treatment efficacy was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR. Macrolide resistance mutations were identified using sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene. Forty-seven (14.7%) males were positive for M. genitalium only and most (85.1%) of these had symptoms and signs of urethritis. Forty-six (97.9%) males agreed to participate in the treatment efficacy monitoring. All the pre-treatment M. genitalium specimens had wild-type 23S rRNA. The elimination of M. genitalium DNA was substantially faster in patients with lower pre-treatment M. genitalium load, and the total eradication rate was 43/46 (93.5%). Of the six patients with high pre-treatment M. genitalium load, three (50%) remained positive post-treatment and these positive specimens contained macrolide resistance mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, i.e., A2059G (n = 2) and A2062G (n = 1). M. genitalium was a frequent cause of male urethritis in Moscow, Russia. The pre-treatment M. genitalium load might be an effective predictor of eradication efficacy with macrolides (and possibly

  5. Washing and changing uniforms: is guidance being adhered to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Yvonne Camilla; Justham, David

    To allay public apprehension regarding the risk of nurses' uniforms transmitting healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), national and local guidelines have been issued to control use, laundry and storage. This paper aims to measure the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs) and healthcare assistants (HCAs) working within a rural NHS foundation Trust and their adherence to the local infection prevention and control (IPC) standard regarding uniforms through a Trust-wide audit. Stratified random sampling selected 597 nursing staff and 399 responded (67%) by completing a short questionnaire based on the local standard. Responses were coded and transferred to SPSS (v. 17) for analysis. The audit found that nursing staff generally adhere to the guidelines, changing their uniforms daily and immediately upon accidental soiling, and wearing plastic aprons where indicated. At home, staff normally machine-wash and then iron their uniforms at the hottest setting. Nevertheless, few observe the local direction to place their newly-laundered uniforms in protective covers. This paper recommends a re-audit to compare compliance rates with baseline figures and further research into the reasons why compliance is lacking to sanction interventions for improvement, such as providing relevant staff education and re-introducing appropriate changing facilities.

  6. Toward automated selective retina treatment (SRT): an optical microbubble detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Eric; Park, Young-Gun; Theisen-Kunde, Dirk; Roh, Young-Jung; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2018-02-01

    Selective retina therapy (SRT) is an ophthalmological laser technique, targeting the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with repetitive microsecond laser pulses, while causing no thermal damage to the neural retina, the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. The RPE cells get damaged mechanically by microbubbles originating, at the intracellular melanosomes. Beneficial effects of SRT on Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) and Diabetic Macula Edema (DME) have already been shown. Variations in the transmission of the anterior eye media and pigmentation variation of RPE yield in intra- and inter- individual thresholds of the pulse energy required for selective RPE damage. Those selective RPE lesions are not visible. Thus, dosimetry-systems, designed to detect microbubbles as an indicator for RPE cell damage, are demanded elements to facilitate SRT application. Therefore, a technique based on the evaluation of backscattered treatment light has been developed. Data of 127 spots, acquired during 10 clinical treatments of CSR patients, were assigned to a RPE cell damage class, validated by fluorescence angiography (FLA). An algorithm has been designed to match the FLA based information. A sensitivity of 0.9 with a specificity close to 1 is achieved. The data can be processed within microseconds. Thus, the process can be implemented in existing SRT lasers with an automatic pulse wise increasing energy and an automatic irradiation ceasing ability to enable automated treatment close above threshold to prevent adverse effects caused by too high pulse energy. Alternatively, a guidance procedure, informing the treating clinician about the adequacy of the actual settings, is possible.

  7. Isolation of cells for selective treatment and analysis using a magnetic microfluidic chip

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar

    2014-05-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a magnetic microfluidic chip (MMC) for trapping and isolating cells tagged with superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) in a microfluidic environment for selective treatment and analysis. The trapping and isolation are done in two separate steps; first, the trapping of the tagged cells in a main channel is achieved by soft ferromagnetic disks and second, the transportation of the cells into side chambers for isolation is executed by tapered conductive paths made of Gold (Au). Numerical simulations were performed to analyze the magnetic flux and force distributions of the disks and conducting paths, for trapping and transporting SPBs. The MMC was fabricated using standard microfabrication processes. Experiments were performed with E. coli (K12 strand) tagged with 2.8 μm SPBs. The results showed that E. coli can be separated from a sample solution by trapping them at the disk sites, and then isolated into chambers by transporting them along the tapered conducting paths. Once the E. coli was trapped inside the side chambers, two selective treatments were performed. In one chamber, a solution with minimal nutrition content was added and, in another chamber, a solution with essential nutrition was added. The results showed that the growth of bacteria cultured in the second chamber containing nutrient was significantly higher, demonstrating that the E. coli was not affected by the magnetically driven transportation and the feasibility of performing different treatments on selectively isolated cells on a single microfluidic platform.

  8. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystallization and demineralization phenomena in washed-rind cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansman, Gil F; Kindstedt, Paul S; Hughes, John M

    2017-11-01

    This report documents an observational study of a high-moisture washed-rind cheese. Three batches of cheese were sampled on a weekly basis for 6 wk and again at wk 10. Center, under-rind, rind, and smear samples were tested for pH, moisture, and selected mineral elements. Powder x-ray diffractometry and petrographic microscopy were applied to identify and image the crystal phases. The pH of the rind increased by over 2 pH units by wk 10. The pH of the under-rind increased but remained below the rind pH, whereas the center pH decreased for most of aging and only began to rise after wk 5. Diffractograms of smear material revealed the presence of 4 crystal phases: brushite, calcite, ikaite, and struvite. The phases nucleated in succession over the course of aging, with calcite and ikaite appearing around the same time. A very small amount of brushite appeared sporadically in center and under-rind samples, but otherwise no other crystallization was observed beneath the rind. Micrographs revealed that crystals in the smear grew to over 250 μm in length by wk 10, and at least 2 different crystal phases, probably ikaite and struvite, could be differentiated by their different optical properties. The surface crystallization was accompanied by a mineral diffusion phenomenon that resulted, on average, in a 217, 95.7, and 149% increase in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, respectively, in the rind by wk 10. The diffusion phenomenon caused calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium to decrease, on average, by 55.0, 21.5, and 36.3%, respectively, in the center by wk 10. The present study represents the first observation of crystallization and demineralization phenomena in washed-rind cheese. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  10. In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions--evidence for a wash-in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Josse, Denis; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-09-01

    Misuse of various chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents, industrial chemicals or pesticides during warfare or terrorists attacks requires adequate protection. Thus, development and evaluation of novel decontamination dispositives and techniques are needed. In this study, in vitro permeation and decontamination of a potentially hazardous compound paraoxon, an active metabolite of organophosphorus pesticide parathion, was investigated. Skin permeation and decontamination experiments were carried out in modified Franz diffusion cells. Pig skin was used as a human skin model. Commercially produced detergent-based washing solutions FloraFree(™) and ArgosTM were used as decontamination means. The experiments were done under "warm", "cold", "dry" and "wet" skin conditions in order to determine an effect of various physical conditions on skin permeation of paraoxon and on a subsequent decontamination process. There was no significant difference in skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions, whereas wet conditions provided significantly higher permeation rates. In the selected conditions, decontamination treatments performed 1 h after a skin exposure did not decrease the agent volume that permeated through the skin. An exception were wet skin conditions with non-significant decontamination efficacy 18 and 28% for the FloraFree(™) and Argos(™) treatment, respectively. In contrast, the skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions increased up to 60-290% following decontamination compared to non-decontaminated controls. This has previously been described as a skin wash-in effect.

  11. Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hygienic status assessment of dish washing waters, utensils, hands and pieces of money from street food processing sites in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). N Barro, AR Bello, A Savadogo, CAT Ouattara, AJ Iiboudo, AS Traoré ...

  12. Overview of JGC soil washing and site stabilization (SWSS) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.; Fujimura, Y.; Sauda, K.; Yagi, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1991-01-01

    The JGC Soil Washing and Site Stabilization (SWSS) concept is to wash heavy metal and uranium-contaminated soils using well demonstrated techniques, and to follow that process with its innovative stabilization process, to fix the remaining contaminates within a stable matrix. In addition, the solution used to wash the soil is stripped of contaminates, so that it can be reused. This process reduces the total amount of wastes generated from washing the soil, since not only can the solution be reused, but often the extracted contaminates can be recovered for industrial use. The stabilization portion of the concept is based on a family of proprietary fixing agents which can render the remaining contaminates insoluble. These agents are significantly different from other (generally silicate) agents used for stabilizing contaminated soils in that they appear to bond more strongly to heavy metal contaminants than the silicate-based reagents, resulting in improved leach-rate performance when combined with bentonite or portland cement stabilization

  13. Why Is Hand Washing So Important? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand washing a rule for everyone, especially: before eating and cooking after using the bathroom after cleaning around the house after touching animals, including family pets before and after visiting or ...

  14. Little Puerco Wash-Catalpa Canyon Floodplain Management Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The City of Gallup requested the Soil Conservation Service, through the McKinley Soil and Water Conservation District, to conduct a study of the Little Puerco Wash...

  15. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  16. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Hancock, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defi ned clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

  17. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Coss

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defi ned clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism.

  18. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Faust, R.A.; Brewster, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  19. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Hancock, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    Several testosterone preparations are used in the treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. These therapies differ in their convenience, flexibility, regional availability and expense but share their pharmacokinetic basis of approval and dearth of long-term safety data. The brevity and relatively reduced cost of pharmacokinetic based registration trials provides little commercial incentive to develop improved novel therapies for the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been shown to provide anabolic benefit in the absence of androgenic effects on prostate, hair and skin. Current clinical development for SARMs is focused on acute muscle wasting conditions with defined clinical endpoints of physical function and lean body mass. Similar regulatory clarity concerning clinical deficits in men with hypogonadism is required before the beneficial pharmacology and desirable pharmacokinetics of SARMs can be employed in the treatment of late onset male hypogonadism. PMID:24407183

  20. ED pharmacist monitoring of provider antibiotic selection aids appropriate treatment for outpatient UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Erin; Drapkin, Zachary; Fritz, Kelly; Youngquist, Scott; Madsen, Troy; Fix, Megan

    2016-08-01

    We sought to determine whether an emergency department (ED) pharmacist could aid in the monitoring and correction of inappropriate empiric antibiotic selection for urinary tract infections in an outpatient ED population. Urine cultures with greater than 100 000 CFU/mL bacteria from the University of Utah Emergency Department over 1 year (October 2011-Sept 2012) were identified using our electronic medical record system. Per ED protocol, an ED pharmacist reviews all cultures and performs a chart review of patient symptoms, diagnosis, and discharge antibiotics to determine whether the treatment was appropriate. A retrospective review of this process was performed to identify how often inappropriate treatment was recognized and intervened on by an ED pharmacist. Of the 180 cultures included, a total of 42 (23%) of empiric discharge treatments were considered inappropriate and required intervention. In 35 (83%) of 42 patients, the ED pharmacist was able to contact the patient and make appropriate changes; the remaining 7 patients were unable to be contacted, and no change could be made in their treatment. A chart review of all urine cultures with greater than 100 000 CFU/mL performed by an ED pharmacist helped identify inappropriate treatment in 23% of patients discharged to home with the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Of these patients who had received inappropriate treatment, an ED pharmacist was able to intervene in 83% of cases. These data highlight the role of ED pharmacists in improving patient care after discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. General quality of life of patients with acne vulgaris before and after performing selected cosmetological treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilicka, Karolina; Maj, Joanna; Panaszek, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background Achieving a satisfying quality of life for a patient by applying individually matched therapy is, simultaneously, a great challenge and a priority for contemporary medicine. Patients with visible dermatological ailments are particularly susceptible to reduction in the general quality of life. Among the dermatological diseases, acne causes considerable reduction in the quality of life and changes in self-perception that lead to the worsening of a patient’s mental condition, including depression and suicidal thoughts. As a result, difficulties in contact with loved ones, as well as social and professional problems are observed, which show that acne is not a somatic problem alone. To a large extent, it becomes a part of psychodermatology, becoming an important topic of public health in social medicine practice. Pharmacological treatment of acne is a challenge for a dermatologist and often requires the necessity of cooperating with a cosmetologist. Cosmetological treatments are aimed at improving the condition of the skin and reduction or subsiding of acne skin changes. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected cosmetological treatments on the general quality of life of patients with acne. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 101 women aged 19–29 years (x¯=22.5 years, SD =2.3 years). All subjects were diagnosed with acne vulgaris of the face. In the study group, the acne changes occurred over the course of 3–15 years (x¯=8.1 years, SD =2.7 years). Selected cosmetological treatments (intensive pulsing light, alpha-hydroxy acids, cavitation peeling, needle-free mesotherapy, diamond microdermabrasion and sonophoresis) were performed in series in the number depending on the particular patient’s chosen treatment, after excluding contraindications. General quality of life of the patients was estimated using the Skindex-29 and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires, before and after the cosmetological

  2. Selection of optimal treatment scheme for brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mingxin; Zhao Tong; Huang Jingzi; Yu Shukun; Ma Yan; Tian Zhongcheng; Jin Xiangshun; Quan Jizhong; Liu Jin; Wang Dongxu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To select the optimal treatment scheme for brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Methods: Seventy-two NSCLC cases diagnosesd by pathology with brain metastases were randomly classified into three groups, Group I, 24 cases with whole brain conventional external fractioned irradiation of D T 36-41 Gy/4-5 w, Group II, 22 eases with y-knife treatment plus whole brain conventional external fractioned irradiation, and Group III, 26 cases with γ-knife plus whole brain conventional external fractioned irradiation in combination with chemotherapy of Vm-26. The surrounding area of tumor was strictly covered with 50% para-central-dosal curve in γ-knife treatment (D T 16-25 Gy with a mean of 16 Gy). The muirleaf collimator was selected according to the volume of tumors. Chemotherapy of Vm-26 (60 mg/m 2 d1-3) was applied during the treatment with whole brain conventional external fractioned irradiation (D T 19-29 Gy/2-3 w), 21 days in a period, 2 periods in total. Results: The median survival time was estimated to be 6.0 months (ranged from 1.2 to 19.0 months) in the Group I, 9.2 months (4.4-30 months) in the Group II, and 10.8 months (5.2-42.2 months) in the Group III. The 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 34.6% and 12.6% , 62.2% and 30.2%, and 70.8% and 35.6% respectively in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. Conclusion: For brain metastases of NSCLC, γ-knife plus whole brain conventional external fractioned irradiation combined with treatment of Vm-26 had a significantly beneficial influence on improvement of the local control and 1-year and 2-year survival. There was no complaint about the side-effects of the treatment. (authors)

  3. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Atadashi, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quali...

