WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected urine compounds

  1. Quantification of selected volatile organic compounds in human urine by gas chromatography selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-SRI-TOF-MS) coupled with head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl

    2016-08-07

    Selective reagent ionization time of flight mass spectrometry with NO(+) as the reagent ion (SRI-TOF-MS(NO(+))) in conjunction with gas chromatography (GC) and head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to determine selected volatile organic compounds in human urine. A total of 16 volatiles exhibiting high incidence rates were quantified in the urine of 19 healthy volunteers. Amongst them there were ten ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone, and 4-heptanone), three volatile sulphur compounds (dimethyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, and methyl propyl sulfide), and three heterocyclic compounds (furan, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran). The concentrations of the species under study varied between 0.55 nmol L(-1) (0.05 nmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for allyl methyl sulfide and 11.6 μmol L(-1) (1.54 μmol mmol(-1)creatinine) for acetone considering medians. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.08 nmol L(-1) for allyl methyl sulfide to 1.0 nmol L(-1) for acetone and furan (with RSDs ranging from 5 to 9%). The presented experimental setup assists both real-time and GC analyses of volatile organic compounds, which can be performed consecutively using the same analytical system. Such an approach supports the novel concept of hybrid volatolomics, an approach which combines VOC profiles obtained from two or more body fluids to improve and complement the chemical information on the physiological status of an individual.

  2. Method for routine determination of fluoride in urine by selective ion- electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Bellintani, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive method is outlined for determining fluoride in urine of workers who handle fluoride compounds. The determination is based on the measurement of fluoride by ion selective electrode. Cationic interferents like Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Fe +++ and Al +++ are complexed by EDTA and citric acid. Common anions present in urine, such as Cl - , PO --- 4 and SO -- 4 do not interfere in the method. (Author) [pt

  3. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  4. Method for fluoride routine determination in urine of personnel exposed, by ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Bellintani, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, fast and sensible method is outlined for the determination of fluoride in urine of workers that handle fluorine compounds. The determination is based on the measurement of fluoride by ion selective electrode. Cationic interference like Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Fe +++ and Al +++ are complexed by EDTA and citric acid. (Author) [pt

  5. [Analysis of Arsenic Compounds in Blood and Urine by HPLC-ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Zhang, S J; Xu, W C; Luo, R X; Ma, D; Shen, M

    2018-02-01

    To establish an analysis method for the detection of 6 arsenic compounds [AsC, AsB, As(Ⅲ), DMA, MMA and As(V)] in blood and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), and apply it to real cases. Triton was used to damage cells, and then EDTA·2Na·2H2O was used to complex arsenic compounds in cells, and sonication and protein deposition by acetonitrile were performed for sample pretreatment. With the mobile phase consisted of ammonium carbonate and ultrapure water, gradient elution was performed for obtaining the arsenic compounds in samples, which were analysed by ICP-MS with Hamilton PRP-X100 column. The limits of detection in blood were 1.66-10 ng/mL, while the lower limits of quantitation in blood ranged from 5 to 30 ng/mL. The limits of detection in urine were 0.5-10 ng/mL, while the lower limits of quantitation in urine were 5-30 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation of inter-day and intra-day precisions was less than 10%. This method had been successfully applied to 3 cases. This study has established an analysis method for detecting 6 common arsenic compounds in blood and urine, which can be used to detect the arsenic compounds in the blood and urine from arsenic poisoning cases as well as the patients under arsenic treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  6. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  7. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  8. Stimulus selection and tracking during urination: autoshaping directed behavior with toilet targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R K

    1977-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for investigating stimuli selected as targets during urination in the commode. Ten normal males preferred a floating target that could be tracked to a series of stationary targets. This technique was used to bring misdirected urinations in a severely retarded male under rapid stimulus control of a floating target in the commode. The float stimulus was also evaluated with nine institionalized, moderately retarded males and results indicated rapid autoshaping of directed urination without the use of verbal instructions or conventional toilet training. The technique can be applied in training children to control misdirected urinations in institution for the retarded, in psychiatric wards with regressed populations, and in certain male school dormitories. PMID:885828

  9. Rapid screening of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in urine samples using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Petinal, Carmen; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria; Cela, Rafael

    2005-07-01

    In this paper a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) method is proposed for a rapid analysis of some frequently prescribed selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI)-venlafaxine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, fluoxetine, citalopram, and sertraline-in urine samples. The SPME-based method enables simultaneous determination of the target SSRI after simple in-situ derivatization of some of the target compounds. Calibration curves in water and in urine were validated and statistically compared. This revealed the absence of matrix effect and, in consequence, the possibility of quantifying SSRI in urine samples by external water calibration. Intra-day and inter-day precision was satisfactory for all the target compounds (relative standard deviation, RSD, detection limits achieved were detected and tentatively identified.

  10. Selective Oxidation of Lignin Model Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruili; Li, Yanding; Kim, Hoon; Mobley, Justin K; Ralph, John

    2018-05-02

    Lignin, the planet's most abundant renewable source of aromatic compounds, is difficult to degrade efficiently to welldefined aromatics. We developed a microwave-assisted catalytic Swern oxidation system using an easily prepared catalyst, MoO 2 Cl 2 (DMSO) 2 , and DMSO as the solvent and oxidant. It demonstrated high efficiency in transforming lignin model compounds containing the units and functional groups found in native lignins. The aromatic ring substituents strongly influenced the selectivity of β-ether phenolic dimer cleavage to generate sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde, monomers not usually produced by oxidative methods. Time-course studies on two key intermediates provided insight into the reaction pathway. Owing to the broad scope of this oxidation system and the insight gleaned with regard to its mechanism, this strategy could be adapted and applied in a general sense to the production of useful aromatic chemicals from phenolics and lignin. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Zirconium-based metal organic frameworks: Highly selective adsorbents for removal of phosphate from water and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew, E-mail: linky@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shen-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Jochems, Andrew P. [New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources and New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Phosphate is one of the most concerning compounds in wastewater streams and a main nutrient that causes eutrophication. To eliminate the phosphate pollution, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are proposed in this study as adsorbents to remove phosphate from water. The zirconium-based MOF, UiO-66, was selected as representative MOF given its exceptional stability in water. To investigate the effect of an amine functional group, UiO-66-NH2 was also prepared using an amine-substituted ligand. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm reveal that UiO-66-NH2 exhibited higher adsorption capacities than UiO-66 possibly due to the amine group. However, the interaction between phosphate and zirconium sites of UiO MOFs might be the primary factor accounting for the phosphate adsorption to UiO MOFs. UiO MOFs also exhibited a high selectivity towards phosphate over other anions such as bromate, nitrite and nitrate. Furthermore, UiO MOFs were found to adsorb phosphate and to completely remove diluted phosphate in urine. We also found that UiO MOFs could be easily regenerated and re-used for phosphate adsorption. These findings suggest that UiO MOFs can be effective and selective adsorbents to remove phosphate from water as well as urine. - Highlights: • UiO-66 as the first type of MOFs was used to remove phosphate from water and urine. • The amine group in UiO MOFs was found to enhance the phosphate adsorption. • UiO-66 exhibited a high adsorption selectivity towards phosphate over other anions. • UiO-66 could be easily regenerated and re-used with 85% regeneration efficiency.

  12. New sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Waszczuk-Jankowska, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Ewa; Kaliszan, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2016-02-20

    An increase in cocaine consumption has been observed in Europe during the last decade. Benzoylecgonine, as a main urinary metabolite of cocaine in human, is so far the most reliable marker of cocaine consumption. Determination of cocaine and its metabolite in complex biological samples as urine or blood, requires efficient and selective sample pretreatment. In this preliminary study, the newly synthesized sorbent materials were proposed for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples. Application of these sorbent media allowed to determine cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine samples at the concentration level of 100ng/ml with good recovery values as 81.7%±6.6 and 73.8%±4.2, respectively. The newly synthesized materials provided efficient, inexpensive and selective extraction of both cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples, which can consequently lead to an increase of the sensitivity of the current available screening diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  14. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kshale

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... have entered the commercial market, both in rural areas ... nation of volatile compounds include: gas chromate- graphy (GC) ... prior to the actual analysis, various extraction methods ..... traditional and industrial 'orujo' spirits.

  15. Magnetic moment densities in selected UTX compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javorský, P.; Schweizer, J.; Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Diviš, M.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Sechovský, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 350, - (2004), e131-e134 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : uranium compound * polarized neutron scattering * magnetic moment Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2004

  16. Determination and confirmation of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors in bovine and porcine urine using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Thijs; Essers, Martien L; Kaklamanos, George; Sterk, Saskia S; van Ginkel, Leendert A

    2017-04-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors are prohibited in human sports doping. However, they also present a risk of being used illegally in animal husbandry for fattening purposes. A method was developed and validated using UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination and confirmation of SERMs, anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibiters in bovine and porcine urine. This method was used in a survey of more than 200 bovine and porcine urine samples from Dutch farms. In 18 out of 103 porcine urine samples (17%) and two out of 114 bovine samples (2%) formestane, an aromatase inhibitor, was detected. None of the other compounds was detected. From human doping control it is known that formestane can, in some cases, be of natural origin. Analyses of reference samples from untreated bovine and porcine animals demonstrated the presence of formestane in bovine animals, but not yet in porcine animals. Future research will focus on whether the detected formestane in porcine and bovine urine is from endogenous or exogenous origin, using GC-c-IRMS.

  17. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in the serum and urine of a patient with acute arsine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsine is one of the most potent hemolytic agents. It is important to clarify arsine metabolism as well as its chemical interactions with biological components. The aim of the present study was to clarify arsine metabolism by arsenic speciation analysis in serum and urine from an acute poisoning patient with hematuria, anemia, and renal and liver dysfunction. Speciation analysis of arsenics in serum and urine was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. The total arsenic (T-As concentration in serum was 244.8 μg/l at admission and 97.1 μg/l at discharge. In the speciation analysis, four kinds of As compounds derived from arsine metabolism were detected in serum and urine. The concentration of arsenite (AsIII, arsenate (AsV, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA in serum at admission were 45.8, 5.2, 17.9 and 9.3 μg/l, respectively. The concentrations of AsIII, AsV, and MMA decreased with biological half time (BHT of 30.1, 43.0, and 96.3 h, respectively. Only DMA was increased at discharge. The urinary AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA concentrations were 223.0, 12.1, 317.5 and 1053.5 μg/l at discharge, and decreased with BHT of 15.1, 20.8, 14.7, and 16.0 d, respectively. The results indicate that arsine was quickly metabolized to AsIII and subsequently up to DMA, with the result that the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic were added to those of arsine toxicity.

  18. Melamine phosphomolybdate - a new ion selective compound for caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.J.; Baxi, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Preparation of melamine phosphomolybdate is described and its composition is determined. The compound is found to be granular having much higher selectivity for Cs + than that of ammonium phosphomolybdate. (orig.) [de

  19. Ion-exchange selectivity of diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in ureolyzed human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-01-01

    This research advances the knowledge of ion-exchange of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KTP), and naproxen (NPX) - and one analgesic drug-paracetamol (PCM) - by strong-base anion exchange resin (AER) in synthetic ureolyzed urine. Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Astakhov, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were fit to experimental equilibrium data using nonlinear least squares method. Favorable ion-exchange was observed for DCF, KTP, and NPX, whereas unfavorable ion-exchange was observed for IBP and PCM. The ion-exchange selectivity of the AER was enhanced by van der Waals interactions between the pharmaceutical and AER as well as the hydrophobicity of the pharmaceutical. For instance, the high selectivity of the AER for DCF was due to the combination of Coulombic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional group of resin and carboxylate functional group of DCF, van der Waals interactions between polystyrene resin matrix and benzene rings of DCF, and possibly hydrogen bonding between dimethylethanol amine functional group side chain and carboxylate and amine functional groups of DCF. Based on analysis of covariance, the presence of multiple pharmaceuticals did not have a significant effect on ion-exchange removal when the NSAIDs were combined in solution. The AER reached saturation of the pharmaceuticals in a continuous-flow column at varying bed volumes following a decreasing order of DCF > NPX ≈ KTP > IBP. Complete regeneration of the column was achieved using a 5% (m/m) NaCl, equal-volume water-methanol solution. Results from multiple treatment and regeneration cycles provide insight into the practical application of pharmaceutical ion-exchange in ureolyzed urine using AER.

  20. Selective photochemical dry etching of compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, C.I.H.

    1988-01-01

    When laser-driven etching of a semiconductor requires direct participation of photogenerated carriers, the etching quantum yield will be sensitive to the electronic properties of a specific semiconductor material. The band-gap energy of the semiconductor determines the minimum photon energy needed for carrier-driven etching since sub-gap photons do not generate free carriers. However, only those free carriers that reach the reacting surface contribute to etching and the ultimate carrier flux to the surface is controlled by more subtle electronic properties than the lowest-energy band gap. For example, the initial depth of carrier generation and the probability of carrier recombination between the point of generation and the surface profoundly influence the etching quantum yield. Appropriate manipulation of process parameters can provide additional reaction control based on such secondary electronic properties. Applications to selective dry etching of GaAs and related materials are discussed

  1. Speciation analysis of organotin compounds in human urine by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Aníbal; Lespes, Gaëtane; Quiroz, Waldo; Aguilar, Luis F; Bravo, Manuel A

    2014-07-01

    A new headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method followed by gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) analysis has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 organotin compounds, including methyl-, butyl-, phenyl- and octyltin derivates, in human urine. The methodology has been validated by the analysis of urine samples fortified with all analytes at different concentration levels, and recovery rates above 87% and relative precisions between 2% and 7% were obtained. Additionally, an experimental-design approach has been used to model the storage stability of organotin compounds in human urine, demonstrating that organotins are highly degraded in this medium, although their stability is satisfactory during the first 4 days of storage at 4 °C and pH=4. Finally, this methodology was applied to urine samples collected from harbor workers exposed to antifouling paints; methyl- and butyltins were detected, confirming human exposure in this type of work environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milovanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used in creating various functional food and feed products, but certain species of microalgae and cyanobacteria are known to produce various compounds causing off-flavour. In this work, we investigated selected cyanobacterial strains of Spirulina, Anabaena, and Nostoc genera originating from Serbia, with the aim of determining the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds produced by these organisms. Additionally, the influence of nitrogen level during growth on the production of volatile compounds was investigated for Nostoc and Anabaena strains. In addition, multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, were used for making distinction among different microalgal strains. The results show that the main volatile compounds in these species are medium chain length alkanes, but other odorous compounds such as 2-methylisoborneol (0.51–4.48%, 2-pentylfuran (0.72–8.98%, β-cyclocitral (0.00–1.17%, and β-ionone (1.15–2.72% were also detected in the samples. Addition of nitrogen to growth medium was shown to negatively affect the production of 2-methylisoborneol, while geosmin was not detected in any of the analyzed samples, which indicates that the manipulation of growth conditions may be useful in reducing levels of some unwanted odor-causing components.

  3. Intra-molecular selectivity of muonium towards chlorinated aromatic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Stadlbauer, J.M.; Laing, M.E.; Klugkist, J.; Chong, D.P.; Porter, G.B.; Walker, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Muon resonance studies show that muonium atoms (Mu) in ethanol add selectively to certain C-sites of aromatic compounds containing -Cl and -OH substituents. The sites chosen seem to be those carrying the lowest electron density. This helps to characterize Mu as a nucleophile in addition reactions and, in this respect, Mu differs from ordinary H-atoms. The study shows no apparent inter-molecular selectivity between a pair of aromatic solutes in an equimolar mixture, but strong intra-molecular selectivity in an ether composed of those two aromatic rings. This difference between intra- and inter-molecular selectivity is interpreted as kinetic in origin - arising from the 'caging effect' of the solvent and peculiar to reactions close to the diffusion-controlled limit. (orig.)

  4. Behavior of Phenols and Phenoxyacids on a Bisphenol-A Imprinted Polymer. Application for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction from Water and Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Herrero-Hernández

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP, obtained by precipitation polymerisation with 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, and bisphenol-A (BPA as template, was prepared. The binding site configuration of the BPA-MIP was examined using Scatchard analysis. Moreover, the behaviour of the BPA-MIP for the extraction of several phenolic compounds (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F, 4-nitrophenol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and phenoxyacid herbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP has been studied in organic and aqueous media in the presence of other pesticides in common use. It was possible to carry out the selective preconcentration of the target analytes from the organic medium with recoveries of higher than 70%. In an aqueous medium, hydrophobic interactions were found to exert a remarkably non-specific contribution to the overall binding process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the BPA-MIP were evaluated to achieve the selective preconcentration of phenols and phenoxyacids from aqueous samples. The possibility of using the BPA-MIP as a selective sorbent to preconcentrate these compounds from other samples such as urine and river water was also explored.

  5. Bilirubin - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  6. Selective Extraction of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate by New Macrocyclic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Wolfrom, Earle [Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Pak, Joshua [Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Avenue, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The long half-life of technetium-99 and its ability to form an anionic species makes it a major concern when considering long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Furthermore, as its most stable species in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, TcO{sub 4}{sup -} is highly mobile and is considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. There is a need for the development of new extractant systems, such as systems based on crown ethers that may serve to selectively extract and separate this long lived radionuclide from different streams for potential industrial application. In this paper, we are reporting the design and synthesis of new macrocyclic compounds to selectively extract technetium and rhenium from complex mixtures. Preliminary tests performed for the selective extraction of pertechnetate and perrhenate are presented. (authors)

  7. Selective Extraction of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate by New Macrocyclic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Wolfrom, Earle; Pak, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    The long half-life of technetium-99 and its ability to form an anionic species makes it a major concern when considering long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Furthermore, as its most stable species in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, TcO 4 - is highly mobile and is considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. There is a need for the development of new extractant systems, such as systems based on crown ethers that may serve to selectively extract and separate this long lived radionuclide from different streams for potential industrial application. In this paper, we are reporting the design and synthesis of new macrocyclic compounds to selectively extract technetium and rhenium from complex mixtures. Preliminary tests performed for the selective extraction of pertechnetate and perrhenate are presented. (authors)

  8. Bitropic D3 Dopamine Receptor Selective Compounds as Potential Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Robert R; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Malik, Mahinder; Reichert, David E; Mach, R H

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent a substantial social and health care issue. The National Institutes of Health estimates that greater than 2 million adults suffer from neuropsychiatric disorders in the USA. These individuals experience symptoms that can include auditory hallucinations, delusions, unrealistic beliefs and cognitive dysfunction. Although antipsychotic medications are available, suboptimal therapeutic responses are observed for approximately one-third of patients. Therefore, there is still a need to explore new pharmacotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Many of the medications that are used clinically to treat neuropsychiatric disorders have a pharmacological profile that includes being an antagonist at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine receptor subtypes. However, dopamine receptor subtypes are involved in a variety of neuronal circuits that include movement coordination, cognition, emotion, affect, memory and the regulation of prolactin. Consequently, antagonism at D2-like receptors can also contribute to some of the adverse side effects associated with the long-term use of antipsychotics including the a) adverse extrapyramidal symptoms associated with the use of typical antipsychotics and b) metabolic side effects (weight gain, hyperglycemia, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and gynecomastia) associated with atypical antipsychotic use. Preclinical studies suggest that D3 versus D2 dopamine receptor selective compounds might represent an alternative strategy for the treatment of the symptoms of schizophrenia. In this review we discuss a) how bitropic Nphenylpiperazine D3 dopamine receptor selective compounds have been developed by modification of the primary (orthosteric) and secondary (allosteric or modulatory) pharmacophores to optimize D3 receptor affinity and D2/D3 binding selectivity ratios and b) the functional selectivity of these compounds. Examples of how these compounds might be

  9. Beta-galactosidase catalyzed selective galactosylation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridiau, Nicolas; Taboubi, Selma; Marzouki, Nejib; Legoy, Marie Dominique; Maugard, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to galacto-oligosaccharides and galacto-conjugates synthesis performed by the beta-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis is reported. The enzymatic galactosylation of eight kinds of adsorbed aromatic primary alcohols, in particular the two drugs guaifenesin and chlorphenesin, gave the corresponding beta-D-galacto-pyranosides in yields ranging between approximately 10% and 96%. For the first time, we have showed that the adsorption of acceptor substrates onto solid supports such as silica gel influences the yield and the selectivity of galacto-conjugates synthesis. In particular, we observed that adsorption of acceptor favored the synthesis of digalactosylated compounds.

  10. Specific characterization of non-steroidal selective androgen peceptor modulators using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to ion-mobility mass spectrometry: application to the detection of enobosarm in bovine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucher, Laure; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Cesbron, Nora; Penot, Mylène; Gicquiau, Audrey; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Currently under development for therapeutic purposes in human medicine, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (non-steroidal SARMs) are also known to impact growth associated pathways. As such, they present a potential for abuse in sports and food-producing animals as interesting alternative anabolic substances. Forbidden since 2008 by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) these compounds are however easily available and could be (mis)used in livestock production as growth promoters. To prevent such practices, dedicated analytical strategies have to be developed for specific and sensitive detection of these compounds in biological matrices. Using an innovative analytical platform constituted of supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to ion mobility-mass spectrometry, the present study enabled efficient separation and identification in urine of 4 of these drugs (andarine, bicalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and enobosarm) in accordance with European Union criteria (Commission Decision 2002/657/EC). Besides providing information about compounds structure and behaviour in gas phase, such a coupling enabled reaching low limits of detection (LOD < 0.05 ng.mL -1 for andarine and limits of detection < 0.005 ng.mL -1 for the three others) in urine with good repeatability (CV < 21 %). The workflow has been applied to quantitative determination of enobosarm elimination in urine of treated bovine (200 mg, oral). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Simultaneous determination of various aromatic amines and metabolites of aromatic nitro compounds in urine for low level exposure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tobias; Angerer, Jürgen

    2002-10-05

    A newly developed method permits the simultaneous quantitative determination of various aromatic amines (or metabolites of aromatic nitro compounds, respectively) in human urine in one analytical run. Applying this method it is possible to determine aniline, toluidines, 4-isopropylaniline, o-anisidine, 3- and 4-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline, aminonitrotoluenes, aminodinitrotoluenes, 3,5- and 3,4-dichloroaniline, alpha- and beta-naphtylamine and 4-aminodiphenyl. After separation from the urinary matrix by a simple liquid-liquid extraction at pH 6.2-6.4 the analytes are converted into their pentafluoropropionic acid amides. Separation and quantitative analysis is carried out by capillary gas chromatography and mass-selective detection in the single ion monitoring mode. The limits of detection were within the range from 0.05 microg/l (4-aminobiphenyl, o-anisidine, 3,5-dichloroaniline) to 2 microg/l urine (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene). The relative standard deviation of the within-series imprecision (determined at spiked concentrations of 2.0 microg/l and 10 microg/l) was between 2.9 and 13.6% depending on analyte and concentration. The relative recovery rates were in the range of 70-121%. The analytes that do not contain a nitro function showed better performance regarding the analytical reliability criteria. In order to determine the suitability of this new method for biological monitoring we analysed 20 12-h urine samples of persons without known exposure to aromatic amines, nitroaromatics or precursors in a pilot study. In these samples various aromatic amines could be clearly identified. The general population renally excretes aniline (median: 3.5 microg/l; 95th percentile: 7.9 microg/l), o- (0.12 microg/l; 2.7 microg/l), m- (0.17 microg/l; 2.2 microg/l) and p-toluidine (0.11 microg/l; 0.43 microg/l), and o-anisidine (0.22 microg/l; 0.68 microg/l). Additionally, we found that the persons investigated also excrete 3- (<0.05 microg/l; 0.55 microg/l) and 4

  12. Urine proteome analysis in Dent's disease shows high selective changes potentially involved in chronic renal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Laura; Candiano, Giovanni; Anglani, Franca; Bruschi, Maurizio; Tosetto, Enrica; Cremasco, Daniela; Murer, Luisa; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Scaloni, Andrea; Petretto, Andrea; Caridi, Gianluca; Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Definition of the urinary protein composition would represent a potential tool for diagnosis in many clinical conditions. The use of new proteomic technologies allows detection of genetic and post-trasductional variants that increase sensitivity of the approach but complicates comparison within a heterogeneous patient population. Overall, this limits research of urinary biomarkers. Studying monogenic diseases are useful models to address this issue since genetic variability is reduced among first- and second-degree relatives of the same family. We applied this concept to Dent's disease, a monogenic condition characterised by low-molecular-weight proteinuria that is inherited following an X-linked trait. Results are presented here on a combined proteomic approach (LC-mass spectrometry, Western blot and zymograms for proteases and inhibitors) to characterise urine proteins in a large family (18 members, 6 hemizygous patients, 6 carrier females, and 6 normals) with Dent's diseases due to the 1070G>T mutation of the CLCN5. Gene ontology analysis on more than 1000 proteins showed that several clusters of proteins characterised urine of affected patients compared to carrier females and normal subjects: proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodelling were the major group. Specific analysis on metalloproteases and their inhibitors underscored unexpected mechanisms potentially involved in renal fibrosis. Studying with new-generation techniques for proteomic analysis of the members of a large family with Dent's disease sharing the same molecular defect allowed highly repetitive results that justify conclusions. Identification in urine of proteins actively involved in interstitial matrix remodelling poses the question of active anti-fibrotic drugs in Dent's patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  14. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  15. Selective 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Analysis in Human Urine as Ethoxycarbonyltert- butyldimethylsilyl Derivatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Man Jeong; Nguyen, Duc Toan; Cho, In Seon; Kim, Kyoung Rae; Cho, Ki Hong; Choi, Sang Dun; Lee, Gwang; Yoon, Jae Hwan; Shim, Woo Young

    2011-01-01

    A new analytical method for measurement of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in human urine was developed. DOPA from an aqueous solution was converted into an ethoxycarbonyl (EOC) derivative. A tertbutyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) reaction under anhydrous conditions was then attempted for analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. A new mass spectral data on DOPA as a tri-EOC/mono-TBDMS derivative was built. This method showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999), precision (% relative standard deviation = 3.1-9.2), and accuracy (% relative error = .7.2-8.8), with a detection limit of 0.05 ng/mL. This selective and accurate method of DOPA analysis will be useful for biochemical monitoring of various neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease in biological fluids

  16. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose. It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life.

  17. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Siavash; Sagar, Nidhi M; Kyrou, Ioannis; Mozdiak, Ella; O'Connell, Nicola; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna D; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Covington, James A

    2016-01-25

    The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose--an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to "sniff", urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at -80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at -80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry--a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life.

  18. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Siavash; Sagar, Nidhi M.; Kyrou, Ioannis; Mozdiak, Ella; O’Connell, Nicola; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna D.; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P.; Covington, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life. PMID:26821055

  19. Direct determination of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone metabolites in urine by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS/MS using deuterium-labeled compounds as internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Endo, Yoko; Ogawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Shinobu; Takeuchi, Akito; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Onda, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-01

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) has been used in many industries and biological monitoring of NMP exposure is preferred to atmospheric monitoring in occupational health. We developed an analytical method that did not include solid phase extraction (SPE) but utilized deuterium-labeled compounds as internal standard for high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using a C30 column. Urinary concentrations of NMP and its known metabolites 5-hydoxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP), N-methyl-succinimide (MSI), and 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI) were determined in a single run. The method provided baseline separation of these compounds. Their limits of detection in 10-fold diluted urine were 0.0001, 0.006, 0.008, and 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Linear calibration covered a biological exposure index (BEI) for urinary concentration. The within-run and total precisions (CV, %) were 5.6% and 9.2% for NMP, 3.4% and 4.2% for 5-HNMP, 3.7% and 6.0% for MSI, and 6.5% and 6.9% for 2-HMSI. The method was evaluated using international external quality assessment samples, and urine samples from workers exposed to NMP in an occupational area.

  20. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xiao-Yu; Al-Misba'a, Zahra; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  1. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xiao-Yu

    2014-02-07

    A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  2. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  3. Profiling of the compounds absorbed in human plasma and urine after oral administration of a traditional Japanese (kampo) medicine, daikenchuto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabu, Jun; Watanabe, Junko; Hirakura, Kazuhiro; Ozaki, Yoshinori; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT), a pharmaceutical-grade traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders including postoperative ileus and has been integrated into the modern medical care system in Japan as a prescription drug. DKT is a multiherbal medicine consisting of Japanese pepper (zanthoxylum fruit), processed ginger, and ginseng with maltose as an additive. Despite substantial research on the pharmacological activities of DKT and its ingredients, the lack of studies on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of DKT has made it difficult to obtain a consistent picture of its mechanism of action. In the present study, we constructed an analysis procedure consisting of seven conditions of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis, which enabled the identification of 44 ingredients of DKT component herbs. We investigated the plasma and urine profiles of these ingredients 0.5 to 8 h after oral administration of 15.0 g of DKT in four healthy volunteers. The results indicated that 1) hydroxy-α-sanshool and [6]-shogaol, the prominent peaks in plasma derived from Japanese pepper and ginger, respectively, were detected at 0.5 h and thereafter decreased throughout the sampling period; 2) ginsenoside Rb(1), a prominent peak derived from ginseng, increased gradually during the sampling period; 3) glucuronide conjugates of hydroxy-sanshools, shogaols, and gingerols were detected in plasma and urine; and 4) no obvious differences between samples from the two male and the two female individuals were observed. These results provide a strong basis for future studies on pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of DKT.

  4. Speciation of eight arsenic compounds in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection using antimonate for internal chromatographic standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pritzl, G.; Hansen, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Four anionic and four cationic arsenic compounds in urine were separated by anion- and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at m/z 75. The species were the anions arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate...... and dimethylarsinate and the cations arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion. Hexahydroxyantimonate(III) was co-chromatographed with the arsenic anions but detected at m/z 121 and used as an internal standard for their qualitative analysis. Arsenite was prone to oxidation....... The argon chloride interference at m/z 75 was eliminated by chromatographic separation of the chloride present in the sample from the arsenic analytes. The ClO+ ion detected at m/z 51 and 53 was used to monitor the retention time of chloride in the anion-exchange system. The chloride eluted about 100 s...

  5. Potentiometric Determination of Ketotifen Fumarate in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Urine Using Carbon Paste and PVC Membrane Selective Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Y. Z. Frag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares between unmodified carbon paste (CPE; the paste has no ion pair and polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane selective electrodes that were used in potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF, where sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB was used as titrant. The performance characteristics of these sensors were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations which reveal a fast, stable, and linear response for KTF over the concentration range of 10−7 to 10−2 mol L−1. The electrodes show Nernstian slope value of 52.51±0.20 and 51.51±0.25 mV decade−1 for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes at 30∘C, respectively. The potential is nearly stable over the pH range 3.0–6.0 and 2.0–7.0 for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively. Selectivity coefficient values towards different inorganic cations, sugars, and amino acids reflect high selectivity of the prepared electrodes. The electrodes responses at different temperatures were also studied, and long operational lifetime of 12 and 5 weeks for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively, were found. These are used for determination of ketotifen fumarate using potentiometric titration, calibration, and standard addition methods in pure samples, its pharmaceutical preparations (Zaditen tablets, and biological fluid (urine. The direct potentiometric determination of KTF using the proposed sensors gave recoveries % of 98.97±0.53 and 98.62±0.74 with RSD 1.42 and 0.63% for CPE and PVC membrane selective electrodes, respectively. Validation of the method shows suitability of the proposed sensors for use in quality control assessment of KTF. The obtained results were in a good agreement with those obtained using the reported spectrophotometric method.

  6. Potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate in pharmaceutical preparations and urine using carbon paste and PVC membrane selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frag, Eman Y Z; Mohamed, Gehad G; Khalil, Mohamed M; Hwehy, Mohammad M A

    2011-01-01

    This study compares between unmodified carbon paste (CPE; the paste has no ion pair) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane selective electrodes that were used in potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF), where sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was used as titrant. The performance characteristics of these sensors were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations which reveal a fast, stable, and linear response for KTF over the concentration range of 10(-7) to 10(-2) mol L(-1). The electrodes show Nernstian slope value of 52.51 ± 0.20 and 51.51 ± 0.25 mV decade(-1) for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes at 30°C, respectively. The potential is nearly stable over the pH range 3.0-6.0 and 2.0-7.0 for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively. Selectivity coefficient values towards different inorganic cations, sugars, and amino acids reflect high selectivity of the prepared electrodes. The electrodes responses at different temperatures were also studied, and long operational lifetime of 12 and 5 weeks for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively, were found. These are used for determination of ketotifen fumarate using potentiometric titration, calibration, and standard addition methods in pure samples, its pharmaceutical preparations (Zaditen tablets), and biological fluid (urine). The direct potentiometric determination of KTF using the proposed sensors gave recoveries % of 98.97 ± 0.53 and 98.62 ± 0.74 with RSD 1.42 and 0.63% for CPE and PVC membrane selective electrodes, respectively. Validation of the method shows suitability of the proposed sensors for use in quality control assessment of KTF. The obtained results were in a good agreement with those obtained using the reported spectrophotometric method.

  7. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  8. Sensitive multiresidue method by HS-SPME/GC-MS for 10 volatile organic compounds in urine matrix: a new tool for biomonitoring studies on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Arianna; Vitali, Matteo; Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Protano, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    A HS-SPME method coupled with GC-MS analysis has been developed for simultaneously measuring the concentration of 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene, methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, 2-methyl-2-butyl methyl ether, and diisopropyl ether) in urine matrix as a biomonitoring tool for populations at low levels of exposure to such VOCs. These compounds, potentially toxic for human health, are common contaminants of both outdoor and indoor air, as they are released by autovehicular traffic; some of them are also present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Thus, the exposure to these pollutants cannot be neglected and should be assessed. The low limits of detection and quantification (LODs and LOQs <6.5 and 7.5 ng L(-1), respectively) and the high reproducibility (CVs <4 %) make the developed method suited for biomonitoring populations exposed at low levels such as children. Further, the method is cost-effective and low in time-consumption; therefore, it is useful for investigating large populations. It has been applied to children exposed to traffic pollution and/or ETS; the relevant results are reported, and the relevant implications are discussed.

  9. Selecting a Response in Task Switching: Testing a Model of Compound Cue Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    How can a task-appropriate response be selected for an ambiguous target stimulus in task-switching situations? One answer is to use compound cue retrieval, whereby stimuli serve as joint retrieval cues to select a response from long-term memory. In the present study, the authors tested how well a model of compound cue retrieval could account for a…

  10. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives.

  11. Antioxidant and Antiradical Properties of Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zübeyir Huyut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are known by their antioxidant properties and one of the most important sources for humans is the diet. Due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, natural novel antioxidants have become the focus of attention for protecting foods and beverages and reducing oxidative stress in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the total antioxidant, metal chelating, Fe3+ and Cu2+ reduction, and free radical scavenging activities of some phenolic and flavonoid compounds including malvin, oenin, ID-8, silychristin, callistephin, pelargonin, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, and arachidonoyl dopamine. The antioxidant properties of these compounds at different concentrations (10–30 μg/mL were compared with those of reference antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and trolox. Each substance showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, oenin, malvin, arachidonoyl dopamine, callistephin, silychristin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid exhibited more effective antioxidant activity than that observed for the reference antioxidants. These results suggest that these novel compounds may function to protect foods and medicines and to reduce oxidative stress in vivo.

  12. Selected carbonyl compounds in the air of Silesia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicka Marianna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein at a three sites in Silesian region (Poland in January and June 2015. Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres comes from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Average aldehyde concentration in summer period lies in range from 3.13 μg/m3 to 10.43 μg/m3, in winter period in range from 29.0 μg/m3 to 32.2 μg/m3. Acetaldehyde was dominant compound in winter period, in summer formaldehyde concentration was highest of all determined aldehydes.

  13. Selected carbonyl compounds in the air of Silesia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Chrobok, Michał

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a three sites in Silesian region (Poland) in January and June 2015. Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres comes from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Average aldehyde concentration in summer period lies in range from 3.13 μg/m3 to 10.43 μg/m3, in winter period in range from 29.0 μg/m3 to 32.2 μg/m3. Acetaldehyde was dominant compound in winter period, in summer formaldehyde concentration was highest of all determined aldehydes.

  14. Isoniazid release from suppositories compounded with selected bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kristofer C; Asbill, C Scott; Webster, Andrew A

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an alternative route of isoniazid adminstration for prophylaxis and treatment of tuberculosis in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro release of isoniazid from extemporaneously compounded isoniazid suppositories with a goal of optimizing the suppository dosage form for this indication. Suppositories were compounded using three different base formulations (cocoa butter, Witepsol H15 Base F, and a combination of polyethylene glycols 3350, 1000, and 400). The release profiles of six compounded suppositories with isoniazid (100 mg) were tested with a United States Pharmacopeial Convention-approved dissolution apparatus. Isoniazid concentrations at predetermined time points were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The results show that drug release from the water-solutble base (mixed polyethylene glycols) was significantly greater than that from the lipophilic bases (cocoa butter and Witepsol H15). The percentage of isoniazid release form the polyethylene glycol suppository formulation (70 +/- 1.4 mg/mL) was greater than that from the cocoa butter (55 +/- 1.1 mg/mL) and Witepsol H15 Base F (18 +/- 0.36 mg/mL) suppository formulations.

  15. Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanjun; Jiang Ying; Wu Chunqi; Zhao Jianyu; Yu Shouzhong; Yuan Benli; Yan Xianzhong; Liao Mingyang

    2006-01-01

    Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[( 1 H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of 1 H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The 1 H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the 1 H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function through altering the

  16. Selected topics from recent NMR studies of organolithium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Harald

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available After a short introduction to NMR spectroscopy of alkali and alkaline earth metals the review concentrates on NMR investigations of organolithium compounds. The isotopic fingerprint method, which rests on deuterium-induced isotope shifts for 6Li resonances, is introduced and exemplified with applications from the aggregation behavior of cyclopropyllithium systems and mixed aggregate formation between methyllithium and lithium salts. In the following chapter, one- and two-dimensional pulse experiments, both for homo- and for heteronuclear spin systems are discussed. Finally, the structural aspects associated with benzyllithium are outlined and the formation of polylithium systems by lithium reduction of biphenylenes is described.

  17. Selected heterocyclic compounds as antioxidants. Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolaki, E; Nobelos, P; Geronikaki, A; Rekka, E A

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and oxidative damage are increasingly assigned important roles as harmful factors in pathological conditions and ageing. ROS are potentially reactive molecules derived from the reduction of molecular oxygen in the course of aerobic metabolism. ROS can also be produced through a variety of enzymes. Under normal circumstances, ROS concentrations are tightly controlled by physiological antioxidants. When excessively produced, or when antioxidants are depleted, ROS can impose oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, sugars and DNA. This reduction-oxidation imbalance, called oxidative stress, can subsequently contribute to the development and progression of tissue damage and play a role in the pathology of various diseases. An antioxidant is defined as "any substance that, when present at low concentrations compared with those of a substrate, significantly delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to this target molecule". Despite evidence that oxidative damage contributes to a wide range of clinically important conditions, few antioxidants act as effective drugs in vivo. Inter alia, the difficulty of measuring antioxidant efficacy in vivo makes the interpretation of results from clinical trials difficult. A large number of synthetic compounds have been reported to possess antioxidant activity. Several of them derive from natural antioxidants, others have various structures. In this review, some of the most often reported classes of heterocyclic antioxidant compounds, as well as methods for evaluation of their antioxidant activity are discussed.

  18. Determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids and ratios in urine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and isotope pattern deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch-Motellón, J; Sancho, J V; Ibáñez, M; Pozo, O; Roig-Navarro, A F

    2017-09-15

    An isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method for the determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS has been developed using the isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD) mathematical tool. The method has been successfully validated for testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone, employing their respective deuterated analogs using two certified reference materials (CRM). Accuracy was evaluated as recovery of the certified values and ranged from 75% to 108%. Precision was assessed in intraday (n=5) and interday (n=4) experiments, with RSDs below 5% and 10% respectively. The method was also found suitable for real urine samples, with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) below the normal urinary levels. The developed method meets the requirements established by the World Anti-Doping Agency for the selected steroids for Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) measurements, except in the case of androsterone, which is currently under study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds in medicinal plants and characterizations of a selected compound, eucarvone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Yukari; Baba, Yohei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Fujimura, Kaori; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds were performed using 71 medicinal plant species to find new natural compounds, and the characterization of the promising compound was investigated to understand the mode of action. The volatile compounds from Asarum sieboldii Miq. showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the hypocotyl growth of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Great Lakes 366), followed by those from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet and Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC.. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) identified four volatile compounds, α-pinene (2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene), β-pinene (6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane), 3-carene (3,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene), and eucarvone (2,6,6-trimethy-2,4-cycloheptadien-1-one), from A. sieboldii, and three volatile compounds, limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene), menthone (5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-one), and pulegone (5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylidenecyclohexan-1-one), from S. tenuifolia. Among these volatile compounds, eucarvone, menthone, and pulegone exhibited strong inhibitory effects on both the root and shoot growth of lettuce seedlings. Eucarvone-induced growth inhibition was species-selective. Cell death, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation were induced in susceptible finger millet seedlings by eucarvone treatment, whereas this compound (≤158 μM) did not cause the increase of lipid peroxidation and ROS production in tolerant maize. The results of the present study show that eucarvone can have strong phytotoxic activity, which may be due to ROS overproduction and subsequent oxidative damage in finger millet seedlings.

  20. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-02-28

    Full Text Available O N +O O OH O N N +O O OH O R O O O S OO NH2 O O O O 1 R = H 2 R = CH3 3 R = NH2 4 R = OH 5 R = CH2CH3 6 R = H 7 R = OH 8 9 10 R1 = CH3, R2 = H 11 R1 = OCH3, R2 = OCH3 12 13 14 15 16 17 R = Br 18 R = C(O)OCH2CH3 19 R... CN NH2 CN O O CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN CN NC CN Cl CN N CN OH CN CN NC NC CN NH2 NH2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Slide 32 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Beta-amino compounds N...

  1. Urine Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor. Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  2. Green chemistry: highly selective biocatalytic hydrolysis of nitrile compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ambient temperatures and moderate pH, thereby reducing environmental impact, minimising the cost of equipment and improving reaction safety2. A further benefit is that biocatalysts can synthesise complex chemicals selectively3. This avoids... nitrile group in a dinitrile molecule permits the incorporation of the unreacted nitrile into the final product or further functionalisation, such as reduction to an amino group. Hence, these enzymes can be used to provide access to specific complex...

  3. Selective arsenic speciation analysis of human urine reference materials using gradient elution ion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, K.

    2004-01-01

    identical with the reference values given for total arsenic. The obtained values for arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid were identical with the values certified for the NIES No. 18 urine CRM. The speciation data presented here may be valuable for the quality assurance of analytical method development...

  4. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited...

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization for selective solid-phase extraction of eight bisphenols from human urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jiajia; Li, Yun; Wang, Jincheng; Sun, Xiaoli; Cao, Rong; Sun, Hao; Huang, Chaonan; Chen, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BPA imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. • Regular spherical shape and narrow diameter distribution. • Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA. • Good class-selectivity and clean-up efficiency for bisphenols in human urine under SPE mode. • Good recoveries and sensitivity for bisphenols using the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD method. - Abstract: The bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by simple Pickering emulsion polymerization. Compared to traditional bulk polymerization, both high yields of polymer and good control of particle sizes were achieved. The characterization results of scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements showed that the obtained molecularly imprinted polymer microsphere (MIPMS) particles possessed regular spherical shape, narrow diameter distribution (30–60 μm), a specific surface area (S BET ) of 281.26 m 2 g −1 and a total pore volume (V t ) of 0.459 cm 3 g −1 . Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA was obtained in the sorption experiment and good class selectivity for BPA and its seven structural analogs (bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol AF, bisphenol S, bisphenol AP and bisphenol Z) was demonstrated by the chromatographic evaluation experiment. The MIPMS as solid-phase extraction (SPE) packing material was then evaluated for extraction and clean-up of these bisphenols (BPs) from human urine samples. An accurate and sensitive analytical method based on the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD has been successfully established for simultaneous determination of eight BPs from human urine samples with detection limits of 1.2–2.2 ng mL −1 . The recoveries of BPs for urine samples at two spiking levels (100 and 500 ng mL −1 for each BP) were in the range of 81.3–106.7% with RSD values below 8.3%

  6. Evaluation of Temporal Changes in Urine-based Metabolomic and Kidney Injury Markers to Detect Compound Induced Acute Kidney Tubular Toxicity in Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, M P; Yang, Y; McDuffie, J E; Klapczynski, M; Buck, W; Cheatham, L; Eisinger, D; Sace, F; Lynch, K M; Sonee, M; Ma, J-Y; Chen, Y; Marshall, K; Damour, M; Stephen, L; Dragan, Y P; Fikes, J; Snook, S; Kinter, L B

    2017-01-01

    Urinary protein biomarkers and metabolomic markers have been leveraged to detect acute Drug Induced Kidney Injury (DIKI) in rats; however, the utility of these indicators to enable early detection of DIKI in canine models has not been well documented. Therefore, we evaluated temporal changes in biomarkers and metabolites in urine from male and female beagle dogs. Gentamicin- induced kidney lesions in male dogs were characterized by moderate to severe tubular epithelial cell degeneration/necrosis, epithelial cell regeneration and dilation; and a unique urinebased metabolomic fingerprint. These metabolite changes included time and treatment-dependent increases in lactate, taurine, glucose, lactate, alanine, and citrate as well as 9 other known metabolites. As early as 3 days post dose, gentamicin induced increases in urinary albumin, clusterin, neutrophil gelatinase associated protein (NGAL) and total protein concentrations. Urinary albumin, clusterin, and NGAL showed earlier and more robust elevations than traditional kidney safety biomarkers, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Elevations in urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) were less reliable for detection of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in dogs based on values generated utilizing multiple first-generation, canine-specific KIM-1 immunoassays. The metabolic fingerprint was further evaluated in male and female dogs that received Compound A which induced slightly reversible renal tubular alterations characterized as degeneration/necrosis and concurrent significant increases in urinary taurine amongst other markers. These data support further investigations to demonstrate the value of urinary metabolites, albumin, clusterin, NGAL and taurine as promising markers to enable early detection of DIKI in dogs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  8. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  9. Urine Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs can darken urine, including the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, the antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin ( ... Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the ...

  10. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from an infant, you may need extra collection bags. How the Test will Feel The test involves ... urine, it normally consists of mainly albumin. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  11. Selective extraction of cesium: from compound to process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Dozol, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Under the French law of 30 December 1991 on nuclear waste management, research is conducted to recover long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive effluents generated by spent fuel reprocessing, in order to destroy them by transmutation or encapsulate them in specific matrices. Cesium extraction with mono and bis-crown calix(4)arenes (Frame 1) is a candidate for process development. These extractants remove cesium from highly acidic or basic pH media even with high salinity. A real raffinate was treated in 1994 in a hot cell to extract cesium with a calix-crown extractant. The success of this one batch experiment confirmed the feasibility of cesium decontamination from high-level liquid waste. It was then decided to develop a process flowchart to extract cesium selectively from high-level raffinate, to be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was accordingly decided to develop a process based on liquid-liquid extraction and hence optimize a calixarene/diluent solvent according to: - hydraulic properties: density, viscosity, interfacial tension, - chemical criteria: sufficient cesium extraction (depending on the diluent), kinetics, third phase elimination... New mono-crown-calixarenes branched with long aliphatic groups (Frame 2) were designed to be soluble in aliphatic diluents. To prevent third phase formation associated with nitric acid extraction, the addition of modifiers (alcohol, phosphate and amide) in the organic phase was tested (Frame 3). Table 1 shows examples of calixarene/diluent systems suitable for a process flowchart, and Figure 2 provides data on cesium extraction with these new systems. Alongside these improvements, a system based on a modified 1,3-di(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix[4]arene crown and a modified diluent was also developed, considering a mixed TPH/NPHE system as the diluent, where TPH (hydrogenated tetra propylene) is a common aliphatic industrial solvent and NPHE is nitrophenyl

  12. Anti-trypanosomal activities and structural chemical properties of selected compound classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Bruhn, Heike; Schirmeister, Tanja; Cecil, Alexander; Albert, Christian R; Buechold, Christian; Tischer, Maximilian; Schlesinger, Susanne; Goebel, Tim; Fuß, Antje; Mathein, Daniela; Merget, Benjamin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Stich, August; Krohne, Georg; Engstler, Markus; Bringmann, Gerhard; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-02-01

    Potent compounds do not necessarily make the best drugs in the market. Consequently, with the aim to describe tools that may be fundamental for refining the screening of candidates for animal and preclinical studies and further development, molecules of different structural classes synthesized within the frame of a broad screening platform were evaluated for their trypanocidal activities, cytotoxicities against murine macrophages J774.1 and selectivity indices, as well as for their ligand efficiencies and structural chemical properties. To advance into their modes of action, we also describe the morphological and ultrastructural changes exerted by selected members of each compound class on the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Our data suggest that the potential organelles targeted are either the flagellar pocket (compound 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 15, amino acid derivative with piperazine moieties), the endoplasmic reticulum membrane systems (37, bisquaternary bisnaphthalimide; 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative), or mitochondria and kinetoplasts (88, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative). Amino acid derivatives with fumaric acid and piperazine moieties (4, 15) weakly inhibiting cysteine proteases seem to preferentially target acidic compartments. Our results suggest that ligand efficiency indices may be helpful to learn about the relationship between potency and chemical characteristics of the compounds. Interestingly, the correlations found between the physico-chemical parameters of the selected compounds and those of commercial molecules that target specific organelles indicate that our rationale might be helpful to drive compound design toward high activities and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties for all compound families.

  13. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  14. Deuterium enrichment by selective photo-induced dissociation of an organic carbonyl compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marling, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    A deuterium-enriched material is produced by selective photoinduced dissociation of a gas phase organic carbonyl compound containing at least one hydrogen atom bonded to an atom adjacent to a carbonyl group. Alkyl carbonyl compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, trifluoroacetic acid, cyclobutanone, cyclopentanone, methyl acetate, 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone, 2,4-pentanedione, and 4-methyl-2-pentanone are preferred. The carbonyl compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation from one laser, or two lasers operating at different frequencies, to selectively dissociate the deuterated molecules into stable products. The undissociated compound may be redeuterated by direct aqueous liquid phase H/D exchange, or by indirect liquid phase exchange using an alkanol in an intermediate step

  15. The Human Urine Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  16. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP for Selective Solid Phase Extraction of Celecoxib in Urine Samples Followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ansari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the analysis of human urine samples, a novel method explained for the determination of celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The synthesis of the MIP was performed by precipitation polymerization in methacrylic acid (MAA, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, chloroform, 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and celecoxib as the functional monomer, cross-linker monomer, solvent, initiator and target drug, respectively. The celecoxib imprinted polymer was utilized as a specific sorbent for the solid phase extraction (SPE of celecoxib from samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP performance was compared with the synthesized non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG were used for characterizing the synthesized polymers. Moreover, the MISPE procedure parameters such as pH, eluent solvent flow rate, eluent volume and sorbent mass that probably influence the extraction process have been optimized to achieve the highest celecoxib extraction efficiency. The relative standard deviation (RSD %, recovery percent, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ of this proposed method were 1.12%, 96%, 8 µg L-1 and 26.7 µg L-1, respectively. The proposed MISPE-HPLC-UV method can be used for the separation and enrichment of trace amounts of celecoxib in human urine and biological samples.

  17. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  18. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  19. Effects of selected bioactive food compounds on human white adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Christel; Wilhelm, Uta; Mandrup, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that intake of specific bioactive compounds may have beneficial clinical effects on adipose tissue partly due to their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. With the overall aim to contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms of selecte...... uptake albeit only with the combination of DHA and AC. Taken together, our results may link the reported health benefits of the selected bioactives on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia to effects on white adipocytes....

  20. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization for selective solid-phase extraction of eight bisphenols from human urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiajia [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yun; Wang, Jincheng [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Xiaoli; Cao, Rong [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Hao [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Department of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110000 (China); Huang, Chaonan [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jiping, E-mail: chenjp@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • BPA imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. • Regular spherical shape and narrow diameter distribution. • Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA. • Good class-selectivity and clean-up efficiency for bisphenols in human urine under SPE mode. • Good recoveries and sensitivity for bisphenols using the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD method. - Abstract: The bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by simple Pickering emulsion polymerization. Compared to traditional bulk polymerization, both high yields of polymer and good control of particle sizes were achieved. The characterization results of scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements showed that the obtained molecularly imprinted polymer microsphere (MIPMS) particles possessed regular spherical shape, narrow diameter distribution (30–60 μm), a specific surface area (S{sub BET}) of 281.26 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and a total pore volume (V{sub t}) of 0.459 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA was obtained in the sorption experiment and good class selectivity for BPA and its seven structural analogs (bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol AF, bisphenol S, bisphenol AP and bisphenol Z) was demonstrated by the chromatographic evaluation experiment. The MIPMS as solid-phase extraction (SPE) packing material was then evaluated for extraction and clean-up of these bisphenols (BPs) from human urine samples. An accurate and sensitive analytical method based on the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD has been successfully established for simultaneous determination of eight BPs from human urine samples with detection limits of 1.2–2.2 ng mL{sup −1}. The recoveries of BPs for urine samples at two spiking levels (100 and 500 ng mL{sup −1} for each BP) were in the range of 81.3–106.7% with RSD values below 8.3%.

  1. Fabrication of boronate-decorated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes grafted cotton fiber for the selective enrichment of nucleosides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-06-01

    Various cotton fiber based boronate-affinity adsorbents are recently developed for the sample pretreatment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules, but most do not have efficient capacity due to limited binding sites on the surface of cotton fibers. To increase the density of boronate groups on the surface of cotton fiber, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes were used to modify cotton fiber to provide plentiful reactive sites for subsequent functionalization with 4-formylphenylboronic acid. The new adsorbent showed special recognition ability towards cis-diols and high adsorption capacity (175 μg/g for catechol, 250 μg/g for dopamine, 400 μg/g for adenosine). The in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction was investigated under different conditions, including pH and ionic strength of solution, adsorbent amount, pipette times, washing solvent, and elution solvent. The in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze four nucleosides in urine samples. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the detection limits were determined to be between 5.1 and 6.1 ng/mL (S/N  =  3), and the linearity ranged from 20 to 500 ng/mL for these analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recoveries of analytes in real urine samples with recoveries varying from 83 to 104% (RSD = 3.9-10.2%, n = 3). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization for selective solid-phase extraction of eight bisphenols from human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Li, Yun; Wang, Jincheng; Sun, Xiaoli; Cao, Rong; Sun, Hao; Huang, Chaonan; Chen, Jiping

    2015-05-04

    The bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by simple Pickering emulsion polymerization. Compared to traditional bulk polymerization, both high yields of polymer and good control of particle sizes were achieved. The characterization results of scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements showed that the obtained molecularly imprinted polymer microsphere (MIPMS) particles possessed regular spherical shape, narrow diameter distribution (30-60 μm), a specific surface area (S(BET)) of 281.26 m(2) g(-1) and a total pore volume (V(t)) of 0.459 cm(3) g(-1). Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA was obtained in the sorption experiment and good class selectivity for BPA and its seven structural analogs (bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol AF, bisphenol S, bisphenol AP and bisphenol Z) was demonstrated by the chromatographic evaluation experiment. The MIPMS as solid-phase extraction (SPE) packing material was then evaluated for extraction and clean-up of these bisphenols (BPs) from human urine samples. An accurate and sensitive analytical method based on the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD has been successfully established for simultaneous determination of eight BPs from human urine samples with detection limits of 1.2-2.2 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of BPs for urine samples at two spiking levels (100 and 500 ng mL(-1) for each BP) were in the range of 81.3-106.7% with RSD values below 8.3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Semi-automated solid phase extraction method for the mass spectrometric quantification of 12 specific metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, and select herbicides in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark D; Wade, Erin L; Restrepo, Paula R; Roman-Esteva, William; Bravo, Roberto; Kuklenyik, Peter; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-06-15

    Organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides and phenoxyacetic acid herbicides represent important classes of pesticides applied in commercial and residential settings. Interest in assessing the extent of human exposure to these pesticides exists because of their widespread use and their potential adverse health effects. An analytical method for measuring 12 biomarkers of several of these pesticides in urine has been developed. The target analytes were extracted from one milliliter of urine by a semi-automated solid phase extraction technique, separated from each other and from other urinary biomolecules by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and detected using tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution quantitation. This method can be used to measure all the target analytes in one injection with similar repeatability and detection limits of previous methods which required more than one injection. Each step of the procedure was optimized to produce a robust, reproducible, accurate, precise and efficient method. The required selectivity and sensitivity for trace-level analysis (e.g., limits of detection below 0.5ng/mL) was achieved using a narrow diameter analytical column, higher than unit mass resolution for certain analytes, and stable isotope labeled internal standards. The method was applied to the analysis of 55 samples collected from adult anonymous donors with no known exposure to the target pesticides. This efficient and cost-effective method is adequate to handle the large number of samples required for national biomonitoring surveys. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with chloroform-acetonitrile extraction for rapid and highly selective determination of cysteine and homocysteine levels in human blood plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Bulgakova, Polina Olegovna; Virus, Edward Danielevich; Kruglova, Maria Petrovna; Alexandrin, Valery Vasil'evich; Gadieva, Viktoriya Aleksandrovna; Luzyanin, Boris Petrovich; Kushlinskii, Nikolai Evgen'evich; Fedoseev, Anatolij Nikolaevich; Kubatiev, Aslan Amirkhanovich

    2017-10-01

    A rapid and selective method has been developed for highly sensitive determination of total cysteine and homocysteine levels in human blood plasma and urine by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with liquid-liquid extraction. Analytes were first derivatized with 1,1'-thiocarbonyldiimidazole and then samples were purified by chloroform-ACN extraction. Electrophoretic separation was performed using 0.1 M phosphate with 30 mM triethanolamine, pH 2, containing 25 μM CTAB, 2.5 μM SDS, and 2.5% polyethylene glycol 600. Samples were injected into the capillary (with total length 32 cm and 50 μm id) at 2250 mbar*s and subsequent injection was performed for 30 s with 0.5 M KОН. The total analysis time was less than 9 min, accuracy was 98%, and precision was <2.6%. The LOD was 0.2 μM for homocysteine and 0.5 μM for cysteine. The use of liquid-liquid extraction allowed the precision and sensitivity of the CE method to be significantly increased. The validated method was applied to determine total cysteine and homocysteine content in human blood plasma and urine samples obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with kidney disorders. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New Functionalized Sol-Gel Hybrid Sorbent Coating for Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction of Selected Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs in Human Urine Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkurah Abd Rahim; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Zainab Ramli; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2015-01-01

    A new sol-gel hybrid material, methyltrimethoxysilane-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (MTMOS-CNPrTEOS) was successfully synthesized and used as a coating material in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine samples. The MTMOS-CNPrTEOS hybrid was synthesized by hydrolysis and condensation of MTMOS and CNPrTEOS in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as catalyst via sol-gel method. Several factors influencing the synthesized sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-CNPrTEOS process such as mole ratio of MTMOS-CNPrTEOS, NaOH concentrations as etching solution, etching time, coating time and water content were investigated and optimized in this study. The optimum synthesis conditions obtained were 1:1 mol ratio of MTMOS-CNPrTEOS, 1 M NaOH as etching solution, 60 min etching time, 2 h coating time and 6 mmol water. The sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-CNPrTEOS synthesized under the optimum conditions was used to determine selected NSAIDs in human urine samples using normal stacking mode capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection. MTMOS-CNPrTEOS SBSE method demonstrated good linearity (60 to 20,000 μg L -1 ) with excellent coefficient of determination (r 2 > 0.9990). The sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-CNPrTEOS SBSE method showed low limit of detection (35 - 41 μg L -1 ) with good precision (RSD < 6 %, n = 3) and excellent extraction recoveries (83.5 - 98.9 %) for the selected NSAIDs. The sol-gel hybrid MTMOS-CNPrTEOS SBSE method demonstrated good potential as an alternative sorbent in SBSE method for NSAIDs. (author)

  6. Passive sampling of selected endocrine disrupting compounds using polar organic chemical integrative samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Two types of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (pharmaceutical POCIS and pesticide POCIS) were examined for their sampling efficiency of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Laboratory-based calibration of POCISs was conducted by exposing them at high and low concentrations of 14 EDCs (4-alkyl-phenols, their ethoxylate oligomers, bisphenol A, selected estrogens and synthetic steroids) for different time periods. The kinetic studies showed an integrative uptake up to 28 days. The sampling rates for the individual compounds were obtained. The use of POCISs could result in an integrative approach to the quality status of the aquatic systems especially in the case of high variation of water concentrations of EDCs. The sampling efficiency of POCISs under various field conditions was assessed after their deployment in different aquatic environments. - Calibration and field performance of polar organic integrative samplers for monitoring EDCs in aquatic environments

  7. The content changes of selected phenolic compounds during processing of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    GROŠAFTOVÁ, Blanka

    2007-01-01

    This work was aimed to the problem of change of the content of selected phenolic substances during treatment and storage of medical plants. Flavonoids represent small, but very important group of phenolic compounds. The biggest attention was paid to quercetin and rutine.Content of phenolic substances was determined by method of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) in case of 6 medicinal plants usually used in traditional and modern medicine.

  8. Selected ion monitoring analysis of pseudoracemic hexobarbital and its major metabolites in blood and urine of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaff, M; Hofman, P H; Breimer, D D; Vermeulen, N P; Knabe, J; Schamber, L

    A stereospecific synthesis of N1-(2H3)-labelled R(-)-hexobarbital is described. A sensitive and rapid selected ion monitoring assay procedure for pseudoracemic hexobarbital, consisting of equal amounts of S(+)-hexobarbital (1a) and (2H3)-R(-)-hexobarbital (1b) in 100 microliters blood samples of

  9. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  10. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer as well as its complex side chain structures, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) inclduing 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPCs yields obtained were 18% and 22% based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47%. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  11. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effect of photo-selective nettings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selahle, Maphoko Kamogelo; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2014-08-01

    Photo-selective coloured netting is referred to as a 'new agro-technological' concept adopted to manipulate light quality changes that can induce favourable responses in plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars AlvaV, Irit and SCX 248 grown under the black net (commercial net, 25% shading) showed higher weight loss, loss of firmness, ascorbic acid content and decline in the ratio of soluble solids content/titrable acidity during post-harvest storage (low-temperature storage at 10°C and 90% relative humidity for 21 days followed by market shelf conditions at 25°C for 2 days). During post-harvest storage, lycopene, β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in cvs AlfaV and Irit grown under the black or pearl nets. However, the β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in SCX 248 grown under the red net during post-harvest storage. Cultivar AlfaV grown under the red and pearl nets had a higher number of odour active aroma compounds during post-harvest storage. Panellists preferred cv. AlfaV grown under the pearl nets after storage based on taste, overall appearance and firm textured fruits. Pearl photo-selective nets retained the overall fruit quality and bioactive components in cvs AlfaV and Irit during post-harvest storage. Red photo-selective nets, however, showed greater influence on retention of overall fruit quality and bioactive compounds in cv. SCX 248 during post-harvest storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Selective cleavage of the C(α)-C(β) linkage in lignin model compounds via Baeyer-Villiger oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nikhil D; Yao, Soledad G; Meier, Mark S; Mobley, Justin K; Crocker, Mark

    2015-03-21

    Lignin is an amorphous aromatic polymer derived from plants and is a potential source of fuels and bulk chemicals. Herein, we present a survey of reagents for selective stepwise oxidation of lignin model compounds. Specifically, we have targeted the oxidative cleavage of Cα-Cβ bonds as a means to depolymerize lignin and obtain useful aromatic compounds. In this work, we prepared several lignin model compounds that possess structures, characteristic reactivity, and linkages closely related to the parent lignin polymer. We observed that selective oxidation of benzylic hydroxyl groups, followed by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the resulting ketones, successfully cleaves the Cα-Cβ linkage in these model compounds.

  14. Separation of chloride and fluoride from uranium compounds and their determination by ion selective electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride and chloride must be rigorously controlled in uranium compounds, especially in ceramic grade UO 2 . Their determination is very difficult without previous uranium separation, particularly when both are at a low concentration. A simple procedure is described for this separation using a strong cationic resin to retain the uranyl ion. Both anions are determined in the effluent solution. Uranium compounds of nuclear fuel cycle, especially ammonium diuranate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, sodium diuranate, uranium trioxide and dioxide and uranium peroxide are dissolved in nitric acid and the solutions are percolated through the resin column. Chloride and fluoride are determined in the effluent by selective electrodes, the detection limits being 0.02 μg F - /ml and 1.0 μg Cl - /ml. The dissolution of the sample, the acidity of the solution, the measurement conditions and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  15. Quantification of Selected Vapour-Phase Compounds using Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin DWJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A robust method for the analysis of selected vapour phase (VP compounds in mainstream smoke (MSS is described. Cigarettes are smoked on a rotary smoking machine and the VP that passes through the Cambridge filter pad collected in a TedlarA¯ bag. On completion of smoking, the bag contents are sampled onto an adsorption tube containing a mixed carbon bed. The tube is subsequently analysed on an automated thermal desorption (TD system coupled to a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID using a PoraPLOT-Q column. Quantification of 14 volatile compounds including the major carbonyls is achieved. Details of the method validation data are included in this paper. This method has been used to analyse the VP of cigarette MSS over a wide range of ‘tar’ deliveries and configurations with excellent repeatability. Results for the University of Kentucky reference cigarette 1R4F are in good agreement with reported values.

  16. Effect of phenolic compounds on the growth of selected probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, R; Wall-Medrano, A; Goñi, M G; Ramos-Clamont-Montfort, G; Ayala-Zavala, J F; González-Aguilar, G A

    2018-01-01

    Fruit extracts from different tissues (pulp, seed and peel) have shown antimicrobial and prebiotic activities related to their phenolic profile, although structure-specific evaluations have not been reported yet. The effect of five phenolic compounds (catechin and gallic, vanillic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids) identified in different fruits, particularly in mango, was evaluated on the growth of two probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG ATCC 53103 and Lactobacillus acidophilusNRRLB 4495) and two pathogenic (Escherichia coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43890 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028) bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of phenolic acids ranged from 15-20 mmol l -1 and 20-30 mmol l -1 against E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively. For catechin, the MIC and MBC were 35 mmol l -1 and >35 mmol l -1 against E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively. The presence of catechin and gallic, protocatechuic and vanillic acids in MRS broth without dextrose allowed the growth of lactobacilli. Catechin combined with protocatechuic or vanillic acid mildly allowed the growth of both probiotics. In conclusion, phenolic compounds can selectively inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria without affecting the viability of probiotics. This study provides relevant information about the effects of phenolic compounds commonly present in fruit and vegetables on the growth of probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. The compounds selectively allowed the growth of probiotic lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and inhibited pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium) at the same concentration (20 mmol l -1 ). These findings can contribute to the formulation of nutraceutical products, such as synbiotics, that can restore or maintain an optimal composition of human microbiota, potentially improving the overall health of the consumer. © 2017 The

  17. Standard enthalpies of formation of selected Rh2YZ Heusler compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ming; Nash, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The standard enthalpies of formation (Δ f H°) of selected ternary Rh-based Rh 2 YZ (Y = Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ru, Ti, V; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) compounds were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured standard enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mol of atoms) are, for the Heusler compound Rh 2 MnSn (−40.1 ± 3.6), for the B2-structured compounds: Rh 2 FeAl (−48.5 ± 2.9); Rh 2 MnAl (−72.4 ± 2.7); Rh 2 MnGa (−55.3 ± 2.0); Rh 2 MnIn (−35.3 ± 1.9), for the tetragonal compounds: Rh 2 FeSn (−28.9 ± 1.3); Rh 2 TiAl (−97.6 ± 2.2); Rh 2 TiGa (−79.0 ± 1.8); Rh 2 TiSn (−74.7 ± 3.1). Values are compared with those from first principles calculations in published papers and the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD). Lattice parameters of these compounds are determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). - Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of Rh 2 YZ were measured using a drop calorimeter. • Measured enthalpies agree with first principles data in general. • Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. • Rh 2 TiSn of tI8 structure were reported for the first time.

  18. Standard enthalpies of formation of selected Rh{sub 2}YZ Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Nash, Philip

    2015-11-25

    The standard enthalpies of formation (Δ{sub f}H°) of selected ternary Rh-based Rh{sub 2}YZ (Y = Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ru, Ti, V; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) compounds were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured standard enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mol of atoms) are, for the Heusler compound Rh{sub 2}MnSn (−40.1 ± 3.6), for the B2-structured compounds: Rh{sub 2}FeAl (−48.5 ± 2.9); Rh{sub 2}MnAl (−72.4 ± 2.7); Rh{sub 2}MnGa (−55.3 ± 2.0); Rh{sub 2}MnIn (−35.3 ± 1.9), for the tetragonal compounds: Rh{sub 2}FeSn (−28.9 ± 1.3); Rh{sub 2}TiAl (−97.6 ± 2.2); Rh{sub 2}TiGa (−79.0 ± 1.8); Rh{sub 2}TiSn (−74.7 ± 3.1). Values are compared with those from first principles calculations in published papers and the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD). Lattice parameters of these compounds are determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). - Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of Rh{sub 2}YZ were measured using a drop calorimeter. • Measured enthalpies agree with first principles data in general. • Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. • Rh{sub 2}TiSn of tI8 structure were reported for the first time.

  19. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  20. Determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds by ion-selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunqing; Liu Fuyun; Huang Dianfan.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of microamount chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds is described. Chlorine is separated from uranium oxide pyrohydrolytically with stream of wet oxygen in a furnace at 800-900 deg C. Chlorine is volatilized as hydrochloric acid, which then is absorbed in a dilute alkaline solution and measured with chlorine selective electrode. This method covers the concentration range of 10-500 ppm chlorine in uranium oxide. The relative standard diviation is better than 10% and recovery of 85-108% has been reported

  1. Availability of Acute and/or Subacute Toxicokinetic Data for Select Compounds for the Rat and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models for Rats and Humans for Those Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-04

    DMA, and total As in urine Mouse: radioactivity in feces, liver, kidneys, lungs, and carcass (DMA), DMA in urine; after arsenate dose...radioactivity in urine, feces, liver, kidneys, lungs, skin, carcass and blood and AsV, AsIII, MMA and DMA excreted in urine; after arsenite dose, AsV, AsIII...Pharmacokinetic parameter values were taken from a variety of sources, including animal studies (e.g., oral absorption rate), in vitro kinetic

  2. Results from the nuclear microprobe PIXE analysis of selected rare earth fluor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerman, William A.; Gates, Earl; Boudreaux, Philip; Glass, Gary A.