  4. Comparison of multimedia system and conventional method in patients’ selecting prosthetic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghai R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Selecting an appropriate treatment plan is one of the most critical aspects of dental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare multimedia system and conventional method in patients' selecting prosthetic treatment and the time consumed."nMaterials and Methods: Ninety patients were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in group A, once were instructed using the conventional method of dental office and once multimedia system and time was measured in seconds from the beginning of the instruction till the patient had came to decision. The patients were asked about the satisfaction of the method used for them. In group B, patients were only instructed using the conventional method, whereas they were only exposed to soft ware in group C. The data were analyzed with Paired-T-test"n(in group A and T-test and Mann-Whitney test (in groups B and C."nResult: There was a significant difference between multimedia system and conventional method in group A and also between groups B and C (P<0.001. In group A and between groups B and C, patient's satisfaction about multimedia system was better. However, in comparison between groups B and C, multimedia system did not have a significant effect in treatment selection score (P=0.08."nConclusion: Using multimedia system is recommended due to its high ability in giving answers to a large number of patient's questions as well as in terms of marketing.

  5. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  6. A wash fluid for drilling into a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakov, V M; Badzhurak, R F; Koptelova, Ye K; Rogovoy, V K; Sapozhnikov, N G

    1979-01-18

    A wash fluid is proposed, used in drilling wells in water and a content of 3-5% by weight starch products. To speed up destruction of the starch products, to the fluid are added amylolytic enzymes in the amount of 0.01-0.1 percent by weight of the starch products' weight. To lower the use of starch products, up to 3% clay can be added to the fluid. The wash fluid is prepared directly at the work site. Dry powder of modified starch is mixed with cold water until a colloidal solution is obtained. Such a wash fluid preserves the required structural-mechanical properties for 3-5 days, which ensures prompt drilling into the waterbearing layer and installation of the filter. Then, during the work process, 5-6 hours before the moment required for lowering the viscosity, to the wash fluid is added the amylolytic enzyme; under its influence, the starch molecules split up, and the viscosity drops sharply. Using this wash fluid enables a reduction in well construction times from the beginning of drilling to the end of development of the water-bearing layer, and a rise in outputs and well service lives by reducing sedimentation of the water-bearing formation and elimination of down times during work required while waiting for destruction of the starch wash fluid under natural conditions.

  7. Alemtuzumab in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr J

    2016-10-01

    the other are not yet available. Thus, the overall success of alemtuzumab treatment critically depends on the patient selection. The aim of this article is therefore, to characterize the significance of alemtuzumab in the treatment of MS with a focus on the selection of the optimal patient. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, treatment, safety, efficacy, selection, benefit risk relation

  8. KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS APPLICATION ON BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Vural

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day, more than 7,000 different marine species are transferred to different ecosystems via ballast water in ships. The introduction of invasive species can cause problems for native species. After realizing the serious potential problems associated with the transport of organisms in ballast water, national and international regulations were developed. In 2004, the International Maritime Organization introduced the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. With these regulations, the problems caused by ballast water have attracted attention and many companies have started to research and develop technologies for the management of ballast water. Today, there are hundreds of different systems for ballast-water treatment, and the selection of the most suitable system for a specific vessel is an increasingly important issue as the Convention nears enforcement on September 8, 2017. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the application of key performance indicators (KPIs to the selection of a ballast-water treatment system (BWTS leads to a very useful tool with which shipyards can compare BWTSs. This allows them to make better choices and to designate the most suitable system for each of their ships. In this study, we examine two types of vessel from a shipyard in Istanbul, Turkey. They have different ballast-water capacities and equipment, and the most suitable system for each is selected by using the KPI method.

  9. Host population structure and treatment frequency maintain balancing selection on drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Edward B.; Colijn, Caroline; Hanage, William; Fraser, Christophe; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-01-01

    It is a truism that antimicrobial drugs select for resistance, but explaining pathogen- and population-specific variation in patterns of resistance remains an open problem. Like other common commensals, Streptococcus pneumoniae has demonstrated persistent coexistence of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains. Theoretically, this outcome is unlikely. We modelled the dynamics of competing strains of S. pneumoniae to investigate the impact of transmission dynamics and treatment-induced selective pressures on the probability of stable coexistence. We find that the outcome of competition is extremely sensitive to structure in the host population, although coexistence can arise from age-assortative transmission models with age-varying rates of antibiotic use. Moreover, we find that the selective pressure from antibiotics arises not so much from the rate of antibiotic use per se but from the frequency of treatment: frequent antibiotic therapy disproportionately impacts the fitness of sensitive strains. This same phenomenon explains why serotypes with longer durations of carriage tend to be more resistant. These dynamics may apply to other potentially pathogenic, microbial commensals and highlight how population structure, which is often omitted from models, can have a large impact. PMID:28835542

  10. CBT for childhood anxiety disorders: differential changes in selective attention between treatment responders and non-responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S; Tulen, Joke H M; Dierckx, Bram; Treffers, Philip D A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2010-02-01

    This study examined whether treatment response to stepped-care cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is associated with changes in threat-related selective attention and its specific components in a large clinical sample of anxiety-disordered children. Ninety-one children with an anxiety disorder were included in the present study. Children received a standardized stepped-care CBT. Three treatment response groups were distinguished: initial responders (anxiety disorder free after phase one: child-focused CBT), secondary responders (anxiety disorder free after phase two: child-parent-focused CBT), and treatment non-responders. Treatment response was determined using a semi-structured clinical interview. Children performed a pictorial dot-probe task before and after stepped-care CBT (i.e., before phase one and after phase two CBT). Changes in selective attention to severely threatening pictures, but not to mildly threatening pictures, were significantly associated with treatment success. At pre-treatment assessment, initial responders selectively attended away from severely threatening pictures, whereas secondary responders selectively attended toward severely threatening pictures. After stepped-care CBT, initial and secondary responders did not show any selectivity in the attentional processing of severely threatening pictures. Treatment non-responders did not show any changes in selective attention due to CBT. Initial and secondary treatment responders showed a reduction of their predisposition to selectively attend away or toward severely threatening pictures, respectively. Treatment non-responders did not show any changes in selective attention. The pictorial dot-probe task can be considered a potentially valuable tool in assigning children to appropriate treatment formats as well as for monitoring changes in selective attention during the course of CBT.

  11. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  12. Helminths in horses : use of selective treatment for the control of strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The current level of anthelmintic resistance in the horse-breeding industry is extremely high and therefore more emphasis is being placed on studies that focus on the judicious use of anthelmintic products. The aims of the study were to: 1 establish if there is variation in the egg excretion pattern of strongyles between the different age classes of Thoroughbred horses in the Western Cape Province (WCP, 2 test if a selective treatment approach successfully reduces the number of anthelmintic treatments and maintains acceptably low helminth burdens in adult Thoroughbred horses, and 3 evaluate the efficacy of subsampling large horse herds for faecal egg counts (FECs to monitor the strongyle burden. In 2001 the FECs of 4 adult mare, 5 yearling and 3 weanling herds from 8 different farms were compared in the WCP. Within the mare herds there were generally fewer eggexcreting individuals with lower mean FECs compared with the younger age classes. Individual faecal samples were collected every 3-4 weeks from 52 adult Thoroughbred mares from 1 farm in the WCP during a 12-month period (2002/2003. Animals with strongyle FECs > 100 eggs per gram (epg were treated with an ivermectin-praziquantel combination drug (Equimax oral paste, Virbac. The mean monthly strongyle FEC for the entire group was < 300 epg throughout the study and the number of treatments was reduced by 50 %. Resampling methods showed that an asymptote to mean FEC was reached at 55 animals for each of the pooled weanling, yearling and mare egg counts. Resampling within 4 different mare herds recorded asymptotes of between 24 and 28 animals. Subsampling entire herds for FECs therefore provided an effective approach to treatment management. This study demonstrates that selective treatment is both a practical and an effective approach to the management of anthelmintic resistance.

  13. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

  14. Fracture behaviour of a magnesium–aluminium alloy treated by selective laser surface melting treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taltavull, C.; López, A.J.; Torres, B.; Rams, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • β-Mg 17 Al 12 presents fragile fracture behavior decreasing the ductility of AZ91D. • SLSM treatment only modifies the β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase whilst α-Mg remains unaltered. • In-situ SEM bending test allows to observe and data record of the crack propagation. • Eutectic microestructure of modified β-phase presents ductile fracture behaviour. • Fracture toughness of laser treated specimen is 40% greater than as-received alloy. - Abstract: Fracture behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy is dominated by the brittle fracture of the β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase so its modification is required to improve the toughness of this alloy. The novel laser treatment named as Selective Laser Surface Melting (SLSM) is characterized by the microstructural modification of the β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase without altering the α-Mg matrix. We have studied the effect of the selected microstructural modification induced by the laser treatment in the fracture behaviour of the alloy has been studied using in situ Scanning Electron Microscopy bending test. This test configuration allows the in situ observation of the crack progression and the record of the load–displacement curve. It has been observed that the microstructural modification introduced by SLSM causes an increase of 40% of the fracture toughness of the treated specimen. This phenomenon can be related with the transition from brittle to ductile fracture behaviour of the laser modified β-phase

  15. Selection criteria utilized for hyperbaric oxygen treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, N B; Dunford, R G; Kramer, C C; Norkool, D M

    1995-01-01

    Medical directors of North American hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) facilities were surveyed to assess selection criteria applied for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning within the hyperbaric medicine community. Responses were received from 85% of the 208 facilities in the United States and Canada. Among responders, 89 monoplace and 58 multiplace chamber facilities treat acute CO poisoning, managing a total of 2,636 patients in 1992. A significant majority of facilities treat CO-exposed patients with coma (98%), transient loss of consciousness (LOC) (77%), ischemic changes on electrocardiogram (91%), focal neurologic deficits (94%), or abnormal psychometric testing (91%), regardless of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level. Although 92% would use HBO for a patient presenting with headache, nausea, and COHb 40%, only 62% of facilities utilize a specified minimum COHb level as the sole criterion for HBO therapy of an asymptomatic patient. When COHb is used as an independent criterion to determine HBO treatment, the level utilized varies widely between institutions. Half of responding facilities place limits on the delay to treatment for patients with only transient LOC. Time limits are applied less often in cases with persistent neurologic deficits. While variability exists, majority opinions can be derived for many patient selection criteria regarding the use of HBO in acute CO poisoning.

  16. Combined effectiveness of anthelmintic chemotherapy and WASH among HIV-infected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna R Means

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current global helminth control guidelines focus on regular deworming of targeted populations for morbidity control. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH interventions may also be important for reducing helminth transmission. We evaluated the impact of different potential helminth protective packages on infection prevalence, including repeated treatment with albendazole and praziquantel with and without WASH access.We conducted a cohort study nested within a randomized trial of empiric deworming of HIV-infected adults in Kenya. Helminth infections and infection intensity were diagnosed using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. We conducted a manual forward stepwise model building approach to identify if there are packages of interventions that may be protective against an STH infection of any species (combined outcome and each helminth species individually. We conducted secondary analyses using the same approach only amongst individuals with no anthelmintis exposure. We used interaction terms to test for potential intervention synergy. Approximately 22% of the 701 stool samples provided were helminth-infected, most of which were of low to moderate intensity. The odds of infection with any STH species were lower for individuals who were treated with albendazole (aOR:0.11, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.20, p<0.001, adjusting for age and sex. Although most WASH conditions demonstrated minimal additional benefit in reducing the probability of infection with any STH species, access to safe flooring did appear to offer some additional protection (aOR:0.34, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56, p<0.001. For schistosomiasis, only treatment with praziquantel was protective (aOR:0.30 95%CI: 0.14, 0.60, p = 0.001. Amongst individuals who were not treated with albendazole or praziquantel, the most protective intervention package to reduce probability of STH infections included safe flooring (aOR:0.34, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.59, p<0.001 and latrine access (aOR:0.59, 95%CI: 0.35, 0.99, p = 0

  17. Cross-flow filtration during the washing of a simulated radioactive waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARK R., DUIGNAN

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. has been contracted by the Department of Energy to design a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to stabilize liquid radioactive waste that is stored at the Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project (RPP). Because of its experience with radioactive waste stabilization, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company is working with Bechtel and Washington Group International, to help design and test certain parts of the waste treatment facility. One part of the process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross-flow ultrafiltration. To test this process a cross-flow filter was used that was prototypic in porosity, length, and diameter, along with a simulated radioactive waste slurry, made to prototypically represent the chemical and physical characteristics of a Hanford waste in tank 241-AY-102/C-106. To mimic the filtration process the waste slurry undergoes several steps, including dewatering and washing. During dewatering the concentration of undissolved solids (UDS) of the simulated AY102/C106 waste is increased from 12 wt percent to at least 20 wt percent. Once at the higher concentration the waste must be washed to prepare for its eventual receipt in a High Level Radioactive Waste Melter to be vitrified. This paper describes the process of washing and filtering a batch of concentrated simulated waste in two cycles, which each containing 22 washing steps that used approximately 7.7 liters of a solution of 0.01 M NaOH per step. This will be the method used by the full-scale WTP to prepare the waste for vitrification. The first washing cycle started with the simulated waste that had a solids concentration of 20 wt percent UDS. This cycle began with a permeate filter flux of 0.015 gpm/ft2 (3.68 cm/hr) at 19.6 wt percent UDS with a density of 1.33 kg/L, and yield stress of 8.5 Pa. At the end of the 22 washing steps the permeate filter flux increased to

  18. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  19. Hand washing in operating room: a procedural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stilo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand washing has been considered a measure of personal hygiene for centuries and it is known that an improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections. Therefore, surgical hand preparation is a critical element for healthcare safety in order to reduce microbial contamination of  surgical wound in case of non detected break of the gloves. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy three antiseptics: Povi-iodine scrub; EPG (Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol, recommended by WHO, and common marseille soap type in a liquid formulation. METHODS It was designed a randomized, double-blind, single-center study conducted in the University Hospital of Messina, from January to June 2013. We asked operators to put the fingertips of their right hand (if not left-handed for one minute on the PCA medium, before washing with the three types of antiseptics, and after washing and drying. Drying was made using sterile gauzes or disposable wipes. Then, we measured the number of colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL and calculated the percentage of microbial load reduction. RESULTS 211 samples have been considered for statistical analysis: in 42 samples, in fact, initial microbial load was lower than after washing. Washing with EPG reduced CFU/ml from  a mean of 38,9 to 4,1 (86,5% reduction, washing with povi-iodine scrub from 59,55 to 12,9 (75,9% reduction and washing with Marseille soap from 47,26 to 12,7 (64,3% reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that washing with EPG has superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Antiseptic hand washing, however, cannot be considered the only measure to reduce infections: the anomaly of some results (initial microbial load lower than after washing  demonstrates that drying is an essential phase in the presurgical preparation. Therefore, hand hygiene must be part of a more complex strategy of surveillance and control of nosocomial infections

  20. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on plasma oxytocin and cortisol in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Charlotte; Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A; Lambert, Gavin W; Tilbrook, Alan J

    2013-04-29

    Oxytocin is known for its capacity to facilitate social bonding, reduce anxiety and for its actions on the stress hypothalamopituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Since oxytocin can physiologically suppress activity of the HPA axis, clinical applications of this neuropeptide have been proposed in conditions where the function of the HPA axis is dysregulated. One such condition is major depressive disorder (MDD). Dysregulation of the HPA system is the most prominent endocrine change seen with MDD, and normalizing the HPA axis is one of the major targets of recent treatments. The potential clinical application of oxytocin in MDD requires improved understanding of its relationship to the symptoms and underlying pathophysiology of MDD. Previous research has investigated potential correlations between oxytocin and symptoms of MDD, including a link between oxytocin and treatment related symptom reduction. The outcomes of studies investigating whether antidepressive treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) influences oxytocin concentrations in MDD, have produced conflicting outcomes. These outcomes suggest the need for an investigation of the influence of a single treatment class on oxytocin concentrations, to determine whether there is a relationship between oxytocin, the HPA axis (e.g., oxytocin and cortisol) and MDD. Our objective was to measure oxytocin and cortisol in patients with MDD before and following treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI. We sampled blood from arterial plasma. Patients with MDD were studied at the same time twice; pre- and post- 12 weeks treatment, in an unblinded sequential design (clinicaltrials.govNCT00168493). Results did not reveal differences in oxytocin or cortisol concentrations before relative to following SSRI treatment, and there were no significant relationships between oxytocin and cortisol, or these two physiological variables and psychological symptom scores, before or after treatment. These outcomes

  1. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Bray, L.A.; Pope, J.M.; Carl, D.E.