    2002-01-01

    Most previous research measures fluorescence properties over the macroscopic regime. Properties of individual microscopic grains could be significantly different than those measured over the macroscopic scale. Until recently, it was difficult to measure properties of individual fluor grains. Existing characterization techniques like scanning electron microscopy are not practical, since the resulting fluorescence masks the electron surface profile. Starting in September 2000, a research program was initiated at the Acadiana Research Laboratory to determine microscopic fluorescence properties for selected inorganic rare earth compounds. The initial phase of this program utilized microscopic proton induced X-ray emission (μPIXE) to characterize the elemental composition of individual fluor grains. Results show that both individual grains and small clusters of grains could be seen using μPIXE. Maps of this type can be used to estimate grain dimensions for the selected rare earth fluor. This technique is a new and innovative method to characterize a fluor material

  3. Research on the selection of innovation compound using Possibility Construction Space Theory and fuzzy pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Songhua; Li, Dehua; Nie, Hui

    2009-10-01

    There are a large number of fuzzy concepts and fuzzy phenomena in traditional Chinese medicine, which have led to great difficulties for study of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the mathematical methods are used to quantify fuzzy concepts of drugs and prescription. We put forward the process of innovation formulations and selection method in Chinese medicine based on the Possibility Construction Space Theory (PCST) and fuzzy pattern recognition. Experimental results show that the method of selecting medicines from a number of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine is consistent with the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine. The results also reflect the integrated effects of the innovation compound. Through the use of the innovation formulations system, we expect to provide software tools for developing new traditional Chinese medicine and to inspire traditional Chinese medicine researchers to develop novel drugs.

  4. Enthalpies of formation of selected Co{sub 2}YZ Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Chen, Song; Nash, Philip

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Enthalpies of formation of selected Co{sub 2}YZ were measured by drop calorimeters. •Enthalpy decreases as the Z element approaches the top right corner of the periodic table. •For the Y element, enthalpy increases on increasing the number of d electrons. •Result of L2{sub 1} structured compounds agrees with first principles data. •Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. -- Abstract: Standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K of selected ternary Co{sub 2}-based Heusler compounds Co{sub 2}YZ (Y = Fe, Hf, Mn, Ti, V, Zr; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) were measured by high temperature direct synthesis calorimetry. The measured enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mole of atoms) of the L2{sub 1} compounds are: Co{sub 2}FeGa (−25.8 ± 2.6); Co{sub 2}FeSi (−38.4 ± 2.2); Co{sub 2}FeGe (−11.6 ± 2.1); Co{sub 2}MnGa (−30.1 ± 2.3); Co{sub 2}MnSi (−42.4 ± 1.2); Co{sub 2}MnGe (−31.6 ± 3.0); Co{sub 2}MnSn (−15.6 ± 2.8); Co{sub 2}TiAl (−55.0 ± 3.7); Co{sub 2}TiGa (−54.2 ± 2.6); Co{sub 2}TiSi (−61.4 ± 1.7); Co{sub 2}TiGe (−59.3 ± 3.8); Co{sub 2}TiSn (−38.4 ± 2.0); Co{sub 2}VGa (−28.4 ± 1.1) and for the B2 compounds: Co{sub 2}FeAl (−22.5 ± 2.5), Co{sub 2}MnAl (−27.6 ± 2.7). Values are compared with those from first principles calculation when available and the extended semi-empirical model of Miedema. Trends in enthalpy of formation with element atomic number are discussed. Lattice parameters of the compounds with L2{sub 1} structure are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  5. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  6. Pyrazole compound BPR1P0034 with potent and selective anti-influenza virus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Jiann-Yih

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. More recently, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus that is spreading via human-to-human transmission has become a serious public concern. Although vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing infections, influenza antiviral drugs play an important role in a comprehensive approach to controlling illness and transmission. In addition, a search for influenza-inhibiting drugs is particularly important in the face of high rate of emergence of influenza strains resistant to several existing influenza antivirals. Methods We searched for novel anti-influenza inhibitors using a cell-based neutralization (inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect assay. After screening 20,800 randomly selected compounds from a library from ChemDiv, Inc., we found that BPR1P0034 has sub-micromolar antiviral activity. The compound was resynthesized in five steps by conventional chemical techniques. Lead optimization and a structure-activity analysis were used to improve potency. Time-of-addition assay was performed to target an event in the virus life cycle. Results The 50% effective inhibitory concentration (IC50 of BPR1P0034 was 0.42 ± 0.11 μM, when measured with a plaque reduction assay. Viral protein and RNA synthesis of A/WSN/33 (H1N1 was inhibited by BPR1P0034 and the virus-induced cytopathic effects were thus significantly reduced. BPR1P0034 exhibited broad inhibition spectrum for influenza viruses but showed no antiviral effect for enteroviruses and echovirus 9. In a time-of-addition assay, in which the compound was added at different stages along the viral replication cycle (such as at adsorption or after adsorption, its antiviral activity was more efficient in cells treated with the test compound between 0 and 2 h, right after viral infection, implying that an early step of viral replication might be the target of the compound. These results suggest

  7. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations : application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments,

  8. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations: application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments,

  9. Effect of corn processing and wet distiller’s grains with solubles on odorous volatile organic compound emissions from urine and feces of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) are a common feed ingredient in beef feedlot diets, but the excess nitrogen in these diets creates air quality issues, primarily due to the aromatic compounds emitted during fermentation of excreted protein. Use of high-moisture corn (HMC) instead of dry-r...

  10. In silico tools used for compound selection during target-based drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    The target-based drug discovery process, including target selection, screening, hit-to-lead (H2L) and lead optimization stage gates, is the most common approach used in drug development. The full integration of in vitro and/or in vivo data with in silico tools across the entire process would be beneficial to R&D productivity by developing effective selection criteria and drug-design optimization strategies. This review focuses on understanding the impact and extent in the past 5 years of in silico tools on the various stage gates of the target-based drug discovery approach. There are a large number of in silico tools available for establishing selection criteria and drug-design optimization strategies in the target-based approach. However, the inconsistent use of in vitro and/or in vivo data integrated with predictive in silico multiparameter models throughout the process is contributing to R&D productivity issues. In particular, the lack of reliable in silico tools at the H2L stage gate is contributing to the suboptimal selection of viable lead compounds. It is suggested that further development of in silico multiparameter models and organizing biologists, medicinal and computational chemists into one team with a single accountable objective to expand the utilization of in silico tools in all phases of drug discovery would improve R&D productivity.

  11. Standard enthalpies of formation of selected Ru{sub 2}YZ Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Nash, Philip

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of Ru{sub 2}YZ were measured using a drop calorimeter. • Result of L2{sub 1} structured compounds agrees with first principles data. • Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. • Ru{sub 2}HfSn, Ru{sub 2}TiSn, Ru{sub 2}VGa, Ru{sub 2}VSi, Ru{sub 2}VSn of L2{sub 1} structure were reported for the first time. - Abstract: The standard enthalpies of formation of selected ternary Ru-based Heusler compounds Ru{sub 2}YZ (Y = Fe, Hf, Mn, Ti, V; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) were measured using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. The measured enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mole of atoms) of the Heusler compounds are, Ru{sub 2}FeGe (−19.7 ± 3.3); Ru{sub 2}HfSn (−24.9 ± 3.6); Ru{sub 2}MnSi (−46.0 ± 2.6); Ru{sub 2}MnGe (−29.7 ± 1.0); Ru{sub 2}MnSn (−20.6 ± 2.4); Ru{sub 2}TiSi (−94.9 ± 4.0); Ru{sub 2}TiGe (−79.1 ± 3.2); Ru{sub 2}TiSn (−60.6 ± 1.8); Ru{sub 2}VSi (−55.9 ± 1.7);for the B2-structured compounds, Ru{sub 2}FeSi (−28.5 ± 0.8); Ru{sub 2}HfAl (−70.8 ± 1.9); Ru{sub 2}MnAl (−32.3 ± 1.9); Ru{sub 2}MnGa (−25.3 ± 3.0); Ru{sub 2}TiAl (−62.7 ± 3.5); Ru{sub 2}VAl (−30.9 ± 1.6); Ru{sub 2}ZrAl (−64.5 ± 1.5). Values were compared with those from published first principles calculations and the OQMD (Open Quantum Materials Database). Lattice parameters of these compounds were determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Microstructures were identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)

  12. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  13. A three-dimensional metal–organic framework for selective sensing of nitroaromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Dan; Chen, Rong-Ying; Xu, Jian; Bu, Xian-He, E-mail: buxh@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Lab of Metal and Molecule-based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Yun-Wu [Department of Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Lab of Metal and Molecule-based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Energy Storage and Novel Cell Technology, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252000 (China)

    2014-12-01

    A 3D metal–organic framework [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}][Cd{sub 6}(L){sub 4}(DMF){sub 6}(HCOO)](DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) (1) has been synthesized using a tripodal ligand H{sub 3}L (2,4,6-tris[1-(3-carboxylphenoxy)ylmethyl]mesitylene). The obtained complex exhibits a 3D framework containing hexanuclear (Cd{sub 6}) building units formed by two trinuclear (Cd{sub 3}) clusters that are connected via HCOO{sup −} anions. For complex 1, the participation of the fluorescent ligand H{sub 3}L not only gives rise to a strong photoluminescence emission as expected, but more interestingly, that ligand originated characteristic band could be quenched selectively by nitrobenzene with a low detection limit, showing its potential as a highly sensitive and selective sensor for nitrobenzene. Based on an electron transfer quenching mechanism, the fluorescence sensing ability of 1 is also applicable for other electron-deficient nitroaromatic compounds with high selectivity and sensitivity, i.e., 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 4-nitrotoluene, suggesting 1 a promising fluorescence sensor for detecting and recognizing the same kind of chemicals.

  14. A three-dimensional metal–organic framework for selective sensing of nitroaromatic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 3D metal–organic framework [NH2(CH32][Cd6(L4(DMF6(HCOO](DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide (1 has been synthesized using a tripodal ligand H3L (2,4,6-tris[1-(3-carboxylphenoxyylmethyl]mesitylene. The obtained complex exhibits a 3D framework containing hexanuclear {Cd6} building units formed by two trinuclear {Cd3} clusters that are connected via HCOO− anions. For complex 1, the participation of the fluorescent ligand H3L not only gives rise to a strong photoluminescence emission as expected, but more interestingly, that ligand originated characteristic band could be quenched selectively by nitrobenzene with a low detection limit, showing its potential as a highly sensitive and selective sensor for nitrobenzene. Based on an electron transfer quenching mechanism, the fluorescence sensing ability of 1 is also applicable for other electron-deficient nitroaromatic compounds with high selectivity and sensitivity, i.e., 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 4-nitrotoluene, suggesting 1 a promising fluorescence sensor for detecting and recognizing the same kind of chemicals.

  15. Structure-activity relationship of 9-methylstreptimidone, a compound that induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeiri, Masatoshi; Ota, Eisuke; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that 9-methylstreptimidone, a piperidine compound isolated from a culture filtrate of Streptomyces, induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells. It was screened for a compound that inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB and NO production in mouse macrophages. However, 9-methystreptimidone is poorly obtained from the producing microorganism and difficult to synthesize. Therefore, in the present research, we studied the structure-activity relationship to look for new selective inhibitors. We found that the structure of the unsaturated hydrophobic portion of 9-methylstreptimidone was essential for the inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. Among the 9-methylstreptimidone-related compounds tested, (+/-)-4,alpha-diepi-streptovitacin A inhibited NO production in macrophage-like cells as potently as 9-methylstreptimidone and without cellular toxicity. Moreover, this compound selectively induced apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia MT-1 cells.

  16. Selected organic compounds and trace elements in streambed sediments and fish tissues, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorines, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and trace elements were investigated in streambed sediments and fish tissues at selected sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, during 1998. At most sites, SVOCs and organochlorine compounds were either not detected or detected at very low concentrations. Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard at Anchorage, which was the only site sampled with a significant degree of development in the watershed, had elevated levels of many SVOCs in streambed sediment. Coring of sediments from two ponds on Chester Creek confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of a variety of organic compounds. Moose Creek, a stream with extensive coal deposits in its watershed, had low concentrations of numerous SVOCs in streambed sediment. Three sites located in national parks or in a national wildlife refuge had no detectable concentrations of SVOCs. Trace elements were analyzed in both streambed sediments and tissues of slimy sculpin. The two media provided similar evidence for elevated concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at Chester Creek. In this study, 'probable effect levels '(PELs) were determined from sediments finer than 0.063 millimeters, where concentrations tend to be greatest. Arsenic and chromium concentrations exceeded the PEL at eight and six sites respectively. Zinc exceeded the PEL at one site. Cadmium and copper concentrations were smaller than the PEL at all sites. Mercury concentrations in streambed sediments from the Deshka River were near the PEL, and selenium concentrations at that site also appear to be elevated above background levels. At half the sites where slimy sculpin were sampled, selenium concentrations were at levels that may cause adverse effects in some species.

  17. Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Sablani, Shyam S

    2011-09-01

    Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Comparison of UV irradiation and p-fluorphenylaline as selective agents for production of aromatic compounds in plant cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesnel, A.A.; Ellis, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    Resistance to UV irradiation, and to the toxicity of p-fluorophenylalanine, can both be mediateted in plants by enhanced synthesis of aromatic compounds. These selective agents were applied to cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum, Anchusa officinalis and Catharanthus roseur, and the production of aromatic metabolites in the resulting resistant lines of each species was compared. While Nicotiana and Anchusa cultures responded to each selective agent ith an enhanced accumulation of aromatic compounds, the Catharanthus cultures acquired resistance through other, unknown, mechanisms. Some degree of cross-resistance was observed between cultures selected individually for resistance to each agent (author). 26 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Optimisation and validation of a HS-SPME-GC-IT/MS method for analysis of carbonyl volatile compounds as biomarkers in human urine: Application in a pilot study to discriminate individuals with smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calejo, Isabel; Moreira, Nathalie; Araújo, Ana Margarida; Carvalho, Márcia; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; de Pinho, Paula Guedes

    2016-02-01

    A new and simple analytical approach consisting of an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) sampler coupled to gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry detection (GC-IT/MS) with a prior derivatization step with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) was developed to detect volatile carbonyl metabolites with low molecular weights in human urine. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimise the PFBHA concentration and extraction conditions that affect the efficiency of the SPME procedure. With a sample volume of 1 mL, optimal conditions were achieved by adding 300 mg/L of PFBHA and allowing the sample to equilibrate for 6 min at 62°C and then extracting the samples for 51 min at the same temperature, using a divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS) fibre. The method allowed the simultaneous identification and quantification of 44 carbonyl compounds consisting of aldehydes, dialdehydes, heterocyclic aldehydes and ketones. The method was validated with regards to the linearity, inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy. The detection limits ranged from 0.009 to 0.942 ng/mL, except for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (15 ng/mL), and the quantification limits varied from 0.029 to 1.66 ng/mL, except for butanal (2.78 ng/mL), 2-butanone (2.67 ng/mL), 4-heptanone (3.14 ng/mL) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (50.0 ng/mL). The method accuracy was satisfactory, with recoveries ranging from 90 to 107%. The proof of applicability of the methodology was performed in a pilot target analysis of urine samples obtained from 18 healthy smokers and 18 healthy non-smokers (control group). Chemometric supervised analysis was performed using the volatile patterns acquired for these samples and clearly showed the potential of the volatile carbonyl profiles to discriminate urine from smoker and non-smoker subjects. 5-Methyl-2-furfural (p<0.0001), 2-methylpropanal, nonanal and 2-methylbutanal (p<0.05) were identified as potentially useful

  20. In-house validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMS) in bovine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kathrin S; Mankertz, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    A sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method allowing the rapid screening and confirmation of selective androgen receptor modulators in bovine urine was developed and successfully validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, chapter 3.1.3 'alternative validation', by applying a matrix-comprehensive in-house validation concept. The confirmation of the analytes in the validation samples was achieved both on the basis of the MRM ion ratios as laid down in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and by comparison of their enhanced product ion (EPI) spectra with a reference mass spectral library by making use of the QTRAP technology. Here, in addition to the MRM survey scan, EPI spectra were generated in a data-dependent way according to an information-dependent acquisition criterion. Moreover, stability studies of the analytes in solution and in matrix according to an isochronous approach proved the stability of the analytes in solution and in matrix for at least the duration of the validation study. To identify factors that have a significant influence on the test method in routine analysis, a factorial effect analysis was performed. To this end, factors considered to be relevant for the method in routine analysis (e.g. operator, storage duration of the extracts before measurement, different cartridge lots and different hydrolysis conditions) were systematically varied on two levels. The examination of the extent to which these factors influence the measurement results of the individual analytes showed that none of the validation factors exerts a significant influence on the measurement results.

  1. Effects of aging on the function of the urinary system: longitudinal changes with age in selected urine parameters in a hospitalized population of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although normal aging does not have a pernicious effect on the homeostasis of fluids, renal reserve in elderly people can be depleted. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between longitudinal changes with age in basic urine parameters (specific gravity and pH in older men and women, depending on their body height and relative body weight. Longitudinal data on these two quantitative traits of the urine were available for 142 physically healthy individuals, including 68 men and 74 women. All subjects were 45 years of age at the beginning and 70 at the end of the period under investigation. All measurements were taken in accordance with internationally accepted requirements. Specific gravity was assessed using a hydrometer, and pH was measured using a pH meter. ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were performed. No significant sex differences in specific gravity or urine pH were observed. In both sexes, urine specific gravity decreased with age according to exponential model of regression. In men, there was a gradual increase in the pH of the urine until age 65, and the best fitting regression model was polynomial. In women, on the other hand, there was an exiguous decrease in urine pH throughout the period under study, and the best fitting regression model proved to be exponential. As the process of renal aging commences relatively early in ontogeny and manifests itself in many structural and functional changes, urinalysis and other more sophisticated methods of diagnosis of renal diseases are essential for proper assessment of health status of adults and older individuals. The rate of age-related changes in the analyzed traits of the urine was commensurate in both sexes, thereby revealing no evidence of significant sex differences in terms of renal aging in the period between 45 and 70 years of age.

  2. Investigation of sensitivity and selectivity of ZnO thin film to volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoori, F.; Khojier, K.; Dehnavi, N. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This research addresses a detailed study on the sensitivity and selectivity of ZnO thin film to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors that can be used for the development of VOC sensors. The ZnO thin film of 100 nm thickness was prepared by post-annealing of e-beam evaporated Zn thin film. The sample was structurally, morphologically, and chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analyses. The sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit of the sample were tested with respect to a wide range of common VOC vapors, including acetone, formaldehyde, acetic acid, formic acid, acetylene, toluene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, and isopropanol in the temperature range of 200-400 °C. The results show that the best sensitivity and detection limit of the sample are related to acetone vapor in the studied temperature range. The ZnO thin film-based acetone sensor also shows a good reproducibility and stability at the operating temperature of 280 °C.

  3. Selected Trace Metals and Organic Compounds and Bioavailability of Selected Organic Compounds in Soils, Hackberry Flat, Tillman County, Oklahoma, 1994-95

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Mark F

    1997-01-01

    .... S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Geological Survey, examined the soils of Hackberry Flat to determine trace metal concentrations, presence of selected...

  4. Role of species diversity and secondary compound complementarity on diet selection of Mediterranean shrubs by goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosic, Jozo; Estell, Richard E; Skobic, Dragan; Martinovic, Anita; Maric, Stanislava

    2006-06-01

    Goats foraging on Mediterranean shrubs containing secondary compounds (toxins) may consume a variety of shrubs that contain different phytotoxins, thereby increasing shrub intake and avoiding toxicosis. We conducted eight experiments to examine whether goats offered different mixtures of shrubs containing different phytotoxins (tannins and saponins) would consume more shrub biomass than goats offered one shrub a single phytotoxin (tannin or saponin). In the first three experiments, goats fed a mixture of three tannin-rich shrubs (Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, and Pistacia lentiscus) ate more foliage than goats offered only one shrub (23.2 vs. 10.7 g/kg BW; 25.2 vs. 13.4 g/kg BW, and 27.9 vs. 7.9 g/kg BW), regardless of tannin concentration in individual shrub species. Goats also consumed more foliage when offered the same three tannin-rich shrubs than when offered the saponin-rich shrub Hedera helix (25.4 vs. 8.0 g/kg BW). However, goats offered a mixture of the same three tannin-rich shrubs consumed less foliage than goats offered a mixture of two shrubs containing tannins and saponins: Quercus and Hedera (21.6 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), Arbutus and Hedera (21.8 vs. 27.1 g/kg BW), and Pistacia and Hedera (19.7 vs. 22.0 g/kg BW). Comparison of intake of shrubs containing only tannins or saponins to intake of shrubs containing both tannins and saponins indicated that goats consumed more total biomass when fed with shrubs with both classes of compounds than with either tannins or saponins alone. Our results suggest that goats can increase intake of Mediterranean shrubs high in secondary compounds by selecting those with different classes of phytotoxins. Simultaneous ingestion of shrubs containing tannins and saponins may promote chemical interactions that inhibit toxic effects of these phytotoxins in the intestinal tract. In addition to complementary interactions between tannins and saponins, biological diversity within Mediterranean maquis vegetation also plays a positive

  5. Selective Se-for-S substitution in Cs-bearing uranyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V., E-mail: vladgeo17@mail.ru [Department of Crystallography, St. Petersburg State University, University Emb. 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia Federation (Russian Federation); Tyumentseva, Olga S.; Krivovichev, Sergey V. [Department of Crystallography, St. Petersburg State University, University Emb. 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia Federation (Russian Federation); Tananaev, Ivan G. [Far Eastern Federal University, Suhanova st. 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Phase formation in the mixed sulfate-selenate aqueous system of uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate has been investigated. Two types of crystalline compounds have been obtained and characterized using a number of experimental (single crystal XRD, FTIR, SEM) and theoretical (information-based complexity calculations, topological analysis) techniques. No miscibility gaps have been observed for Cs{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(TO{sub 4}){sub 3}] (T= S, Se), which crystallizes in tetragonal system, P-42{sub 1}m, a =9.616(1)–9.856(2), c =8.105(1)–8.159(1) Å, V =749.6(2)–792.5(3) Å{sup 3}. Nine phases with variable amount of S and Se have been structurally characterized. The structures of the Cs{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(TO{sub 4}){sub 3}] (T= S, Se) compounds are based upon the [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(TO{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 2-} layers of corner-sharing uranyl pentagonal bipyramids and TO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The layers contain two types of tetrahedral sites: T1 (3-connected, i.e. having three O atoms shared by adjacent uranyl polyhedra) and T2 (4-connected). The Se-for-S substitution in tetrahedral sites is highly selective with smaller S{sup 6+} cation showing a strong preference for the more tightly bonded T2 site. Crystallization in the pure Se system starts with the formation of Cs{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O) crystals, its subsequent dissolution and formation of Cs{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 3}]. The information-based structural complexity calculations for these two phases support the rule that more topologically complex structures form at the latest stages of crystallization. - Graphical abstract: Nine phases representing the Cs{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(TO{sub 4}){sub 3}] (T= S, Se) solid solution series with variable amount of S and Se have been prepared by isothermal evaporation from aqueous solutions and characterized using a number of experimental and theoretical techniques. No immiscibility is observed between the

  6. Feline urine metabolomic signature: characterization of low-molecular-weight substances in urine from domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vélez, Sol-Maiam; Villarino, Nicolas F

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This aim of this study was to characterize the composition and content of the feline urine metabolome. Methods Eight healthy domestic cats were acclimated at least 10 days before starting the study. Urine samples (~2 ml) were collected by ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. Samples were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 8 mins, and the supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometery. The urine metabolome was characterized using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results Three hundred and eighteen metabolites were detected in the urine of the eight cats. These molecules are key components of at least 100 metabolic pathways. Feline urine appears to be dominated by carbohydrates, carbohydrate conjugates, organic acid and derivatives, and amino acids and analogs. The five most abundant molecules were phenaceturic acid, hippuric acid, pseudouridine phosphate and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid. Conclusions and relevance This study is the first to characterize the feline urine metabolome. The results of this study revealed the presence of multiple low-molecular-weight substances that were not known to be present in feline urine. As expected, the origin of the metabolites detected in urine was diverse, including endogenous compounds and molecules biosynthesized by microbes. Also, the diet seemed to have had a relevant role on the urine metabolome. Further exploration of the urine metabolic phenotype will open a window for discovering unknown, or poorly understood, metabolic pathways. In turn, this will advance our understanding of feline biology and lead to new insights in feline physiology, nutrition and medicine.

  7. Flexible metal-organic framework compounds: In situ studies for selective CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.J., E-mail: andrew.allen@nist.gov [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Espinal, L.; Wong-Ng, W. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Queen, W.L. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brown, C.M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kline, S.R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Kauffman, K.L. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Culp, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); URS Corporation, South Park, PA 15219 (United States); Matranga, C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Results are presented that explore the dynamic structural changes occurring in two highly flexible nanocrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds during the adsorption and desorption of pure gases and binary mixtures. The Ni(1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene)[Ni(CN){sub 4}] and catena-bis(dibenzoylmethanato)-(4,4′-bipyridyl)nickel(II) chosen for this study are 3-D and 1-D porous coordination polymers (PCP) with a similar gate opening pressure response for CO{sub 2} isotherms at 303 K, but with differing degrees of flexibility for structural change to accommodate guest molecules. As such, they serve as a potential model system for evaluating the complex kinetics associated with dynamic structure changes occurring in response to gas adsorption in flexible MOF systems. Insights into the crystallographic changes occurring as the MOF pore structure expands and contracts in response to interactions with CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures have been obtained from in situ small-angle neutron scattering and neutron diffraction, combined with ex situ X-ray diffraction structure measurements. The role of structure in carbon capture functionality is discussed with reference to the ongoing characterization challenges and a possible materials-by-design approach. - Graphical abstract: We present in situ small-angle neutron scattering results for two flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The figure shows that for one (NiBpene, high CO{sub 2} adsorption) the intensity of the Bragg peak for the expandable d-spacing most associated with CO{sub 2} adsorption varies approximately with the isotherm, while for the other (NiDBM-Bpy, high CO{sub 2} selectivity) the d-spacing, itself, varies with the isotherm. The cartoons show the proposed modes of structural change. - Highlights: • Dynamic structures of two flexible MOF CO{sub 2} sorbent compounds are compared in situ. • These porous solid sorbents serve as models for pure & dual gas adsorption. • Different

  8. Pathogens and pharmaceuticals in source-separated urine in eThekwini, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Heather N; Özel Duygan, Birge D; Strande, Linda; McArdell, Christa S; Udert, Kai M; Kohn, Tamar

    2015-11-15

    In eThekwini, South Africa, the production of agricultural fertilizers from human urine collected from urine-diverting dry toilets is being evaluated at a municipality scale as a way to help finance a decentralized, dry sanitation system. The present study aimed to assess a range of human and environmental health hazards in source-separated urine, which was presumed to be contaminated with feces, by evaluating the presence of human pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and an antibiotic resistance gene. Composite urine samples from households enrolled in a urine collection trial were obtained from urine storage tanks installed in three regions of eThekwini. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeted 9 viral and 10 bacterial human pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The most frequently detected viral pathogens were JC polyomavirus, rotavirus, and human adenovirus in 100%, 34% and 31% of samples, respectively. Aeromonas spp. and Shigella spp. were frequently detected gram negative bacteria, in 94% and 61% of samples, respectively. The gram positive bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, which is known to survive for extended times in urine, was found in 72% of samples. A screening of 41 trace organic compounds in the urine facilitated selection of 12 priority pharmaceuticals for further evaluation. The antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, which are frequently prescribed as prophylaxis for HIV-positive patients, were detected in 95% and 85% of samples, reaching maximum concentrations of 6800 μg/L and 1280 μg/L, respectively. The antiretroviral drug emtricitabine was also detected in 40% of urine samples. A sulfonamide antibiotic resistance gene (sul1) was detected in 100% of urine samples. By coupling analysis of pathogens and pharmaceuticals in geographically dispersed samples in eThekwini, this study reveals a range of human and environmental health hazards in urine intended for fertilizer production. Collection of urine offers the benefit of

  9. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  10. Maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000373.htm Maple syrup urine disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder in ...

  11. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  12. Description, Properties, and Degradation of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Detected in Ground Water--A Review of Selected Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides abridged information describing the most salient properties and biodegradation of 27 chlorinated volatile organic compounds detected during ground-water studies in the United States. This information is condensed from an extensive list of reports, papers, and literature published by the U.S. Government, various State governments, and peer-reviewed journals. The list includes literature reviews, compilations, and summaries describing volatile organic compounds in ground water. This report cross-references common names and synonyms associated with volatile organic compounds with the naming conventions supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. In addition, the report describes basic physical characteristics of those compounds such as Henry's Law constant, water solubility, density, octanol-water partition (log Kow), and organic carbon partition (log Koc) coefficients. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for natural and laboratory biodegradation rates, chemical by-products, and degradation pathways.

  13. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT OF URINE SAMPLES FOR SELECTED METALS AND PESTICIDES (UA-F-20.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this SOP is to guide the collection, storage, and shipment of urine samples collected for the NHEXAS Arizona project. This SOP provides a brief description of sample, collection, preservation, storage, shipping, and custody procedures. This procedure was followed ...

  14. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone and other ketones in the headspace of aqueous solution and urine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, T.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2008), s. 78-85 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ketone bodies * SIFT-MS * urine * breath Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2008

  15. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urine sample. In certain situations, a sterile bag can be placed around a baby’s diaper area to collect a urine sample. If you have any questions about urine tests, talk with your doctor. Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD ...

  16. Raman spectroscopy applied to identify metabolites in urine of physically active subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Letícia Parada; Silveira, Landulfo; da Silva, Alexandre Galvão; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Rocco, Débora Dias Ferraretto Moura

    2017-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive technique suitable for biological fluids analysis. In this work, dispersive Raman spectroscopy has been employed as a rapid and nondestructive technique to detect the metabolites in urine of physically active subjects before and after vigorous 30min pedaling or running compared to sedentary subjects. For so, urine samples from 9 subjects were obtained before and immediately after physical activities and submitted to Raman spectroscopy (830nm excitation, 250mW laser power, 20s integration time) and compared to urine from 5 sedentary subjects. The Raman spectra of urine from sedentary showed peaks related to urea, creatinine, ketone bodies, phosphate and other nitrogenous compounds. These metabolic biomarkers presented peaks with different intensities in the urine of physically active individuals after exercises compared to before, measured by the intensity of selected peaks the Raman spectra, which means different concentrations after training. These peaks presented different intensity values for each subject before physical activity, also behaving differently compared to the post-training: some subjects presented increase while others decrease the intensity. Raman spectroscopy may allow the development of a rapid and non-destructive test for metabolic evaluation of the physical training in active and trained subjects using urine samples, allowing nutrition adjustment with the sport's performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic

  18. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl 2 , and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 , were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots ( 2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl 2 , or Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . We have found that up to hundreds

  19. Deciphering mechanisms of drug sensitivity and resistance to Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochiere, Marsha; Kashyap, Trinayan; Kalid, Ori; Shechter, Sharon; Klebanov, Boris; Senapedis, William; Saint-Martin, Jean-Richard; Landesman, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Exportin 1 (XPO1) is a well-characterized nuclear export protein whose expression is up-regulated in many types of cancers and functions to transport key tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs) from the nucleus. Karyopharm Therapeutics has developed a series of small-molecule Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds, which have been shown to block XPO1 function both in vitro and in vivo. The drug candidate, selinexor (KPT-330), is currently in Phase-II/IIb clinical trials for treatment of both hematologic and solid tumors. The present study sought to decipher the mechanisms that render cells either sensitive or resistant to treatment with SINE compounds, represented by KPT-185, an early analogue of KPT-330. Using the human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line, resistance to SINE was acquired over a period of 10 months of constant incubation with increasing concentration of KPT-185. Cell viability was assayed by MTT. Immunofluorescence was used to compare nuclear export of TSPs. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunoblots were used to measure effects on cell cycle, gene expression, and cell death. RNA from naïve and drug treated parental and resistant cells was analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays. Treatment of HT1080 cells with gradually increasing concentrations of SINE resulted in > 100 fold decrease in sensitivity to SINE cytotoxicity. Resistant cells displayed prolonged cell cycle, reduced nuclear accumulation of TSPs, and similar changes in protein expression compared to parental cells, however the magnitude of the protein expression changes were more significant in parental cells. Microarray analyses comparing parental to resistant cells indicate that a number of key signaling pathways were altered in resistant cells including expression changes in genes involved in adhesion, apoptosis, and inflammation. While the patterns of changes in transcription following drug treatment are similar in parental

  20. Fast and simple screening for the simultaneous analysis of seven metabolites derived from five volatile organic compounds in human urine using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lee, Ting-Chen; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on cancer classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1), based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong mechanistic evidence. In particular, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are volatized or released into the atmosphere and can become ubiquitous, as they originate from many different natural and anthropogenic sources, such as paints, pesticides, vehicle exhausts, cooking fumes, and tobacco smoke. Humans may be exposed to VOCs through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact, which may increase the risk of leukemia, birth defects, neurocognitive impairment, and cancer. Therefore, the focus of this study was the development of a simple, effective and rapid sample preparation method for the simultaneous determination of seven metabolites (6 mercaptic acids+t,t-muconic acid) derived from five VOCs (acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and xylene) in human urine by using automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An aliquot of each diluted urinary sample was directly injected into an autosampler through a trap column to reduce contamination, and then the retained target compounds were eluted by back-flush mode into an analytical column for separation. Negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was utilized for quantification. The coefficients of correlation (r(2)) for the calibration curves were greater than 0.995. Reproducibility was assessed by the precision and accuracy of intra-day and inter-day precision, which showed results for coefficient of variation (CV) that were low 0.9 to 6.6% and 3.7 to 8.5%, respectively, and results for recovery that ranged from 90.8 to 108.9% and 92.1 to 107.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of

  1. Molecular determinants of subtype-selective efficacies of cytisine and the novel compound NS3861 at heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Hald, Helle; Timmermann, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering which specific agonist-receptor interactions affect efficacy levels is of high importance, because this will ultimately aid in designing selective drugs. The novel compound NS3861 and cytisine are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and both bind with high affinity...

  2. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by compound 21, selective agonist of angiotensin type 2 receptors, in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira Rt; Bombardi, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of compound 21 (C21), selective AT2 receptor agonist, in diabetic nephropathy and the potential additive effect of C21, when associated to losartan treatment, on the development of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The ...

  3. Selectivity of organic compounds to the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Plastygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Mello da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of insecticides, bio-protective mixtures, and biofertilizers used in organic soybean production was evaluated for adults and pupae of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae under laboratory conditions in accordance with protocols proposed by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC. The products sprayed (dosage/180L of water were: 1 Baculovírus anticarsia 140x109 cpi; 2 Bacillus thuringiensis 16.8g; 3 Azadirachtin-A, azadirachtin-B, nimbina and salamina 9.6 ppm; 4 Rotenoids 4 liters; 5 Nitrogen 1.3%, phosphorus 3.0% and total organic carbon 8.0% 3 liters; 6 Sodium silicate 2% 4 liters; 7 Copper 7% + calcium 3.3% 1.8 liters; 8 Sulfur 20% + quicklime 10% 1.8 liters; 9 Chlorpyrifos 384g (positive control; 10 Distilled H2O (negative control. The results of experiments using pupae indicate that the organic compounds were classified as harmless (Class 1, except for the copper 7% + calcium 3.3% and sulfur 20% + quicklime 10%, which were classified as slightly harmful (Class 2. The contact bioassay with adults showed that all products were classified as harmless (Class 1. Only chlorpyrifos (384g was classified as harmful (Class 4 for both stages of the parasitoid. However, the use of this product (chlorpyrifos is not permitted in organic farming, and even in conventional farming is recommended, where feasible, replacement of the product with one compatible with the preservation of T. remus in nature. Thus, the products tested and used in organic soybean production were considered compatible with the parasitoid eggs of T. remus.

  4. Automated procedure for candidate compound selection in GCMS metabolomics based on prediction of Kovats retention index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihaleva, V.V.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Matching both the retention index (RI) and the mass spectrum of an unknown compound against a mass spectral reference library provides strong evidence for a correct identification of that compound. Data on retention indices are, however, available for only a small fraction of the

  5. Intracellular Diagnostics: Hunting for the Mode of Action of Redox-Modulating Selenium Compounds in Selected Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Mániková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox-modulating compounds derived from natural sources, such as redox active secondary metabolites, are currently of considerable interest in the field of chemoprevention, drug and phytoprotectant development. Unfortunately, the exact and occasionally even selective activity of such products, and the underlying (bio-chemical causes thereof, are often only poorly understood. A combination of the nematode- and yeast-based assays provides a powerful platform to investigate a possible biological activity of a new compound and also to explore the “redox link” which may exist between its activity on the one side and its chemistry on the other. Here, we will demonstrate the usefulness of this platform for screening several selenium and tellurium compounds for their activity and action. We will also show how the nematode-based assay can be used to obtain information on compound uptake and distribution inside a multicellular organism, whilst the yeast-based system can be employed to explore possible intracellular mechanisms via chemogenetic screening and intracellular diagnostics. Whilst none of these simple and easy-to-use assays can ultimately substitute for in-depth studies in human cells and animals, these methods nonetheless provide a first glimpse on the possible biological activities of new compounds and offer direction for more complicated future investigations. They may also uncover some rather unpleasant biochemical actions of certain compounds, such as the ability of the trace element supplement selenite to induce DNA strand breaks.

  6. Stability of cannabinoids in urine in three storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding Fraga, S; Díaz-Flores Estévez, J; Díaz Romero, C

    1998-01-01

    Stability of cannabinoid compounds in urine samples were evaluated using several storage temperatures. Appreciable losses (> 22.4 percent) were observed in some urine samples, after being stored at room temperature for 10 days. Lower losses (8.1 percent) were observed when the urine samples were refrigerated for 4 weeks. The behavior of urine samples depended on the analyzed urine. This could be due to the different stability of the cannabinoids present in each urine sample. Important losses of 8.0 +/- 10.6, 15.8 +/- 4.2, and 19.6 +/- 6.7 percent were found when the urine samples were frozen during 40 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Average losses (> > 5 percent) can be observed after one day which could mainly be due to the decrease of the solubility of 11-nor-U9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) or adsorption process of cannabinoid molecules to the plastic storage containers.

  7. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  8. Comparison of confirmed inactive and randomly selected compounds as negative training examples in support vector machine-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-07-22

    The choice of negative training data for machine learning is a little explored issue in chemoinformatics. In this study, the influence of alternative sets of negative training data and different background databases on support vector machine (SVM) modeling and virtual screening has been investigated. Target-directed SVM models have been derived on the basis of differently composed training sets containing confirmed inactive molecules or randomly selected database compounds as negative training instances. These models were then applied to search background databases consisting of biological screening data or randomly assembled compounds for available hits. Negative training data were found to systematically influence compound recall in virtual screening. In addition, different background databases had a strong influence on the search results. Our findings also indicated that typical benchmark settings lead to an overestimation of SVM-based virtual screening performance compared to search conditions that are more relevant for practical applications.

  9. Separation selectivity patterns of fully charged achiral compounds in capillary electrophoresis with a neutral cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorntantikul, Wasura; Srisa-art, Monpichar; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2013-01-01

    Based on the separation selectivity equation, related to the dimensionless parameters for fully charged achiral analytes using a neutral CD, the separation selectivity can be classified into seven patterns. With respect to CZE without CD, the presence of CD in the buffer may improve, or reduce, the separation selectivity with this effect being accompanied by the same or reversed electrophoretic mobility order for charged analytes. This can depend on the separation selectivity of the two analytes in free solution, the binding selectivity, the separation selectivity of analyte-CD complexes and the ratio of electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in free, and complexed forms. Using positional isomers of benzoic acids and phenoxy acids as test analytes and α-CD as a selector, the observed separation selectivity shapes were found to be in excellent agreement with the predicted separation selectivities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Exploring the physicochemical profile and the binding patterns of selected novel anticancer Himalayan plant derived active compounds with macromolecular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bahadur Gurung

    Full Text Available Plants are vital source of compounds offering plethora of therapeutic effects against various ailments without much side effects. Due to wide spread prevalence and drug resistance in cancer; there is an urgent need for discovery of new anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, selected novel anti-cancer plants derived compounds (cmpd1 to cmpd15 from Himalayan region were docked with defined molecular targets that regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. The binding energies of best docked compounds ranged between −8.0 kcal/mol and −11.71 kcal/mol. Further analysis revealed critical hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between compounds and targets. The best docked compounds viz., cmpd15 against cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2, cmpd8 against CDK-6 and cmpd9 against Topoisomerase I and II showed higher binding affinities than the native co-crystal ligands. The root mean square deviation (RMSD and potential energy plot clearly indicates the stability of the complexes during 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulation. The Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA binding energy analysis revealed Van der Waals energy component which is the principal stabilizing energy for their interactions except CDK-2/cmpd15 complex. The polar solvation energy did not have favorable contribution to their stabilization. The binding energy decomposition analysis revealed per residue contribution for each docked complexes. Physicochemical profile studies showed that majority of the compounds conform to Lipinski's rule of five (ROF having low to high blood brain barrier (BBB penetration, human intestinal absorption, plasma binding protein inhibition and P glycoprotein inhibition. Keywords: ADMET, Anticancer, MM/PBSA, Molecular docking, Molecular dynamics simulation and plant derived compounds

  11. Experimental and theoretical binding affinity between polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and selected phenolic compounds from food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Lara, Esteban F; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Castro, Ricardo I; Avila-Salas, Fabián; González-Nilo, Fernando D; Laurie, V Felipe; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-02-01

    Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a fining agent, widely used in winemaking and brewing, whose mode of action in removing phenolic compounds has not been fully characterised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experimental and theoretical binding affinity of PVPP towards six phenolic compounds representing different types of phenolic species. The interaction between PVPP and phenolics was evaluated in model solutions, where hydroxyl groups, hydrophobic bonding and steric hindrance were characterised. The results of the study indicated that PVPP exhibits high affinity for quercetin and catechin, moderate affinity for epicatechin, gallic acid and lower affinity for 4-methylcatechol and caffeic acid. The affinity has a direct correlation with the hydroxylation degree of each compound. The results show that the affinity of PVPP towards phenols is related with frontier orbitals. This work demonstrates a direct correlation between the experimental affinity and the interaction energy calculations obtained through computational chemistry methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatile compounds in samples of cork and also produced by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, M C; Vilas Boas, L; Carneiro, L C; San Romão, M V

    2011-06-22

    The production of volatile compounds by microbial communities of cork samples taken during the cork manufacturing process was investigated. The majority of volatiles were found in samples collected at two stages: resting after the first boiling and nontreated cork disks. Volatile profiles produced by microbiota in both stages are similar. The releasable volatile compounds and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced in cork-based culture medium by five isolated fungal species in pure and mixed cultures were also analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The results showed that 1-octen-3-ol and esters of fatty acids (medium chain length C8-C20) were the main volatile compounds produced by either pure fungal species or their mixture. Apparently, Penicillium glabrum is the main contributor to the overall volatile composition observed in the mixed culture. The production of releasable TCA on cork cannot be attributed to any of the assayed fungal isolates.

  13. Selective adsorption of volatile organic compounds in micropore aluminum methylphosphonate-alpha: a combined molecular simulation-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdes, Carmelo; Valente, Anabela; Lin, Zhi; Rocha, João; Coutinho, João A P; Medina, Francisco; Vega, Lourdes F

    2007-06-19

    Results concerning the adsorption capacity of aluminum methylphosphonate polymorph alpha (AlMePO-alpha) for pure ethyl chloride and vinyl chloride by measured individual adsorption isotherms of these pure compounds are presented and discussed here. The experimental data supports the idea of using these materials as selective adsorbents for separating these compounds in mixtures. To explore this possibility further, we have performed grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations using a recently proposed molecular simulation framework for gas adsorption on AlMePO, and the results are presented here. The molecular model of the material was used in a purely transferable manner from a previous work (Herdes, C.; Lin, Z.; Valente, A.; Coutinho, J. A. P.; Vega, L. F. Langmuir 2006, 22, 3097). Regarding the molecular model of the fluids, an existing model for ethyl chloride was improved to capture the experimental dipole value better; an equivalent force field for the vinyl chloride molecule was also developed for simulation purposes. Simulations of the pure compounds were found to be in excellent agreement with the measured experimental data at the three studied temperatures. Simulations were also carried out in a purely predictive manner as a tool to find the optimal conditions for the selective adsorption of these compounds prior experimental measurements are carried out. The influence of the temperature and the bulk composition on the adsorption selectivity was also investigated. Results support the use of AlMePO-alpha as an appropriate adsorbent for the purification process of vinyl chloride, upholding the selective adsorption of ethyl chloride.

  14. Real structure and selected properties of the superconducting intermetallic compound V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinstueck, K.; Kraemer, U.; Paufler, P.; Ullrich, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plasticity and electro-plastic effects have been detected at temperatures above 1200 0 C in the intermetallic compound V 3 Si which can not plastically be deformed under normal conditions. The mechanisms of plastic deformation were elucidated. The critical temperature and the critical current density could be altered by plastic deformation. It was found that the mechanisms of plastic deformation as well as the alteration of the critical parameters are dependent on the chemical composition of the intermetallic compound within the range of homogeneity. For measuring such alterations Kossel's interference method was used. Intense plastic deformation of crystals resulted in an influence on the martensite transformation

  15. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  16. Rh(III-Catalyzed, Highly Selectively Direct C–H Alkylation of Indoles with Diazo Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rh(III-catalyzed regioselective alkylation of indoles with diazo compounds as a highly efficient and atom-economic protocol for the synthesis of alkyl substituted indoles has been developed. The reaction could proceed under mild conditions and afford a series of desired products in good to excellent yields.

  17. Inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1 by compounds from selected plants for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory activities of herbal compounds from Curcuma longa, Sophora japonica and Camellia sinensis against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) using in vivo and in silico tools. Methods: The extracts of the medicinal herbs (Curcuma longa, Sophora japonica and ...

  18. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 2. Model prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) naproxen and carbamazepine and one endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) nonylphenol was studied in pilot-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers using post-sedimentation (PS) water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. The GAC adsorbents were coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. Acidic naproxen broke through fastest while nonylphenol was removed best, which was consistent with the degree to which fouling affected compound removals. Model predictions and experimental data were generally in good agreement for all three compounds, which demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the pore and surface diffusion model (PSDM) used in combination with the time-variable parameter approach for predicting removals at environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., ng/L range). Sensitivity analyses suggested that accurate determination of film diffusion coefficients was critical for predicting breakthrough for naproxen and carbamazepine, in particular when high removals are targeted. Model simulations demonstrated that GAC carbon usage rates (CURs) for naproxen were substantially influenced by the empty bed contact time (EBCT) at the investigated conditions. Model-based comparisons between GAC CURs and minimum CURs for powdered activated carbon (PAC) applications suggested that PAC would be most appropriate for achieving 90% removal of naproxen, whereas GAC would be more suitable for nonylphenol. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Bark as potential source of chemical substances for industry: analysis of content of selected phenolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Kotyza, Jan; Rezek, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    -, č. 1 (2013), s. 4-9 ISSN 1804-0195 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : bark * extraction * phenolic compounds Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics http://www. waste forum.cz/cisla/WF_1_2013.pdf#page=4

  20. Temporal trends of select pharmaceutical compounds entering an estuary from a small, urban river

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate and effects of pharmaceutical compounds have been widely studied in freshwater systems; however, less is known about their behavior in marine ecosystems. In many coastal watersheds, there are river systems that are receiving waters for domestic wastewater treatment effl...

  1. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  2. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35

  3. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca 2 Ge 0.8 Cr 0.2 O 4 , Ba 2 Ge 0.1 Cr 0.9 O 4 , Sr 2 CrO 4 , Ca 2 (PO 4 ) x (CrO 4 ) 1-x Cl (x=0.25,0.5), Ca 5 (CrO 4 ) 3 Cl, CrO 3 , the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl 3 , CrF 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , KCr(SO 4 ) 2 · 12H 2 O, CrO 2 and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code

  4. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D

    2004-05-10

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca{sub 2}Ge{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}, Ba{sub 2}Ge{sub 0.1}Cr{sub 0.9}O{sub 4}, Sr{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub x}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl (x=0.25,0.5), Ca{sub 5}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl, CrO{sub 3}, the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl{sub 3}, CrF{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, KCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 12H{sub 2}O, CrO{sub 2} and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code.

  5. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D.

    2004-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca 2Ge 0.8Cr 0.2O 4, Ba 2Ge 0.1Cr 0.9O 4, Sr 2CrO 4, Ca 2(PO 4) x(CrO 4) 1- xCl ( x=0.25,0.5), Ca 5(CrO 4) 3Cl, CrO 3, the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl 3, CrF 3, Cr 2O 3, KCr(SO 4) 2 · 12H 2O, CrO 2 and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code.

  6. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  7. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-Transform spectra of selected organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, S.H.; Caton, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of a variety of different organic compounds have been determined. Profiles of the spectra along with the location and relative intensity of the principal bands have been included for each compound studied. In addition both diffuse reflectance and transmittance infrared spectra were obtained for the same samples, and the spectral results were compared. Although some minor variations are observed between a diffuse reflectance spectrum and the corresponding transmittance spectrum, the diffuse reflectance is quite useful and may be a superior technique for the study of many samples because it possesses an inherently higher signal-to-noise response, requires less sample preparation and allows a very wide range of samples (solids, liquids of low volatility, neat sample, or sample diluted in a reflecting medium) to be studied under very similar conditions.

  8. Distribution of enantiomers of volatile organic compounds in selected fruit distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyviurska, Olga; Zvrškovcová, Helena; Špánik, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The enantiomer ratios of chiral volatile organic compounds in fruit distillates were determined by multidimensional gas chromatography using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a sample treatment procedure. Linalool and its oxides, limonene, α-terpineol, and nerolidol, were present at the highest concentration levels, while significantly lower amounts of β-citronellol and lactones were found in the studied samples. However, almost all terpenoids mainly occur as a racemic or near-racemic mixture; enantiomer distribution of some chiral organic compounds in fruit distillates correlated to a botanical origin. In particular, a significant enantiomeric excess of (R)-linalool and (S)-α-terpineol was found only for pear brandy, and likewise the dominance (R)-limonene and the second eluted enantiomer of nerolidol for Sorbus domestica and strawberry, respectively. The distribution of γ-lactones stereoisomers was more nonspecific, with a general excess of the R-enantiomer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Identification of compounds that selectively target highly chemotherapy refractory neuroblastoma cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Carballo, David; Acikelli, Ali Haydar; Bardenheuer, Walter; Gustmann, Sebastian; Malak, Sascha; Stoll, Raphael; Kedziorski, Thorsten; Nazif, Mhd Ali; Jastrow, Holger; Wennemuth, Gunter; Dammann, Philip; Feigel, Martin; Strumberg, Dirk

    2014-09-01

    Relapse of cancer months or years after an apparently successful therapy is probably caused by cancer stem cells (CSCs) due to their intrinsic features like dormant periods, radiorefraction, and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes, among other mechanisms of cellular drug evasiveness. Thus, the lack of currently efficacious interventions remains a major problem in the treatment of malignancies, together with the inability of existing drugs to destroy specifically CSCs. Neuroblastomas per se are highly chemotherapy-refractory extracranial tumors in infants with very low survival rates. So far, no effective cytostatics against this kind of tumors are clinically available. Therefore, we have put much effort into the development of agents to efficiently combat this malignancy. For this purpose, we tested several compounds isolated from Cuban propolis on induced CSCs (iCSC) derived from LAN-1 neuroblastoma cells which expressed several characteristics of tumor-initiating cells both in in-vitro and in-vivo models. Some small molecules such as flavonoids and polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAP) were isolated using successive RT-HPLC cycles and identified employing mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Their cytotoxicity was first screened in sensitive cell systems by MTT proliferation assays and afterwards studied in less sensitive neuroblastoma iCSC models. We found several compounds with considerable anti-iCSC activity, most of them belonging to the PPAP class. The majority of the compounds act in a pleiotropic manner on the molecular biology of tumors although their specific targets remain unclear. Nevertheless, two substances, one of them a flavonoid, induced a strong disruption of tubulin polymerization. In addition, an unknown compound strongly inhibited replicative enzymes like toposimerases I/II and DNA polymerase. Here, we report for the first time cytotoxic activities of small molecules isolated from Caribbean propolis

  10. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Redzuan Hairuddin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L., mango (Mangifera indica L., papaya (Carica papaya L., muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb. were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05 differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC, were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05 change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05 but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  11. Mitochondrial functions of THP-1 monocytes following the exposure to selected natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Nadin; Wanka, Heike; Zwicker, Paula; Lindequist, Ulrike; Haertel, Beate

    2017-02-15

    The immune system is an important target of various xenobiotics, which may lead to severe adverse effects including immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation. Mitochondrial toxicity is one possibility by which xenobiotics exert their toxic effects in cells or organs. In this study, we investigated the impact of three natural compounds, cyclosporine A (CsA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and cannabidiol (CBD) on mitochondrial functions in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The cells were exposed for 24h to two different concentrations (IC 10 and IC 50 determined by MTT) of each compound. The cells showed concentration-dependent elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and induction of apoptosis (except DON) in response to the three test compounds. Mitochondrial functions were characterized by using bioenergetics profiling experiments. In THP-1 monocytes, the IC 50 of CsA decreased basal and maximal respiration as well as ATP production with an impact on spare capacity indicating a mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar reaction patterns were observed following CBD exposure. The basal respiration level and ATP-production decreased in the THP-1 cells exposed to the IC 50 of DON with no major impact on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired mitochondrial function was accompanied by elevated iROS and apoptosis level in a monocytic cell line exposed to CsA and CBD. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be one explanation for the cytotoxicity of CBD and CsA also in other in immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  13. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Guang; Ye, Feiyan; Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong; Wang, Haihui

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO2/SiO2 were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO2 served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO2 acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO2 as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO2/SiO2; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO2/SiO2 was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolution of the composition of a selected bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: release and migration of taste-active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Tournier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to add to the understanding of changes in taste that occur during the ripening of a bitter Camembert cheese by the evolution of its composition. Physicochemical analyses were performed on rind, under-rind, and center portions of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness. At each of the six steps of ripening studied organic acids, sugars, total nitrogen, soluble nitrogen, phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Pi, Cl, and biogenic amines were quantified in each portion. Changes in cheese composition seemed to mainly result from the development of Penicillium camemberti on the cheese outer layer. Migration phenomena and the release of potentially taste-active compounds allowed for the evolution of saltiness, sourness, and bitterness throughout ripening to be better understood. Apart from taste-active compounds, the impact of the cheese matrix on its taste development is discussed.

  15. Fate and transport of selected estrogen compounds in Hawaii soils: Effect of soil type and macropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Vasudevan, Dharni; Lichwa, Joseph; Mohanty, Sanjay K.; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-10-01

    The fate and transport of estrogen compounds in the environment is of increasing concern due to their potential impact on freshwater organisms, ecosystems and human health. The behavior of these compounds in batch experiments suggests low mobility, while field studies indicate the persistence of estrogen compounds in the soil with the possibility of migration to surface water as well as groundwater. To better understand the movement of these chemicals through soils, we examined their transport in three different Hawaiian soils and two aqueous matrices. The three different soils used were an Oxisol, a Mollisol and a cinder, characterized by different mineralogical properties and collected at depths of 60-90 cm and 210-240 cm. Two liquid matrices were used; deionized (DI) water containing calcium chloride (CaCl2), and recycled water collected from a wastewater treatment facility. The experiments were conducted in packed and structured columns. Non-equilibrium conditions were observed during the study, especially in the structured soil. This is believed to be primarily related to the presence of macropores in the soil. The presence of macropores resulted in reduced contact time between soil and estrogens, which facilitated their transport. We found that the organic carbon content and mineralogical composition of the soils had a profound effect on the transport of the estrogens. The mobility of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) was greater in cinder than in the other soils. In column experiments with recycled water, earlier breakthrough peaks and longer tails of estrogens were produced compared to those observed using DI water. The use of recycled water for agricultural purposes and the siting of septic tanks and cesspools should be critically reviewed in light of these findings, especially in areas where groundwater is the primary source of potable water, such as Hawaii.

  16. Fate and transport of selected estrogen compounds in Hawaii soils: effect of soil type and macropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Vasudevan, Dharni; Lichwa, Joseph; Mohanty, Sanjay K; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-10-01

    The fate and transport of estrogen compounds in the environment is of increasing concern due to their potential impact on freshwater organisms, ecosystems and human health. The behavior of these compounds in batch experiments suggests low mobility, while field studies indicate the persistence of estrogen compounds in the soil with the possibility of migration to surface water as well as groundwater. To better understand the movement of these chemicals through soils, we examined their transport in three different Hawaiian soils and two aqueous matrices. The three different soils used were an Oxisol, a Mollisol and a cinder, characterized by different mineralogical properties and collected at depths of 60-90 cm and 210-240 cm. Two liquid matrices were used; deionized (DI) water containing calcium chloride (CaCl2), and recycled water collected from a wastewater treatment facility. The experiments were conducted in packed and structured columns. Non-equilibrium conditions were observed during the study, especially in the structured soil. This is believed to be primarily related to the presence of macropores in the soil. The presence of macropores resulted in reduced contact time between soil and estrogens, which facilitated their transport. We found that the organic carbon content and mineralogical composition of the soils had a profound effect on the transport of the estrogens. The mobility of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) was greater in cinder than in the other soils. In column experiments with recycled water, earlier breakthrough peaks and longer tails of estrogens were produced compared to those observed using DI water. The use of recycled water for agricultural purposes and the siting of septic tanks and cesspools should be critically reviewed in light of these findings, especially in areas where groundwater is the primary source of potable water, such as Hawaii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  18. Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Volatile Metabolites in Urine Headspace for the Profiling of Gastro-Esophageal Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, J.; Kumar, S.; Abbassi-Ghadi, N.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 6 (2013), s. 3409-3416 ISSN 0003-2700 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION * SIFT-MS * ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.825, year: 2013

  19. Creatinine urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine creatinine test ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ... done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed by the body entirely by the ...

  20. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  1. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  2. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    sudden onset, progressive left sided weakness involving both upper and ... computed tomography of the brain showed right ... included a complete blood count, renal functions which were ... Urine culture had a significant growth of Klebsiella.

  3. Effect of Selected Mercapto Flavor Compounds on Acrylamide Elimination in a Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four mercapto flavor compounds (1,2-ethanedithiol, 1-butanethiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and 2-furanmethanethiol on acrylamide elimination were investigated in model systems. The obtained results showed that mercaptans assayed were effective in elimination arylamide in a model system. Their reactivities for decreasing acrylamide content depended on mercaptan’s molecular structure and acrylamide disappearance decreased in the following order: 1,2-ethanedithiol > 2-methyl-3-furanthiol > 1-butanethiol > 2-furanmethanethiol. Mercaptans were added to acrylamide to produce the corresponding 3-(alkylthio propionamides. This reaction was irreversible and only trace amounts of acrylamide were formed by thermal heating of 3-(alkylthio propanamide. Although a large amount disappeared, only part of the acrylamide conversed into 3-(alkylthio propionamides. All of these results constitute a fundamental proof of the complexity of the reactions involved in the removal of free acrylamide in foods. This implies mercapto flavor/aroma may directly or indirectly reduce the level of acrylamide in food processing. This study could be regarded as a pioneer contribution on acrylamide elimination in a model system by the addition of mercapto flavor compounds.

  4. Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. PMID:21845104

  5. Organic compounds in aerosols from selected European sites - Biogenic versus anthropogenic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia; Vicente, Ana; Pio, Casimiro; Kiss, Gyula; Hoffer, Andras; Decesari, Stefano; Prevôt, André S. H.; Minguillón, María Cruz; Querol, Xavier; Hillamo, Risto; Spindler, Gerald; Swietlicki, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples from a boreal forest (Hyytiälä, April 2007), a rural site in Hungary (K-puszta, summer 2008), a polluted rural area in Italy (San Pietro Capofiume, Po Valley, April 2008), a moderately polluted rural site in Germany located on a meadow (Melpitz, May 2008), a natural park in Spain (Montseny, March 2009) and two urban background locations (Zurich, December 2008, and Barcelona, February/March 2009) were collected. Aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls, sterols, n-alkanols, acids, phenolic compounds and anhydrosugars in aerosols were chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, along with source attribution based on the carbon preference index (CPI), the ratios between the unresolved and the chromatographically resolved aliphatics, the contribution of wax n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids from plants, diagnostic ratios of individual target compounds and source-specific markers to organic carbon ratios. In spite of transboundary pollution episodes, Hyytiälä registered the lowest levels among all locations. CPI values close to 1 for the aliphatic fraction of the Montseny aerosol suggest that the anthropogenic input may be associated with the transport of aged air masses from the surrounding industrial/urban areas, which superimpose the locally originated hydrocarbons with biogenic origin. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from San Pietro Capofiume reveal that fossil fuel combustion is a major source influencing the diel pattern of concentrations. This source contributed to 25-45% of the ambient organic carbon (OC) at the Po Valley site. Aerosols from the German meadow presented variable contributions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The highest levels of vegetation wax components and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products were observed at K-puszta, while anthropogenic SOA compounds predominated in Barcelona. The primary vehicular emissions in the Spanish

  6. Selective Detection of Target Volatile Organic Compounds in Contaminated Humid Air Using a Sensor Array with Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-01-01

    We investigated selective detection of the target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nonanal, n-decane, and acetoin for lung cancer-related VOCs, and acetone and methyl i-butyl ketone for diabetes-related VOCs, in humid air with simulated VOC contamination (total concentration: 300 μg/m3). We used six “grain boundary-response type” sensors, including four commercially available sensors (TGS 2600, 2610, 2610, and 2620) and two Pt, Pd, and Au-loaded SnO2 sensors (Pt, Pd, Au/SnO2), and two “bulk-response type” sensors, including Zr-doped CeO2 (CeZr10), i.e., eight sensors in total. We then analyzed their sensor signals using principal component analysis (PCA). Although the six “grain boundary-response type” sensors were found to be insufficient for selective detection of the target gases in humid air, the addition of two “bulk-response type” sensors improved the selectivity, even with simulated VOC contamination. To further improve the discrimination, we selected appropriate sensors from the eight sensors based on the PCA results. The selectivity to each target gas was maintained and was not affected by contamination. PMID:28753948

  7. Selected chemical compounds in firm and mellow persimmon fruit before and after the drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Grabnar, Jana Jurhar; Stampar, Franci; Jakopic, Jerneja

    2016-07-01

    Persimmon is a seasonal fruit and only available in fresh form for a short period of each year. In addition to freezing, drying is the simplest substitute for the fresh fruit and accessible throughout the year. The effect of mellowing and drying was evaluated in 'Tipo' persimmon, an astringent cultivar. 'Tipo' firm fruit contained high levels of tannins (1.1 mg g(-1) DW), which were naturally decreased to 0.2 mg g(-1) DW after mellowing. The drying process greatly impacted the contents of carotenoids, total phenols, individual phenolics, tannins, organic acids, sugars and colour parameters in firm and mellow fruit. The reduction of tannins, phenolic compounds and organic acids were accompanied by the increase of sugars and carotenoids, improving the colour of the analysed samples. These results showed that the drying process improved the quality of persimmon products and extended their shelf life. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. FERTILISATION IMPACT ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CAULIFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton UHER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and sulphur fertilization positively affected on crop yields and bioactive compounds (vitamin C, E1 and -carotene content in cauliflower edible heads. Applying fertilization doses of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 60 kg S.ha-1 compared to the control improved cauliflower harvest by 15,2 t.ha-1. Increased fertilization doses of nitrogen and sulphur significantly increased vitamin C and -carotene content in the cauliflower. High significant difference in vitamin C level was found comparing the control variant and variant of nitrogen fertilization at the level of 200 kg N.ha-1. In percentage terms this is an increase in vitamin C level by 22,4%. Fertilization with increased doses of nitrogen and sulphur affected significantly the amount of -carotene compared to unfertilized variant. Increased doses of N and S did not respond adequately to vitamin E1 content in cauliflower.

  9. Review of the inhibition of biological activities of food-related selected toxins by natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Rasooly, Reuven

    2013-04-23

    There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. The term 'chemical genetics' has been used to describe this approach. This overview attempts to survey and consolidate the widely scattered literature on the inhibition by natural compounds and plant extracts of the biological (toxicological) activity of the following food-related toxins: aflatoxin B1, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A produced by fungi; cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae bacteria; Shiga toxins produced by E. coli bacteria; staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; ricin produced by seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis; and the glycoalkaloid α-chaconine synthesized in potato tubers and leaves. The reduction of biological activity has been achieved by one or more of the following approaches: inhibition of the release of the toxin into the environment, especially food; an alteration of the structural integrity of the toxin molecules; changes in the optimum microenvironment, especially pH, for toxin activity; and protection against adverse effects of the toxins in cells, animals, and humans (chemoprevention). The results show that food-compatible and safe compounds with anti-toxin properties can be used to reduce the toxic potential of these toxins. Practical applications and research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the toxic burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes of animal feed and human food and (b) educate food producers and processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating the undesirable effects of natural toxins that may present in the diet.

  10. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  11. Standardizing the experimental conditions for using urine in NMR-based metabolomic studies with a particular focus on diagnostic studies: a review

    KAUST Repository

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2014-11-21

    The metabolic composition of human biofluids can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. Among the biofluids most commonly analyzed in metabolomic studies, urine appears to be particularly useful. It is abundant, readily available, easily stored and can be collected by simple, noninvasive techniques. Moreover, given its chemical complexity, urine is particularly rich in potential disease biomarkers. This makes it an ideal biofluid for detecting or monitoring disease processes. Among the metabolomic tools available for urine analysis, NMR spectroscopy has proven to be particularly well-suited, because the technique is highly reproducible and requires minimal sample handling. As it permits the identification and quantification of a wide range of compounds, independent of their chemical properties, NMR spectroscopy has been frequently used to detect or discover disease fingerprints and biomarkers in urine. Although protocols for NMR data acquisition and processing have been standardized, no consensus on protocols for urine sample selection, collection, storage and preparation in NMR-based metabolomic studies have been developed. This lack of consensus may be leading to spurious biomarkers being reported and may account for a general lack of reproducibility between laboratories. Here, we review a large number of published studies on NMR-based urine metabolic profiling with the aim of identifying key variables that may affect the results of metabolomics studies. From this survey, we identify a number of issues that require either standardization or careful accounting in experimental design and provide some recommendations for urine collection, sample preparation and data acquisition.

  12. Standardizing the experimental conditions for using urine in NMR-based metabolomic studies with a particular focus on diagnostic studies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Luchinat, Claudio; Turano, Paola; Tenori, Leonardo; Roy, Raja; Salek, Reza M; Ryan, Danielle; Merzaban, Jasmeen S; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Zeri, Ana Carolina; Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel; Wang, Yulan; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S

    The metabolic composition of human biofluids can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. Among the biofluids most commonly analyzed in metabolomic studies, urine appears to be particularly useful. It is abundant, readily available, easily stored and can be collected by simple, noninvasive techniques. Moreover, given its chemical complexity, urine is particularly rich in potential disease biomarkers. This makes it an ideal biofluid for detecting or monitoring disease processes. Among the metabolomic tools available for urine analysis, NMR spectroscopy has proven to be particularly well-suited, because the technique is highly reproducible and requires minimal sample handling. As it permits the identification and quantification of a wide range of compounds, independent of their chemical properties, NMR spectroscopy has been frequently used to detect or discover disease fingerprints and biomarkers in urine. Although protocols for NMR data acquisition and processing have been standardized, no consensus on protocols for urine sample selection, collection, storage and preparation in NMR-based metabolomic studies have been developed. This lack of consensus may be leading to spurious biomarkers being reported and may account for a general lack of reproducibility between laboratories. Here, we review a large number of published studies on NMR-based urine metabolic profiling with the aim of identifying key variables that may affect the results of metabolomics studies. From this survey, we identify a number of issues that require either standardization or careful accounting in experimental design and provide some recommendations for urine collection, sample preparation and data acquisition.

  13. Standardizing the experimental conditions for using urine in NMR-based metabolomic studies with a particular focus on diagnostic studies: a review

    KAUST Repository

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Luchinat, Claudio; Turano, Paola; Tenori, Leonardo; Roy, Raja; Salek, Reza M.; Ryan, Danielle; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Zeri, Ana Carolina; Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel; Wang, Yulan; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic composition of human biofluids can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. Among the biofluids most commonly analyzed in metabolomic studies, urine appears to be particularly useful. It is abundant, readily available, easily stored and can be collected by simple, noninvasive techniques. Moreover, given its chemical complexity, urine is particularly rich in potential disease biomarkers. This makes it an ideal biofluid for detecting or monitoring disease processes. Among the metabolomic tools available for urine analysis, NMR spectroscopy has proven to be particularly well-suited, because the technique is highly reproducible and requires minimal sample handling. As it permits the identification and quantification of a wide range of compounds, independent of their chemical properties, NMR spectroscopy has been frequently used to detect or discover disease fingerprints and biomarkers in urine. Although protocols for NMR data acquisition and processing have been standardized, no consensus on protocols for urine sample selection, collection, storage and preparation in NMR-based metabolomic studies have been developed. This lack of consensus may be leading to spurious biomarkers being reported and may account for a general lack of reproducibility between laboratories. Here, we review a large number of published studies on NMR-based urine metabolic profiling with the aim of identifying key variables that may affect the results of metabolomics studies. From this survey, we identify a number of issues that require either standardization or careful accounting in experimental design and provide some recommendations for urine collection, sample preparation and data acquisition.