    1984-08-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100), and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungstic acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper will summarize the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process. 4 figures, 2 tables

  2. Natural attenuation of NDMA precursors in an urban, wastewater-dominated wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Gwen C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2016-02-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection by-product (DBP) that is potentially carcinogenic and has been found to occur in drinking water treatment systems impacted with treated wastewater. A major gap in NDMA research is an understanding of the persistence of wastewater-derived precursors within the natural environment. This research sought to fill this knowledge gap by surveying NDMA precursors across the length of a wastewater effluent-dominated wash. Significant precursor reduction (17%) was found to occur from introduction into the wash to a point 9 h downstream. This reduction translates into a half-life of roughly 32 h for bulk NDMA precursors. Further laboratory experiments examining rates of photolysis, biodegradation and loss to sediments, illustrated that both photolytic and biological degradation were effective removal mechanisms for NDMA precursors. Loss to sediments that were acquired from the wash did not appear to reduce NDMA precursors in the water column, although a control conducted with DI water provided evidence that significant NDMA precursors could be released from autoclaved sediments (suggesting that sorption does occur). Microbial experiments revealed that microbes associated with sediments were much more effective at degrading precursors than microbes within the water column. Overall, this study demonstrated that natural processes are capable of attenuating NDMA precursors relatively quickly within the environment, and that utilities might benefit from maximizing source water residency time in the environment, prior to introduction into treatment plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulsed-plasma gas-discharge inactivation of microbial pathogens in chilled poultry wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, N J; Espie, S; Harrower, J; Anderson, J G; Marsili, L; MacGregor, S J

    2007-12-01

    A pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (PPGD) system was developed for the novel decontamination of chilled poultry wash water. Treatment of poultry wash water in the plasma generation chamber for up to 24 s at 4 degrees C reduced Escherichia coli NCTC 9001, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560, Campylobacter coli ATCC 33559, Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 9863, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 4931, and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 populations to non-detectable levels ( or = 3 log CFU/ml) in recalcitrant B. cereus NCTC 11145 endospore numbers within 30 s, the level of endospore reduction was dependent on the nature of the sparged gas used in the plasma treatments. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that significant damage occurred at the cellular level in PPGD-treated test organisms. This electrotechnology delivers energy in intense ultrashort bursts, generating products such as ozone, UV light, acoustic and shock waves, and pulsed electric fields that have multiple bactericidal properties. This technology offers an exciting complementary or alternative approach for treating raw poultry wash water and for preventing cross-contamination in processing environments.

  4. [The role of magnetic resonance imaging to select patients for preoperative treatment in rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Claus; Sauer, Rolf; Fietkau, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the decision to apply preoperative treatment for rectal cancer patients has been based on the T- and N-category. Recently, the radial distance of the tumor to the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been identified as an important risk factor for local failure. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) this distance can be measured preoperatively with high reliability. Thus, selected groups have started to limit the indication for preoperative therapy to tumors extending to - or growing within 1 mm from - the mesorectal fascia (CRM+). Pros and cons of this selected approach for preoperative treatment and first clinical results are presented. Prerequisites are the availability of modern high-resolution thin-section MRI technology as well as strict quality control of MRI and surgical quality of total mesorectal excision (TME). By selecting patients with CRM-positive tumors on MRI for preoperative therapy, only approximately 35% patients will require preoperative radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). However, with histopathologic work-up of the resected specimen after primary surgery, the indication for postoperative RCT is given for a rather large percentage of patients, i.e., for pCRM+ (5-10%), intramesorectal or intramural excision (30-40%), pN+ (30-40%). Postoperative RCT, however, is significantly less effective and more toxic than preoperative RCT. A further point of concern is the assertion that patients, in whom a CRM-negative status is achieved by surgery alone, do not benefit from additional RT. Data of the Dutch TME trial and the British MRC (Medical Research Council) CR07 trial, however, suggest the reverse. To omit preoperative RT/RCT for CRM-negative tumors on MRI needs to be further investigated in prospective clinical trials. The German guidelines for the treatment of colorectal cancer 2008 continue to indicate preoperative RT/RCT based on the T- and N-category.

  5. The role of magnetic resonance imaging to select patients for preoperative treatment in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, Claus; Sauer, Rolf; Fietkau, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, the decision to apply preoperative treatment for rectal cancer patients has been based on the T- and N-category. Recently, the radial distance of the tumor to the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been identified as an important risk factor for local failure. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) this distance can be measured preoperatively with high reliability. Thus, selected groups have started to limit the indication for preoperative therapy to tumors extending to - or growing within 1 mm from - the mesorectal fascia (CRM+). Methods: Pros and cons of this selected approach for preoperative treatment and first clinical results are presented. Prerequisites are the availability of modern high-resolution thin-section MRI technology as well as strict quality control of MRI and surgical quality of total mesorectal excision (TME). Results: By selecting patients with CRM-positive tumors on MRI for preoperative therapy, only approximately 35% patients will require preoperative radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). However, with histopathologic work-up of the resected specimen after primary surgery, the indication for postoperative RCT is given for a rather large percentage of patients, i.e., for pCRM+ (5-10%), intramesorectal or intramural excision (30-40%), pN+ (30-40%). Postoperative RCT, however, is significantly less effective and more toxic than preoperative RCT. A further point of concern is the assertion that patients, in whom a CRM-negative status is achieved by surgery alone, do not benefit from additional RT. Data of the Dutch TME trial and the British MRC (Medical Research Council) CR07 trial, however, suggest the reverse. Conclusion: To omit preoperative RT/RCT for CRM-negative tumors on MRI needs to be further investigated in prospective clinical trials. The German guidelines for the treatment of colorectal cancer 2008 continue to indicate preoperative RT/RCT based on the T- and N-category. (orig.)

  6. Autotransplant tissue selection criteria with or without stereomicroscopy in parathyroidectomy for treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nakayama Ohe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several methods have been proposed to improve operative success in renal hyperparathyroidism. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stereomicroscopy in parathyroid tissue selection for total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation in secondary (SHPT/tertiary (THPT hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: 118 renal patients underwent surgery from April of 2000 to October 2009. They were divided into two groups: G1, 66 patients operated from April of 2000 to May of 2005, with tissue selection based on macroscopic observation; G2, 52 patients operated from March of 2008 to October 2009 with stereomicroscopy for tissue selection searching for the presence of adipose cells. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. Patients presented SHPT (dialysis treatment or THPT (renal-grafted. Follow-up was 12-36 months. Intra-operative parathyroid hormone (PTH was measured in 100/118 (84.7% patients. RESULTS: Data are presented as means. G1 included 66 patients (38 SHPT, 24 females/14 males; 40.0 years of age; 28 THPT, 14 females/14 males; 44 years of age. G2 included 52 patients (29 SHPT, 11 females/18 males; 50.7 years of age; 23 THPT, 13 females/10 males, 44.4 years of age. SHPT patients from G2 presented preoperative serum calcium higher than those of SHPT patients in G1 (p < 0.05, suggesting a more severe disease. Definitive hypoparathyroidism was found in seven of 118 patients (5.9%. Graft-dependent recurrence occurred in four patients, two in each group. All occurred in dialysis patients. CONCLUSION: Stereomicroscopy in SHPT/THPT surgical treatment may be a useful tool to standardize parathyroid tissue selection.

  7. Clinical study of emergency treatment and selective closed reduction for the treatment of supracondylar humerus fracture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of emergency treatment, selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation on the treatment of Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture. Methods: Children who sustained the Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar fractures of humerus treated with selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. They were divided into group A (emergency operation group and group B (selective operation group according to different operation timing. Perioperative situation, blood biochemical parameters, swelling degree and elbow joint function of affected limb were compared between two groups. Results: Operation time for patients of group A was significantly shorter than that of group B [(17.19 ± 2.85 vs. (21.43 ± 3.91 min], and frequency of fluoroscopy during operation of group A was obviously less than that of group B [(6.03 ± 0.95 vs. (7.61 ± 0.92 times]. Swelling index of affected limb in group A at 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after injury was all significantly lower than that in group B [(1.20 ± 0.17 vs. (1.38 ± 0.14, (1.13 ± 0.13 vs. (1.30 ± 0.18, (1.02 ± 0.15 vs. (1.22 ± 0.15]. Hospital for special surgery score at 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 and 4 weeks after removing Kirschner wire had no significant difference between group A and B (88.75 ± 10.18 vs. (89.14 ± 10.52, (94.22 ± 10.85 vs. (93.85 ± 11.08, (95.52 ± 11.27 vs. (95.92 ± 12.19, (95.43 ± 10.96 vs. (96.02 ± 11.38. Contents of serum alanine transaminase, aspertate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin and C-reactive protein in perioperative period had no obvious difference between patients in group A and B. Conclusions: Emergency closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation for Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture in children has less trauma, low swelling degree

  8. Bariatric surgery: the challenges with candidate selection, individualizing treatment and clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a global health crisis. Bariatric surgery offers a treatment that can reduce weight, induce remission of obesity-related diseases, and improve the quality of life. In this article, we outline the different options in bariatric surgery and summarize the recommendations for selecting and assessing potential candidates before proceeding to surgery. We present current data on post-surgical outcomes and evaluate the psychosocial and economic effects of bariatric surgery. Finally, we evaluate the complication rates and present recommendations for post-operative care. PMID:23302153

  9. Dasatinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: patient selection and special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Sadri, Sevil; Eskazan, Ahmet Emre

    2016-01-01

    Dasatinib is one of the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in imatinib resistance and/or intolerance, as well as in the frontline setting in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase, and also in patients with advanced disease. It is also utilized in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia. While choosing the appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ie, dasatinib) for each individual patient, comorbidities and BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations should always be taken into consideration, among other things. This review mainly focuses on patient selection prior to dasatinib administration in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.

  10. Combination of radiotherapy and selective chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced ovarian carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.; Brachetti, A.; Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on 160 patients suffering from ovarian carcinomas the stages which were exactly determined by TNM classification. 32 patients had tumors of the stages T1-T3, 128 patients had tumors of the stage T4. All T3 subgroups showed favorable results after radical surgery and a postoperative combination of radiotherapy and selective cytostatic chemotherapy. The therapy plans including radiotherapy had more advantages than those without radiotherapy. Furthermore, the cytostatic treatment was more successful after a chemotherapy resistance test than after blind administration of cytostatic drugs. (orig.) [de

  11. Revealing metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment by linear programming based feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Qiao-Feng; Chen, Chen; Wu, Ling-Yun; Yan, Xian-Zhong; Yu, Shu-Guang; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture has been practiced in China for thousands of years as part of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and has gradually accepted in western countries as an alternative or complementary treatment. However, the underlying mechanism of acupuncture, especially whether there exists any difference between varies acupoints, remains largely unknown, which hinders its widespread use. In this study, we develop a novel Linear Programming based Feature Selection method (LPFS) to understand the mechanism of acupuncture effect, at molecular level, by revealing the metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment. Specifically, we generate and investigate the high-throughput metabolic profiles of acupuncture treatment at several acupoints in human. To select the subsets of metabolites that best characterize the acupuncture effect for each meridian point, an optimization model is proposed to identify biomarkers from high-dimensional metabolic data from case and control samples. Importantly, we use nearest centroid as the prototype to simultaneously minimize the number of selected features and the leave-one-out cross validation error of classifier. We compared the performance of LPFS to several state-of-the-art methods, such as SVM recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) and sparse multinomial logistic regression approach (SMLR). We find that our LPFS method tends to reveal a small set of metabolites with small standard deviation and large shifts, which exactly serves our requirement for good biomarker. Biologically, several metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment are revealed and serve as the candidates for further mechanism investigation. Also biomakers derived from five meridian points, Zusanli (ST36), Liangmen (ST21), Juliao (ST3), Yanglingquan (GB34), and Weizhong (BL40), are compared for their similarity and difference, which provide evidence for the specificity of acupoints. Our result demonstrates that metabolic profiling might be a promising method to

  12. Optical fiber biocompatible sensors for monitoring selective treatment of tumors via thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele; Poeggel, Sven; Dinesh, Duraibabu B.; Macchi, Edoardo G.; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-09-01

    Thermal ablation (TA) is an interventional procedure for selective treatment of tumors, that results in low-invasive outpatient care. The lack of real-time control of TA is one of its main weaknesses. Miniature and biocompatible optical fiber sensors are applied to achieve a dense, multi-parameter monitoring, that can substantially improve the control of TA. Ex vivo measurements are reported performed on porcine liver tissue, to reproduce radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our measurement campaign has a two-fold focus: (1) dual pressure-temperature measurement with a single probe; (2) distributed thermal measurement to estimate point-by-point cells mortality.

  13. Treatment compliance and challenges among tuberculosis patients across selected health facilities in Osun State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, K O; Ogundun, O A; Afolabi, O T; Ojo, T O; Atiba, B P; Oguntunase, D O

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the world and Africa has approximately one quarter of the world's cases. One of the greatest challenges facing most TB programmes is the non-compliance to TB treatment among TB patients. This study aimed at determining the challenges of management of tuberculosis (TB) across selected Osun State health facilities. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 102 TB patients in the health facilities. The instrument measured socio-demographic variables, patient related factors, socio-economic variables, health care system related factors to TB disease and treatment. Data were analysed and summarized using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance was placed at p facilities (χ2 = 21.761, p facility and patient-related factors were largely responsible.

  14. Bioactive treatment promotes osteoblast differentiation on titanium materials fabricated by selective laser melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology is useful for the fabrication of porous titanium implants with complex shapes and structures. The materials fabricated by SLM characteristically have a very rough surface (average surface roughness, Ra=24.58 µm). In this study, we evaluated morphologically and biochemically the specific effects of this very rough surface and the additional effects of a bioactive treatment on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Flat-rolled titanium materials (Ra=1.02 µm) were used as the controls. On the treated materials fabricated by SLM, we observed enhanced osteoblast differentiation compared with the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM. No significant differences were observed between the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM in their effects on osteoblast differentiation. We concluded that the very rough surface fabricated by SLM had to undergo a bioactive treatment to obtain a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation.

  15. Selective androgen receptor modulators for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting associated with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James T; Taylor, Ryan P; Mohler, Michael L; Steiner, Mitchell S

    2013-12-01

    This review highlights selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) as emerging agents in late-stage clinical development for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting associated with cancer. Muscle wasting, including a loss of skeletal muscle, is a cancer-related symptom that begins early in the progression of cancer and affects a patient's quality of life, ability to tolerate chemotherapy, and survival. SARMs increase muscle mass and improve physical function in healthy and diseased individuals, and potentially may provide a new therapy for muscle wasting and cancer cachexia. SARMs modulate the same anabolic pathways targeted with classical steroidal androgens, but within the dose range in which expected effects on muscle mass and function are seen androgenic side-effects on prostate, skin, and hair have not been observed. Unlike testosterone, SARMs are orally active, nonaromatizable, nonvirilizing, and tissue-selective anabolic agents. Recent clinical efficacy data for LGD-4033, MK-0773, MK-3984, and enobosarm (GTx-024, ostarine, and S-22) are reviewed. Enobosarm, a nonsteroidal SARM, is the most well characterized clinically, and has consistently demonstrated increases in lean body mass and better physical function across several populations along with a lower hazard ratio for survival in cancer patients. Completed in May 2013, results for the Phase III clinical trials entitled Prevention and treatment Of muscle Wasting in patiEnts with Cancer1 (POWER1) and POWER2 evaluating enobosarm for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer will be available soon, and will potentially establish a SARM, enobosarm, as the first drug for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in cancer patients.

  16. A data mining based model for selecting type of treatment for kidney stone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehri MM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Data mining as a multidisciplinary field is rooted in the fields such as statistics, mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence and has been gaining momentum in scientific, managerial, and executive applications in health care. Data mining can be defined as the automated extraction of valuable, practical and hidden knowledge and information from large data. Applying data mining in medical records and data is of utmost importance for health care givers and providers and brings vital and valuable outcomes. Data mining can help doctors come up with better recommendations and plans for treatment which actually in many respects have significant impact on patients' life and satisfaction In this paper we have proposed and utilized data mining methods to extract hidden information in medical records of pelvis stone patients with ureteral stone. We have tried to design a decision support system model to be applicable for selecting type of treatment for these groups of patients."n"nMethods: We gathered needed information from Shahid Hashemi Nejad hospital. In this research we have used decision tree as a data mining tool, for selecting suitable treatment for patients with ureteral stone. This

  17. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  18. Decision making tools for selecting sustainable wastewater treatment technologies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongburi, Praewa; Park, Jae K.

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater consists of valuable resources that could be recovered or reused. Still it is under threat because of ineffective wastewater management and systems. In Thailand, less than 25% of wastewater generated may be treated while then rest is inadequately treated and sent back directly into waterbodies or the environment. Furthermore, the technologies that have been applied may be inefficient and unsustainable. Efficiency, sustainability, and simplicity are important concepts when designing an appropriate wastewater treatment system in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to review and evaluate wastewater treatment technologies and propose a method to improve or select an appropriate technology. An expert system in Excel® program was developed to determine the best solution. Sensitivity analysis was applied to compare and assess uncertainty factors. Due to the different conditions of each area, the key factor of interest was varied. Furthermore, Robust Decision Making tool was applied to determine the best way to improve existing wastewater treatment facility and to choose the most appropriate wastewater treatment technology.

  19. Selection of hydrothermal pre-treatment conditions of waste sludge destruction using multicriteria decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shiekh Khalil, Wael; Shanableh, Abdullah; Rigby, Portia; Kokot, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The effectiveness of hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of the organic content of sludge waste was investigated. The sludge sampled in this study contained approximately 2% solids. The experimental program consisted of hydrothermal treatment experiments conducted in a batch reactor at temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C, with the addition of an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) in the range of 0-150% with reference to TCOD, and reaction times of up to 60 min. The results suggested that the availability of oxidant, reaction temperature and reaction time were the determining factors for COD removal. A significant fraction of the COD remaining after treatment consisted of the dissolved COD. The results confirmed that hydrothermal treatment proceeds through hydrolysis resulting in the production of dissolved organic products followed by COD removal through oxidation. Two MCDM chemometrics methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to process the large data matrix so as to facilitate the selection of the most suitable hydrothermal conditions for sludge destruction. Two possible scenarios were produced from this analysis-one depended on the use of high temperatures and no oxidant, while the second offered a choice of compromise solutions at lower temperatures but with the use of at least some oxidant. Thus, for the final choice of operating conditions, the decision maker needs local knowledge of the costs and available infrastructure. In principle, such information could be added as further criteria to the data matrix and new rankings obtained.

  20. Particle size distribution variance in untreated urban runoff and its implication on treatment selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the particle size distribution (PSD) of sediment in urban runoff assists in the selection of appropriate treatment systems for sediment removal as systems vary in their ability to remove sediment across different particle size fractions. Variation in PSD in runoff from individual urban surfaces both during and across multiple rain events is not well understood and it may lead to performance uncertainty in treatment systems. Runoff PSDs in international literature were compiled to provide a comparative summary of PSDs from different urban surfaces. To further assess both intra-event and inter-event PSD variation, untreated runoff was collected from road, concrete roof, copper roof, and galvanized roof surfaces within an urban catchment exposed to the same rainfall conditions and analysed for PSD and total suspended solids (TSS). Road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper roofs had high initial TSS that reduced to very low levels under steady state conditions. Despite variation in TSS concentrations, the median particle diameter of the TSS was comparable across the surfaces. Intra-event variation was generally not significant, but substantial inter-event variation was observed, particularly for coarser road and concrete roof surfaces. PSD variation for each surface contributed to a wide range in predicted treatment performance and suggests that short-retention treatment devices carry a high performance risk of not being able to achieve adequate TSS removal across all rain events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inactivation of E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh strawberries by antimicrobial washing and coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial washing, antimicrobial coating, and a combination of both treatments were evaluated for their ability to inactivate artificially inoculated foodborne pathogens and native microflora on strawberries stored at 4 degrees C. Strawberries were inoculated with a six-strain composite of E. co...

  2. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  3. General quality of life of patients with acne vulgaris before and after performing selected cosmetological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilicka K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Karolina Chilicka,1 Joanna Maj,2 Bernard Panaszek3 1Department of Cosmetology, Opole Medical School, Opole, 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, 3Department of Internal Medicine and Allergy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland Background: Achieving a satisfying quality of life for a patient by applying individually matched therapy is, simultaneously, a great challenge and a priority for contemporary medicine. Patients with visible dermatological ailments are particularly susceptible to reduction in the general quality of life. Among the dermatological diseases, acne causes considerable reduction in the quality of life and changes in self-perception that lead to the worsening of a patient’s mental condition, including depression and suicidal thoughts. As a result, difficulties in contact with loved ones, as well as social and professional problems are observed, which show that acne is not a somatic problem alone. To a large extent, it becomes a part of psychodermatology, becoming an important topic of public health in social medicine practice. Pharmacological treatment of acne is a challenge for a dermatologist and often requires the necessity of cooperating with a cosmetologist. Cosmetological treatments are aimed at improving the condition of the skin and reduction or subsiding of acne skin changes.Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected cosmetological treatments on the general quality of life of patients with acne.Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 101 women aged 19–29 years (x̅  =22.5 years, SD =2.3 years. All subjects were diagnosed with acne vulgaris of the face. In the study group, the acne changes occurred over the course of 3–15 years (x̅ =8.1 years, SD =2.7 years. Selected cosmetological treatments (intensive pulsing light, alpha-hydroxy acids, cavitation peeling, needle-free mesotherapy, diamond microdermabrasion and sonophoresis were performed in

  4. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Goro

    2015-01-01

    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  5. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouri, Goro, E-mail: mouri@rainbow.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-11-15

    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  6. Towards a durability test for washing-machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamminger, Rainer; Tecchio, Paolo; Ardente, Fulvio; Mathieux, Fabrice; Niestrath, Phoebe

    2018-04-01

    Durability plays a key role in enhancing resource conservation and contributing to waste minimization. The washing-machine product group represents a relevant case study for the development of a durability test and as a potential trigger to systematically address durability in the design of products. We developed a procedure to test the durability performance of washing-machines as a main objective of this research. The research method consisted of an analysis of available durability standards and procedures to test products and components, followed by an analysis of relevant references related to frequent failures. Finally, we defined the criteria and the conditions for a repeatable, relatively fast and relevant endurance test. The durability test considered the whole product tested under conditions of stress. A series of spinning cycles with fixed imbalanced loads was run on two washing-machines to observe failures and performance changes during the test. Even though no hard failures occurred, results clearly showed that not all washing-machines can sustain such a test without abrasion or performance deterioration. However, the attempt to reproduce the stress induced on a washing-machine by carrying out a high number of pure spinning cycles with fixed loads did not allow equal testing conditions: the actions of the control procedure regarding imbalanced loads differ from machine to machine. The outcomes of this research can be used as grounds to develop standardised durability tests and to, hence, contribute to the development of future product policy measures.

  7. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  8. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from "road tests" that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  9. Economic evaluation and efficacy of strategic-selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST or Conventional Treatment (CT. In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (% of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05 between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5% and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%. The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41 and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81 in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.

  10. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment

  11. Female infertility in India: Causes, treatment and impairment of fertility in selected districts with high prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraboni Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the ‘universal access to sexual and reproductive health care’ has received priority in the SDG‐3, the rural women experiencing infertility problem in India are unable to access and afford quality reproductive health care. The study investigates the present infertility situation, with a focus on risk factors, treatment seeking for infertility, and impact of infertility on fertility in India and its districts with high infertility prevalence. The DLHS‐3 data is used. Top fifteen districts with high infertility prevalence are selected for analysis. Simple bivariate and multivariate techniques are applied. In India, the prevalence of ever‐experienced primary, secondary, and current infertility is 6.6%, 2.1% and 4.6% respectively, whereas, in the selected districts, the estimates for the same indicators are 15%, 3.1%, and 5% respectively. A higher prevalence of reported symptoms of RTIs/STIs and menstrual problems is observed among women who ever had infertility. Treatment seeking for infertility is low in Korba and Koryia. The MCEB is less among women who ever had experienced infertility. The prevalence of ever‐experienced infertility and current infertility is considerably higher among women from socio‐economically disadvantaged sections. Awareness of RTIs, STIs, and menstrual problems, and preventive care can reduce infertility among rural women.

  12. Super-selective uterine artery chemoembolization for the treatment of cervical cancer: its clinical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chi; Zhang Dezhi; Cao Liyu; Xiong Zhuang; Wang Mingquan; Du Linan; Zhao Bensheng; Wang Wanqin; Sheng Qiang; Yu Yongqiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate super-selective uterine arterial chemoembolization therapy in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: Bilateral uterine arterial infusion with DDP, EADM or THP, MMC and 5-Fu was performed in 56 patients with pathologically-proved cervical cancer, which was followed by embolization of uterine arteries with iodine emulsion and Gelfoam particles. Radical hysterectomy was performed in 6 patients after interventional treatment. Results: Embolization of bilateral uterine arteries were successfully carried out in all cases. The angiography conducted during the procedure revealed markedly dilated uterine arteries, spiral tumor-feeding arteries and obvious tumor staining. The total effective rate was up to 94.6%. Six patients received radical hysterectomy 2 weeks after arterial chemoembolization, and the blood loss during the operation was much less than usual and the surgery procedure took shorter time. Ovarian necrosis was found in 1 case. The main adverse effects included leukocytopenia, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Conclusion: Super-selective uterine arterial chemoembolization is a safe and effective supplementary therapy for cervical carcinoma with fewer complications. (authors)

  13. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author's previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B ± $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author's engineering judgment

  14. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  15. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations...

  16. Influence of Industrial Washing and Cyclic Fatigue on Slippage of Linen Fabric Threads along the Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina KORUNČAK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All seams of garments shall withstand the established force effect in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Resistance to thread slippage along the seam is a major property of fabrics that is regulated by strict guidelines. In many research works, lining fabrics are chosen as the object of research as thread slippage is the most typical of them. What concerns the reports exploring slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam, just very few papers are available. Studies dealing with the influence made by industrial washing and cyclic load on the defect under investigation, thereby taking into account operational properties of garments are not readily available at all. The objective of the paper is to define the influence of industrial washing and cyclic tensile on slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam. For the research, five 100 % linen fabrics of plain weave have been selected. Control test specimens, unwashed and processed with different washing methods, have been analysed. Cyclic tensile of the test specimens has been carried out by a tensile machine “Tinius Olsen” at tensile force P = 20 N, tensile speed of 12.55 mm/s, number of cycles of 100. The carried-out testing has demonstrated that industrial washing decreased resistance of linen fabrics to thread slippage along the seam in the most cases. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that cyclic tensile led to particularly significant increase in the seam gap. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2486

  17. Decontamination effects of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) contaminated with radiocaesium during dormancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Takata, Daisuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on deciduous trees contaminated during dormancy by radiocaesium fallout derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was examined using peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). Eighteen-year-old peach trees ('Akatsuki') were bark-washed twice with a high-pressure washer on July 5 and 27, 2011. Seven-year-old peach trees ('Kawanakajima Hakuto') were bark-washed on January 24, 2012, and thirty-year-old Japanese persimmon trees ('Hachiya') were bark-washed on December 21, 2011. For the peach trees, most of the bark was not removed by washing with a high-pressure washer. In contrast, the rough bark of Japanese persimmon was removed completely. No significant differences in the 137 Cs concentration of 'Akatsuki' fruit were found between the treatments conducted in the summer of 2011. Upon the bark washing of peach 'Akatsuki' trees in summer, the possibility of secondary contamination of leaves via the leachate containing 137 Cs was likely. The 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of peach 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' collected in summer 2012 were decreased significantly by washing treatment conducted in winter 2011–2012. In the year after treatment, the 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of Japanese persimmon were significantly decreased by the treatment. The effect of the bark washing on decreasing 137 Cs contents in fruits and leaves was greater in Japanese persimmon than in peach. The results for 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' and 'Hachiya' demonstrated the possibility of additive contamination. (author)

  18. A non-selective (amitriptyline), but not a selective (citalopram), serotonin reuptake inhibitor is effective in the prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache.