  14. Ultrasound assisted combined molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of nicotinamide in human urine and milk samples: Spectrophotometric determination and optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-vis spectrophotometer (UA-DSPME-UV-vis) was designed for extraction and preconcentration of nicotinamide (vitamin B 3 ) by HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF) based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). This new material was characterized by FTIR and FE-SEM techniques. The preliminary Plackett-Burman design was used for screening and subsequently the central composite design justifies significant terms and possible construction of mathematical equation which give the individual and cooperative contribution of variables like HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time. Accordingly the optimum condition was set as: 2.0mg HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP, 200μL eluent and 5.0min sonication time in center points other variables were determined as the best conditions to reach the maximum recovery of the analyte. The UA-DSPME-UV-vis method performances like excellent linearity (LR), limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification of 10-5000μgL -1 with R 2 of 0.99, LOD (1.96ngmL -1 ), LOQ (6.53μgL -1 ), respectively show successful and accurate applicability of the present method for monitoring analytes with within- and between-day precision of 0.96-3.38%. The average absolute recoveries of the nicotinamide extracted from the urine, milk and water samples were 95.85-101.27%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorption of selected endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals on activated biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chanil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Park, Junyeong [Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Lim, Kwang Hun [Department of Chemistry, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Park, Sunkyu [Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Heo, Jiyong [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, PO Box 135-1, Changhari, Gogyeongmeon, Young-cheon 770-849, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Her, Namguk [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, PO Box 135-1, Changhari, Gogyeongmeon, Young-cheon 770-849, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeill; Yun, Soyoung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yeomin, E-mail: yoony@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biochars were prepared at different gas environments. • The competitive adsorption among EDCs/PhACs were investigated. • Aromaticity of adsorbent plays a significant role for EDCs/PhACs adsorption. -- Abstract: Chemically activated biochar produced under oxygenated (O-biochar) and oxygen-free (N-biochar) conditions were characterized and the adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs): bisphenol A (BPA), atrazine (ATR), 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs); sulfamethoxazole (SMX), carbamazepine (CBM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP) on both biochars and commercialized powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated. Characteristic analysis of adsorbents by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was conducted to determine better understanding about the EDCs/PhACs adsorption. N-biochar consisted of higher polarity moieties with more alkyl (0–45 ppm), methoxyl (45–63 ppm), O-alkyl (63–108 ppm), and carboxyl carbon (165–187 ppm) content than other adsorbents, while aromaticity of O-biochar was higher than that of N-biochar. O-biochar was composed mostly of aromatic moieties, with low H/C and O/C ratios compared to the highly polarized N-biochar that contained diverse polar functional groups. The higher surface area and pore volume of N-biochar resulted in higher adsorption capacity toward EDCs/PhACs along with atomic-level molecular structural property than O-biochar and PAC. N-biochar had a highest adsorption capacity of all chemicals, suggesting that N-biochar derived from loblolly pine chip is a promising sorbent for agricultural and environmental applications. The adsorption of pH-sensitive dissociable SMX, DCF, IBP, and BPA varied and the order of adsorption capacity was correlated with the hydrophobicity (K{sub ow}) of adsorbates throughout the all adsorbents, whereas adsorption of non-ionizable CBM, ATR, and EE2 in varied pH allowed adsorbents to interact with hydrophobic property

  16. Adsorption of selected endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals on activated biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chanil; Park, Junyeong; Lim, Kwang Hun; Park, Sunkyu; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Oh, Jeill; Yun, Soyoung; Yoon, Yeomin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochars were prepared at different gas environments. • The competitive adsorption among EDCs/PhACs were investigated. • Aromaticity of adsorbent plays a significant role for EDCs/PhACs adsorption. -- Abstract: Chemically activated biochar produced under oxygenated (O-biochar) and oxygen-free (N-biochar) conditions were characterized and the adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs): bisphenol A (BPA), atrazine (ATR), 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs); sulfamethoxazole (SMX), carbamazepine (CBM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP) on both biochars and commercialized powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated. Characteristic analysis of adsorbents by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was conducted to determine better understanding about the EDCs/PhACs adsorption. N-biochar consisted of higher polarity moieties with more alkyl (0–45 ppm), methoxyl (45–63 ppm), O-alkyl (63–108 ppm), and carboxyl carbon (165–187 ppm) content than other adsorbents, while aromaticity of O-biochar was higher than that of N-biochar. O-biochar was composed mostly of aromatic moieties, with low H/C and O/C ratios compared to the highly polarized N-biochar that contained diverse polar functional groups. The higher surface area and pore volume of N-biochar resulted in higher adsorption capacity toward EDCs/PhACs along with atomic-level molecular structural property than O-biochar and PAC. N-biochar had a highest adsorption capacity of all chemicals, suggesting that N-biochar derived from loblolly pine chip is a promising sorbent for agricultural and environmental applications. The adsorption of pH-sensitive dissociable SMX, DCF, IBP, and BPA varied and the order of adsorption capacity was correlated with the hydrophobicity (K ow ) of adsorbates throughout the all adsorbents, whereas adsorption of non-ionizable CBM, ATR, and EE2 in varied pH allowed adsorbents to interact with hydrophobic property of

  17. Selecting odorant compounds to enhance sweet flavor perception by gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Carmen; Beno, Noelle; Guichard, Elisabeth; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2018-08-15

    Gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT) analysis combined with mass spectrometry allowed identification of odorant compounds associated with taste attributes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour) in a multi-fruit juice. Nine compounds were selected for their odor-associated sweetness enhancement in a multi-fruit juice odor context using Olfactoscan and for their odor-induced sweet taste enhancement in sucrose solution and sugar-reduced fruit juice through sensory tests. Sweetness of the fruit juice odor was significantly enhanced by methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and linalool; sweet perception was significantly enhanced in 7% sucrose solution by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, furaneol and γ-decalactone, and in 32% sugar-reduced fruit juice by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. GC/O-AT analysis is a novel, efficient approach to select odorants associated with a given taste. The further screening of taste-associated odorants by Olfactoscan helps to identify the most efficient odorants to enhance a target taste perception and may be used to find new ways to modulate taste perception in foods and beverages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudoliquid behavior of heteropoly compound catalysts. Unusual pressure dependencies of the rate and selectivity for ethanol dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misono, M.; Okuhara, T.; Ichiki, T.; Arai, T.; Kanda, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Heteropoly compounds arenow utilized as industrial catalysts for olefin hydration and aldehyde oxidation and as interesting cluster models of mixed oxide catalysts. Certain heteropoly acids, like H 3 PW 12 O 40 and H 3 PMo 12 O 40 , easily absorb a large amount of water, alchols, and ethers in the solid state, although their surface areas are very low. This is not adsorption in micropores; rather molecules are absorbed between the lattice polyanions, sometimes expanding the lattice. The expansion can be seen visually as well as by x-ray diffraction. The authors showed that in some cases catalytic reactions take place in this novel bulk phase. Presumably due to this behavior, very high catalytic activity and unique selectivity as well as unusual reactivity order have been observed. They called this state the pseudoliquid phase. However, in only one case was the amount of absorbed reactant measured under the working conditions. They report here unusual pressure dependencies of the rate and selectivity of ethanol dehydration over heteropoly compounds. The dependency can only be explained by the formation of a pseudoliquid phase, i.e., a phase where the amount of absorbed ethanol has changed as a function of ethanol pressure

  19. Vapour pressures of selected organic compounds down to 1 mPa, using mass-loss Knudsen effusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, José M.S.; Gushterov, Nikola; Dohrn, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A recently described mass-loss Knudsen apparatus was used for measurements of vapour pressures down to around 1 mPa. • Complementary calorimetric studies were performed in a Calvet-type calorimeter. • New vapour pressures are given for benzoic acid and benzanthrone, in ranges in which no consistent data existed. • Vapour pressures for solid n-octadecane are presented, correcting existing values from literature. - Abstract: A recently developed Knudsen effusion apparatus was improved and used for measurements of vapour pressures of selected organic compounds. Calorimetric studies were conducted using a Calvet-type calorimeter, complementing the information obtained for the vapour pressures and facilitating the modelling and analysis of the data. Vapour pressures of benzoic acid, a reference substance, were determined at temperatures between 269 K and 317 K, corresponding to a pressure range from 2 mPa to 1 Pa, extending the range of results available in the literature to lower pressures. Benzanthrone was studied between temperatures 360 K and 410 K (5 mPa–1 Pa) in order to test the apparatus at higher temperatures. Values presented in the literature for the vapour pressure of solid n-octadecane, one of the most promising compounds to be used as “phase change material” for textile applications, were found inconsistent with the triple point of the substance. Sublimation pressures were measured for this compound between T = 286 K and 298 K (2–20 mPa) allowing the correction of the existing values. Finally, vapour pressures of diphenyl carbonate, a compound of high industrial relevance for its use in the production of polycarbonates, were determined from T = 302 K to 332 K (0.02–1 Pa)

  20. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  1. Quantification of character-impacting compounds in Ocimum basilicum and 'Pesto alla Genovese' with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, Gianluca; Ross, Brian M

    2012-02-15

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an important flavourant plant which constitutes the major ingredient of the pasta sauce 'Pesto alla Genovese'. The characteristic smell of basil stems mainly from a handful of terpenoids (methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol, linalool and estragole), the concentration of which varies according to basil cultivars. The simple and rapid analysis of the terpenoid constituents of basil would be useful as a means to optimise harvesting times and to act as a quality control process for basil-containing foodstuffs. Classical analytical techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are, however, slow, technically demanding and therefore less suitable for routine analysis. A new chemical ionisation technique which allows real-time quantification of traces gases, Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS), was therefore utilised to determine its usefulness for the assay of terpenoid concentrations in basil and pesto sauce headspace. Trace gas analysis was performed using the NO(+) precursor ion which minimised interference from other compounds. Character-impacting compound concentration was measured in basil headspace with good reproducibility and statistically significant differences were observed between cultivars. Quantification of linalool in pesto sauce headspace proved more difficult due to the presence of interfering compounds. This was resolved by careful selection of reaction product ions which allowed us to detect differences between various commercial brands of pesto. We conclude that SIFT-MS may be a valid tool for the fast and reproducible analysis of flavourant terpenoids in basil and basil-derived foodstuffs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Facilitated and selective oxidation of thiophenic sulfur compounds using MoOx/Al₂O₃-H₂O₂ system under ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Azam; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Towfighi Darian, Jafar

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative desulfurization of thiophenic sulfur compounds of benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) with MoOx/Al₂O₃ catalyst and H₂O₂ oxidant has been facilitated and more selective under ultrasonic irradiation. The catalyst with the optimum 10% of Mo loading consisted of isolated tetrahedral molybdenum oxide species based on FTIR analysis. The increase of Mo loading to 15% and 20% caused to generation of polymolybdate and MoO₃ crystals which decreased desulfurization activity. Sonication enhanced the apparent reaction rate constants in oxidation of all three sulfur compounds. An increase in the Arrhenius factor (A0), which is the total number of collisions per second, could explain the acceleration in the rate constants by sonication. The apparent activated energy (Ea) of BT oxidation was reduced from 96.6 to 75.3 kJ/mol by using ultrasound. This indicated that ultrasound had also a chemical effect, like a catalytic influence, in the acceleration of BT removal. DBT oxidation was reduced when investigated in the presence of tetralin, naphthalene and 2-methyl naphthalene as the model aromatic compounds of actual light oils. A higher selectivity toward DBT elimination in the presence of aromatics was obtained by sonication when compared with the silent treatment. Ultrasound cleaned the catalyst surface from adsorbed aromatics. On the basis of the obtained results, a mechanistic proposal for this desulfurization was explained. Oxidation was performed by nucleophilic attack of sulfur atom to the molybdenum peroxide species of tetrahedral molybdates, which was more advanced by sonication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Selective Inverse Agonist of the CB2 Receptor as a Radiolabeled Tool Compound for Kinetic Binding Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Andrea; Sijben, Huub; Rufer, Arne C; Grether, Uwe; Fingerle, Juergen; Ullmer, Christoph; Hartung, Thomas; IJzerman, Adriaan P; van der Stelt, Mario; Heitman, Laura H

    2017-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system, and in particular the cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R), raised the interest of many medicinal chemistry programs for its therapeutic relevance in several (patho)physiologic processes. However, the physico-chemical properties of tool compounds for CB2R (e.g., the radioligand [ 3 H]CP55,940) are not optimal, despite the research efforts in developing effective drugs to target this system. At the same time, the importance of drug-target binding kinetics is growing since the kinetic binding profile of a ligand may provide important insights for the resulting in vivo efficacy. In this context we synthesized and characterized [ 3 H]RO6957022, a highly selective CB2R inverse agonist, as a radiolabeled tool compound. In equilibrium and kinetic binding experiments [ 3 H]RO6957022 showed high affinity for human CB2R with fast association ( k on ) and moderate dissociation ( k off ) kinetics. To demonstrate the robustness of [ 3 H]RO6957022 binding, affinity studies were carried out for a wide range of CB2R reference ligands, spanning the range of full, partial, and inverse agonists. Finally, we used [ 3 H]RO6957022 to study the kinetic binding profiles (i.e., k on and k off values) of selected synthetic and endogenous (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, and noladin ether) CB2R ligands by competition association experiments. All tested ligands, and in particular the endocannabinoids, displayed distinct kinetic profiles, shedding more light on their mechanism of action and the importance of association rates in the determination of CB2R affinity. Altogether, this study shows that the use of a novel tool compound, i.e., [ 3 H]RO6957022, can support the development of novel ligands with a repertoire of kinetic binding profiles for CB2R. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Thermochemistry of selected trivalent lanthanide and americium compounds: orthorhombic and hexagonal hydroxycarbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorif, F.; Fuger, J.; Desreux, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The molar enthalpies of dissolution of a number of well-characterized hexagonal hydroxycarbonates Ln(OH)CO 3 (hex) (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu) in 6.00 mol dm -3 HCl were measured at 298.15K. A new sealed solution micro-calorimeter was developed for this purpose. It was made of an 18-carat gold alloy in order to improve the performances of a calorimeter previously built in our laboratory. The following standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m [Ln(OH)CO 3 , hex], in kJ mol -1 , were calculated: -(1627.8±1.6), -(1614.8±1.9), -(1613.4±1.6), and -(1523.0±3.0), for the La, Nd, Sm, and Eu compounds, respectively. These results allowed an extrapolation to Δ f H m [Eu(OH)CO 3 .0.5H 2 O, orth] = -(1653.4±3.6) kJ mol -1 and to Δ f H m [Am(OH)CO 3 , hex] = -(1552.5±3.3) kJ mol -1 . Using auxiliary data and estimated entropies, the solubility products of the hexagonal hydroxycarbonates were calculated. They are compared here with values deduced from solubility and calorimetric measurements for the corresponding orthorhombic hydroxycarbonates. Our approach generally leads to values similar to those deduced from solubility studies. The orthorhombic form is found to be metastable with respect to the hexagonal form. (orig.)

  5. The Immunomodulatory Potential of Selected Bioactive Plant-Based Compounds in Breast Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraya, Yushau Shuaibu; Wong, Kah Keng; Yaacob, Nik Soriani

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has continued to cause high cancer death rates among women worldwide. The use of plants' natural products in breast cancer treatment has received more attention in recent years due to their potentially wider safety margin and the potential to complement conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Plantbased products have demonstrated anticancer potential through different biological pathways including modulation of the immune system. Immunomodulatory properties of medicinal plants have been shown to mitigate breast cancer cell growth. Different immune cell types participate in this process especially cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, and cytokines including chemokines and tumor necrosis factor-α. Medicinal plants such as Glycyrrhiza glabra, Uncaria tomentosa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng, Prunus armenaica (apricot), Allium sativum, Arctium lappa and Curcuma longa were reported to hold strong potential in breast cancer treatment in various parts of the world. Interestingly, research findings have shown that these plants possess bioactive immunomodulators as their main constituents producing the anticancer effects. These immunomodulatory compounds include ajoene, arctigenin, β-carotene, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, ginsan, glabridin and quinic acid. In this review, we discussed the ability of these eight immunomodulators in regulating the immune system potentially applicable in breast cancer treatment via anti-inflammatory (curcumin, arctigenin, glabridin and ajoene) and lymphocytes activation (β-carotene, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, quinic acid and ginsan) properties, as well as future research direction in their use for breast cancer treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, A. I.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM 1 0, PM 2 .5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM 1 0/PM 2 .5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  7. Removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas by selective catalytic or non-catalytic oxidation; Typpiyhdisteiden poisto kaasutuskaasusta selektiivisellae katalyyttisellae ja ei-katalyyttisellae hapetuksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In gasification reactive nitrogenous compounds are formed from fuel nitrogen, which may form nitrogen oxides in gas combustion. In fluidized bed gasification the most important nitrogenous compound is ammonia (NH{sub 3}). If ammonia could be decomposed to N{sub 2} already before combustion, the emissions if nitrogen oxides could be reduced significantly. One way of increasing the decomposition rate of NH{sub 3} could be the addition of suitable reactants to the gas, which would react with NH{sub 3} and produce N{sub 2}. The aim of this research is to create basic information, which can be used to develop a new method for removal of nitrogen compounds from gasification gas. The reactions of nitrogen compounds and added reactants are studied in reductive atmosphere in order to find conditions, in which nitrogen compounds can be oxidized selectively to N{sub 2}. The project consists of following subtasks: (1) Selective non-catalytic oxidation (SNCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers in the gas phase, (2) Selective catalytic oxidation (SCO): Reactions of nitrogen compounds and oxidizers on catalytically active surfaces, (3) Kinetic modelling of experimental results in co-operation with the Combustion Chemistry Research Group of Aabo Akademi University. The most important finding has been that NH{sub 3} can be made to react selectively with the oxidizers even in the presence of large amounts of CO and H{sub 2}. Aluminium oxides were found to be the most effective materials promoting selectivity. (author)

  8. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  9. The selective flow of volatile organic compounds in conductive polymer-coated microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Babaei, Faramarz; Hooshyar Zare, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Many gaseous markers of critical biological, physicochemical, or industrial occurrences are masked by the cross-sensitivity of the sensors to the other active components present at higher concentrations. Here, we report the strongly selective diffusion and drift of contaminant molecules in air-filled conductive polymer-coated microfluidic channels for the first time. Monitoring the passage of different target molecules through microchannels coated with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) revealed that contaminants such as hexane, benzene, and CO pass through the channel unaffected by the coating while methanol, ethanol, and partly acetone are blocked. The observations are explained with reference to the selective interactions between the conductive polymer surface and target gas molecules amplified by the large wall/volume ratio in microchannels. The accumulated quantitative data point at the hydrogen bonding as the mechanism of wall adsorption; dipole-dipole interactions are relatively insignificant. The presented model facilitates a better understanding of how the conductive polymer-based chemical sensors operate.

  10. Estimation of indoor and outdoor ratios of selected volatile organic compounds in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Jovic, Branka; Cakmak, Sabit; Austin, Claire C.; Zhu, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air and outdoor air concentration (I/O) ratio can be used to identify the origins of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). I/O ratios of 25 VOCs in Canada were estimated based on the data collected in various areas in Canada between September 2009 and December 2011. The indoor VOC data were extracted from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Outdoor VOC data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) Network. The sampling locations covered nine areas in six provinces in Canada. Indoor air concentrations were found higher than outdoor air for all studied VOCs, except for carbon tetrachloride. Two different approaches were employed to estimate the I/O ratios; both approaches produced similar I/O values. The I/O ratios obtained from this study were similar to two other Canadian studies where indoor air and outdoor air of individual dwellings were measured. However, the I/O ratios found in Canada were higher than those in European cities and in two large USA cities, possibly due to the fact that the outdoor air concentrations recorded in the Canadian studies were lower. Possible source origins identified for the studied VOCs based on their I/O ratios were similar to those reported by others. In general, chlorinated hydrocarbons, short-chain (C5, C6) n-alkanes and benzene had significant outdoor sources, while long-chain (C10sbnd C12) n-alkanes, terpenes, naphthalene and styrene had significant indoor sources. The remaining VOCs had mixed indoor and outdoor sources.

  11. A combined Fisher and Laplacian score for feature selection in QSAR based drug design using compounds with known and unknown activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizade Hasanloei, Mohammad Amin; Sheikhpour, Razieh; Sarram, Mehdi Agha; Sheikhpour, Elnaz; Sharifi, Hamdollah

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is an effective computational technique for drug design that relates the chemical structures of compounds to their biological activities. Feature selection is an important step in QSAR based drug design to select the most relevant descriptors. One of the most popular feature selection methods for classification problems is Fisher score which aim is to minimize the within-class distance and maximize the between-class distance. In this study, the properties of Fisher criterion were extended for QSAR models to define the new distance metrics based on the continuous activity values of compounds with known activities. Then, a semi-supervised feature selection method was proposed based on the combination of Fisher and Laplacian criteria which exploits both compounds with known and unknown activities to select the relevant descriptors. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed semi-supervised feature selection method in selecting the relevant descriptors, we applied the method and other feature selection methods on three QSAR data sets such as serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK3 inhibitors, ROCK inhibitors and phenol compounds. The results demonstrated that the QSAR models built on the selected descriptors by the proposed semi-supervised method have better performance than other models. This indicates the efficiency of the proposed method in selecting the relevant descriptors using the compounds with known and unknown activities. The results of this study showed that the compounds with known and unknown activities can be helpful to improve the performance of the combined Fisher and Laplacian based feature selection methods.

  12. Selection the Optimum Suppliers Compound Using a Mixed Model of MADM and Fault Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Azimian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated approach of MADM and fault tree analysis (FTA is provided for determining the most reliable combination of suppliers for a strategic product in IUT University. At first, risks of suppliers is estimated by defining the indices for evaluating them, determining their relative status indices and using satisfying and SAW methods. Then, intrinsic risks of utilized equipments in the products are qualified and the final integrated risk for equipments is determined. Finally, through all the different scenarios, the best composition of equipment suppliers is selected by defining the palpable top events and fault tree analysis. The contribution of this paper is about proposing an integrated method of MADM and FTA to determine the most reliable suppliers in order to minimize the final risk of providing a product.

  13. Capillary electrophoretic determination of selected phenolic compounds in humic substances of well waters and fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ying; Chang, Yan-Zin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Jian-Lian

    2010-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) from well waters, fertilizers, and synthetic phenolic polymers were characterized by elemental and UV-VIS spectroscopic analyses. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with UV absorption detection was used to analyze the lignin-derived phenolic distribution in the degradation residues after alkaline CuO oxidation of HS samples. Eleven phenols with p-acetyl, vanillyl and syringyl substituents were selected to optimize the CZE parameters. For well waters and fertilizers, the content of phenolic fragments was in agreement with the findings of the elemental and spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, parameters derived from the vanillic acid/vanilline, syringyl acid/syringaldehyde, p-hydroxyl/vanillyl and syringyl/vanillyl ratios matched analogous studies on dissolved organic matter from natural waters and on humic acids from terrestrial substances. The amount of phenolic monomer bonded within two synthetic HS polymers was found to be 25.9% protocatechuic acid and 71.3% gallic acid.

  14. Selectivity in ligand binding to uranyl compounds: A synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-21

    The uranyl cation (UO₂²⁺) is the most abundant form of uranium on the planet. It is estimated that 4.5 billion tons of uranium in this form exist in sea water. The ability to bind and extract the uranyl cation from aqueous solution while separating it from other elements would provide a limitless source of nuclear fuel. A large body of research concerns the selective recognition and extraction of uranyl. A stable molecule, the cation has a linear O=U=O geometry. The short U-O bonds (1.78 Å) arise from the combination of uranium 5f/6d and oxygen 2p orbitals. Due to the oxygen moieties being multiply bonded, these sites were not thought to be basic enough for Lewis acidic coordination to be a viable approach to sequestration. The goal of this research is thus to broaden the coordination chemistry of the uranyl ion by studying new ligand systems via synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational methods. It is anticipated that this fundamental science will find use beyond actinide separation technologies in areas such as nuclear waste remediation and nuclear materials. The focus of this study is to synthesize uranyl complexes incorporating amidinate and guanidinate ligands. Both synthetic and computational methods are used to investigate novel equatorial ligand coordination and how this affects the basicity of the oxo ligands. Such an understanding will later apply to designing ligands incorporating functionalities that can bind uranyl both equatorially and axially for highly selective sequestration. Efficient and durable chromatography supports for lanthanide separation will be generated by (1) identifying robust peptoid-based ligands capable of binding different lanthanides with variable affinities, and (2) developing practical synthetic methods for the attachment of these ligands to Dowex ion exchange resins.

  15. Selectivity in ligand binding to uranyl compounds: A synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, John

    2015-01-01

    The uranyl cation (UO 2 2+ ) is the most abundant form of uranium on the planet. It is estimated that 4.5 billion tons of uranium in this form exist in sea water. The ability to bind and extract the uranyl cation from aqueous solution while separating it from other elements would provide a limitless source of nuclear fuel. A large body of research concerns the selective recognition and extraction of uranyl. A stable molecule, the cation has a linear O=U=O geometry. The short U-O bonds (1.78 Å) arise from the combination of uranium 5f/6d and oxygen 2p orbitals. Due to the oxygen moieties being multiply bonded, these sites were not thought to be basic enough for Lewis acidic coordination to be a viable approach to sequestration. The goal of this research is thus to broaden the coordination chemistry of the uranyl ion by studying new ligand systems via synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational methods. It is anticipated that this fundamental science will find use beyond actinide separation technologies in areas such as nuclear waste remediation and nuclear materials. The focus of this study is to synthesize uranyl complexes incorporating amidinate and guanidinate ligands. Both synthetic and computational methods are used to investigate novel equatorial ligand coordination and how this affects the basicity of the oxo ligands. Such an understanding will later apply to designing ligands incorporating functionalities that can bind uranyl both equatorially and axially for highly selective sequestration. Efficient and durable chromatography supports for lanthanide separation will be generated by (1) identifying robust peptoid-based ligands capable of binding different lanthanides with variable affinities, and (2) developing practical synthetic methods for the attachment of these ligands to Dowex ion exchange resins.

  16. Nanostructured conducting molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of salicylate from urine and serum samples by electrochemically controlled solid-phase micro-extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Akram; Alizadeh, Naader

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overoxidized polypyrrole templated with salicylate has been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymer for EC-SPME. ► This first study reported on conducting molecular imprinted polymer was used to EC-SPME of salicylate. ► Proposed method, is particularly effective in sample clean-up and selective monitoring of salicylate in physiological samples. - Abstract: Overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) films templated with salicylate (SA) have been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymers (CMIPs) for potential-induced selective solid-phase micro-extraction processes. Various important fabrication factors for controlling the performance of the OPPy films have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometry. Several key parameters such as applied potential for uptake, release, pH of uptake and release solution were varied to achieve the optimum micro-extraction procedure. The film template with SA exhibited excellent selectivity over some interference. The calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 5 × 10 −8 to 5 × 10 −4 and 1.2 × 10 −6 to 5 × 10 −4 mol mL −1 and the detection limit was 4 × 10 −8 mol L −1 . The OPPy film as the solid-phase micro-extraction absorbent has been applied for the selective clean-up and quantification of trace amounts of SA from physiological samples. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have confirmed the nano-structure morphologies of the films.

  17. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The prevalence of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph aureus isolates from urine of selected residents in Zaria was investigated. This was an attempt to elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria commonly implicated in urinary tact infection. Methods: Urine samples collected from students of ...

  18. Determination of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Particulate Matter Samples with Low Mass Loading: An Approach to Test Method Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana García-Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized analytical procedure to determine selected polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs in low mass loadings (<10 mg of particulate matter (PM is evaluated. The proposed method is based on a simple sonication/agitation method using small amounts of solvent for extraction. The use of a reduced sample size of particulate matter is often limiting for allowing the quantification of analytes. This also leads to the need for changing analytical procedures and evaluating its performance. The trueness and precision of the proposed method were tested using ambient air samples. Analytical results from the proposed method were compared with those of pressurized liquid and microwave extractions. Selected PACs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD. Taking results from pressurized liquid extractions as reference values, recovery rates of sonication/agitation method were over 80% for the most abundant PAHs. Recovery rates of selected NPAHs were lower. Enhanced rates were obtained when methanol was used as a modifier. Intermediate precision was estimated by data comparison from two mathematical approaches: normalized difference data and pooled relative deviations. Intermediate precision was in the range of 10–20%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated in PM aerosol samples collected with very low mass loadings (<0.2 mg during characterization studies from turbofan engine exhausts.

  19. Combinatorial support vector machines approach for virtual screening of selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Ma, X H; Qin, C; Jia, J; Jiang, Y Y; Tan, C Y; Chen, Y Z

    2012-02-01

    Selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance antidepressant efficacy. Their discovery can be facilitated by multiple methods, including in silico ones. In this study, we developed and tested an in silico method, combinatorial support vector machines (COMBI-SVMs), for virtual screening (VS) multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors of seven target pairs (serotonin transporter paired with noradrenaline transporter, H(3) receptor, 5-HT(1A) receptor, 5-HT(1B) receptor, 5-HT(2C) receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and neurokinin 1 receptor respectively) from large compound libraries. COMBI-SVMs trained with 917-1951 individual target inhibitors correctly identified 22-83.3% (majority >31.1%) of the 6-216 dual inhibitors collected from literature as independent testing sets. COMBI-SVMs showed moderate to good target selectivity in misclassifying as dual inhibitors 2.2-29.8% (majority virtual hits correlate with the reported effects of their predicted targets. COMBI-SVM is potentially useful for searching selective multi-target agents without explicit knowledge of these agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated high-content assay for compounds selectively toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a myoblastic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease.Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6 and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs.We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite.

  1. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 1. Adsorption capacity and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative PhACs (naproxen and carbamazepine) and one EDC (nonylphenol) were evaluated on two granular activated carbons (GAC) namely coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. The primary objective was to investigate preloading effects by natural organic matter (NOM) on adsorption capacity and kinetics under conditions and concentrations (i.e., ng/L) relevant for drinking water treatment. Isotherms demonstrated that all compounds were significantly negatively impacted by NOM fouling. Adsorption capacity reduction was most severe for the acidic naproxen, followed by the neutral carbamazepine and then the more hydrophobic nonylphenol. The GAC with the wider pore size distribution had considerably greater NOM loading, resulting in lower adsorption capacity. Different patterns for the change in Freundlich KF and 1/n with time revealed different competitive mechanisms for the different compounds. Mass transport coefficients determined by short fixed-bed (SFB) tests with virgin and preloaded GAC demonstrated that film diffusion primarily controls mass transfer on virgin and preloaded carbon. Naproxen suffered the greatest deteriorative effect on kinetic parameters due to preloading, followed by carbamazepine, and then nonylphenol. A type of surface NOM/biofilm, which appeared to add an additional mass transfer resistance layer and thus reduce film diffusion, was observed. In addition, electrostatic interactions between NOM/biofilm and the investigated compounds are proposed to contribute to the reduction of film diffusion. A companion paper building on this work describes treatability studies in pilot-scale GAC adsorbers and the effectiveness of a selected fixed-bed model. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Selectivity in Ligand Binding to Uranyl Compounds: A Synthetic, Structural, Thermodynamic and Computational Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The uranyl cation (UO22+) is the most abundant form of uranium on the planet. It is estimated that 4.5 billion tons of uranium in this form exist in sea water. The ability to bind and extract the uranyl cation from aqueous solution while separating it from other elements would provide a limitless source of nuclear fuel. A large body of research concerns the selective recognition and extraction of uranyl. A stable molecule, the cation has a linear O=U=O geometry. The short U-O bonds (1.78 Å) arise from the combination of uranium 5f/6d and oxygen 2p orbitals. Due to the oxygen moieties being multiply bonded, these sites were not thought to be basic enough for Lewis acidic coordination to be a viable approach to sequestration. We believe that the goal of developing a practical system for uranium separation from seawater will not be attained without new insights into our existing fundamental knowledge of actinide chemistry. We posit that detailed studies of the kinetic and thermodynamic factors that influence interactions between f-elements and ligands with a range of donor atoms is essential to any major advance in this important area. The goal of this research is thus to broaden the coordination chemistry of the uranyl ion by studying new ligand systems via synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational methods. We anticipate that this fundamental science will find use beyond actinide separation technologies in areas such as nuclear waste remediation and nuclear materials.

  3. Nanostructured conducting molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of salicylate from urine and serum samples by electrochemically controlled solid-phase micro-extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameli, Akram [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, Naader, E-mail: alizaden@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overoxidized polypyrrole templated with salicylate has been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymer for EC-SPME. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This first study reported on conducting molecular imprinted polymer was used to EC-SPME of salicylate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed method, is particularly effective in sample clean-up and selective monitoring of salicylate in physiological samples. - Abstract: Overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) films templated with salicylate (SA) have been utilized as conducting molecular imprinted polymers (CMIPs) for potential-induced selective solid-phase micro-extraction processes. Various important fabrication factors for controlling the performance of the OPPy films have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometry. Several key parameters such as applied potential for uptake, release, pH of uptake and release solution were varied to achieve the optimum micro-extraction procedure. The film template with SA exhibited excellent selectivity over some interference. The calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol mL{sup -1} and the detection limit was 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. The OPPy film as the solid-phase micro-extraction absorbent has been applied for the selective clean-up and quantification of trace amounts of SA from physiological samples. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have confirmed the nano-structure morphologies of the films.

  4. Adsorption of Selected Pharmaceutical Compounds onto Activated Carbon in Dilute Aqueous Solutions Exemplified by Acetaminophen, Diclofenac, and Sulfamethoxazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E.-E.; Wan, Jan-Chi; Liang, Chung-Huei; Dai, Yung-Dun; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of three pharmaceuticals, namely, acetaminophen, diclofenac, and sulfamethoxazole onto granular activated carbon (GAC), was investigated. To study competitive adsorption, both dynamic and steady-state adsorption experiments were conducted by careful selection of pharmaceuticals with various affinities and molecular size. The effective diffusion coefficient of the adsorbate was increased with decease in particle size of GAC. The adsorption affinity represented as Langmuir was consistent with the ranking of the octanol-water partition coefficient, K ow. The adsorption behavior in binary or tertiary systems could be described by competition adsorption. In the binary system adsorption replacement occurred, under which the adsorbate with the smaller K ow was replaced by the one with larger K ow. Results also indicated that portion of the micropores could be occupied only by the small target compound, but not the larger adsorbates. In multiple-component systems the competition adsorption might significantly be affected by the macropores and less by the meso- or micropores. PMID:26078989

  5. Efficient and Selective Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds to Aromatic Amines by NbCl{sub 5}/Indium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Woo; Kim, Duckil; Kim, Hyung Min; Kang, Sung Ho [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Aromatic amines find applicability in diverse fields including dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and photographic materials. To date, there are a variety of methods, which can be used to convert aromatic nitro compounds to their corresponding amines. Some of them include Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}/In, Al/NH{sub 4}Cl, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}/NaBH{sub 4}, NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O/In, HI, Sm/I{sub 2}, In/NH{sub 4}Cl, B{sub 4}H{sub 10}/Pd/C, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}/H{sub 2}O and In/HCl. However, most methods still lack the desired chemo-selectivity when other reducible functional groups are present in the nitroarene and often require long reaction times, or harsh reaction conditions. Consequently, efficient and selective methods for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds continue to be developed. It has been reported that NbCl{sub 5}/Zn system is used as a reagent for reducing sulfoxides, epoxides, and amine N-oxides.12 Because of the close resemblance of indium to zinc in several respects, including first ionization potential, we considered that NbCl{sub 5}/In system can be an efficient reducing agent for the conversion of aromatic nitro compounds to the corresponding amines. Recently, indium metal has attracted much attention for its unique properties such as low toxicity and high stability in water and air compared with other metals. In continuation of our interest in exploring the utility of metal-metal salt system in organic synthesis, we would like to report an efficient and chemo-selective method for the reduction of various aromatic nitro compounds to the corresponding amines by treatment with NbCl{sub 5}/In system (eq. 1). The new reduction system was generated by the addition of indium powder to a stirred solution of niobium(V) chloride in THF under sonication. The generation of low-valent niobium species was examined at room temperature with an excess of indium metal. The observations suggest that this procedure can be applied for the chemo-selective

  6. Characterization of the apoptotic response induced by the cyanine dye D112: a potentially selective anti-cancer compound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drugs that are used in anti-cancer treatments often cause the death of both cancerous and noncancerous cells. This non-selective toxicity is the root cause of untoward side effects that limits the effectiveness of therapy. In order to improve chemotherapeutic options for cancer patients, there is a need to identify novel compounds with higher discrimination for cancer cells. In the past, methine dyes that increase the sensitivity of photographic emulsions have been investigated for anti-cancer properties. In the 1970's, Kodak Laboratories initiated a screen of approximately 7000 dye structural variants for selective toxicity. Among these, D112 was identified as a promising compound with elevated toxicity against a colon cancer cell line in comparison to a non-transformed cell line. Despite these results changing industry priorities led to a halt in further studies on D112. We decided to revive investigations on D112 and have further characterized D112-induced cellular toxicity. We identified that in response to D112 treatment, the T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat showed caspase activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and phosphatidylserine externalization, all of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. Chemical inhibition of caspase enzymatic activity and blockade of the mitochondrial pathway through Bcl-2 expression inhibited D112-induced apoptosis. At lower concentrations, D112 induced growth arrest. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of D112 induced mitochondrial dysfunction, we analyzed the intracellular localization of D112, and found that D112 associated with mitochondria. Interestingly, in the cell lines that we tested, D112 showed increased toxicity toward transformed versus non-transformed cells. Results from this work identify D112 as a potentially interesting molecule warranting further investigation.