    OpenAIRE

    Bendtsen, L; Jensen, R; Olesen, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline is extensively used in the prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache, only few studies have investigated the efficacy of this treatment and the results are contradictory. In addition, the new selective serotonin reuptake inhibiting antidepressants, which are widely used in depression and of potential value in pain management, have never been investigated in a placebo controlled study of tension-type headache. The ai...

  19. Individualized Selection of Beam Angles and Treatment Isocenter in Tangential Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninkhof, Joan, E-mail: j.penninkhof@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Spadola, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Baaijens, Margreet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose and Objective: Propose a novel method for individualized selection of beam angles and treatment isocenter in tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: For each patient, beam and isocenter selection starts with the fully automatic generation of a large database of IMRT plans (up to 847 in this study); each of these plans belongs to a unique combination of isocenter position, lateral beam angle, and medial beam angle. The imposed hard planning constraint on patient maximum dose may result in plans with unacceptable target dose delivery. Such plans are excluded from further analyses. Owing to differences in beam setup, database plans differ in mean doses to organs at risk (OARs). These mean doses are used to construct 2-dimensional graphs, showing relationships between: (1) contralateral breast dose and ipsilateral lung dose; and (2) contralateral breast dose and heart dose (analyzed only for left-sided). The graphs can be used for selection of the isocenter and beam angles with the optimal, patient-specific tradeoffs between the mean OAR doses. For 30 previously treated patients (15 left-sided and 15 right-sided tumors), graphs were generated considering only the clinically applied isocenter with 121 tangential beam angle pairs. For 20 of the 30 patients, 6 alternative isocenters were also investigated. Results: Computation time for automatic generation of 121 IMRT plans took on average 30 minutes. The generated graphs demonstrated large variations in tradeoffs between conflicting OAR objectives, depending on beam angles and patient anatomy. For patients with isocenter optimization, 847 IMRT plans were considered. Adding isocenter position optimization next to beam angle optimization had a small impact on the final plan quality. Conclusion: A method is proposed for individualized selection of beam angles in tangential breast IMRT. This may be especially important for patients with cardiac risk factors or an

  20. Computer Simulation of Bound Component Washing To Minimize Processing Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Janáčová

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focused on the optimization of the washing processes because many technological processes are characterizedby large consumption of water, electrical energy and auxiliary chemicals mainly. For this reason it is very important to deal withthem. For the optimization of process of washing it is possible to set up an access of the indirect modeling that is based on make-up ofmathematical models coming out of study of the physical operation mechanism. The process is diffusion character it is characterizedby the value of diffusion effective coefficient and so called structure power of the removing item to the solid phase. The mentionedparameters belong to input data that are appropriate for the automatic control of washing process.

  1. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm 3 along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm 3

  3. Dry washing: the solution for contaminated liquid effluent releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'homme, D.; Trambouze, P.

    1998-01-01

    The release of wash water used for contaminated garments poses an ever-increasing problem on nuclear sites. Even though the radioactivity is low, it mixes with organic compounds, thus polluting a large quantity of liquid effluents. In many cases, several thousands of m 3 /year per nuclear site are produced, which at times represents more than 30% of the volume of total releases. The conventional dry cleaning process is not a viable option, given that repeated washing cause clothes to fade and the odors are rot removed completely. In order to eliminate releases, STMI has developed, after several years of research with the Technological University of Compiegne, France, a solvent dry washing process for garments used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  4. ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC LOAD OF SELECTED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN JASŁO COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Piotr Młyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of hydraulic load in selected a wastewater treatment plant (WTP in Jasło County: in Przysieki, Kołaczyce and Szebnie. The study was based on the records of daily sewage volume entering the treatment plants within a multi-year period of 2011-2014. The analysis took into account the average daily amount of incoming sewage, the maximum daily peaking factor for the incoming sewage, changes in the sewage volume depending on specific month and the intervals with the greatest frequency of occurrence were designated. The analysis revealed that investigated wastewater treatment plants were hydraulically underloaded. Moreover it was conclude a significant variables of inflowing sewage amount. The sewage admission was the largest in spring and summer periods. Sewage volume interval most often occurring at the WTP in Przysieki was the one between 320 and 480 m3•d-1, for Kołaczyce between 290 and 320 m3•d-1 and Szebnie between 120 and 240 m3•d-1.

  5. Identifying Treatment Response of Sertraline in a Teenager with Selective Mutism using Electrophysiological Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2016-06-01

    Selective Mutism is described as the inability to verbally express oneself in anxiety provoking social situations and may result in awkward social interactions in school-aged children. In this case-report we present the baseline electrophysiological neuroimaging results and after treatment with Sertraline for 6-weeks. A 20-channel EEG event-related potential recording was acquired during an internal voice task at baseline prior to the initiation of 50mg of Sertraline and then repeated 6-weeks after treatment with Sertraline. EEG signals were processed for movement, eye-blink, and muscle artifacts and ERP signal averaging was completed. ERPs were analyzed using Standard Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA). At baseline, Sertraline increased the neuronal activation in the middle temporal gyrus and the anterior cingulate gyrus from baseline in the patient following 6-weeks of treatment. Our findings suggest that electrophysiological neuroimaging may provide a creative approach for personalizing medicine by providing insight to the pharmacodynamics of antidepressants.

  6. Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

    2008-07-01

    A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

  7. Combining sieving and washing, a way to treat MSWI boiler fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ashes contain some compounds that could be extracted and valorised. A process based on wet sieving and washing steps has been developed aiming to reach this objective. Such unique combination in MSWI fly ash treatment led to a non-hazardous fraction from incineration fly ashes. More specifically, MSWI Boiler Fly Ash (BFA) was separately sampled and treated. The BFA finer particles (13wt%) were found to be more contaminated in Pb and Zn than the coarser fractions. After three washing steps, the coarser fractions presented leaching concentrations acceptable to landfill for non-hazardous materials so that an eventual subsequent valorisation may be foreseen. At the contrary, too much Pb leached from the finest particles and this fraction should be further treated. Wet sieving and washing permit thus to reduce the leachability of MSWI BFA and to concentrate the Pb and Zn contamination in a small (in particle size and volume) fraction. Such combination would therefore constitute a straightforward and efficient basis to valorise coarse particles from MSWI fly ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  9. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that 137 Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of 137 Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions

  10. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl(2), and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl(2) decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al(2)O(3).CaCl(2)) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl(2). Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl(2). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Within-host selection of drug resistance in a mouse model of repeated interrupted treatment of Plasmodium yoelii infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nuralitha, Suci; Siregar, Josephine E; Syafruddin, Din; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study within-host selection of resistant parasites, an important factor in the development of resistance to anti-malarial drugs, a mouse model of repeated interrupted malaria treatment (RIT) has been developed. The characteristics of within host selection of resistance to atovaquone and pyrimethamine in Plasmodium yoelii was examined in such a model. METHODS: Treatment of P. yoelii infected mice, with atovaquone or pyrimethamine, was started at parasitaemia level of 3-5%, inter...

  12. Designing and Developing Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golvardi Yazdi M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Many items are needed for dressing including sterile dressing set, antiseptic and washing solutions, leucoplast tape, waste bin for infectious garbage, waste bin for noninfectious garbage, safe disposal trash for sharp cutting instruments, bedpan and sometimes drugs. All the items are laid out on a simple wheeled trolley. The multiplicity of items together with problems in placing tools on trolley, forgetting some items, disturbing sterile condition, falling and damaging equipment and the need for at least two people for each procedure, all are the reasons to design and develop Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds. Material and Method: To develop a mobile unit which meets our needs for dressing, the trolley patents registered in America and different companies were evaluated as well as the materials and methods used while dressing were considered. Results: Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds was designed and developed. It comprises the followings: drawer, waste bin for infectious garbage, waste bin for noninfectious garbage, shelves for serum and betadine solution, serum stand, peristaltic pump, flexible tube for connecting serum, a place for bedpan, foot pedal for serum flow, two eye-sensor chambers for solution betadine and scrub, an auxiliary work surface. Conclusion: Due to the usual requirements for dressing, we have designed an equipped mobile unit which covers all the objectives of dressing and increases the speed of procedure. Moreover, due to the contrived equipment on the trolley, procedures are done quickly and second person is not required to assist. Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds is made up of stainless steel which could be mass housing and commercializing which would play a deserving role in improving the fundamentals of health care and wound treatment.

  13. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase I: Soil washing final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the highest initial level of soil provided for testing was 41 pCi/g). Although the throughput of the soil washing system was inconsistent throughout the testing period, the system was online for sufficient periods to conclude that a rate equivalent to 0.25 cubic yards per hour was achieved

  14. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  15. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study.

  16. Washing the patient: dignity and aesthetic values in nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2013-07-01

    Dignity is a fundamental concept, but its meaning is not clear. This paper attempts to clarify the term by analysing and reconnecting two meanings of dignity: humanitas and dignitas. Humanitas refers to citizen values that protect individuals as equal to one another. Dignitas refers to aesthetic values embedded in genres of sociality that relate to differences between people. The paper explores these values by way of an empirical ethical analysis of practices of washing psychiatric patients in nursing care. Nurses legitimate the washing of reluctant patients with reference to dignity. The analysis shows the intertwinement of humanitas and dignitas that gives dignity its fundamental meaning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Omics approaches on fresh-cut lettuce reveal global molecular responses to sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddiego, Loretta; Bianco, Linda; Capodicasa, Cristina; Carbone, Fabrizio; Dalmastri, Claudia; Daroda, Lorenza; Del Fiore, Antonella; De Rossi, Patrizia; Di Carli, Mariasole; Donini, Marcello; Lopez, Loredana; Mengoni, Alessio; Paganin, Patrizia; Perrotta, Gaetano; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable that is extensively commercialized as a ready-to-eat product because of its widespread use in human nutrition as salad. It is well known that washing treatments can severely affect the quality and shelf-life of ready-to-eat vegetables. The study presented here evaluated the effect of two washing procedures on fresh-cut lettuce during storage. An omics approach was applied to reveal global changes at molecular level induced by peracetic acid washing in comparison with sodium hypochlorite treatment. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify total bacterial abundance and composition. The study revealed wide metabolic alterations induced by the two sanitizers. In particular, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses pointed out a number of transcripts and proteins differentially accumulated in response to peracetic acid washing, mainly occurring on the first day of storage. In parallel, different microbiota composition and significant reduction in total bacterial load following washing were also observed. The results provide useful information for the fresh-cut industry to select an appropriate washing procedure preserving fresh-like attributes as much as possible during storage of the end product. Molecular evidence indicated peracetic acid to be a valid alternative to sodium hypochlorite as sanitizer solution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Bioimpedance in monitoring of effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznecova LV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vasiliy Grigorievich Alexeev, Ludmila Vasilievna KuznecovaDepartment of Physiology, SP Botkin Moscow City Clinical Hospital, Moscow, RussiaBackground: Bioimpedance has been shown to be a safe technique when used in a number of biomedical applications. In this study, we used the Electro Interstitial Scan (EIS to perform bioimpedance measurements to follow up the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment in subjects diagnosed to have major depressive disorder.Methods: We recruited 59 subjects (38 women, 21 men aged 17–76 (mean 47 years diagnosed with major depressive disorder by psychiatric assessment at the Botkin Hospital according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Baseline Clinical Global Impression scores and EIS (electrical conductivity and dispersion α parameter measurements were done before starting SSRI therapy. Treatment follow-up was undertaken using EIS bioimpedance measurements and by treatment response based on the Hamilton Depression Scale and Clinical Global Impression, every 15 days for 60 days. At day 45, we classified the patients into two groups, ie, Group 1, including treatment responders, and Group 2, including nonresponders. At day 60, patients were classified into two further groups, ie, Group 3, comprising treatment responders, and Group 4, comprising nonresponders.Results: Comparing Group 1 and Group 2, electrical conductivity measurement of the pathway between the two forehead electrodes had a specificity of 72% and a sensitivity of 85.3% (P < 0.0001, with a cutoff >4.32. Comparing Group 3 and Group 4, electrical conductivity measurements in the same pathway had a specificity of 47.6% and a sensitivity of 76.3% (P < 0.16, with a cutoff >5.92. Comparing Group 1 and Group 2, the electrical dispersion α parameter of the pathway between the two disposable forehead electrodes had a specificity of 80% and a sensitivity of 85.2% (P < 0.0001 with a

  19. Within-host selection of drug resistance in a mouse model of repeated interrupted treatment of Plasmodium yoelii infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuralitha, Suci; Siregar, Josephine E; Syafruddin, Din; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study within-host selection of resistant parasites, an important factor in the development of resistance to anti-malarial drugs, a mouse model of repeated interrupted malaria treatment (RIT) has been developed. The characteristics of within host selection of resistance to atovaquone

  20. A Controlled Single-Case Treatment of Severe Long-Term Selective Mutism in a Child with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Sahiri, Safia; Riviere, Vinca

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the efficacy of combining two operant learning procedures--shaping and fading--for treating selective mutism. The participant was a 12-year-old boy with mental retardation presenting a severe long-term selective mutism. The treatment was aimed at increasing the loudness of his vocalizations in an…

  1. Impacts of traffic and rainfall characteristics on heavy metals build-up and wash-off from urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kokot, Serge

    2010-12-01

    An investigation into the effects of changes in urban traffic characteristics due to rapid urbanisation and the predicted changes in rainfall characteristics due to climate change on the build-up and wash-off of heavy metals was carried out in Gold Coast, Australia. The study sites encompassed three different urban land uses. Nine heavy metals commonly associated with traffic emissions were selected. The results were interpreted using multivariate data analysis and decision making tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA), fuzzy clustering (FC), PROMETHEE, and GAIA. Initial analyses established high, low, and moderate traffic scenarios as well as low, low to moderate, moderate, high, and extreme rainfall scenarios for build-up and wash-off investigations. GAIA analyses established that moderate to high traffic scenarios could affect the build-up, while moderate to high rainfall scenarios could affect the wash-off of heavy metals under changed conditions. However, in wash-off, metal concentrations in 1-75 μm fraction were found to be independent of the changes to rainfall characteristics. In build-up, high traffic activities in commercial and industrial areas influenced the accumulation of heavy metal concentrations in particulate size range from 75 - >300 μm, whereas metal concentrations in finer size range of 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn from build-up, while organic matter from 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni from wash-off. Cu and Zn need to be removed as free ions from most fractions in wash-off.

  2. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Prolapsing Hemorrhoids in HIV-Infected Patients with Tissue-Selecting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcome of a tissue-selecting therapy stapler (TST for prolapsing hemorrhoids in HIV-infected patients. Sixty-two patients with stage III-IV hemorrhoidal prolapse were treated with TST by a single surgeon between June and November 2014. The TST group comprised 32 patients (4 females, and the TST + HIV group comprised 30 HIV-infected patients (3 females. Age, gender, and preoperative examination as well as intraoperative and postoperative features were assessed. There was no marked difference in hemorrhoidal prolapse between the TST and HIV + TST groups, except for patient satisfaction at 12 months. TST is an effective and safe technique for treatment of prolapsing hemorrhoids in HIV-infected patients.

  4. The impact of sewage sludge treatment on the content of selected heavy metals and their fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the physicochemical properties of compost made of municipal sewage sludge from selected Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant. Content of basic macroelements and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Hg, Mg, Ca, N, P, K, Na) and their fractions was determined by means of BCR method. Based on the analyzes, it was found that the content of heavy metals in compost did not exceed the limits set by natural land management of sewage sludge; the compost is very abundant in biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus - and it can be also considered a significant source of calcium and magnesium. The analysis of results obtained from the three-stage chemical extraction revealed that deposits subjected to aerobic stabilization and composting accumulate metals (in descending sequence) in fractions III and II, i.e. fractions virtually inaccessible to the ecosystem in optimal conditions of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selected topical agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of minor injuries- a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chung eLEUNG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level.A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas:(1Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study;(2Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation;(3Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and(4Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications.Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain’s disease and the elbow (Tennis elbow. The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive.It is therefore concluded that further explorations are

  6. Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    The role of leptin in regulating physical activity is varied. The behavioral effects of leptin signaling depend on the type of activity and the animal's physiological state. We used mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running to further study how leptin regulates volitional exercise. Mice from four replicate high runner (HR) lines typically run ~3-fold more revolutions per day than those from four non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice have altered dopamine function and differences from C in brain regions known to be important in leptin-mediated behavior. Furthermore, male HR mice have been found to dramatically increase running when administered Western diet, an effect possibly mediated through leptin signaling. Male mice from generation 61 (representing three HR lines and one C line) were allowed wheel access at 24 days of age and given either Western diet (high in fat and with added sucrose) or standard chow. After four weeks, Western diet significantly increased circulating leptin, insulin, C-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and inflammatory hormone resistin concentrations in HR mice (C mice not measured). Western diet increased running in HR mice, but did not significantly affect running in C mice. During the fifth week, all mice received two days of intra-peritoneal sham injections (physiological saline) followed by three days of murine recombinant leptin injections, and then another six days of sham injections. Leptin treatment significantly decreased caloric intake (adjusted for body mass) and body mass in all groups. Wheel running significantly increased with leptin injections in HR mice (fed Western or standard diet), but was unaffected in C mice. Whether Western diet and leptin treatment stimulate wheel running in HR mice through the same physiological pathways awaits future study. These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body

  7. A two-temperature model for selective photothermolysis laser treatment of port wine stains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Wang, G.X.; He, Y.L.; Kelly, K.M.; Wu, W.J.; Wang, Y.X.; Ying, Z.X.

    2013-01-01

    Selective photothermolysis is the basic principle for laser treatment of vascular malformations such as port wine stain birthmarks (PWS). During cutaneous laser surgery, blood inside blood vessels is heated due to selective absorption of laser energy, while the surrounding normal tissue is spared. As a result, the blood and the surrounding tissue experience a local thermodynamic non-equilibrium condition. Traditionally, the PWS laser treatment process was simulated by a discrete-blood-vessel model that simplifies blood vessels into parallel cylinders buried in a multi-layer skin model. In this paper, PWS skin is treated as a porous medium made of tissue matrix and blood in the dermis. A two-temperature model is constructed following the local thermal non-equilibrium theory of porous media. Both transient and steady heat conduction problems are solved in a unit cell for the interfacial heat transfer between blood vessels and the surrounding tissue to close the present two-temperature model. The present two-temperature model is validated by good agreement with those from the discrete-blood-vessel model. The characteristics of the present two-temperature model are further illustrated through a comparison with the previously-used homogenous model, in which a local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption between the blood and the surrounding tissue is employed. -- Highlights: • Local thermal non-equilibrium theory was adapted in field of laser dermatology. • Transient interfacial heat transfer coefficient between two phases is presented. • Less PWS blood vessel micro-structure information is required in present model. • Good agreement between present model and classical discrete-blood-vessel model

  8. Selecting appropriate wastewater treatment technologies using a choosing-by-advantages approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Paz; Molinos-Senante, María

    2018-06-01

    Selecting the most sustainable wastewater treatment (WWT) technology among possible alternatives is a very complex task because the choice must integrate economic, environmental, and social criteria. Traditionally, several multi-criteria decision-making approaches have been applied, with the most often used being the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). However, AHP allows users to offset poor environmental and/or social performance with low cost. To overcome this limitation, our study examines a choosing-by-advantages (CBA) approach to rank seven WWT technologies for secondary WWT. CBA results were compared with results obtained by using the AHP approach. The rankings of WWT alternatives differed, depending on whether the CBA or AHP approach was used, which highlights the importance of the method used to support decision-making processes, particularly ones that rely on subjective interpretations by experts. This paper uses a holistic perspective to demonstrate the benefits of using the CBA approach to support a decision-making process when a group of experts must come to a consensus in selecting the most suitable WWT technology among several available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse.......016 micro g/ml; erythromycin resistant)/ml, 10(6) CFU of strain B (MIC of penicillin, 0.25 micro g/ml)/ml, and 10(5) CFU of strain C (MIC of penicillin, 4 micro g/ml)/ml, was used in the two mouse models, and a mixture of 10(5) CFU of strain A/ml, 10(4) CFU of strain B/ml, and 10(3) CFU of strain C....../ml was used in the rabbit tissue cage model. During the different treatment regimens, the differences in numbers of CFU between treated and control animals were calculated to measure the efficacies of the regimens. Selective media with erythromycin or different penicillin concentrations were used to quantify...

  10. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Carl, D.E.; Pope, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95, Ionsiv is a trademark of Union Carbide Company), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100, Duolite is a registered trademark of Diamond Shamrock Co) and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungsthC acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper summarizes the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process

  11. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun [AMC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Kwang-Ju Health College, Kwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously.

  12. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun; Kim, Seung Kook

    2001-01-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously

  13. Eye wash water flow direction study: an evaluation of the effectiveness of eye wash devices with opposite directional water flow

    OpenAIRE

    Fogt JS; Jones-Jordan LA; Barr JT

    2018-01-01

    Jennifer S Fogt, Lisa A Jones-Jordan, Joseph T Barr The Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USA Introduction: New designs of eye wash stations have been developed in which the direction of water flow from the fountain has been reversed, with two water streams originating nasally in both eyes and flowing toward the temporal side of each eye. No study has been done to determine the ideal direction of water flow coming from the eye wash in relation to the eye. Materials ...

  14. Improving observational study estimates of treatment effects using joint modeling of selection effects and outcomes: the case of AAA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A James; Cotterill, Philip; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Landon, Bruce E

    2011-12-01

    When 2 treatment approaches are available, there are likely to be unmeasured confounders that influence choice of procedure, which complicates estimation of the causal effect of treatment on outcomes using observational data. To estimate the effect of endovascular (endo) versus open surgical (open) repair, including possible modification by institutional volume, on survival after treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm, accounting for observed and unobserved confounding variables. Observational study of data from the Medicare program using a joint model of treatment selection and survival given treatment to estimate the effects of type of surgery and institutional volume on survival. We studied 61,414 eligible repairs of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms during 2001 to 2004. The outcome, perioperative death, is defined as in-hospital death or death within 30 days of operation. The key predictors are use of endo, transformed endo and open volume, and endo-volume interactions. There is strong evidence of nonrandom selection of treatment with potential confounding variables including institutional volume and procedure date, variables not typically adjusted for in clinical trials. The best fitting model included heterogeneous transformations of endo volume for endo cases and open volume for open cases as predictors. Consistent with our hypothesis, accounting for unmeasured selection reduced the mortality benefit of endo. The effect of endo versus open surgery varies nonlinearly with endo and open volume. Accounting for institutional experience and unmeasured selection enables better decision-making by physicians making treatment referrals, investigators evaluating treatments, and policy makers.

  15. CBT for childhood anxiety disorders: differential changes in selective attention between treatment responders and non-responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Dierckx, Bram; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether treatment response to stepped-care cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is associated with changes in threat-related selective attention and its specific components in a large clinical sample of anxiety-disordered children. Ninety-one children with an anxiety disorder

  16. CBT for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Differential Changes in Selective Attention between Treatment Responders and Non-Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Dierckx, Bram; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether treatment response to stepped-care cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is associated with changes in threat-related selective attention and its specific components in a large clinical sample of anxiety-disordered children. Methods: Ninety-one children with an anxiety disorder were included in the present…

  17. Parent-Implemented Procedural Modification of Escape Extinction in the Treatment of Food Selectivity in a Young Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Schiff, Averil; Najdowski, Adel C.

    2010-01-01

    Fool selectivity is characterized by the consumption of an inadequate variety of foods. The effectiveness of behavioral treatment procedures, particularly nonremoval of the spoon, is well validated by research. The role of parents in the treatment of feeding disorders and the feasibility of behavioral procedures for parent implementation in the…

  18. Wash fastness improvement of malachite green-dyed cotton fabrics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Nano-size features of both silica and titania nanosols are predicted to enhance the wash fastness of ... The cotton fabric was obtained from traditional market and was previously tested to contain fully cellulose ..... The authors acknowledge financial support of DP2M,. Directorate General of Higher Education, Indonesia,.

  19. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Background: Hand washing with soap and water is one of ... Method: This was a descriptive cross sectional survey ... simple questionnaire exploring perceptions, attitudes and ... Many studies have shown that doctors decontaminating their hands between seeing patients ..... countries: a systematic review and meta analysis.

  20. FOCUS ON HAND WASHING Yakubu Tahir Maigari Departm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Kashere,. Gombe State ... Peace can also be maintained with fellow human beings through ... talent and skill to build a mighty ship with which he and his people took .... One important aspect of Islamic rituals where washing of hands is prominent is ...

  1. Radioactive demonstration of the ''late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ''late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests

  2. All You Have to Do is Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast teaches children how and when to wash their hands properly.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  3. Effectiveness Of Different House-Hold Hand Washing Agents On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand hygiene is a very important procedure in infection control. Washing agents commonly in use were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing hand floral and cotton towel was used as drying agent. Agents studied include; water alone, carex soap, dettol, and imperial leather. The hands were inoculated (deliberate ...

  4. An overview of the Department of Energy's soil washing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Soil Washing Workshop was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, on August 28--29, 1990 at the request of C.W. Frank, Associate Director, Office of Technology Development, US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of existing soil washing technologies and their applicability to specific soil contamination problems at DOE sites and at Superfund sites of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). From the workshop deliberations, a course of action would be recommended in developing soil washing technologies. Presentations were given describing the soil contamination problems at various DOE sites. The factors addressed for each site included: type of contamination (organic, heavy metals, radionuclides, etc.), sources of contamination (leaking tanks, ponds, soil columns, pipes, etc.), types of soils that are contaminated, magnitude of the problem, current site activities (remediation), other considerations that impact the use of soil washing technology (e.g., environmental, site policies, etc.), and regulations and standards the sites are required to meet. Major findings and presentations of the workshop are presented

  5. Comparative studies on dyeing rate migration and wash fastness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration and diffusion properties of synthesized azo dyes from 2-aminothiazole derivatives applied on commercial grade undyed cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) were investigated using dyeing conditions of 2% on weight of fabric (owf), 50:1 liquor ratio and subjected to ISO3 and ISO4 standard wash ...

  6. Nitric acid flowsheet with late wash PHA testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This Task Technical Plan outlines the activities to be conducted in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) in ongoing support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) utilizing the Nitric Acid Flowsheet in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produced by the Late Wash Flowsheet. The IDMS facility is to be operated over a series of runs (2 to 4) using the Nitric Acid Flowsheet. The PHA will be produced with the Late Wash Flowsheet in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). All operating conditions shall simulate the expected DWPF operating conditions as closely as possible. The task objectives are to perform at least two IDMS runs with as many operating conditions as possible at nominal DWPF conditions. The major purposes of these runs are twofold: verify that the combined Late Wash and Nitric Acid flowsheets produce glass of acceptable quality without additional changes to process equipment, and determine the reproducibility of data from run to run. These runs at nominal conditions will be compared to previous runs made with PHA produced from the Late Wash flowsheet and with the Nitric Acid flowsheet in the SRAT (Purex 4 and Purex 5)

  7. Design and Construction of a Computer Controlled Clothes Washing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The search for easier and highly efficient ways of washing clothes ... This would help to reduce the running cost. .... It was only necessary to connect to the 8 data lines and the ... is actually a step further into complete automation of the clothes ...

  8. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  9. Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... levels of compliance to hand washing and related this to the occurrence of infectious bacteria in the test population. A questionnaire which contained information on bio-demographic characteristics and hand hygiene practices was applied to 100 individuals in the study population. Microbiological samples were obtained, ...

  10. Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading killer of both men and women in the US, and the 5-year survival remains poor. However, the approval of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has shifted the treatment paradigm and provides hope for improved survival. The ability of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC to evade the host immune system can be overcome by agents such as pembrolizumab (MK-3475/lambrolizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1 receptor. In early studies, treatment with pembrolizumab led to dramatic and durable responses in select patients (PD-L1+ tumors. This remarkable efficacy lead to approval of pembrolizumab in the second-line setting as response rates were almost doubled compared to standard of care (SOC chemotherapy. Most recently, data in the first-line setting from the KEYNOTE-024 study have redefined the SOC therapy for a selected subset of patients. In patients with ≥50% PD-L1+ tumors, pembrolizumab had a clear progression-free survival and overall survival benefit. Toxicity was mostly immune related and similar to checkpoint blockade toxicities observed in previous studies. The initial approval and subsequent studies of pembrolizumab required and utilized a companion diagnostic test, Dako’s IHC 22C3, to assess PD-L1 status of patients. The evaluation and scoring system of this assay has been used by other companies as a reference to develop their own assays, which may complicate selection of patients. Finally, the impact of pembrolizumab in NSCLC is growing as evidenced by the numerous, ongoing trials open for combinations with chemotherapy, chemoradiation, other immunotherapeutics, immunomodulators, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, hypomethylating agents, and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Further studies

  11. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Mondello, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs

  12. Selective mutism: follow-up study 1 year after end of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerbeck, Beate; Stein, Murray B; Pripp, Are H; Kristensen, Hanne

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is generally considered the recommended approach for selective mutism (SM). Prospective follow-up studies of treated SM and predictors of outcome are scarce. We have developed a CBT home and school-based intervention for children with SM previously found to increase speech in a pilot efficacy study and in a randomized controlled treatment study. In the present report we provide outcome data 1 year after having completed the 6-month course of CBT for 24 children with SM, aged 3-9 years (mean age 6.5 years, 16 girls). Primary outcome measures were the teacher rated School Speech Questionnaire (SSQ) and diagnostic status. At follow-up, no significant decline was found on the SSQ scores. Age and severity of SM had a significant effect upon outcome, as measured by the SSQ. Eight children still fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SM, four were in remission, and 12 children were without diagnosis. Younger children improved more, as 78% of the children aged 3-5 years did not have SM, compared with 33% of children aged 6-9 years. Treatment gain was upheld at follow-up. Greater improvement in the younger children highlights the importance of an early intervention.