  7. Chemical differences between voided and bladder urine in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis): implications for olfactory communication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Harelimana, Innocent H; Goodwin, Thomas E; Drea, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    Urine serves a communicative function in many mammalian species. In some species, the signaling function of urine can be enhanced by the addition of chemical compounds from glands along the distal portion of the urogenital tract. Although urine marking is the main mode of chemical communication in many primate species, there has been no study of the contribution of urogenital secretions to the chemical complexity of primate urine. Here, we compared the chemical composition of bladder urine versus voided urine in the aye-aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis, a strepsirrhine primate that relies on urine in intraspecific communication. Both types of urine, collected from each of 11 aye-ayes representing both sexes of varying adult ages, underwent headspace analysis via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Although the average number of compounds was similar in bladder and voided urine, 17% of the compounds detected occurred exclusively in voided urine (but only in a subset of individuals). An overall measure of chemical complexity (using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis) showed that both types of urine were chemically different at the individual level. There was no apparent sex or age differences in the chemical components found in aye-aye urine. Nonetheless, the individual dissimilarities between bladder urine and voided urine indicate chemical contributions from structures along the urogenital tract and offer further support for the relevance of urinary communication in the aye-aye. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal ... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test ... Abnormal results may be due to: A group ...

  9. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  10. Automated color classification of urine dipstick image in urine examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Royananda; Muchtar, M. A.; Taqiuddin, R.; Adnan, S.; Anugrahwaty, R.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urine examination using urine dipstick has long been used to determine the health status of a person. The economical and convenient use of urine dipstick is one of the reasons urine dipstick is still used to check people health status. The real-life implementation of urine dipstick is done manually, in general, that is by comparing it with the reference color visually. This resulted perception differences in the color reading of the examination results. In this research, authors used a scanner to obtain the urine dipstick color image. The use of scanner can be one of the solutions in reading the result of urine dipstick because the light produced is consistent. A method is required to overcome the problems of urine dipstick color matching and the test reference color that have been conducted manually. The method proposed by authors is Euclidean Distance, Otsu along with RGB color feature extraction method to match the colors on the urine dipstick with the standard reference color of urine examination. The result shows that the proposed approach was able to classify the colors on a urine dipstick with an accuracy of 95.45%. The accuracy of color classification on urine dipstick against the standard reference color is influenced by the level of scanner resolution used, the higher the scanner resolution level, the higher the accuracy.

  11. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  12. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ionic Liquid Crystals Modifier for Selective Determination of Terazosin Antihypertensive Drug in Presence of Common Interference Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada F. Atta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on carbon paste electrode modified with an ionic liquid crystal ILC (2-chloro-1,3-dimethyl-imidazolidinium hexafluorophosphate in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate for the selective electrochemical determination of Terazosin (TZ in presence of common interference compounds. The electrode performance was compared in presence of other ionic liquids ILs (1-Butyl-4-methyl pyridinium tetrafluoroborate and (1-n-Hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate. Ultrasensitive determination of Terazosin HCl at the ILC modified electrode in the linear dynamic ranges of 0.002 to 0.09 μmol·L−1 and 0.2 to 30 μmol·L−1 with correlation coefficients 0.996 and 0.995 and LODs 1.69 × 10−11 mol·L−1 and 6.43 × 10−9 mol·L−1, respectively, were obtained. Selective determination of TZ in presence of uric acid and ascorbic acid and simultaneous determination of binary mixtures of TZ/dopamine, TZ/paracetamol and TZ/Morphine were also determined successfully using the modified sensor.

  14. Identification and characterization of novel long-term metabolites of oxymesterone and mesterolone in human urine by application of selected reaction monitoring GC-CI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Geldof, Lore; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in, for example, toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long-term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. samples of previous Olympic Games. A substantial number of previously alleged negative samples have now been declared positive due to the detection of various long-term steroid metabolites the existence of which was unknown during the Olympic Games of 2008 and 2012. In this work, the metabolism of oxymesterone and mesterolone, two anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), was investigated by application of a selected reaction monitoring gas chromatography-chemical ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) protocol for metabolite detection and identification. Correlations between AAS structure and GC-CI-MS/MS fragmentation behaviour enabled the search for previously unknown but expected AAS metabolites by selection of theoretical transitions for expected metabolites. Use of different hydrolysis protocols allowed for evaluation of the detection window of both phase I and phase II metabolites. For oxymesterone, a new metabolite, 18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-4-hydroxy-androst-4,13-diene-3-one, was identified. It was detectable up to 46 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS, whereas with a traditional screening (detection of metabolite 17-epioxymesterone with electron ionization GC-MS/MS) oxymesterone administration was only detectable for 3.5 days. A new metabolite was also found for mesterolone. It was identified as 1α-methyl-5α-androstan-3,6,16-triol-17-one and its sulfate form after hydrolysis with Helix pomatia resulted in a prolonged detection time (up to 15 days) for mesterolone abuse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The use of selective electrodes for the control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Abrao, A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of ion selective electrodes is discussed for the determination of nitrate, chloride and fluoride in several materials used in the fuel cycle. The determination of nitrate and chloride in thorium compounds, the analysis of fluoride and chloride in uranium compounds and the determination of fluoride in crude phosphoric acid are described. The control of fluoride in urine of individuals that handle materials containing fluor and its compounds is also described. (C.L.B.) [pt

  16. Mass spectrometric characterisation of a condensation product between porphobilinogen and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine in urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Josep; Ibañez, Maria; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi; To-Figueras, Jordi; Pozo, Oscar J

    2015-07-01

    We document the presence of a previously unknown species in the urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The compound was fully characterised by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Interpretation of both full spectrum acquisition and product ion spectra acquired in positive and negative ionisation modes by quadrupole time of flight MS allowed for the identification of a condensation product arising from porphobilinogen (PBG, increased in the urine of AIP patients) and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG, derived from indolylacrylic acid and present in human urine). The structure was unequivocally confirmed through comparison between the selected reaction monitoring chromatograms obtained from the urinary species and the condensation product qualitatively synthesised in the laboratory. Owing to the large amounts of both PBG and IAG in urine of AIP patients, the possible ex vivo formation of PBG-IAG in urine samples was evaluated. The product was spontaneously formed at room temperature, at 4 °C and even during storage at -20 °C when spiking a control sample with PBG. A positive correlation was found between PBG and PBG-IAG in samples collected from AIP patients. However, no correlation was found between PBG-IAG and IAG. Purified PBG-IAG did not form the characteristic chromogen after application of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in HCl, thus suggesting that the current techniques used to measure PBG in urine of AIP patients based on Ehlrich's reaction do not detect this newly characterised PBG-IAG fraction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Study on the applicability of structural and morphological parameters of selected uranium compounds for nuclear forensic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho Mer Lin, Doris

    2015-03-13

    Nuclear forensic science or nuclear forensics, is a relatively young discipline which evolved due to the need of analysing interdicted nuclear or radioactive material, necessary for determining its origin. Fundamentally, nuclear forensic science makes use of measurable material properties, referred to as ''signatures'', which provide hints on the history of the material. As part of the advancement in this multi-faceted field, new signatures are constantly sought after and as well as analytical techniques to efficiently and accurately determine the signatures. The work carried out in this study is part of this fulfilment to investigate new structural and morphological parameters as possible new nuclear forensic signatures for selected uranium compounds. The scientific goals have been oriented into three parts for investigations in this study. Firstly, five different compositions of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) were prepared in the laboratory under well-defined conditions. These materials were subsequently characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy etc. Such materials were pivotal for comparison with the industrial samples. Secondly, several uranium compounds, mainly UOCs were measured using Raman spectroscopy. At least three different Raman spectrometers were used and a comparison made in their performance and suitability for nuclear forensics. Raman spectra of industrial uranium materials were interpreted with regard to compound identification and to determination of (anionic) impurities. Anionic impurities that were present were identified and they could provide clues to the processing history of the samples. Statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to several Raman spectra. The analysis showed that

  18. Study on the applicability of structural and morphological parameters of selected uranium compounds for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Mer Lin, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science or nuclear forensics, is a relatively young discipline which evolved due to the need of analysing interdicted nuclear or radioactive material, necessary for determining its origin. Fundamentally, nuclear forensic science makes use of measurable material properties, referred to as ''signatures'', which provide hints on the history of the material. As part of the advancement in this multi-faceted field, new signatures are constantly sought after and as well as analytical techniques to efficiently and accurately determine the signatures. The work carried out in this study is part of this fulfilment to investigate new structural and morphological parameters as possible new nuclear forensic signatures for selected uranium compounds. The scientific goals have been oriented into three parts for investigations in this study. Firstly, five different compositions of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) were prepared in the laboratory under well-defined conditions. These materials were subsequently characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy etc. Such materials were pivotal for comparison with the industrial samples. Secondly, several uranium compounds, mainly UOCs were measured using Raman spectroscopy. At least three different Raman spectrometers were used and a comparison made in their performance and suitability for nuclear forensics. Raman spectra of industrial uranium materials were interpreted with regard to compound identification and to determination of (anionic) impurities. Anionic impurities that were present were identified and they could provide clues to the processing history of the samples. Statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to several Raman spectra. The analysis showed that

  19. Synergistic and alkaline stability studies of mixtures of simulated high level waste sludge with selected energetic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the stability of mercury oxalate and mercury fulminate in alkaline sludge simulating Savannah River Site waste. These compounds represent two classes of energetic compounds previously speculated as potential components in sludge stored without a supernatant liquid

  20. The rational design of a novel potent analogue of the 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor compound C with improved selectivity and cellular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machrouhi, Fouzia; Ouhamou, Nouara; Laderoute, Keith; Calaoagan, Joy; Bukhtiyarova, Marina; Ehrlich, Paula J.; Klon, Anthony E.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized analogues of compound C, a non-specific inhibitor of 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), using a computational fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approach. Synthesizing only twenty-seven analogues yielded a compound that was equipotent to compound C in the inhibition of the human AMPK (hAMPK) α2 subunit in the heterotrimeric complex in vitro, exhibited significantly improved selectivity against a subset of relevant kinases, and demonstrated enhanced cellular inhibition of AMPK. PMID:20932747

  1. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  2. Extraction of domoic acid from seawater and urine using a resin based on 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Villoslada, Fernando Navarro; Chianella, Iva; Bossi, Alessandra; Karim, Kal; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A; Doucette, Gregory J; Ramsdell, John S

    2008-03-03

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) matrix with high affinity for the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) was designed and tested. A computational modelling study led to the selection of 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid (TFMAA) as a functional monomer capable of imparting affinity towards domoic acid. Polymeric adsorbents containing TFMAA were synthesised and tested in high ionic strength solutions such as urine and seawater. The TFMAA-based polymers demonstrated excellent performance in solid-phase extraction of domoic acid, retaining the toxin while salts and other interfering compounds such as aspartic and glutamic acids were removed by washing and selective elution. It was shown that the TFMAA-based polymer provided the level of purification of domoic acid from urine and seawater acceptable for its quantification by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) without any additional pre-concentration and purification steps.

  3. Quantitative analysis of semivolatile organic compounds in selected fractions of air sample extracts by GC/MI-IR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childers, J.W.; Wilson, N.K.; Barbour, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are currently investigating the capabilities of gas chromatography/matrix isolation infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in environmental air sample extracts. Their efforts are focused on the determination of SVOCs such as alkylbenzene positional isomers, which are difficult to separate chromatographically and to distinguish by conventional electron-impact ionization GC/mass spectrometry. They have performed a series of systematic experiments to identify sources of error in quantitative GC/MI-IR analyses. These experiments were designed to distinguish between errors due to instrument design or performance and errors that arise from some characteristic inherent to the GC/MI-IR technique, such as matrix effects. They have investigated repeatability as a function of several aspects of GC/MI IR spectrometry, including sample injection, spectral acquisition, cryogenic disk movement, and matrix deposition. The precision, linearity, dynamic range, and detection limits of a commercial GC/MI-IR system for target SVOCs were determined and compared to those obtained with the system's flame ionization detector. The use of deuterated internal standards in the quantitative GC/MI-IR analysis of selected fractions of ambient air sample extracts will be demonstrated. They will also discuss the current limitations of the technique in quantitative analyses and suggest improvements for future consideration

  4. Assessment of the possibility of using data mining methods to predict sorption isotherms of selected organic compounds on activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbek Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the use of four data mining methods (Support Vector Machines. Cascade Neural Networks. Random Forests and Boosted Trees to predict sorption on activated carbons. The input data for statistical models included the activated carbon parameters, organic substances and equilibrium concentrations in the solution. The assessment of the predictive abilities of the developed models was made with the use of mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and root mean squared error (RMSE. The computations proved that methods of data mining considered in the study can be applied to predict sorption of selected organic compounds 011 activated carbon. The lowest values of sorption prediction errors were obtained with the Cascade Neural Networks method (MAE = 1.23 g/g; MAPE = 7.90% and RMSE = 1.81 g/g, while the highest error values were produced by the Boosted Trees method (MAE=14.31 g/g; MAPE = 39.43% and RMSE = 27.76 g/g.

  5. Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero L. T. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, β-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (reabsorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s. Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.

  6. Selective removal and inactivation of bacteria by nanoparticle composites prepared by surface modification of montmorillonite with quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rowaida K S

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare new nanocomposites with antibacterial activities by surface modification of montmorillonite using quaternary ammonium compounds that are widely applied as disinfectants and antiseptics in food-processing environments. The intercalation of four quaternary ammonium compounds namely benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, tetraethylammonium chloride hydrate into montmorillonite layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial influences of the modified clay variants against important foodborne pathogens differed based on modifiers quantities, microbial cell densities, and length of contact. Elution experiments through 0.1 g of the studied montmorillonite variants indicated that Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Listeria monocytogenes were the most sensitive strains. 1 g of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide intercalated montmorillonites demonstrated maximum inactivation of L. monocytogenes populations, with 4.5 log c.f.u./ml units of reduction. In adsorption experiments, 0.1 g of tetraethylammonium chloride hydrate montmorillonite variants significantly reduced the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus populations by 5.77, 6.33, and 7.38 log units respectively. Growth of wide variety of microorganisms was strongly inhibited to undetectable levels (benzalkonium chloride montmorillonite variants. This investigation highlights that reduction in counts of microbial populations adsorbed to the new nanocomposites was substantially different from that in elution experiments, where interactions of nanocomposites with bacteria were specific and more complex than simple ability to inactivate. Treatment columns packed with modified variants maintained their inactivation capacity to the growth of Salmonella Tennessee and S. aureus populations after 48 h of incubation at room temperature with maximum reductions

  7. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitr...

  8. Quantification of gamma-secretase modulation differentiates inhibitor compound selectivity between two substrates Notch and amyloid precursor protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ting

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aβ is generated from γ-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP. In addition to APP, γ-secretase also cleaves other type I integral membrane proteins, including the Notch receptor, a key molecule involved in embryonic development. Results To explore selective γ-secretase inhibitors, a combination of five methods was used to systematically determine these inhibitors' profiles on the γ-secretase cleavage of APP and Notch. When two potent γ-secretase inhibitors, compound E (cpd E and DAPT, were used in a conventional in vitro γ-secretase activity assay, cpd E completely blocked Aβ generation from the cleavage of substrate APP C100, but only had a minor effect on Notch cleavage and NICD generation. Next, cpd E and DAPT were applied to HEK293 cells expressing a truncated Notch substrate NotchΔE. Both cpd E and DAPT were more potent in blocking Aβ generation than NICD generation. Third, a reporter construct was created that carried the NICD targeting promoter with three Su(H binding sequences followed by the luciferase gene. We found that the inhibition of NICD generation by cpd E and DAPT was consistent with the reduced expression of luciferase gene driven by this Notch targeting promoter. Fourth, levels of "Notch-Aβ-like" (Nβ* peptide derived from two previously reported chimeric APP with its transmembrane domain or the juxtamembrane portion replaced by the Notch sequence were quantified. Measurement of Nβ* peptides by ELISA confirmed that EC50's of cpd E were much higher for Nβ* than Aβ. Finally, the expression levels of Notch target gene her6 in cpd E or DAPT-treated zebrafish were correlated with the degree of tail curvature due to defective somitogenesis, a well characterized Notch phenotype in zebrafish. Conclusion Our ELISA-based quantification of Aβ and Nβ* in combination with the test in

  9. Measurement and Modeling of Setschenow Constants for Selected Hydrophilic Compounds in NaCl and CaCl2 Simulated Carbon Storage Brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2017-06-20

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), a climate change mitigation strategy, along with unconventional oil and gas extraction, generates enormous volumes of produced water containing high salt concentrations and a litany of organic compounds. Understanding the aqueous solubility of organic compounds related to these operations is important for water treatment and reuse alternatives, as well as risk assessment purposes. The well-established Setschenow equation can be used to determine the effect of salts on aqueous solubility. However, there is a lack of reported Setschenow constants, especially for polar organic compounds. In this study, the Setschenow constants for selected hydrophilic organic compounds were experimentally determined, and linear free energy models for predicting the Setschenow constant of organic chemicals in concentrated brines were developed. Solid phase microextraction was employed to measure the salting-out behavior of six selected hydrophilic compounds up to 5 M NaCl and 2 M CaCl 2 and in Na-Ca-Cl brines. All compounds, which include phenol, p-cresol, hydroquinone, pyrrole, hexanoic acid, and 9-hydroxyfluorene, exhibited log-linear behavior up to these concentrations, meaning Setschenow constants previously measured at low salt concentrations can be extrapolated up to high salt concentrations for hydrophilic compounds. Setschenow constants measured in NaCl and CaCl 2 brines are additive for the compounds measured here; meaning Setschenow constants measured in single salt solutions can be used in multiple salt solutions. The hydrophilic compounds in this study were selected to elucidate differences in salting-out behavior based on their chemical structure. Using data from this study, as well as literature data, linear free energy relationships (LFERs) for prediction of NaCl, CaCl 2 , LiCl, and NaBr Setschenow constants were developed and validated. Two LFERs were improved. One LFER uses the Abraham solvation parameters, which include

  10. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  11. Assessment of chimeric mice with humanized livers in new drug development: generation of pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity data for selecting the final candidate compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Hidetaka; Ito, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Chimeric mice with humanized livers are expected to be a novel tool for new drug development. This review discusses four applications where these animals can be used efficiently to collect supportive data for selecting the best compound in the final stage of drug discovery. 2. The first application is selection of the final compound based on estimated pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. Since chimeric mouse livers are highly repopulated with human hepatocytes, hepatic clearance values in vivo could be used preferentially to estimate pharmacokinetic profiles for humans. 3. The second is prediction of human-specific or disproportionate metabolites. Chimeric mice reproduce human-specific metabolites of drugs under development to conform to ICH guidance M3(R2), except for compounds that were extensively eliminated by co-existing mouse hepatocytes. 4. The third is identifying metabolites with distinct pharmacokinetic profiles in humans. Slow metabolite elimination specifically in humans increases its exposure level, but if its elimination is faster in laboratory animals, the animal exposure level might not satisfy ICH guidance M3(R2). 5. Finally, two examples of reproducing acute liver toxicity in chimeric mice are introduced. Integrated pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity information are expected to assist pharmaceutical scientists in selecting the best candidate compound in new drug development.

  12. Potential of select intermediate-volatility organic compounds and consumer products for secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation under relevant urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Li, Lijie; Chen, Chia-li; Kacarab, Mary; Peng, Weihan; Price, Derek; Xu, Jin; Cocker, David R.

    2018-04-01

    Emissions of certain low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) are considered exempt to volatile organic compounds (VOC) regulations due to their low evaporation rates. However, these compounds may still play a role in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone formation. The LVP-VOCs selected for this work are categorized as intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) according to their vapor pressures and molecular formulas. In this study, the evaporation rates of 14 select IVOCs are investigated with half of them losing more than 95% of their mass in less than one month. Further, SOA and ozone formation are presented from 11 select IVOCs and 5 IVOC-containing generic consumer products under atmospherically relevant conditions using varying radical sources (NOx and/or H2O2) and a surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixture. Benzyl alcohol (0.41), n-heptadecane (0.38), and diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (0.16) are determined to have SOA yields greater than 0.1 in the presence of NOx and a surrogate urban hydrocarbon mixture. IVOCs also influence ozone formation from the surrogate urban mixture by impacting radical levels and NOx availability. The addition of lab created generic consumer products has a weak influence on ozone formation from the surrogate mixture but strongly affects SOA formation. The overall SOA and ozone formation of the generic consumer products could not be explained solely by the results of the pure IVOC experiments.

  13. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  14. Nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction combined with nanospray mass spectrometry for rapid and facile quantitation of ribonucleosides in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lingzhong; Zhu, Haijing; Guan, Yafeng; Huang, Guangming

    2017-07-01

    A rapid and facile analytical method for quantification of ribonucleosides in human urine was developed by the combination of nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction and nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS). Cellulose paper used for microextraction was modified by nano-precision deposition of uniform ultrathin zirconia gel film using a sol-gel process. Due to the large surface area of the cellulose paper and the strong affinity between zirconia and the cis-diol compounds, the target analytes were selectively extracted from the complex matrix. Thus, the detection sensitivity was greatly improved. Typically, the nanocoating cellulose paper was immersed into the diluted urine for selective extraction of target analytes, then the extracted analytes were subjected to nESI-MS/MS detection. The whole analytical procedure could be completed within 10min. The method was evaluated by the determination of ribonucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, uridine, guanosine) in urine sample. The signal intensities of the ribonuclesides extracted by the nanocoating cellulose paper were greatly enhanced by 136-459-folds compared with the one of the unmodified cellulose paper based microextraction. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the four ribonucleosides were in the range of 0.0136-1.258μgL -1 and 0.0454-4.194μgL -1 , respectively. The recoveries of the target nucleosides from spiked human urine were in the range of 75.64-103.49% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.36%. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for rapid and facile determination of endogenous ribonucleosides in urine sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  16. Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    When [2- 14 C] riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with 14 C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 μg riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of 14 C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin

  17. The Impact and Oxidation Survival of Selected Meteoritic Compounds: Signatures of Asteroid Organic Material on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Fred; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    Polar, non-volatile organic compounds may be present on the surfaces (or near surfaces) of multiple Solar System bodies. If found, by current or future missions, it would be desirable to determine the origin(s) of such compounds, e.g., asteroidal or in situ. To test the possible survival of meteoritic compounds both during impacts with planetary surfaces and under subsequent (possibly) harsh ambient conditions, we subjected known meteoritic compounds to relatively high impact-shock pressures and/or to varying oxidizing/corrosive conditions. Tested compounds include sulfonic and phosphonic acids (S&P), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) amino acids, keto acids, dicarboxylic acids, deoxy sugar acids, and hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (Table 1). Meteoritic sulfonic acids were found to be relatively abundant in the Murchison meteorite and to possess unusual S-33 isotope anomalies (non mass-dependent isotope fractionations). Combined with distinctive C-S and C-P bonds, the S&P are potential signatures of asteroidal organic material.

  18. New Linear Partitioning Models Based on Experimental Water: Supercritical CO2 Partitioning Data of Selected Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burant, Aniela; Thompson, Christopher; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2016-05-17

    Partitioning coefficients of organic compounds between water and supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) are necessary to assess the risk of migration of these chemicals from subsurface CO2 storage sites. Despite the large number of potential organic contaminants, the current data set of published water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients is very limited. Here, the partitioning coefficients of thiophene, pyrrole, and anisole were measured in situ over a range of temperatures and pressures using a novel pressurized batch-reactor system with dual spectroscopic detectors: a near-infrared spectrometer for measuring the organic analyte in the CO2 phase and a UV detector for quantifying the analyte in the aqueous phase. Our measured partitioning coefficients followed expected trends based on volatility and aqueous solubility. The partitioning coefficients and literature data were then used to update a published poly parameter linear free-energy relationship and to develop five new linear free-energy relationships for predicting water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients. A total of four of the models targeted a single class of organic compounds. Unlike models that utilize Abraham solvation parameters, the new relationships use vapor pressure and aqueous solubility of the organic compound at 25 °C and CO2 density to predict partitioning coefficients over a range of temperature and pressure conditions. The compound class models provide better estimates of partitioning behavior for compounds in that class than does the model built for the entire data set.

  19. A sensitive and efficient method for trace analysis of some phenolic compounds using simultaneous derivatization and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction from human urine and plasma samples followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar

    2015-12-01

    In present study, a simultaneous derivatization and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method combined with gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection has been developed for the determination of some phenolic compounds in biological samples. The analytes are derivatized and extracted simultaneously by a fast reaction with 1-flouro-2,4-dinitrobenzene under mild conditions. Under optimal conditions low limits of detection in the range of 0.05-0.34 ng mL(-1) are achievable. The obtained extraction recoveries are between 84 and 97% and the relative standard deviations are less than 7.2% for intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 4) precisions. The proposed method was demonstrated to be a simple and efficient method for the analysis of phenols in biological samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Distribution and enzymatic activity of heterotrophic bacteria decomposing selected macromolecular compounds in a Baltic Sea sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórska, B.; Mudryk, Z. J.

    2003-03-01

    The potential capability to decompose macromolecular compounds, and the level of extracellular enzyme activities were determined in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a sandy beach in Sopot on the Southern Baltic Sea coast. Individual isolates were capable of hydrolysing a wide spectrum of organic macromolecular compounds. Lipids, gelatine, and DNA were hydrolyzed most efficiently. Only a very small percentage of strains were able to decompose cellulose, and no pectinolytic bacteria were found. Except for starch-hydrolysis, no significant differences in the intensity of organic compound decomposition were recorded between horizontal and vertical profiles of the studied beach. Of all the studied extracellular enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, and leucine acrylaminidase were most active; in contrast, the activity α-fucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-glucouronidase was the weakest. The level of extracellular enzyme activity was similar in both sand layers.

  1. Occurrence of Selected Pharmaceuticals, Personal-Care Products, Organic Wastewater Compounds, and Pesticides in the Lower Tallapoosa River Watershed near Montgomery, Alabama, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Carolyn J.; Gill, Amy C.; McPherson, Ann K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and natural organic compounds derived from agricultural operations, residential development, and treated and untreated sanitary and industrial wastewater discharges can contribute contaminants to surface and ground waters. To determine the occurrence of these compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed, Alabama, new laboratory methods were used that can detect human and veterinary antibiotics; pharmaceuticals; and compounds found in personal-care products, food additives, detergents and their metabolites, plasticizers, and other industrial and household products in the environment. Well-established methods for detecting 47 pesticides and 19 pesticide degradates also were used. In all, 186 different compounds were analyzed by using four analytical methods. The lower Tallapoosa River serves as the water-supply source for more than 100,000 customers of the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board. Source-water protection is a high priority for the Board, which is responsible for providing safe drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board, conducted this study to provide baseline data that could be used to assess the effects of agriculture and residential development on the occurrence of selected organic compounds in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Twenty samples were collected at 10 sites on the Tallapoosa River and its tributaries. Ten samples were collected in April 2005 during high base streamflow, and 10 samples were collected in October 2005 when base streamflow was low. Thirty-two of 186 compounds were detected in the lower Tallapoosa River watershed. Thirteen compounds, including atrazine, 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), hexazinone, metalaxyl, metolachlor, prometryn, prometon, simazine, azithromycin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and tylosin, had measurable concentrations above their laboratory reporting levels

  2. UV absorption cross-sections of selected sulfur-containing compounds at temperatures up to 500°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of three different sulfur containing compounds, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are presented between 200nm and 360nm at a resolution of 0.018nm. The absorption cross-sections for each...... compound are initially compared with those available in the literature, followed by the discussion of the measurements and their spectral features at three temperatures up to 500°C/773K. Uncertainties in the measured absorption cross-sections are also addressed....

  3. Structure and mechanical properties of parts obtained by selective laser melting of metal powder based on intermetallic compounds Ni3Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Nosova, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of samples are obtained from metal powder based on intermetallic compound by selective laser melting. The chemical analysis of the raw material and static tensile test of specimens were made. Change in the samples’ structure and mechanical properties after homogenization during four and twenty-four hours were investigated. A small-sized combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine was performed by the selective laser melting method. The print combustion chamber was subjected to the gas-dynamic test in a certain temperature and time range.

  4. Effect of inter-species selective interactions on the thermodynamics and nucleation free-energy barriers of a tessellating polyhedral compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2016-01-01

    The phase behavior and the homogeneous nucleation of an equimolar mixture of octahedra and cuboctahedra are studied using thermodynamic integration, Gibbs-Duhem integration, and umbrella sampling simulations. The components of this mixture are modeled as polybead objects of equal edge lengths so that they can assemble into a space-filling compound with the CsCl crystal structure. Taking as reference the hard-core system where the compound crystal does not spontaneously nucleate, we quantified the effect of inter-species selective interactions on facilitating the disorder-to-order transition. Facet selective and facet non-selective inter-species attractions were considered, and while the former was expectedly more favorable toward the target tessellating structure, the latter was found to be similarly effective in nucleating the crystal compound. Ranges for the strength of attractions and degree of supersaturation were identified where the nucleation free-energy barrier was small enough to foretell a fast process but large enough to prevent spinodal fluctuations that can trap the system in dense metastable states lacking long-range order. At those favorable conditions, the tendency toward the local orientational order favored by packing entropy is amplified and found to play a key role seeding nuclei with the CsCl structure.

  5. Study of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB Concentrations in Postmortem Blood and Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda M Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is present in blood and urine of the general population as an endogenous compound. The published concentrations in postmortem blood ranged from 0-168 mg/L in cases with no previous history of GHB use. Interpretation of GHB results should be carefully considered due to the wide distribution of endogenous concentrations. The objectives of this study are to evaluate and verify the accuracy of a proposed published (50 mg/L cut-off in 120 blood and 64 urine samples in postmortem cases selected randomly, and to identify GHB-related fatalities. GHB was determined by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC–MS after extraction of the blood and urine in the presence of the internal standard GHB-D6.  The GHB concentration in majority of the blood samples (95% was ≤ 50 mg/L, while in 81% it ranged from 10-50 mg/L. In 95% of the urine samples, the GHB concentration ranged from 10-20 mg/L while 82% of the samples had a concentration of 500 mg/L. The proposed published GHB concentration of 50 mg/L may be used as a cut-off to distinguish between natural endogenous concentrations and exogenous use, but this is not sufficient by itself. The detected GHB concentrations, both in vivo and in postmortem samples, require careful interpretation, not only due to its endogenous nature, but also due to the possibility of postmortem production and also due to its rapid metabolism and excretion.In order to distinguish the endogenous GHB concentration from those reflecting abusive GHB levels, defining a specific cut-off value in biological samples is very crucial. Other matrices, such as vitreous humour, femoral blood and hair must also be considered when interpreting postmortem GHB concentrations.

  6. Optimization of a Pre-MEKC Separation SPE Procedure for Steroid Molecules in Human Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Olędzka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many steroid hormones can be considered as potential biomarkers and their determination in body fluids can create opportunities for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases and disorders of the human body. Most existing methods for the determination of steroids are usually time- and labor-consuming and quite costly. Therefore, the aim of analytical laboratories is to develop a new, relatively low-cost and rapid implementation methodology for their determination in biological samples. Due to the fact that there is little literature data on concentrations of steroid hormones in urine samples, we have made attempts at the electrophoretic determination of these compounds. For this purpose, an extraction procedure for the optimized separation and simultaneous determination of seven steroid hormones in urine samples has been investigated. The isolation of analytes from biological samples was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE with dichloromethane and compared to solid phase extraction (SPE with C18 and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB columns. To separate all the analytes a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK technique was employed. For full separation of all the analytes a running buffer (pH 9.2, composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, and 10% methanol was selected. The methodology developed in this work for the determination of steroid hormones meets all the requirements of analytical methods. The applicability of the method has been confirmed for the analysis of urine samples collected from volunteers—both men and women (students, amateur bodybuilders, using and not applying steroid doping. The data obtained during this work can be successfully used for further research on the determination of steroid hormones in urine samples.

  7. Mass spectrometric based approaches in urine metabolomics and biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Mona M; Adamko, Darryl J; El-Aneed, Anas

    2017-03-01

    Urine metabolomics has recently emerged as a prominent field for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers that can detect subtle metabolic discrepancies in response to a specific disease or therapeutic intervention. Urine, compared to other biofluids, is characterized by its ease of collection, richness in metabolites and its ability to reflect imbalances of all biochemical pathways within the body. Following urine collection for metabolomic analysis, samples must be immediately frozen to quench any biogenic and/or non-biogenic chemical reactions. According to the aim of the experiment; sample preparation can vary from simple procedures such as filtration to more specific extraction protocols such as liquid-liquid extraction. Due to the lack of comprehensive studies on urine metabolome stability, higher storage temperatures (i.e. 4°C) and repetitive freeze-thaw cycles should be avoided. To date, among all analytical techniques, mass spectrometry (MS) provides the best sensitivity, selectivity and identification capabilities to analyze the majority of the metabolite composition in the urine. Combined with the qualitative and quantitative capabilities of MS, and due to the continuous improvements in its related technologies (i.e. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography [UPLC] and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography [HILIC]), liquid chromatography (LC)-MS is unequivocally the most utilized and the most informative analytical tool employed in urine metabolomics. Furthermore, differential isotope tagging techniques has provided a solution to ion suppression from urine matrix thus allowing for quantitative analysis. In addition to LC-MS, other MS-based technologies have been utilized in urine metabolomics. These include direct injection (infusion)-MS, capillary electrophoresis-MS and gas chromatography-MS. In this article, the current progresses of different MS-based techniques in exploring the urine metabolome as well as the recent findings in providing

  8. Highly effective degradation of selected groups of organic compounds by cavitation based AOPs under basic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gągol, Michał; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-07-01

    Cavitation has become on the most often applied methods in a number of industrial technologies. In the case of oxidation of organic pollutants occurring in the aqueous medium, cavitation forms the basis of numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This paper presents the results of investigations on the efficiency of oxidation of the following groups of organic compounds: organosulfur, nitro derivatives of benzene, BTEX, and phenol and its derivatives in a basic model effluent using hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation combined with external oxidants, i.e., hydrogen peroxide, ozone and peroxone. The studies revealed that the combination of cavitation with additional oxidants allows 100% oxidation of the investigated model compounds. However, individual treatments differed with respect to the rate of degradation. Hydrodynamic cavitation aided by peroxone was found to be the most effective treatment (100% oxidation of all the investigated compounds in 60 min). When using hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation alone, the effectiveness of oxidation was diversified. Under these conditions, nitro derivatives of benzene and phenol and its derivatives were found to be resistant to oxidation. In addition, hydrodynamic cavitation was found to be more effective in degradation of model compounds than acoustic cavitation. The results of investigations presented in this paper compare favorably with the investigations on degradation of organic contaminants using AOPs under conditions of basic pH published thus far. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  10. Vapor Pressure Data and Analysis for Selected Organophosphorus Compounds, CMMP, DPMP, DMEP, and DEEP: Extrapolation of High-Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    comparison. The correlation equations are presented using two common units systems , one with temperature given in kelvin (T) and pressure in pascal...This report documents vapor pressure data and correlations for four phosphonate ester compounds that have molecular structures similar to those of...Antoine equation Clausius–Clapeyron equation Enthalpy of vaporization Volatility Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Vapor saturation Normal boiling

  11. Phage Fab Display Selection In Vitro and In Vivo: Novel Means to Identify New Breast Cancer Avid Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meighan, Mark

    2001-01-01

    .... In this annual report we present preliminary results on the isolation of antibody fragments (Fabs), isolated from phage display libraries, when affinity selected against breast cancer cell lines...