  13. Selectivity of NF membrane for treatment of liquid waste containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Afonso, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of two nanofiltration membranes were investigated for treatment of liquid waste containing uranium through two conditions permeation: permeation test and concentration test of the waste. In the permeation test solution permeated returned to the feed tank after collected samples each 3 hours. In the test of concentration the permeated was collected continuously until 90% reduction of the feed volume. The liquid waste ('carbonated water') was obtained during conversion of UF 6 to UO 2 in the cycle of nuclear fuel. This waste contains uranium concentration on average 7.0 mg L -1 , and not be eliminated to the environmental. The waste was permeated using a cross-flow membrane cell in the pressure of the 1.5 MPa. The selectivity of the membranes for separation of uranium was between 83% and 90% for both tests. In the concentration tests the waste was concentrated around for 5 times. The surface layer of the membranes was evaluated before and after the tests by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), field emission microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force spectroscopy (AFM). The membrane separation process is a technique feasible to and very satisfactory for treatment the liquid waste. (author)

  14. How does the surface treatment change the cytocompatibility of implants made by selective laser melting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matouskova, Lucie; Ackermann, Michal; Horakova, Jana; Capek, Lukas; Henys, Petr; Safka, Jiri

    2018-04-01

    The study investigates the potential for producing medical components via Selective Laser Melting technology (SLM). The material tested consisted of the biocompatible titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The research involved the testing of laboratory specimens produced using SLM technology both in vitro and for surface roughness. The aim of the research was to clarify whether SLM technology affects the cytocompatibility of implants and, thus, whether SLM implants provide suitable candidates for medical use following zero or minimum post-fabrication treatment. Areas covered: The specimens were tested with an osteoblast cell line and, subsequently, two post-treatment processes were compared: non-treated (as-fabricated) and glass-blasted. Interactions with MG-63 cells were evaluated by means of metabolic MTT assay and microscope techniques (scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy). Surface roughness was observed on both the non-treated and glass-blasted SLM specimens. Expert Commentary: The research concluded that the glass-blasting of SLM Ti6Al4V significantly reduces surface roughness. The arithmetic mean roughness Ra was calculated at 3.4 µm for the glass-blasted and 13.3 µm for the non-treated surfaces. However, the results of in vitro testing revealed that the non-treated surface was better suited to cell growth.

  15. Treatment of Fukushima contaminated waters TEPCO selected Areva and Veolia solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seberac, Philippe; Paillard, Herve; Thierry, Jean-Marie; Bae, Ho-Il; Prevost, Thierry; Piot, Gregoire; Bertrand Ytournel

    2012-09-01

    The Actiflo-Rad TM system successfully contributed to treat the contaminated wastewaters from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The decontamination system jointly designed by AREVA and Veolia Water treated about 77 500 m 3 of high activity wastewater (∼10 6 Bq/cm 3 ), combining radionuclides adsorbents developed by AREVA and the know-how of Veolia in water treatment for the settlement of the adsorbed radioactive elements, producing sludge with a weight concentration of 80 g/L. Both companies delivered the treatment facility quickly with an efficient joint organization - in a very complex environment. Assembled on Fukushima site - badly damaged by the tsunami following the earthquake of March 11 th - the system was designed, built and started in a record time of 2 month 1 / 2 , instead of several years in a classical nuclear engineering project. The Actiflo-Rad TM was a key equipment to achieve a stable situation of reactors, allowing treated water to be reused for core cooling. Commissioned with the on-site support of Veolia experts, the system reduced by 10 000 the Cs-activity of the wastewater even with significant salt content (seawater diluted twice) at a flow-rate slightly below the design value of 50 m 3 /hr. The implemented technologies are already used separately on AREVA sites (la Hague, fuel reprocessing plant) and for many water treatment projects by Veolia all over the world (Actiflo TM and Multiflo TM processes, using lamellar settling devices - in addition, the first one making use of micro-sand for a better floc quality). The complete treatment process selected by TEPCO features a physico-chemical treatment and water desalination, in five steps. After de-oiling, wastewater is primarily decontaminated through zeolite columns (Kurion process). This pre-decontaminated water is then treated on the AREVA-Veolia two stages system; at each stage, more than 30 minutes contact time with radionuclides adsorbents is needed, adsorbed

  16. Diminished Neural Processing of Aversive and Rewarding Stimuli During Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Mishor, Zevic; Cowen, Philip J.; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are popular medications for anxiety and depression, but their effectiveness, particularly in patients with prominent symptoms of loss of motivation and pleasure, has been questioned. There are few studies of the effect of SSRIs on neural reward mechanisms in humans. Methods We studied 45 healthy participants who were randomly allocated to receive the SSRI citalopram, the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, or placebo for 7 days in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavor of chocolate) and aversive stimuli (sight of moldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) on the final day of drug treatment. Results Citalopram reduced activation to the chocolate stimuli in the ventral striatum and the ventral medial/orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, reboxetine did not suppress ventral striatal activity and in fact increased neural responses within medial orbitofrontal cortex to reward. Citalopram also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimuli conditions in key “punishment” areas such as the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Reboxetine produced a similar, although weaker effect. Conclusions Our findings are the first to show that treatment with SSRIs can diminish the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli. The ability of SSRIs to decrease neural responses to reward might underlie the questioned efficacy of SSRIs in depressive conditions characterized by decreased motivation and anhedonia and could also account for the experience of emotional blunting described by some patients during SSRI treatment. PMID:20034615

  17. Effect of tetracycline dose and treatment-mode on selection of resistant coliform bacteria in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study describes results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on selection of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4-7 weeks of age) were treated...... with oxytetracycline against Lawsonia intracellularis induced diarrhea in five pig herds. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with (i) high (20 mg/kg), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg) and (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dosage, (iv) oral-pen-wise (small group) treatment (10 mg...... significant changes in number or proportion of tetracycline resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant, but not to cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, difference in dose of oxytetracycline...

  18. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  19. 'If an Eye Is Washed Properly, It Means It Would See Clearly': A Mixed Methods Study of Face Washing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Aiemjoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Face cleanliness is a core component of the SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvements strategy for trachoma control. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to face washing may be helpful for designing effective interventions for improving facial cleanliness.In April 2014, a mixed methods study including focus groups and a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in the East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Participants were asked about face washing practices, motivations for face washing, use of soap (which may reduce bacterial load, and fly control strategies.Overall, both knowledge and reported practice of face washing was high. Participants reported they knew that washing their own face and their children's faces daily was important for hygiene and infection control. Although participants reported high knowledge of the importance of soap for face washing, quantitative data revealed strong variations by community in the use of soap for face washing, ranging from 4.4% to 82.2% of households reporting using soap for face washing. Cost and forgetfulness were cited as barriers to the use of soap for face washing. Keeping flies from landing on children was a commonly cited motivator for regular face washing, as was trachoma prevention.Interventions aiming to improve facial cleanliness for trachoma prevention should focus on habit formation (to address forgetfulness and address barriers to the use of soap, such as reducing cost. Interventions that focus solely on improving knowledge may not be effective for changing face-washing behaviors.

  20. Selective solvent extraction of oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-04-09

    In the selective solvent extraction of naphthenic base oils, the solvent used consists of the extract obtained by treating a paraffinic base oil with a selective solvent. The extract, or partially spent solvent is less selective than the solvent itself. Selective solvents specified for the extraction of the paraffinic base oil are phenol, sulphur dioxide, cresylic acid, nitrobenzene, B:B/sup 1/-dichlorethyl ether, furfural, nitroaniline and benzaldehyde. Oils treated are Coastal lubricating oils, or naphthenic oils from the cracking, or destructive hydrogenation of coal, tar, lignite, peat, shale, bitumen, or petroleum. The extraction may be effected by a batch or counter-current method, and in the presence of (1) liquefied propane, or butane, or naphtha, or (2) agents which modify the solvent power such as, water, ammonia, acetonitrile, glycerine, glycol, caustic soda or potash. Treatment (2) may form a post-treatment effected on the extract phase. In counter-current treatment in a tower some pure selective solvent may be introduced near the raffinate outlet to wash out any extract therefrom.

  1. Water reuse potential in truck wash using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lucas Subtil; José Carlos Mierzwa; Ivanildo Hespanhol; Raphael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the water reuse potential for truck washing using the effluent treated by a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) operated in full scale. In order to evaluate the reuse potential, a mass balance was performed for the reuse system taking into account the concentration of Total Dissolved Solids as the critical contaminant. The treatment system produced an effluent with average concentration of color, turbidity, TDS and BOD5 of 45 ± 14 uC, 15 ± 6.0 NTU, 244 ± 99 mg TDS / L and...

  2. The suitability of EIT to estimate EELV in a clinical trial compared to oxygen wash-in/wash-out technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Jan; Meier, Torsten; Iblher, Peter; Schindler, Angela; Paarmann, Hauke; Heinze, Hermann

    2014-02-01

    Open endotracheal suctioning procedure (OSP) and recruitment manoeuvre (RM) are known to induce severe alterations of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV). We hypothesised that EIT lung volumes lack clinical validity. We studied the suitability of EIT to estimate EELV compared to oxygen wash-in/wash-out technique. Fifty-four postoperative cardiac surgery patients were enrolled and received standardized ventilation and OSP. Patients were randomized into two groups receiving either RM after suctioning (group RM) or no RM (group NRM). Measurements were conducted at the following time points: Baseline (T1), after suctioning (T2), after RM or NRM (T3), and 15 and 30 min after T3 (T4 and T5). We measured EELV using the oxygen wash-in/wash-out technique (EELVO2) and computed EELV from EIT (EELVEIT) by the following formula: EELVEITTx,y…=EELVO2+ΔEELI×VT/ΔZ. EELVEIT values were compared with EELVO2 using Bland-Altman analysis and Pearson correlation. Limits of agreement ranged from -0.83 to 1.31 l. Pearson correlation revealed significant results. There was no significant impact of RM or NRM on EELVO2-EELVEIT relationship (p=0.21; p=0.23). During typical routine respiratory manoeuvres like endotracheal suctioning or alveolar recruitment, EELV cannot be estimated by EIT with reasonable accuracy.

  3. Treatment of selected primary gynecologic and pelvic malignancies with 241Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joyce Y.; Peschel, Richard E.; Kacinski, Barry; Nath, Ravinder; Pourang, Rauman; Roberts, Kenneth; Fischer, Diana; Chambers, Joseph; Schwartz, Peter E.; Wilson, Lynn

    1995-01-01

    observed in 1 primarily treated patient (soft tissue necrosis) and in 3 patients with recurrent disease (colonic obstruction, rectal fissure, and GI bleed, respectively). Conclusion: The unique dosimetric characteristics of 241 Am allow effective and safe treatment of selected primary gynecological malignancies and in previously irradiated patients with recurrent pelvic malignancies

  4. Treatment of selected primary gynecologic and pelvic malignancies with {sup 241}Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Joyce Y; Peschel, Richard E; Kacinski, Barry; Nath, Ravinder; Pourang, Rauman; Roberts, Kenneth; Fischer, Diana; Chambers, Joseph; Schwartz, Peter E; Wilson, Lynn

    1995-07-01

    .E.=.14). Complications were observed in 1 primarily treated patient (soft tissue necrosis) and in 3 patients with recurrent disease (colonic obstruction, rectal fissure, and GI bleed, respectively). Conclusion: The unique dosimetric characteristics of {sup 241}Am allow effective and safe treatment of selected primary gynecological malignancies and in previously irradiated patients with recurrent pelvic malignancies.

  5. Selective pharmacological modulation of renal peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding by treatment with diuretic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukeman, D.S.; Vaughn, D.A.; Fanestil, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have assessed the effects of in vivo administration of different classes of diuretic drugs on the expression of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding site (PBBS) in crude membranes derived from the cortex and outer medulla of rat kidney by saturation analysis with the PBBS-selective ligands [ 3 H]RO5-4864 and [ 3 H]PH 11195 in cortex and [ 3 H]RO5-4864 in outer medulla. Administration for 14-15 days of furosemide, a drug that blocks NaCl-KCl coupled transport in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, produced a significant doubling in the PBBS density (B/sub max/) in outer medulla, a region of the kidney rich in thick ascending limbs, and produced a lesser but significant increase in PBBS density in the cortex. Conversely, administration for 14-15 days of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide, which acts predominantly in the proximal tubule, and hydrochlorothiazide, which acts predominantly in the early distal tubule, elicited statistically significant increases in PBBS density in renal cortex but not in renal outer medulla. Furthermore, all drug treatments were without effect on the equilibrium dissociation constants (K/sub d/s) of [ 3 H]RO5-4864 and [ 3 H]PK 11195 binding to cortical and outer medullary membrane preparations. These findings demonstrate that the PBBS can be selectively up-regulated in different regions of the kidney by diuretic drugs with different modes/sites of action. 50 references, 1 table

  6. Treatment of selective mutism: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerbeck, Beate; Overgaard, Kristin Romvig; Stein, Murray B; Pripp, Are Hugo; Kristensen, Hanne

    2018-01-22

    Selective mutism (SM) has been defined as an anxiety disorder in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the recommended approach for SM, but prospective long-term outcome studies are lacking. Reports from the children themselves, and the use of more global quality of life measures, are also missing in the literature. We have developed a school-based CBT intervention previously found to increase speech in a pilot efficacy study and a randomized controlled treatment study. Continued progress was found in our 1-year follow-up studies, where older age and more severe SM had a significant negative effect upon outcome. In the present study, we provide 5-year outcome data for 30 of these 32 children with SM who completed the same CBT for mean 21 weeks (sd 5, range 8-24) at mean age 6 years (10 boys). Mean age at the 5-year follow-up was 11 years (range 8-14). Outcome measures were diagnostic status, the teacher- and parent-rated selective mutism questionnaires, and child rated quality of life and speaking behavior. At the 5-year follow-up, 21 children were in full remission, five were in partial remission and four fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SM. Seven children (23%) fulfilled criteria for social phobia, and separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia and/or enuresis nocturna were found in a total of five children (17%). Older age and severity at baseline and familial SM were significant negative predictors of outcome. Treatment gains were maintained on the teacher- and parent questionnaires. The children rated their overall quality of life as good. Although most of them talked outside of home, 50% still experienced it as somewhat challenging. These results point to the long-term effectiveness of CBT for SM, but also highlight the need to develop more effective interventions for the subset of children with persistent symptoms.Clinical trials registration NCT01002196.

  7. Occurrence, fate and interrelation of selected antibiotics in sewage treatment plants and their receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hong; Que, Chen-Jing; Xu, Gang; Sun, Yan-Feng; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hui; Sun, Rui; Tang, Liang

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence and fate of 12 commonly used antibiotics, two fluoroquinolones (FQs), three sulfonamides (SAs), three macrolides (MLs), two β-lactams and two tetracyclines (TCs), were studied in four sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their receiving water, the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The levels of selected antibiotics in the STPs ranged from ngL(-1) to μgL(-1), while ofloxacin (OFL) was predominant (reach up to 2936.94ngL(-1)). The highest and lowest proportions were of FQs (STP 1, STP 2 and STP 3) and TCs (in four STPs) respectively in both influents and effluents. And the second-highest proportion was of FQs in STP 4 (only 2% lower than the highest). What could be inferred was that the usage of TCs were extremely low while the usage of FQs were larger than other antibiotics in our study area. The elimination of antibiotics through these STPs was incomplete and a wide range of removal efficiencies (-442.8% to 100%) during the treatment was observed. Based on the mass loadings as well as the per-capita mass loadings of target antibiotics in four STPs, OFL was considered the primary contaminant herein. In the Huangpu River, 3 antibiotics were not detected in any water samples, while the detection frequencies of 4 antibiotics were 100%. The highest concentration detected in the river was 53.91ngL(-1) of sulfapyridine (SD). The Spearman correlation analysis of antibiotics in STPs and the nearby water samples suggests that the antibiotics discharged from some STPs might influence the receiving water to some extent. Moreover, most of the hazard quotient (HQ) values in STP effluents were one order magnitude higher than those in their receiving water. However, there is no imminent significant ecotoxicological risk caused by any single compound in the effluents and receiving waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling the consequences of targeted selective treatment strategies on performance and emergence of anthelmintic resistance amongst grazing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Berk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance by helminths can be slowed by maintaining refugia on pasture or in untreated hosts. Targeted selective treatments (TST may achieve this through the treatment only of individuals that would benefit most from anthelmintic, according to certain criteria. However TST consequences on cattle are uncertain, mainly due to difficulties of comparison between alternative strategies. We developed a mathematical model to compare: 1 the most ‘beneficial’ indicator for treatment selection and 2 the method of selection of calves exposed to Ostertagia ostertagi, i.e. treating a fixed percentage of the population with the lowest (or highest indicator values versus treating individuals who exceed (or are below a given indicator threshold. The indicators evaluated were average daily gain (ADG, faecal egg counts (FEC, plasma pepsinogen, combined FEC and plasma pepsinogen, versus random selection of individuals. Treatment success was assessed in terms of benefit per R (BPR, the ratio of average benefit in weight gain to change in frequency of resistance alleles R (relative to an untreated population. The optimal indicator in terms of BPR for fixed percentages of calves treated was plasma pepsinogen and the worst ADG; in the latter case treatment was applied to some individuals who were not in need of treatment. The reverse was found when calves were treated according to threshold criteria, with ADG being the best target indicator for treatment. This was also the most beneficial strategy overall, with a significantly higher BPR value than any other strategy, but its degree of success depended on the chosen threshold of the indicator. The study shows strong support for TST, with all strategies showing improvements on calves treated selectively, compared with whole-herd treatment at 3, 8, 13 weeks post-turnout. The developed model appeared capable of assessing the consequences of other TST strategies on calf populations.

  9. Water saving in IC wafer washing process; IC wafer senjo deno sessui taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Araki, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    1997-11-30

    This paper reports features of a wafer washing technology, a new IC wafer washing process, its pure water saving effect, and a `QC washing` which has pure water saving effect in the wafer washing. Wafer washing processes generally include the SC1 process (using ammonia + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to ultrafine particles, the SC2 process (using hydrochloric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to heavy metals, the piranha washing process (using hot sulfuric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to organic matters, and the DHF (using dilute hydrofluoric acid) purposed for removing natural oxide films. Natural oxide films are now remained as surface protection films, by which surface contamination has been reduced remarkably. A high-temperature washing chemical circulating and filtering technology developed in Japan has brought about a reform in wafer washing processes having been used previously. Spin washing is used as a water saving measure, in which washing chemicals or pure water are sprayed onto one each of wafers which is spin-rotated, allowing washing and rinsing to be made with small amount of washing chemicals and pure water. The QC washing is a method to replace tank interior with pure was as quick as possible in order to increase the rinsing effect. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Assessment of spatiotemporal variations in the fluvial wash-load component in the 21st century with regard to GCM climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro

    2015-11-15

    For stream water, in which a relationship exists between wash-load concentration and discharge, an estimate of fine-sediment delivery may be obtained from a traditional fluvial wash-load rating curve. Here, we demonstrate that the remaining wash-load material load can be estimated from a traditional empirical principle on a nationwide scale. The traditional technique was applied to stream water for the whole of Japan. Four typical GCMs were selected from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble to provide the driving fields for the following regional climate models to assess the wash-load component based on rating curves: the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC), the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model (HadGEM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model. The simulations consisted of an ensemble, including multiple physics configurations and different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), which was used to produce monthly datasets for the whole country of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on fluvial wash load in Japanese stream water were based on the balance of changes in hydrological factors. The annual and seasonal variations of the fluvial wash load were assessed from the result of the ensemble analysis in consideration of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The determined results for the amount of wash load increase range from approximately 20 to 110% in the 2040s, especially along part of the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan regions. In the 2090s, the amount of wash load is projected to increase by more than 50% over the whole of Japan. The assessment indicates that seasonal variation is particularly important because the rainy and typhoon seasons, which include extreme events, are the dominant seasons. Because fluvial wash-load-component turbidity

  11. Selection and determination of beam weights based on genetic algorithms for conformal radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xingen Wu; Zunliang Wang

    2000-01-01

    A genetic algorithm has been used to optimize the selection of beam weights for external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. A fitness function is defined, which includes a difference function to achieve a least-square fit to doses at preselected points in a planning target volume, and a penalty item to constrain the maximum allowable doses delivered to critical organs. Adjustment between the dose uniformity within the target volume and the dose constraint to the critical structures can be achieved by varying the beam weight variables in the fitness function. A floating-point encoding schema and several operators, like uniform crossover, arithmetical crossover, geometrical crossover, Gaussian mutation and uniform mutation, have been used to evolve the population. Three different cases were used to verify the correctness of the algorithm and quality assessment based on dose-volume histograms and three-dimensional dose distributions were given. The results indicate that the genetic algorithm presented here has considerable potential. (author)

  12. Super selective transcatheter angiographic embolization: an effective and prophylactic treatment for massive obstetric haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yiming; Zhai Renyou; Qian Xiaojun; Wei Baojie; Gao Kun; Zhang Shilong; Liu Jinmei; Zhang Qiuhong; Jiang Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effect and safety of transcatheter angiographic embolization (TAE)for managing massive obstetric haemorrhage. Methods: 17 cases of obstetric massive haemorrhage or with haemorrhage tendency were treated with TAE. Among them 14 cases had haemorrhage already, including 10 cases after abortion, caesarean section or normal labor and other 4 of hydatidiform mole. 3 cases with obstetric haemorrhage tendency included 2 cases of placenta praevia and 1 case of cervical pregnancy. Selective catheterization into bilateral uterine arteries or internal iliac arteries for DSA, showed the cause and location of the haemorrhage and then embolized with gelfoam sponge chips (1-3 mm) or Polyvinyl Alcohol(PVA); and part of the cases with MTX through uterine arterial perfusion. Results: The successful rate of catheterization was 100%. The achievement in 14 cases showed no active haemorrhage immediately after the procedure and no vaginal bleeding after 1-5 days. In 3 prophylactic cases before abortion or uterine curettage, obstetric massive haemorrhage occurred in 1 case, but not so in other 2 cases. Conclusions: TAE is an effective treatment for obstetric massive haemorrhage, with the advantages of minimal trauma, fast and definite treating effect and less complications. Prophylactical application for high risk patients can reduce the bleeding and mortality. (authors)

  13. The selective Aurora B kinase inhibitor AZD1152 is a potential new treatment for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert P; Naber, Claudia; Steffler, Tara; Checkland, Tamara; Maxwell, Christopher A; Keats, Jonathan J; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M; Lai, Raymond; Reiman, Tony

    2008-02-01

    Aurora kinases are potential targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have validated Aurora kinase A as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma (MM), and have demonstrated in vitro anti-myeloma effects of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors that inhibit both Aurora A and B. This study demonstrated that Aurora B kinase was strongly expressed in myeloma cell lines and primary plasma cells. The selective Aurora B inhibitor AZD1152-induced apoptotic death in myeloma cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, with a cell cycle phenotype consistent with that reported previously for Aurora B inhibition. In some cases, AZD1152 in combination with dexamethasone showed increased anti-myeloma activity compared with the use of either agent alone. AZD1152 was active against sorted CD138(+) BM plasma cells from myeloma patients but also, as expected, was toxic to CD138(-) marrow cells from the same patients. In a murine myeloma xenograft model, AZD1152-inhibited tumour growth at well-tolerated doses and induced cell death in established tumours, with associated mild, transient leucopenia. AZD1152 shows promise in these preclinical studies as a novel treatment for MM.

  14. Sunitinib in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulet-Margalef N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuria Mulet-Margalef, Xavier Garcia-del-Muro Sarcoma Multidisciplinary Unit and Medical Oncology Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia Hospitalet, IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. In advanced setting and after progression to imatinib, the multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has clearly demonstrated a clinical benefit in terms of response rate and progression-free survival with an acceptable toxicity profile. The recommended schedule for sunitinib administration is 50 mg per day 4 weeks ON and 2 weeks OFF; however, potential alternative schedules are also reviewed in the present article. Several biomarkers have been explored to better select candidates for sunitinib therapy, such as the value of early changes in standardized uptake value assessed by positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, circulating biomarkers, clinical biomarkers such as the appearance of arterial hypertension during treatment that correlates with better outcomes, and the GIST genotype. GISTs with KIT mutations at exon 9 and the so-called wild-type GISTs seem to better respond to sunitinib. Nonetheless, further investigation is required to confirm these findings as well as to understand the mechanisms of sunitinib resistance such as the development of new KIT mutations or conformational changes in KIT receptor. Keywords: sunitinib, GIST, KIT, refractory GIST

  15. The calculation of 131I dose in second treatment for Graves' disease and the selection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jisheng; Wang Qiang; Hu Mingzao; Zuo Lei; Peng Xiaoyan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To improve the method of 131 I dose calculation in second treatment for Graves' disease (GD) and to make a criterion for selection of patients. Methods: From 87 GD patients not recovered more than half a year after 131 I treatment, authors selected 41 cases (group A) whose thyroid weight were ≥30 g and gave them second 131 I treatment. The absorbed dose (d 2 ) of 131 I was calculated by the formula we designed: (m 1 /m 2 ):d 1 =(m 2 /m 3 ): d 2 ; i.e. d 2 (Gy) = d 1 m 2 2 /m 1 m 3 . The total dose (D) was calculated by the classical formula: D(37 KBq or μ Ci)= d 2 x 8 x m 2 (g)/1.6 x max. uptake % of 131 I x T 1/2eff (days). m 1 and m 2 was the thyroid weight before and after the first 131 I treatment respectively, m 3 was the pre-estimated thyroid weight after the second treatment, d 1 was the unit dose of the first treatment. Results were compared with 97 patients (group B) who had received second 131 I treatment before using this calculation method. The resting 46 cases (group C) whose thyroid weight were 131 I treatment of group A was 73.2% (30/41 cases), it was remarkably higher than that of group B (19.6%), but the early-permanent hypothyroidism rate was lower in group A. The recovery rate of group C was 91.3% (42/46 case) in two years (averaged 8.8 months). Conclusion: The calculating method can make the dose of second 131 I treatment for GD relatively optimal. Thyroid weight ≥30 g can be used as the main criterion for selection of patients 131 I treatment. Patients whose thyroid weight 131 I treatment and the therapeutic effect was poor

  16. Using electrocoagulation for metal and chelant separation from washing solution after EDTA leaching of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-02-15

    Electrocoagulation with an Al sacrificial anode was tested for the separation of chelant and heavy metals from a washing solution obtained after leaching Pb (3200 mg kg(-1)), Zn (1100 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (21 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil with EDTA. In the electrochemical process, the sacrificial anode corroded to release Al(3+) which served as coagulant for precipitation of chelant and metals. A constant current density of 16-128 mAc m(-2) applied between the Al anode and the stainless-steel cathode removed up to 95% Pb, 68% Zn and 66% Cd from the soil washing solution. Approximately half of the initial EDTA remained in the washing solution after treatment, up to 16.3% of the EDTA was adsorbed on Al coagulant and precipitated, the rest of the EDTA was degraded by anodic oxidation. In a separate laboratory-scale remediation experiment, we leached a soil with 40 mmol EDTA per kg of soil and reused the washing solution (after electrocoagulation) in a closed loop. It removed 53% of Pb, 26% of Zn and 52% of Cd from the soil. The discharge solution was clear and colourless, with pH 7.52 and 170 mg L(-1) Pb, 50 mg L(-1) Zn, 1.5 mg L(-1) Cd and 11 mM EDTA.

  17. Effect of freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil on house dust mites in soft toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Fu; Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ying; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2011-09-01

    Soft toys are a major source of house dust mites (HDM) and HDM allergens, and sleeping with soft toys is a significant risk factor for HDM sensitization. We studied three techniques to eliminate HDM from soft toys, namely freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil. Thirty-six toys (12 in each treatment group) were enumerated for live HDM by the heat escape method before and after freezing overnight, hot tumble drying for 1 h and washing in 0.2% to 0.4% eucalyptus oil. Freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in significant reductions in live HDM, an average reduction of 95.1%, 89.1% and 95.1%, respectively. Additionally, washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in a significant reduction in HDM allergens as well from a geometric mean of 9.12 μg/g to 0.37 μg/g (p = 0.033). These three HDM elimination techniques give parents of infants effective and acceptable methods of limiting HDM exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine by selective heating under microwave irradiation used for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Binghui; Luan Zhaokun; Li Mingming

    2005-01-01

    Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine (ADA) by selective heating under microwave irradiation (MI) used for water treatment is investigated. The effect of MI, ultrasound irradiation (UI) and conventional heating on yield of ADA, reaction time and the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyl dimethylammunion chloride (PDADMAC) prepared form ADA were studied. The results show that by selective heating at low temperature, MI not only increases yield of ADA and reduces reaction time, but also greatly enhances the flocculation efficiency of PDADMAC

  19. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  20. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.