  12. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... blood pressure, and epinephrine increases heart rate and metabolism . After completing their actions, catecholamines are metabolized to ...

  13. Assessment of the potential activity of major dietary compounds as selective estrogen receptor modulators in two distinct cell models for proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, Sylvain; Lelong, Marie; Bourgine, Gaëlle [Institut de Recherche en Santé-Environnement-Travail (IRSET), Inserm UMR 1085, Team Transcription, Environment and Cancer, University of Rennes 1, 9 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35000 Rennes (France); Efstathiou, Theo [Laboratoire Nutrinov, Technopole Atalante Champeaux, 8 rue Jules Maillard de la Gournerie, 35012 Rennes Cedex (France); Saligaut, Christian [Institut de Recherche en Santé-Environnement-Travail (IRSET), Inserm UMR 1085, Team Transcription, Environment and Cancer, University of Rennes 1, 9 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35000 Rennes (France); Pakdel, Farzad, E-mail: farzad.pakdel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut de Recherche en Santé-Environnement-Travail (IRSET), Inserm UMR 1085, Team Transcription, Environment and Cancer, University of Rennes 1, 9 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2017-06-15

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β are distributed in most tissues of women and men. ERs are bound by estradiol (E2), a natural hormone, and mediate the pleiotropic and tissue-specific effects of E2, such as proliferation of breast epithelial cells or protection and differentiation of neuronal cells. Numerous environmental molecules, called endocrine disrupting compounds, also interact with ERs. Phytoestrogens belong to this large family and are considered potent therapeutic molecules that act through their selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity. Using breast cancer cell lines as a model of estrogen-dependent proliferation and a stably ER-expressing PC12 cell line as a model of neuronal differentiating cells, we studied the SERM activity of major dietary compounds, such as apigenin, liquiritigenin, daidzein, genistein, coumestrol, resveratrol and zearalenone. The ability of these compounds to induce ER-transactivation and breast cancer cell proliferation and enhance Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) -induced neuritogenesis was assessed. Surprisingly, although all compounds were able to activate the ER through an estrogen responsive element reporter gene, they showed differential activity toward proliferation or differentiation. Apigenin and resveratrol showed a partial or no proliferative effect on breast cancer cells but fully contributed to the neuritogenesis effect of NGF. However, daidzein and zearalenone showed full effects on cellular proliferation but did not induce cellular differentiation. In summary, our results suggest that the therapeutic potential of phytoestrogens can diverge depending on the molecule and the phenotype considered. Hence, apigenin and resveratrol might be used in the development of therapeutics for breast cancer and brain diseases. - Highlights: • SERM activity of dietary compounds on proliferation and differentiation is studied. • All the dietary compounds tested transactivate estrogen receptors. • Apigenin and

  14. The occurrence and removal of selected pharmaceutical compounds in a sewage treatment works utilising activated sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O.A.H. [Institute of Environmental Policy, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Voulvoulis, N. [Institute of Environmental Policy, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Lester, J.N. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.lester@cranfield.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    Pharmaceutical substances have been detected in sewage effluents as well as receiving waters in many parts of the world. In this study, the occurrence and removal of a number of drug compounds were studied within a large sewage treatment plant in the south of England. Samples were processed using solid phase extraction and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrate that ibuprofen, paracetamol, salbutamol and mefenamic acid were present in both the influent and effluent of the works while propranolol-HCl was not found above the limit of quantification in any sample. Elimination rates were circa 90% for each compound but several hundred nanograms per litre were still present in the final effluent. - This report looks at the occurrence and removal rates of drugs in English wastewater.

  15. The occurrence and removal of selected pharmaceutical compounds in a sewage treatment works utilising activated sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.A.H.; Voulvoulis, N.; Lester, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceutical substances have been detected in sewage effluents as well as receiving waters in many parts of the world. In this study, the occurrence and removal of a number of drug compounds were studied within a large sewage treatment plant in the south of England. Samples were processed using solid phase extraction and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrate that ibuprofen, paracetamol, salbutamol and mefenamic acid were present in both the influent and effluent of the works while propranolol-HCl was not found above the limit of quantification in any sample. Elimination rates were circa 90% for each compound but several hundred nanograms per litre were still present in the final effluent. - This report looks at the occurrence and removal rates of drugs in English wastewater

  16. Trace element, semivolatile organic, and chlorinated organic compound concentrations in bed sediments of selected streams at Fort Gordon, Georgia, February-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Journey, Celeste A.; Stringfield, Whitney J.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Wellborn, John B.; Ratliff, Hagan; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A spatial survey of streams was conducted from February to April 2010 to assess the concentrations of major ions, selected trace elements, semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls associated with the bed sediments of surface waters at Fort Gordon military installation near Augusta, Georgia. This investigation expanded a previous study conducted in May 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, that evaluated the streambed sediment quality of selected surface waters at Fort Gordon. The data presented in this report are intended to help evaluate bed sediment quality in relation to guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, and identify temporal trends in trace elements and semivolatile organic compound concentrations at streambed sites previously sampled. Concentrations of 34 major ions and trace elements and 102 semivolatile organic, organochlorine pesticide, and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds were determined in the fine-grained fraction of bed sediment samples collected from 13 of the original 29 sites in the previous study, and 22 additional sites at Fort Gordon. Three of the sites were considered reference sites as they were presumed to be located away from potential sources of contaminants and were selected to represent surface waters flowing onto the fort, and the remaining 32 nonreference sites were presumed to be located within the contamination area at the fort. Temporal trends in trace elements and semivolatile organic compound concentrations also were evaluated at 13 of the 32 nonreference sites to provide an assessment of the variability in the number of detections and concentrations of constituents in bed sediment associated with potential sources, accumulation, and attenuation processes. Major ion and trace element concentrations in fine-grained bed

  17. Perylene Diimide Based Fluorescent Dyes for Selective Sensing of Nitroaromatic Compounds: Selective Sensing in Aqueous Medium Across Wide pH Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, P S; Pitchaimani, J; Madhu, Vedichi; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-03-01

    Water soluble perylenediimide based fluorophore salt, N,N'-bis(ethelenetrimethyl ammoniumiodide)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylicbisimide (PDI-1), has been used for selective fluorescence sensing of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) in organic as well as aqueous medium across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). PDI-1 showed strong fluorescence in dimethylformamide (DMF) (Φf = 0.26 (DMF) and moderate fluorescence in water. Addition of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) into PDI-1 in DMF/aqueous solution selectively quenches the fluorescence. The concentration dependent studies showed decrease of fluorescence linearly with increase of PA and 4-NA concentration. The interference studies demonstrate high selectivity for PA and 4-NA. Interestingly, PDI-1 showed selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). Selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA has also been observed with trifluoroacetate (PDI-2), sulfate (PDI-3) salt of PDI-1 as well as octyl chain substituted PDI (PDI-4) without amine functionality. These studies suggest that PA and 4-NA might be having preferential interaction with PDI aromatic core and quenches the fluorescence. Thus PDI based dyes have been used for selective fluorescent sensing of explosive NACs for the first time to the best our knowledge.

  18. Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

    2013-05-30

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid-phase/supercritical-fluid extraction for liquid chromatography of phenolic compounds in freshwater microalgae and selected cyanobacterial species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klejdus, B.; Kopecký, Jiří; Benešová, L.; Vacek, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1216, č. 5 (2009), s. 763-771 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/07/0338 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) GP525/08/P540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : methanol * solid-phase extraction * phenolic compounds Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.101, year: 2009

  20. Exposure to Particle Matters and Hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds in Selected Hot Spring Hotels in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Guangdong province, many hot springs were exploited and developed into popular places for tourist. In addition, hotels have been set up near hot spring sites to attract people, including local citizens, to spend their spare time inside these so-called “spring hotels”. In our study, indoor air quality was investigated in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong province, China. Measured indoor pollutants included CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. As the result show, high concentrations of carbon dioxide might be attributed to poor ventilation; and the variations of indoor PM10, PM2.5 concentrations were related to occupants’ activities. Alpha-pinene and toluene were the most common VOC species in the hot spring hotels other than monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX, which were at medium levels among the reported indoor pollutants. High cancer risk of benzene in the newly decorated rooms should be seriously taken into consideration in the future. Indoor to Outdoor air concentration ratios (I/O for CO2 and VOCs were higher than 1, indicating their strong indoor sources. Negative correlations were found between indoor CO2 and all the other compounds, and VOCs were shown to be significantly correlated (p < 0.01 to each other, including aromatic hydrocarbons and mono-terpenes. For indoor and outdoor air compounds, correlation coefficients among all compounds did not show a significant correlation, which indicated that these pollutants had different sources. Principal components analysis by SPSS showed that indoor materials, inhabitants’ activities and respiration, cleaning products and outdoor sources were the main sources of indoor detected pollutants in hot spring hotels.

  1. Influence of Laccase and Tyrosinase on the Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Phenolic Compounds on Human Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Riebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolic compounds affect the color, odor and taste of numerous food products of plant origin. In addition to the visual and gustatory properties, they serve as radical scavengers and have antioxidant effects. Polyphenols, especially resveratrol in red wine, have gained increasing scientific and public interest due to their presumptive beneficial impact on human health. Enzymatic oxidation of phenolic compounds takes place under the influence of polyphenol oxidases (PPO, including tyrosinase and laccase. Several studies have demonstrated the radical scavenger effect of plants, food products and individual polyphenols in vitro, but, apart from resveratrol, such impact has not been proved in physiological test systems. Furthermore, only a few data exist on the antioxidant capacities of the enzymatic oxidation products of phenolic compounds generated by PPO. We report here first results about the antioxidant effects of phenolic substances, before and after oxidation by fungal model tyrosinase and laccase. In general, the common chemical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the biological tests using two different types of cell cultures (monocytes and endothelial cells delivered similar results. The phenols tested showed significant differences with respect to their antioxidant activity in all test systems. Their antioxidant capacities after enzymatic conversion decreased or increased depending on the individual PPO used.

  2. The Cutoff Level for Urine Protein in Urine Immunofixation Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Curek, Gulten; Eren, Esin; Aydin, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Necat

    2015-01-01

    Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) maintains its importance in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathies. In particular, urine IFE detects free light chains (FLC) in urine samples even at low concentrations and offers higher sensitivity compared to serum electrophoresis and serum IFE. The aim of the present study was to determine the place and significance of quantitative urinary protein measurement before IFE in interpreting the results of subsequent IFE and to determine the most appropriate protein concentrations for the appearance of bands. The records of a total of 600 patients, who underwent screening for Bence Jones proteinuria using IFE on 24-hour urine, were retrospectively reviewed. Urine IFE was performed using Helena SAS-I and SAS-I devices. The total protein concentration in the urine was quantitatively determined by the Pyrogallol red method, and the urine albumin level was determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. These analyses were measured on an Olympus/Beckmann AU5800. The evaluation of IFE results revealed that 311 patients had normal results, 108 patients had monoclonal bands, five patients had biclonal bands, 28 had polyclonal bands, and 148 patients had various degrees of proteinuria. ROC curves were created in order to determine the most appropriate urinary protein and albumin levels to observe bands in IFE. Accordingly, urine baseline protein level (mg/dL) showed the highest AUC value (cutoff value: 19.4 mg/dL, sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 98.2%, AUC: 0.972). The present study showed that quantitative protein measurement before IFE eliminated the disadvantages associated with the IFE method and its interpretation.

  3. Determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Part II. Application to sediment and sludge samples in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen; Sitka, Andrea; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Scharf, Sigrid; Gans, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Soxhlet extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection (MS/MS) was used for the determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in solid samples. The method was applied for the determination of alkyl benzyl, dialkyl and trialkyl quaternary ammonium compounds in sediment and sludge samples in Austria. The overall method quantification limits range from 0.6 to 3 μg/kg for sediments and from 2 to 5 μg/kg for sewage sludges. Mean recoveries between 67% and 95% are achieved. In general sediments were especially contaminated by C12 chain benzalkonium chloride (BAC-C12) as well as by the long C-chain dialkyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C18) with a maximum concentration of 3.6 mg/kg and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively. Maxima of 27 mg/kg for DDAC-C10, 25 mg/kg for BAC-C12 and 23 mg/kg for BAC-C14 were determined for sludge samples. The sums of the 12 selected target compounds range from 22 mg/kg to 103 mg/kg in the sludge samples. - The presence of quaternary ammonium surfactants in sediment and sludge samples is reported for the first time in Austria

  4. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Hexose Transporter PfHT by Screening Focused Libraries of Anti-Malarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz

    Full Text Available Development of resistance against current antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for novel drugs that interact with different targets and have distinct mechanisms of action. Malaria parasites depend upon high levels of glucose uptake followed by inefficient metabolic utilization via the glycolytic pathway, and the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT, which mediates uptake of glucose, has thus been recognized as a promising drug target. This transporter is highly divergent from mammalian hexose transporters, and it appears to be a permease that is essential for parasite viability in intra-erythrocytic, mosquito, and liver stages of the parasite life cycle. An assay was developed that is appropriate for high throughput screening against PfHT based upon heterologous expression of PfHT in Leishmania mexicana parasites that are null mutants for their endogenous hexose transporters. Screening of two focused libraries of antimalarial compounds identified two such compounds that are high potency selective inhibitors of PfHT compared to human GLUT1. Additionally, 7 other compounds were identified that are lower potency and lower specificity PfHT inhibitors but might nonetheless serve as starting points for identification of analogs with more selective properties. These results further support the potential of PfHT as a novel drug target.

  5. Human exposure assessment to a large set of polymer additives through the analysis of urine by solid phase extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouech, Charlène; Kiss, Agneta; Lafay, Florent; Léonard, Didier; Wiest, Laure; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-04

    Polymer items are extensively present in the human environment. Humans may be consequently exposed to some compounds, such as additives, incorporated in these items. The objective of this work is to assess the human exposure to the main additives such as those authorized in the packaging for pharmaceutical products. The urinary matrix was selected to optimally answer this challenge because it has already been proven that the exposure to chemicals can be revealed by the analysis of this biological matrix. A multi-residue analytical method for the trace analysis at ng/mL in human urine was developed, and consisted of an extraction of analytes from urine by solid phase extraction (SPE) and an analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). Even if the quantification of these compounds was an analytical challenge because of (i) the presence of these substances in the analytical process, (ii) the diversity of their physicochemical properties, and (iii) the complexity of the matrix, the optimized method exhibited quantification limits lower than 25ng/mL and recoveries between 51% and 120% for all compounds. The method was validated and applied to 52 human urines. To the best of our knowledge, this work presents the first study allowing the assessment of the occurrence of more than twenty polymer additives at ng/mL in human urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments of Some Military Munitions and Obscurant-related Compounds for Selected Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Von Stackleberg, Katherine; Amos, Craig; Butler, C; Smith, Thomas; Famely, J; McArdle, M; Southworth, B; Steevens, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    ...) associated with munitions. This study evaluates the potential long-term impacts on selected threatened and endangered species resulting from dispersion and deposition of vapors and particles found in the fog oils...

  7. Discovery and Characterization of Substituted Diphenyl Heterocyclic Compounds as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus Replication▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiyong; Goff, Dane A.; Huang, Qi; Martinez, Anthony; Xu, Xiang; Crowder, Scott; Issakani, Sarkiz D.; Anderson, Emily; Sheng, Ning; Achacoso, Philip; Yen, Ann; Kinsella, Todd; Darwish, Ihab S.; Kolluri, Rao; Hong, Hui; Qu, Kunbin; Stauffer, Emily; Goldstein, Eileen; Singh, Rajinder; Payan, Donald G.; Lu, H. Henry

    2008-01-01

    A novel small-molecule inhibitor, referred to here as R706, was discovered in a high-throughput screen of chemical libraries against Huh-7-derived replicon cells carrying autonomously replicating subgenomic RNA of hepatitis C virus (HCV). R706 was highly potent in blocking HCV RNA replication as measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting of R706-treated replicon cells. Structure-activity iterations of the R706 series yielded a lead compound, R803, that was more potent and highly specific for HCV replication, with no significant inhibitory activity against a panel of HCV-related positive-stranded RNA viruses. Furthermore, HCV genotype 1 replicons displayed markedly higher sensitivity to R803 treatment than a genotype 2a-derived replicon. In addition, R803 was tested by a panel of biochemical and cell-based assays for on-target and off-target activities, and the data suggested that the compound had a therapeutic window close to 100-fold, while its exact mechanism of action remained elusive. We found that R803 was more effective than alpha interferon (IFN-α) at blocking HCV RNA replication in the replicon model. In combination studies, R803 showed a weak synergistic effect with IFN-α/ribavirin but only additive effects with a protease inhibitor and an allosteric inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (20). We conclude that R803 and related heterocyclic compounds constitute a new class of HCV-specific inhibitors that could potentially be developed as a treatment for HCV infection. PMID:18227176

  8. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takanori, E-mail: kubo-t@yasuda-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Takei, Yoshifumi [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mihara, Keichiro [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women' s University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5 Prime -sense strand were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.

  9. Stereo-selective hydrolytic reaction of toxic compounds by enzyme immobilized on porous ceramics; Takoshitsu ceramics kotaika koso ni yoru dokusei kagobutsu no rittai sentakuteki kasui bunkai hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K.; Saito, T. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-08-25

    Experiment was made on stereo-selective hydrolytic reaction of trifluoroethyl ester of ketoprophene by various kinds of lipase. In addition, study was made on the stability of lipase simply immobilized on porous ceramics under the existence of organic solvent. In the experiment, the hydrolytic activity of 8 kinds of lipase was studied for ketoprophene monochloroethyl ester (1a) and trifluoroethyl ester (1b). The experiment result showed that lipase M originating in mold (Mucor Javanicus) shows a high reactivity and stereo-selectivity for the compound (1a). The lipase immobilized on porous ceramics was easily obtained by a very simple method composed of only throwing carriers into enzyme suspension, agitation and refrigerated drying. The lipase immobilized on porous ceramics 'Toyonite 200-A' synthesized from kaolinite retained the residual activity of nearly 50%, original selectivity and considerable stability after 5 times of repetitive uses. This study result is useful for bio- reactors and bio-sensors for synthesis or decomposition of compounds. (NEDO)

  10. Relationship between selected indoor volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC, and the prevalence of mucous membrane symptoms in single family homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Eitaki, Yoko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Shibata, Eiji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are known to produce a range of volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC (MVOC). Chamber studies where humans were exposed to MVOC addressed the acute effects of objective and/or subjective signs of mucosal irritation. However, the effect of MVOC on inhabitants due to household exposure is still unclear. The purpose of this epidemiological study was to measure indoor MVOC levels in single family homes and to evaluate the relationship between exposure to them and sick building syndrome (SBS). All inhabitants of the dwellings were given a self-administered questionnaire with standardized questions to assess their symptoms. Air samples were collected and the concentrations of eight selected compounds in indoor air were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - selective ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM). The most frequently detected MVOC was 1-pentanol at a detection rate of 78.6% and geometric mean of 0.60 μg/m 3 . Among 620 participants, 120 (19.4%) reported one or more mucous symptoms; irritation of the eyes, nose, airway, or coughing every week (weekly symptoms), and 30 (4.8%) reported that the symptoms were home-related (home-related symptoms). Weekly symptoms were not associated with any of MVOC, whereas significant associations between home-related mucous symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol (per log 10 -unit: odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1 to 14.8) and 2-pentanol (per log 10 -unit: OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.9) were obtained after adjustment for gender, age, and smoking. Associations between home-related symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol remained after mutual adjustment. However, concentrations of the selected compounds in indoors were lower than the estimated safety level in animal studies. Thus, the statistically significant association between 1-octen-3-ol may be due to a direct effect of the compounds or the associations may be being associated with other offending compounds. Additional studies are needed to evaluate

  11. Fate of selected pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds during artificial aquifer recharge using surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Rosell, Mònica; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-05-01

    The artificial recharge of aquifers has become a valuable tool to increase water resources for drinking water production in many countries. In this work a total of 41 organic pollutants belonging to the classes of pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been monitored in the water from two artificial recharge plants located in Sweden and Denmark. The results from two sampling campaigns performed in each plant indicate good chemical status of the source water, as the contaminants detected were present at very low levels, far from those established in the legislation as maximum admissible concentrations (when existing) and far from those considered as a risk. Thus, of the 17 pesticides investigated, BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide), desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, metolachlor, and diazinon were the only compounds detected, and total pesticides levels were below 25ng L(-1), respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate was the only estrogen detected, at concentrations lower than 0.5ng L(-1). Progestogens were not found in any sample. Detected VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were below 0.04microg L(-1). The efficiency of elimination of these organic contaminants was poor as no significant decrease in their concentrations was observed through the recharge process.

  12. Pt Single Atoms Embedded in the Surface of Ni Nanocrystals as Highly Active Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhan; Geng, Zhigang; Zhao, Songtao; Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Li, Zhenyu; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie

    2018-06-13

    Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites, which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals reached ∼1800 h -1 under 3 atm of H 2 at 40 °C, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , and ZSM-5. Mechanistic studies reveal that the remarkable activity of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals derived from sufficient hydrogen supply because of spontaneous dissociation of H 2 on both Pt and Ni atoms as well as facile diffusion of H atoms on Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals. Moreover, the ensemble composed of the Pt single atom and nearby Ni atoms in Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals leads to the adsorption configuration of 3-nitrostyrene favorable for the activation of nitro groups, accounting for the high selectivity for 3-vinylaniline.

  13. Measurement of purine derivatives and creatinine in urine by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piani, B.; Fabro, C.; Susmel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two HPLC methods to measure the purine derivatives (PD, including allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine) and creatinine content in urine are described. PD separation and quantification were achieved using two Spherisorb ODS 2 reversed phase columns connected in series (4.6 x 250 mm) and a Spherisorb ODS 2 Waters pre-column and a Perkin Elmer pump with an auto sampler. The mobile phase was NH 4 H 2 PO 4 :NH 4 H 2 PO 4 -acetonitrile (80:20), which was used at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and the detection wavelength was at 190 nm. The average recoveries of standard compounds added to urine samples were satisfactory (92-106%) and the low detection limits (0.7-3.4 μM) permitted the precise determination of these compounds in urine. Separation and quantification of creatinine was achieved using one Spherisorb ODS 2 reversed phase column (4.6 x 250 mm) and one Spherisorb ODS 2 Waters pre-column and a Perkin Elmer pump with an auto sampler. The mobile phase was NH 4 H 2 PO 4 :NH 4 H 2 PO 4 -acetonitrile (80:20), used at a flow rate of 1.00 ml/min and the detection was at 190 nm. The mean recovery (3 measurements) of standard solution added to urine samples was 101%; detection limit was 7.9 μM. (author)

  14. Metabolomic Biomarkers in Urine of Cushing’s Syndrome Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotłowska, Alicja; Puzyn, Tomasz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Stepnowski, Piotr; Szefer, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a disease which results from excessive levels of cortisol in the human body. The disorder is associated with various signs and symptoms which are also common for the general population not suffering from compound hypersecretion. Thus, more sensitive and selective methods are required for the diagnosis of CS. This follow-up study was conducted to determine which steroid metabolites could serve as potential indicators of CS and possible subclinical hypercortisolism in patients diagnosed with so called non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas (AIs). Urine samples from negative controls (n = 37), patients with CS characterized by hypercortisolism and excluding iatrogenic CS (n = 16), and patients with non-functioning AIs with possible subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (n = 25) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Statistical and multivariate methods were applied to investigate the profile differences between examined individuals. The analyses revealed hormonal differences between patients with CS and the rest of examined individuals. The concentrations of selected metabolites of cortisol, androgens, and pregnenetriol were elevated whereas the levels of tetrahydrocortisone were decreased for CS when opposed to the rest of the study population. Moreover, after analysis of potential confounding factors, it was also possible to distinguish six steroid hormones which discriminated CS patients from other study subjects. The obtained discriminant functions enabled classification of CS patients and AI group characterized by mild hypersecretion of cortisol metabolites. It can be concluded that steroid hormones selected by applying urinary profiling may serve the role of potential biomarkers of CS and can aid in its early diagnosis. PMID:28146078

  15. Metabolomic Biomarkers in Urine of Cushing's Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotłowska, Alicja; Puzyn, Tomasz; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Stepnowski, Piotr; Szefer, Piotr

    2017-01-29

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a disease which results from excessive levels of cortisol in the human body. The disorder is associated with various signs and symptoms which are also common for the general population not suffering from compound hypersecretion. Thus, more sensitive and selective methods are required for the diagnosis of CS. This follow-up study was conducted to determine which steroid metabolites could serve as potential indicators of CS and possible subclinical hypercortisolism in patients diagnosed with so called non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas (AIs). Urine samples from negative controls ( n = 37), patients with CS characterized by hypercortisolism and excluding iatrogenic CS ( n = 16), and patients with non-functioning AIs with possible subclinical Cushing's syndrome ( n = 25) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Statistical and multivariate methods were applied to investigate the profile differences between examined individuals. The analyses revealed hormonal differences between patients with CS and the rest of examined individuals. The concentrations of selected metabolites of cortisol, androgens, and pregnenetriol were elevated whereas the levels of tetrahydrocortisone were decreased for CS when opposed to the rest of the study population. Moreover, after analysis of potential confounding factors, it was also possible to distinguish six steroid hormones which discriminated CS patients from other study subjects. The obtained discriminant functions enabled classification of CS patients and AI group characterized by mild hypersecretion of cortisol metabolites. It can be concluded that steroid hormones selected by applying urinary profiling may serve the role of potential biomarkers of CS and can aid in its early diagnosis.

  16. Removal of selected emerging PPCP compounds using greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) based lab-scale free water constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Zhou, Qizhi; Campos, Luiza C

    2017-12-01

    Greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) based lab-scale free water constructed wetland (CW) was employed for removing four emerging pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (i.e. DEET, paracetamol, caffeine and triclosan). Orthogonal design was used to test the effect of light intensity, aeration, E.coli abundance and plant biomass on the target compounds. Synthetic wastewater contaminated with the target compounds at concentration of 25 μg/L was prepared, and both batch and continuous flow experiments were conducted. Up to 100% removals were achieved for paracetamol (PAR), caffeine (CAF) and tricolsan (TCS) while the highest removal for DEET was 32.2% in batch tests. Based on orthogonal Duncan analysis, high light intensity (240 μmolmm -2 s -1 ), full aeration, high plant biomass (1.00 kg/m 2 ) and high E.coli abundance (1.0 × 10 6  CFU/100 mL) favoured elimination of the PPCPs. Batch verification test achieved removals of 17.1%, 98.8%, 96.4% and 95.4% for DEET, PAR, CAF and TCS respectively. Continuous flow tests with CW only and CW followed by stabilization tank (CW-ST) were carried out. Final removals of the PPCP contaminants were 32.6%, 97.7%, 98.0% and 100% for DEET, PAR, CAF and TCS, respectively, by CW system alone, while 43.3%, 97.5%, 98.2% and 100%, respectively, were achieved by CW-ST system. By adding the ST tank, PPCP concentrations decreased significantly faster (p < 0.05) compared with continuous flow CW alone. In addition, after removing aerators during continuous flow CW experiments, the treatment systems presented good stability for the PPCP removals. CW-ST showed better chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removals (89.3%, 91.2%, respectively) than CW only (79.4%, 85.2%, respectively). However, poor DEET removal (<50%) and high E.coli abundance (up to 1.7 log increase) in the final treated water indicated further treatment processes may be required. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations

  17. Selective Removal of the Genotoxic Compound 2-Aminopyridine in Water using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Based on Magnetic Chitosan and β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop efficient materials with enhanced adsorption and selectivity for genotoxic 2-aminopyridine in water, based on magnetic chitosan (CTs and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs of Fe3O4-CTs@MIP and Fe3O4-MAH-β-CD@MIP were synthesized by a molecular imprinting technique using 2-aminopyridine as a template. The selective adsorption experiments for 2-aminopyridine were performed by four analogues including pyridine, aniline, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine and phenylenediamine. Results showed the target 2-aminopyridine could be selectively adsorbed and quickly separated by the synthesized MMIPs in the presence of the above structural analogues. The coexisting ions including Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl− and SO42− showed little effect on the adsorption of 2-aminopyridine. The maximum adsorption capacity of 2-aminopyridine on Fe3O4-CTs@MIP and Fe3O4-MAH-β-CD@MIP was 39.2 mg·g−1 and 46.5 mg·g−1, respectively, which is much higher than values in previous reports. The comparison result with commercial activated carbon showed the obtained MMIPs had higher adsorption ability and selectivity for 2-aminopyridine. In addition, the synthesized MMIPs exhibited excellent performance of regeneration, which was used at least five times with little adsorption capacity loss. Therefore, the synthesized MMIPs are potential effective materials in applications for selective removal and analysis of the genotoxic compound aminopyridine from environmental water.

  18. A Simple Analytical Method Using HPLC with Fluorescence Detection to Determine Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Filter Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    A study on the comparison and evaluation of a miniaturized extraction method for the determination of selected PACs in sample filters is presented. The main objective was the optimization and development of simple, rapid and low cost methods, minimizing the use of extracting solvent volume. The work also includes a study on the intermediate precision. (Author)

  19. Sulfide perovskites for solar energy conversion applications: computational screening and synthesis of the selected compound LaYS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhar, Korina; Crovetto, Andrea; Pandey, Mohnish

    2017-01-01

    of ternary sulfides followed by synthesis and confirmation of the properties of one of the most promising materials. The screening focusses on materials with ABS3 composition taking both perovskite and non-perovskite structures into consideration, and the material selection is based on descriptors...

  20. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Guang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ye, Feiyan [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Jing, E-mail: cejingxiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: cezhli@scut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Haihui [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was developed for selective adsorption of DBTs under UV irradiation. • Remarkable adsorption uptake and selectivity were achieved for deep desulfurization. • Introduction of TiO{sub 2} into SiO{sub 2} enhanced its adsorption for DBTO{sub 2}. • Adsorption mechanism using TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV irradiation was elucidated. - Abstract: This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} under UV-irradiation. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO{sub 2}/0.7SiO{sub 2} adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO{sub 2} served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO{sub 2} acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO{sub 2} as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO{sub 2}/0.7SiO{sub 2} adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions.

  1. Analysis of 3,5-dichloroaniline as a biomarker of vinclozolin and iprodione in human urine using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Christian H; Littorin, Margareta; Amilon, Asa; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2007-01-01

    The fungicides vinclozolin and iprodione are widely used in agriculture. These pesticides are dicarboximide fungicides containing the common moiety 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA). It has been suggested that low-level exposures to such compounds may be associated with adverse health effects such as endocrine disruption. In this study a method using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of 3,5-DCA as a biomarker of exposure to these fungicides in human urine. The urine samples were treated by basic hydrolysis to degrade the fungicides, their metabolites and conjugates to 3,5-DCA. The 3,5-DCA was then extracted using toluene and derivatized using pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA). Analysis of the derivative was carried out using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in the negative ion mode. Quantification of the derivative was performed using [(13)C(6)]-labeled 3,4-DCA as an internal standard with good precision and linearity in the range 0.1-200 ng/mL urine. The limit of detection was determined to be 0.1 ng/mL. The metabolites in urine were found to be stable during storage at -20 degrees C. To validate 3,5-DCA as a biomarker the method was applied in a human experimental exposure to iprodione and vinclozolin. Two healthy volunteers received 200 microg single oral doses of each pesticide followed by urine sampling during 72-120 h post-exposure. Between 78-107% of the dose was recovered as 3,5-DCA in the urine after exposure. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Luminescent MOFs comprising mixed tritopic linkers and Cd(II)/Zn(II) nodes for selective detection of organic nitro compounds and iodine capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachuri, Yadagiri; Bisht, Kamal Kumar [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Parmar, Bhavesh [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Suresh, Eringathodi, E-mail: esuresh@csmcri.org [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2015-03-15

    Two CPs ([Cd{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}){sub n} (1) and ([Zn{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}){sub n} (2) composed of tripodal linkers BTC (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and TIB (1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) were synthesized via solvothermal route and structurally characterized. Single crystal structural analysis reveals 1 possesses a novel 3D framework structure, whereas 2 represents a previously established compound. Owing to the d{sup 10} configuration of metal nodes and robust 3D frameworks, 1 and 2 exhibit excellent fluorescence properties which have been exploited to sense organic nitro compounds in vapor phase. Compound 1 demonstrates selective sensing of nitromethane over structurally similar methanol with ca. 70 and 43% fluorescence quenching in case of former and later. Similarly, 58% fluorescence quenching was observed in case of nitrobenzene over the structurally resembling toluene for which 30% quenching was observed. Compound 2 did not show any preference for nitro compounds and exhibited comparable fluorescence quenching when exposed to the vapors of nitro or other geometrically resembling organic molecules. Furthermore, adsorption experiments revealed that 1 and 2 can uptake 2.74 and 14.14 wt% molecular iodine respectively in vapor phase which can be released in organic solvents such as hexane and acetonitrile. The maximal iodine uptake in case of 1 and 2 corresponds to 0.15 and 0.80 molecules of iodine per formula unit of respective frameworks. Comprehensive structural description, thermal stability and luminescence behavior for both CPs has also been presented. - Graphical abstract: Two 3D luminescent CPs comprising mixed tripodal ligands have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Iodine encapsulation capacity of synthesized CPs is evaluated and their fluorescence quenching in presence of small organic molecules is exploited for sensing of nitro

  3. Urine Sodium in 3 Consecutive Days Urine collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that salt sensitivity, which is a heritable trait, is a hallmark to hypertension in blacks. Previous studies on twenty-four hour urinary sodium were either incomplete or yielded contradictory results possibly from incomplete urine collection. This study attempted complete ...

  4. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoo-Singh, Paramjeet Kaur; Keng, Fiona S-L; Phang, Siew-Moi; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C; Sturges, William T; Malin, Gill; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah

    2017-01-01

    Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner) C. Agardh), Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient), 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibro-momethane (CH 2 Br 2 ), iodomethane (CH 3 I), diiodomethane (CH 2 I 2 ), bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI), bromochlorometh-ane (CH 2 BrCl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ), and dibro-mochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl). These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH 2 I 2 and CH 3 I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis . The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ( F v ∕ F m ) prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum

  5. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur Mithoo-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient, 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3, dibro­momethane (CH2Br2, iodomethane (CH3I, diiodomethane (CH2I2, bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI, bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2, and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl. These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of

  6. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  7. Activating AMP-activated protein kinase by an α1 selective activator compound 13 attenuates dexamethasone-induced osteoblast cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shiguang [Department of Intensive Care Unit, Huai' an First People' s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai' an (China); Mao, Li [Department of Endocrinology, Huai' an First People' s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai' an (China); Ji, Feng, E-mail: huaiaifengjidr@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Huai' an First People' s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai' an (China); Wang, Shouguo; Xie, Yue; Fei, Haodong [Department of Orthopedics, Huai' an First People' s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai' an (China); Wang, Xiao-dong, E-mail: xiaodongwangsz@163.com [The Center of Diagnosis and Treatment for Children' s Bone Diseases, The Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-03-18

    Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) usage may lead to non-traumatic femoral head osteonecrosis. Dexamethasone (Dex) exerts cytotoxic effect to cultured osteoblasts. Here, we investigated the potential activity of Compound 13 (C13), a novel α1 selective AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, against the process. Our data revealed that C13 pretreatment significantly attenuated Dex-induced apoptosis and necrosis in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. AMPK activation mediated C13′ cytoprotective effect in osteoblasts. The AMPK inhibitor Compound C, shRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα1, or dominant negative mutation of AMPKα1 (T172A) almost abolished C13-induced AMPK activation and its pro-survival effect in osteoblasts. On the other hand, forced AMPK activation by adding AMPK activator A-769662 or exogenous expression a constitutively-active (ca) AMPKα1 (T172D) mimicked C13's actions and inhibited Dex-induced osteoblast cell death. Meanwhile, A-769662 or ca-AMPKα1 almost nullified C13's activity in osteoblast. Further studies showed that C13 activated AMPK-dependent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway to inhibit Dex-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Such effects by C13 were almost reversed by Compound C or AMPKα1 depletion/mutation. Together, these results suggest that C13 alleviates Dex-induced osteoblast cell death via activating AMPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Compound 13 (C13) attenuates dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblast cell death. • C13-induced cytoprotective effect against Dex in osteoblasts requires AMPK activation. • Forced AMPK activation protects osteoblasts from Dex, nullifying C13's activities. • C13 increases NADPH activity and inhibits Dex-induced oxidative stress in osteoblasts.

  8. Activating AMP-activated protein kinase by an α1 selective activator compound 13 attenuates dexamethasone-induced osteoblast cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shiguang; Mao, Li; Ji, Feng; Wang, Shouguo; Xie, Yue; Fei, Haodong; Wang, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) usage may lead to non-traumatic femoral head osteonecrosis. Dexamethasone (Dex) exerts cytotoxic effect to cultured osteoblasts. Here, we investigated the potential activity of Compound 13 (C13), a novel α1 selective AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, against the process. Our data revealed that C13 pretreatment significantly attenuated Dex-induced apoptosis and necrosis in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. AMPK activation mediated C13′ cytoprotective effect in osteoblasts. The AMPK inhibitor Compound C, shRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα1, or dominant negative mutation of AMPKα1 (T172A) almost abolished C13-induced AMPK activation and its pro-survival effect in osteoblasts. On the other hand, forced AMPK activation by adding AMPK activator A-769662 or exogenous expression a constitutively-active (ca) AMPKα1 (T172D) mimicked C13's actions and inhibited Dex-induced osteoblast cell death. Meanwhile, A-769662 or ca-AMPKα1 almost nullified C13's activity in osteoblast. Further studies showed that C13 activated AMPK-dependent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway to inhibit Dex-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Such effects by C13 were almost reversed by Compound C or AMPKα1 depletion/mutation. Together, these results suggest that C13 alleviates Dex-induced osteoblast cell death via activating AMPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Compound 13 (C13) attenuates dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblast cell death. • C13-induced cytoprotective effect against Dex in osteoblasts requires AMPK activation. • Forced AMPK activation protects osteoblasts from Dex, nullifying C13's activities. • C13 increases NADPH activity and inhibits Dex-induced oxidative stress in osteoblasts.

  9. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity

  10. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang, E-mail: lvguoqiangwuxivip@163.com

    2015-08-07

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity.

  11. Selenium speciation in human urine samples by LC- and CE-ICP-MS-separation and identification of selenosugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Bendahl, L.

    2004-01-01

    at ambient temperature and methanol extraction. A pre-concentration factor of 10 was achieved with this procedure. On occasions when a pre-concentration factor of 100 was obtained by lyophilsation and methanol extraction, at least 10 selenium compounds were separated in the urine sample. Urine samples were...

  12. Clenbuterol storage stability in the bovine urine and liver samples used for European official control in the azores islands (portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Isabel; Jesuino, Bruno; Barbosa, Jorge; Ferreira, Humberto; Ramos, Fernando; Matos, José; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

    2009-02-11

    Clenbuterol is a well-known growth promoter, illegally used in farm animals, especially in cattle. Samples collected for the screening of beta(2)-agonist residues in Portuguese Azores Islands must travel through all the nine islands until they reach Azores Central Laboratory. If any suspicious sample is detected, it must be further transported to the National Reference Laboratory in Lisbon for confirmation. As a consequence of these circumstances, samples are submitted to different transport and storage times, as well as different temperature conditions and in some cases successive freezing and thawing cycles. As clenbuterol is the most detected beta(2)-agonist growth promoter in the Portuguese Residue Monitoring Plan, studies were conducted on the stability of this compound in incurred samples (bovine liver and urine) at +4, -20 and -60 degrees C over time. Samples kept at -20 degrees C were also analyzed over time after successive freezing and thawing cycles. The analyses of clenbuterol over time were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Clenbuterol in incurred urine and liver samples was significantly stable up to 20 weeks at -20 and -60 degrees C and after, at least, six consecutive freezings and thawings. At +4 degrees C, clenbuterol remained stable, at least until 12 weeks in urine and up to 20 weeks in liver.

  13. Evaluation of the concentrations and distribution of carbonyl compounds in selected areas of a Brazilian bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the determination of 30 carbonyl compounds (CCs) in three areas (bus boarding platform, passenger circulation area, and a pastry shop) of the Presidente João Goulart Bus Terminal, located at Niterói City, RJ, Brazil, and in an open area 700 m distant from the terminal. Samples were collected using SEP-PAK cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, during May to July 2012. The hydrazones formed were analyzed using rapid resolution liquid chromatography with UV detection. The studied locations showed distinct profiles of distribution of CC. The circulation area, which is influenced by different pollution sources, presented an intermediate profile between that of the pastry shop and boarding platform. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant CC, but acetaldehyde predominated in the pastry shop once it is a by-product of baking yeast fermentation. Samples taken in the pastry shop and circulation area showed significant concentrations of hexanaldehyde and nonanaldehyde emitted during cooking. The pastry shop showed the largest level of total CC among the studied areas followed by the circulation area, the boarding platform, and the open area.

  14. Probing the molecular forces involved in binding of selected volatile flavour compounds to salt-extracted pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Arntfield, Susan D

    2016-11-15

    Molecular interactions between heterologous classes of flavour compounds with salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs) were determined using various bond disrupting agents followed by GC/MS analysis. Flavour bound by proteins decreased in the order: dibutyl disulfide>octanal>hexyl acetate>2-octanone=benzaldehyde. Benzaldehyde, 2-octanone and hexyl acetate interacted non-covalently with PPIs, whereas octanal bound PPIs via covalent and non-covalent forces. Dibutyl disulfide reacted with PPIs covalently, as its retention was not diminished by urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Using propylene glycol, H-bonding and ionic interactions were implicated for hexyl acetate, benzaldehyde, and 2-octanone. A protein-destabilising salt (Cl3CCOONa) reduced bindings for 2-octanone, hexyl acetate, and benzaldehyde; however, retention for octanal and dibutyl disulfide increased. Conversely, a protein-stabilising salt (Na2SO4) enhanced retention for benzaldehyde, 2-octanone, hexyl acetate and octanal. Formation of a volatile flavour by-product, 1-butanethiol, from dibutyl disulfide when PPIs were treated with dithiothreitol indicated occurrence of sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of land-use change and management on biogenic volatile organic compound emissions--selecting climate-smart cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Maaria; Pugh, Thomas A M; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Arneth, Almut

    2015-09-01

    Land-use change (LUC) has fundamentally altered the form and function of the terrestrial biosphere. Increasing human population, the drive for higher living standards and the potential challenges of mitigating and adapting to global environmental change mean that further changes in LUC are unavoidable. LUC has direct consequences on climate not only via emissions of greenhouse gases and changing the surface energy balance but also by affecting the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprenoids, which dominate global BVOC emissions, are highly reactive and strongly modify atmospheric composition. The effects of LUC on BVOC emissions and related atmospheric chemistry have been largely ignored so far. However, compared with natural ecosystems, most tree species used in bioenergy plantations are strong BVOC emitters, whereas intensively cultivated crops typically emit less BVOCs. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on LUC-driven BVOC emissions and how these might affect atmospheric composition and climate. We further discuss land management and plant-breeding strategies, which could be taken to move towards climate-friendly BVOC emissions while simultaneously maintaining or improving key ecosystem functions such as crop yield under a changing environment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Extraordinary electromagnetic transmission by antenna arrays and frequency selective surfaces having compound unit cells with dissimilar elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loui, Hung; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2018-03-20

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to extraordinary electromagnetic transmission (EEMT) to enable multiple inefficient (un-matched) but coupled radiators and/or apertures to radiate and/or pass electromagnetic waves efficiently. EEMT can be utilized such that signal transmission from a plurality of antennas and/or apertures occurs at a transmission frequency different to transmission frequencies of the individual antennas and/or aperture elements. The plurality of antennas/apertures can comprise first antenna/aperture having a first radiating area and material(s) and second antenna/aperture having a second radiating area and material(s), whereby the first radiating/aperture area and second radiating/aperture area can be co-located in a periodic compound unit cell. Owing to mutual coupling between the respective antennas/apertures in their arrayed configuration, the transmission frequency of the array can be shifted from the transmission frequencies of the individual elements. EEMT can be utilized for an array of evanescent of inefficient radiators connected to a transmission line(s).

  17. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Nan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Compound K (CK, a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO4 without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C–50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1 → Rd → F2 → CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  18. Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting with a bioactive compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Kilsby, Samuel [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Goodridge, Ruth D., E-mail: Ruth.Goodridge@nottingham.ac.uk [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Christie, Steven D.R. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Steve [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hague, Richard J.M. [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of an implant with a biomolecule is used to improve its biocompatibility and to reduce post-implant complications. In this study, a novel approach has been used to functionalise phosphonic acid monolayers with a drug. Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) were functionalised with Paracetamol (a pharmaceutically relevant biomolecule) using phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The attachment, stability of the monolayers on the SLM fabricated surface and functionalisation of SAMs with Paracetamol were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface wettability measurements. The obtained results confirmed that SAMs were stable on the Ti6Al4V surface for over four weeks and then began to desorb from the surface. The reaction used to functionalise the phosphonic acid monolayers with Paracetamol was noted to be successful. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to immobilise drugs/proteins to SAM coated surfaces and improve their biocompatibility and reduce post-implant complications. - Graphical abstract: A significant change in the contact angle confirming the immobilisation of Paracetamol. (a) Before self-assembled monolayer (SAM) attachment, (b) after SAM attachment and (c) after the immobilisation of Paracetamol to the SAMs. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V parts were fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM). • Monolayers used to modify the SLM surface were stable for over 28 days (in-vitro). • Surface roughness did not have a significant impact on the monolayer stability. • Paracetamol was successfully immobilised to the adsorbed monolayers. • Caution required before selecting Paracetamol as a model drug.

  19. Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting with a bioactive compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Kilsby, Samuel; Goodridge, Ruth D.; Christie, Steven D.R.; Edmondson, Steve; Hague, Richard J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of an implant with a biomolecule is used to improve its biocompatibility and to reduce post-implant complications. In this study, a novel approach has been used to functionalise phosphonic acid monolayers with a drug. Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) were functionalised with Paracetamol (a pharmaceutically relevant biomolecule) using phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The attachment, stability of the monolayers on the SLM fabricated surface and functionalisation of SAMs with Paracetamol were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface wettability measurements. The obtained results confirmed that SAMs were stable on the Ti6Al4V surface for over four weeks and then began to desorb from the surface. The reaction used to functionalise the phosphonic acid monolayers with Paracetamol was noted to be successful. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to immobilise drugs/proteins to SAM coated surfaces and improve their biocompatibility and reduce post-implant complications. - Graphical abstract: A significant change in the contact angle confirming the immobilisation of Paracetamol. (a) Before self-assembled monolayer (SAM) attachment, (b) after SAM attachment and (c) after the immobilisation of Paracetamol to the SAMs. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V parts were fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM). • Monolayers used to modify the SLM surface were stable for over 28 days (in-vitro). • Surface roughness did not have a significant impact on the monolayer stability. • Paracetamol was successfully immobilised to the adsorbed monolayers. • Caution required before selecting Paracetamol as a model drug

  20. Optimization of the Analytical Method Using HPLC with Fluorescence Detection to Determine Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Clean Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    A study on the comparison and evaluation of 3 miniaturized extraction methods for the determination of selected PACs in clear waters is presented. Three types of liquid-liquid extraction were used for chromatographic analysis by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The main objective was the optimization and development of simple, rapid and low cost methods, minimizing the use of extracting solvent volume. The work also includes a study on the scope of the methods developed at low and high levels of concentration and intermediate precision. (Author)

  1. The determination of small amounts of fluoride in uranium compounds by use of an ion-selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of fluoride in uranium metal and oxide at levels from 16 p.p.m. upwards. Uranium is separated from fluoride by extraction into a solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in carbon tetrachloride. The fluoride remaining in the aqueous phase is determined by potentiometric measurement with an ion-selective electrode. A correction is made for the fluoride lost during the dissolution or extraction step, or both, which is based on a determination of the apparent loss of fluoride on spiked samples that are taken through the whole procedure [af

  2. A Comparative Discussion of the Catalytic Activity and CO2-Selectivity of Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr (Intermetallic Compounds in Methanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Köpfle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The activation and catalytic performance of two representative Zr-containing intermetallic systems, namely Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr, have been comparatively studied operando using methanol steam reforming (MSR as test reaction. Using an inverse surface science and bulk model catalyst approach, we monitored the transition of the initial metal/intermetallic compound structures into the eventual active and CO2-selective states upon contact to the methanol steam reforming mixture. For Cu-Zr, selected nominal stoichiometries ranging from Cu:Zr = 9:2 over 2:1 to 1:2 have been prepared by mixing the respective amounts of metallic Cu and Zr to yield different Cu-Zr bulk phases as initial catalyst structures. In addition, the methanol steam reforming performance of two Pd-Zr systems, that is, a bulk system with a nominal Pd:Zr = 2:1 stoichiometry and an inverse model system consisting of CVD-grown ZrOxHy layers on a polycrystalline Pd foil, has been comparatively assessed. While the CO2-selectivity and the overall catalytic performance of the Cu-Zr system is promising due to operando formation of a catalytically beneficial Cu-ZrO2 interface, the case for Pd-Zr is different. For both Pd-Zr systems, the low-temperature coking tendency, the high water-activation temperature and the CO2-selectivity spoiling inverse WGS reaction limit the use of the Pd-Zr systems for selective MSR applications, although alloying of Pd with Zr opens water activation channels to increase the CO2 selectivity.

  3. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal care and domestic use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and propellants; and (13) solvents. Source and finished water samples were collected during phase 2 and analyzed for constituents that were detected frequently during phase 1. This report presents concentration data for AOCs in ground water, surface water, and finished water of CWSs sampled for SWQA studies during 2002-05. Specifically, this report presents the analytical results of samples collected during phase 1 including (1) samples from 221 wells that were analyzed for 258 AOCs; (2) monthly samples from 9 surface-water sites that were analyzed for 258 AOCs during phase 1; and (3) samples from a subset of the wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production that were analyzed for 3 additional pesticides and 16 pesticide degradates. Samples collected during phase 2 were analyzed for selected AOCs that were detected most frequently in source water during phase 1 sampling; analytical results for phase 2 are presented for (1) samples of source water and finished water from 94 wells; and (2) samples of source water and finished water samples that were collected monthly and during selected flow conditions at 8 surface-water sites. Results of quality-assurance/quality-control samples collected for SWQA studies during 2002-05 also are presented.

  4. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  5. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  6. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  7. A new ion selective electrode for cesium (I) based on calix[4]arene-crown-6 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P S; Kumar, Abha Naveen; Sayi, Y S; Ramakumar, K L; Nayak, S K; Chattopadhyay, S

    2012-02-29

    A polyvinylchloride (PVC) based liquid membrane ion selective electrode (ISE) for cesium has been developed. 25,27-Dihydroxycalix[4]arene-crown-6 (L1), 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-dimethoxycalix[4]arene-crown-6 (L2) and 25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 (L3) were investigated for their use as ionophores. The cation exchange resin DOWEX-50W was used to maintain low activity Cs+ in inner filling solution to improve the performance. The best response for cesium was observed with L3 along with optimized membrane constituents and composition. Excellent Nernstian response (56.6 mV/decade of Cs(I)) over the concentration range 10(-7) to 10(-2)M of Cs(I) was obtained with a fast response time of less than 10s. Detection limit for Cs(I) using the present ISE is 8.48×10(-8) M Cs(I). Separate solution method (SSM) was applied to ascertain the selectivity for Cs(I) over alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. The response of ISE for Cs(I) was fairly constant over the pH range of 4-11. The lifetime of the electrode is 10 months which is the highest life for any membrane based Cs-ISE so far developed. The concentration of cesium ion in two simulated high level active waste streams was determined and results agreed well with those obtained independently employing AAS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fast GC-analysis of selected organic compounds at trace levels with the novel RAPID-MS/MS-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poell, S.

    2002-03-01

    The main topic of the present thesis was the development of rapid analytical procedures for the environmental analysis of a steel producing company, to speed up the sample throughput for the daily routine work. Additionally, high precision of analysis results was requested. This brought a certain effort concerning the validation of the results which was supported by the analysis of certified reference materials. Special interest was laid on the optimization of the trace analysis of dioxins and furans (PCDD/DF). An expansion of the established methods with powerful techniques like single ion storage and tandem-mass spectrometry resulted in an obvious improvement of the limits of quantitation and the reliability of analysis. Further advances could be achieved with the simplification of the clean-up procedure by the application of a new sampling technique which reduced the demand on sample preparation time as well. Analysis were also carried out with brominated Dioxins and Furans (PBrDD/DF). The next item focused on the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the implementation of five new representatives with a highly carcinogenic potential. In this case, the coupling of three detectors resulted in a robust and precise HPLC-method with a highly qualitative and quantitative analytical reliability. Furthermore, the aim was to promote the routine analysis of alkylated aromatics (BTEX) and halogenated volatile organic (VOC) compounds. By the use of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection a common analytical technique for both classes of substances could be found with an enhancement of sensitivity due to application of the single ion storage technique. The existing method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was improved by replacing the electron capture detector with mass spectrometry. Due to an optimization of the single ion storage and tandem mass spectrometry parameters the requested demands on low detection

  9. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric characterization of dromostanolone metabolites in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Wook; Choi, Man Ho; Jung, Byung Hwa; Chung, Bong Chul

    1998-01-01

    The metabolism of dromostanolone (2α-methyl-5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one) was studied in three adult volunteers after oral dose of 20 mg. Solvent extracts of urine obtained after enzyme hydrolysis were derivatized with MSTFA/TMCS and MSTFA/TMIS. The structures of intact drug and its metabolites were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in electron impact (EI) mode. The major metabolite (2α-methyl-5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one), its 3β-epimer, parent compound, and several hydroxylated metabolites including intact drug were detected by comparing total ion chromatograms of control urine with that of the administered sample. Two epimers of 2α-methyl-5α-androstan-3, 17β-diol were detected using selected ion monitoring. The maximum excretion of dromostanolone and 2α-methyl-5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one was reached in 6.2-15 hr. The half-life of intact dromostanolone was 5.3 hr. About 3.0% of the administered amount was found to be excreted within 95 hr as unchanged form

  10. Functionalisation of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting with a bioactive compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Kilsby, Samuel; Goodridge, Ruth D; Christie, Steven D R; Edmondson, Steve; Hague, Richard J M

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of an implant with a biomolecule is used to improve its biocompatibility and to reduce post-implant complications. In this study, a novel approach has been used to functionalise phosphonic acid monolayers with a drug. Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) were functionalised with Paracetamol (a pharmaceutically relevant biomolecule) using phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The attachment, stability of the monolayers on the SLM fabricated surface and functionalisation of SAMs with Paracetamol were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface wettability measurements. The obtained results confirmed that SAMs were stable on the Ti6Al4V surface for over four weeks and then began to desorb from the surface. The reaction used to functionalise the phosphonic acid monolayers with Paracetamol was noted to be successful. Thus, the proposed method has the potential to immobilise drugs/proteins to SAM coated surfaces and improve their biocompatibility and reduce post-implant complications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  12. Effects of a newly developed potent orexin-2 receptor-selective antagonist Compound1m on sleep/wake states in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi eEtori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orexins (also known as hypocretins, which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, orexin 1 (OX1R and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R. In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA, and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m, and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light period, C1m did not show a significant change in sleep/wakefulness states in the light period, whereas suvorexant slightly but significantly increased the sleep time. We also found that C1m did not affect the time of REM sleep, while suvorexant markedly increased it. This suggests that although OX1R-mediated pathway plays a pivotal role in promoting wakefulness, OX1R-mediated pathway also plays an additional role. OX1R-mediated pathway also plays a role in suppression of REM sleep. Fos-immunostaining showed that both compounds affected the activity of arousal-related neurons with different patterns. These results suggest partly overlapping and partly distinct roles of orexin receptors in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states.

  13. Short- and long-term temporal changes in soil concentrations of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) following single or multiple applications of sewage sludge to pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhind, S.M.; Kyle, C.E.; Ruffie, H.; Calmettes, E.; Osprey, M.; Zhang, Z.L.; Hamilton, D.; McKenzie, C.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal changes in soil burdens of selected endocrine disrupting compounds were determined following application to pasture of either sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizer. Soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were not altered. Changes in concentrations of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and PBDEs 47 and 99 differed with season but concentrations remained elevated for more than three weeks after application, when grazing animals are normally excluded from pasture. It is concluded that single applications of sewage sludge can increase soil concentrations of some, but not all classes of EDCs, possibly to concentrations sufficient to exert biological effects when different chemicals act in combination, but patterns of change depend on season and soil temperature. Analysis of soil from pasture subjected to repeated sludge applications, over 13 years, provided preliminary evidence of greater increases in soil burdens of all of the EDC groups measured, including all of the PBDE congeners measured. -- Highlights: •Sewage sludge or inorganic fertilizer was applied to pasture. •Soil PAH and PCB concentrations were not altered by sludge treatment. •Temporal changes in soil phthalate and PBDE differed with season. •Some soil EDC levels were elevated for more than three weeks after application. -- Effects of sewage sludge application to pastures on temporal changes in soil concentrations of endocrine disrupting compounds differ with chemical class and season

  14. Effect of fluorescent light on selected antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity during storage of fresh-cut carambola (averrhoa carambola l.) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin, M.A.M.; Dek, M.S.P.; Anwar, F.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fluorescent light on the availability of selected antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity during storage of fresh-cut carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit were investigated. The samples of fresh-cut fruit, stored at 5 +- 1 deg. C, were exposed to fluorescent light (157 Lux) for 12 days. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and ascorbic acid (AA) content of the processed fruit were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Antioxidant activity of the fruit was assessed following 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results of the present study showed that light exposure did not exert any significant effect, while storage period significantly reduced the AA content of the fruits tested. On the other hand, with few exceptions, there were notable random changes, recorded in the TPC and antioxidant activity of the fruit as function of storage period and light exposure. (author)

  15. Robust and Selective Switching of an FeIII Spin-Crossover Compound on Cu2N/Cu(100) with Memristance Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper-Toennies, Torben; Gruber, Manuel; Karan, Sujoy; Jacob, Hanne; Tuczek, Felix; Berndt, Richard

    2017-11-08

    The switching between two spin states makes spin-crossover molecules on surfaces very attractive for potential applications in molecular spintronics. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the successful deposition of [Fe(pap) 2 ] + (pap = N-2-pyridylmethylidene-2-hydroxyphenylaminato) molecules on Cu 2 N/Cu(100) surface is evidenced. The deposited Fe III spin-crossover compound is controllably switched between three different states, each of them exhibiting a characteristic tunneling conductance. The conductance is therefore employed to readily read the state of the molecules. A comparison of the experimental data with the results of density functional theory calculations reveals that all Fe(pap) 2 molecules are initially in their high-spin state. The two other states are compatible with the low-spin state of the molecule but differ with respect to their coupling to the substrate. As a proof of concept, the reversible and selective nature of the switching is used to build a two-molecule memory.

  16. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  18. Determination of americium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.; Mikhajlova, O.A.; Popov, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the determination of americium 241 in urine by a raiochemical purification of the nuclide from uranium (upon co-precipitation of americium 241 with calcium and lanthanum), plutonium, thorum, and polonium 210 (upon co-precipitation of these radionuclides with zirconium iodate). α-Radioactivity was measured either in a thick layer of the americium 241 precipitate with a nonisotope carrier or in thin-layer preparations after electrolytic precipitation of americium 241 on a cathode

  19. Development and optimization of a cell-based assay for the selection of synthetic compounds that potentiate bone morphogenetic protein-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Motohiro; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Liu, Yunshan; Yoshida, Munehito; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2009-12-01

    reliability of our cell-based assay. Direct delivery of synthesized protein can be limited by high cost, instability or inadequate post-translational modifications. Thus, there would be a clear benefit for a low cost, cell penetrable chemical compound. We successfully used our gene expression-based assay to choose an active compound from a select group of compounds that were identified by computational screenings as the most likely candidates for mimicking the function of LMP-1. Among them, we selected SVAK-3, a compound that showed a dose-dependent potentiation of BMP-2 activity in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of C2C12 cells. We show that either the full length LMP-1 protein or its potential mimetic compound consistently exhibit similar potentiation of BMP-2 activity even when multiple markers of the osteoblastic phenotype were parallely monitored.

  20. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  1. Rapid determination of anti-estrogens by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in urine: Method validation and application to real samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gerace

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A fast screening protocol was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine anti-estrogenic agents (aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, clomiphene, drostanolone, formestane, letrozole, mesterolone, tamoxifen, testolactone plus five of their metabolites in human urine. After an enzymatic hydrolysis, these compounds can be extracted simultaneously from urine with a simple liquid–liquid extraction at alkaline conditions. The analytes were subsequently analyzed by fast-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (fast-GC/MS after derivatization. The use of a short column, high-flow carrier gas velocity and fast temperature ramping produced an efficient separation of all analytes in about 4 min, allowing a processing rate of 10 samples/h. The present analytical method was validated according to UNI EN ISO/IEC 17025 guidelines for qualitative methods. The range of investigated parameters included the limit of detection, selectivity, linearity, repeatability, robustness and extraction efficiency. High MS-sampling rate, using a benchtop quadrupole mass analyzer, resulted in accurate peak shape definition under both scan and selected ion monitoring modes, and high sensitivity in the latter mode. Therefore, the performances of the method are comparable to the ones obtainable from traditional GC/MS analysis. The method was successfully tested on real samples arising from clinical treatments of hospitalized patients and could profitably be used for clinical studies on anti-estrogenic drug administration. Keywords: Anti-estrogens, Fast-GC/MS, Urine screening, Validation, Breast cancer

  2. Comparison of core-shell and totally porous ultra high performance liquid chromatographic stationary phases based on their selectivity towards alfuzosin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulfer, Jarosław; Plenis, Alina; Bączek, Tomasz

    2014-06-13

    This paper focuses on the application of a column classification system based on the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven for the characterization of physicochemical properties of core-shell and ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic stationary phases, followed by the verification of the reliability of the obtained column classification in pharmaceutical practice. In the study, 7 stationary phases produced in core-shell technology and 18 ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic columns were chromatographically tested, and ranking lists were built on the FKUL-values calculated against two selected reference columns. In the column performance test, an analysis of alfuzosin in the presence of related substances was carried out using the brands of the stationary phases with the highest ranking positions. Next, a system suitability test as described by the European Pharmacopoeia monograph was performed. Moreover, a study was also performed to achieve a purposeful shortening of the analysis time of the compounds of interest using the selected stationary phases. Finally, it was checked whether methods using core-shell and ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic columns can be an interesting alternative to the high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of alfuzosin in pharmaceutical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of a new magnetic-MIP for the selective detection of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a highly allergenic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Rosario Josefina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Physical Chemistry Research, Faculty of Science, National University of Engineering, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Rimac, Lima (Peru); Wong, Ademar; Khan, Sabir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Pividori, Maria I. [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Picasso, Gino, E-mail: gpicasso@uni.edu.pe [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry Research, Faculty of Science, National University of Engineering, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Rimac, Lima (Peru); Sotomayor, Maria D.P.T., E-mail: mpilar@iq.unesp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in combination with magnetic nanoparticles, in a core@shell format, were studied for selective detection of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), a powerful allergenic substance. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and mixed with oleic acid (OA). This material was then encapsulated in three types of hydrophobic polymeric matrix, poly-(MA-co-EDGMA), poly-(AA-co-EDGMA), and poly-(1-VN-co-EDGMA), by the mini-emulsion method. These matrices were used due to their ability to interact specifically with the functional groups of the analyte. Finally, the MIP-CDNB was obtained on the magnetic-hydrophobic surfaces using precipitation polymerization in the presence of the analyte. XRD diffraction patterns suggested the presence of magnetite in the composite and SEM analysis revealed a nanoparticle size between 10 and 18 nm. Under the optimized adsorption conditions, the magnetic-MIP material showed a higher adsorption capacity (5.1 mg g{sup −1}) than its non-magnetic counterpart (4.2 mg g{sup −1}). In tests of the selectivity of the magnetic-MIP towards CDNB, α-values of 2.5 and 10.4, respectively, were obtained for dichlorophenol and o-nitrophenol, two structurally similar compounds, and no adsorption was observed for any other non-analogous analyte. The magnetic-MIP and magnetic-NIP were applied using water enriched with 0.5 mg L{sup −1} of CDNB, achieving recovery values of 83.8(± 0.8)% and 66(± 1)%, respectively, revealing the suitability of the material for detection of CDNB. - Highlights: • Novel engineered magnetic nanoparticles selective for allergenic CDBN with potential environmental impact • Morphological and molecular recognition properties of imprinted materials • Direct magnetic separation, removal efficiency, and active remediation of real samples.

  4. Synthesis of a new magnetic-MIP for the selective detection of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a highly allergenic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Rosario Josefina; Wong, Ademar; Khan, Sabir; Pividori, Maria I.; Picasso, Gino; Sotomayor, Maria D.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in combination with magnetic nanoparticles, in a core@shell format, were studied for selective detection of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), a powerful allergenic substance. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and mixed with oleic acid (OA). This material was then encapsulated in three types of hydrophobic polymeric matrix, poly-(MA-co-EDGMA), poly-(AA-co-EDGMA), and poly-(1-VN-co-EDGMA), by the mini-emulsion method. These matrices were used due to their ability to interact specifically with the functional groups of the analyte. Finally, the MIP-CDNB was obtained on the magnetic-hydrophobic surfaces using precipitation polymerization in the presence of the analyte. XRD diffraction patterns suggested the presence of magnetite in the composite and SEM analysis revealed a nanoparticle size between 10 and 18 nm. Under the optimized adsorption conditions, the magnetic-MIP material showed a higher adsorption capacity (5.1 mg g −1 ) than its non-magnetic counterpart (4.2 mg g −1 ). In tests of the selectivity of the magnetic-MIP towards CDNB, α-values of 2.5 and 10.4, respectively, were obtained for dichlorophenol and o-nitrophenol, two structurally similar compounds, and no adsorption was observed for any other non-analogous analyte. The magnetic-MIP and magnetic-NIP were applied using water enriched with 0.5 mg L −1 of CDNB, achieving recovery values of 83.8(± 0.8)% and 66(± 1)%, respectively, revealing the suitability of the material for detection of CDNB. - Highlights: • Novel engineered magnetic nanoparticles selective for allergenic CDBN with potential environmental impact • Morphological and molecular recognition properties of imprinted materials • Direct magnetic separation, removal efficiency, and active remediation of real samples

  5. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  8. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  9. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  10. Study of nominal daily output of urine from workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marina F.; Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Todo, Alberto S.

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study of the 24-hour urine volumes from workers selected for the internal individual monitoring compares the average volume collected by sample and the average volume per individual with the nominal daily output of urine from 'Reference Man'. This work considers 134 registers of urine samples from 18 male workers, with semester routine sampling, between the years of 2000 and 2005. For this group, the average volume per collection was (971±371)mL and (962±376)mL per individual. In a cohort group of 9 male workers, which supplied at least 10 samples in this period, it was observed that the average volume per collection decreased to (955±308)mL and the average volume per individual increased to (1027±400)mL. For the female group, composed by 11 individuals, the 29 urine samples supplied between 1999 and 2005 were considered. The average volume per sampling and for worker was, respectively, (1122±337)mL and (1105±337)mL. Another cohort group of only 4 female workers with at least one annual collection during five years, of the seven years considered, the values decreased to (1112±336)mL per collection and the average volume per individual was maintained. The major variability of the volume among all the individuals was 927%, and for the same individual was 562%. This difference can be indicative of the individual differences of retention and excretion, alimentary diet interferences and for lack of awareness by the individual to collect urine during a period of 24-hour. The radionuclides clearance does not occur in constant rates and for the purpose of assessing intakes, in our routine analysis, the total volume of urine from worker is corrected for 1,4 L. Based in the results obtained over the years, and to minimize the errors of the nominal daily excretion rate in urine, actions about the aware of the individual in carrying out an accurately sampling and/or the implementation of the measurements of creatinine levels in urine are suggested

  11. Inhibitory activities of selected Sudanese medicinal plants on Porphyromonas gingivalis and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and isolation of bioactive compounds from Combretum hartmannianum (Schweinf) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohieldin, Ebtihal Abdalla M; Muddathir, Ali Mahmoud; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2017-04-20

    Periodontal diseases are one of the major health problems and among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium which has been strongly implicated in the etiology of periodontitis. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) is an important factor contributing to periodontal tissue destruction by a variety of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selected Sudanese medicinal plants against P. gingivalis bacteria and their inhibitory activities on MMP-9. Sixty two methanolic and 50% ethanolic extracts from 24 plants species were tested for antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis using microplate dilution assay method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The inhibitory activity of seven methanol extracts selected from the 62 extracts against MMP-9 was determined by Colorimetric Drug Discovery Kit. In search of bioactive lead compounds, Combretum hartmannianum bark which was found to be within the most active plant extracts was subjected to various chromatographic (medium pressure liquid chromatography, column chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20, preparative high performance liquid chromatography) and spectroscopic methods (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)) to isolate and characterize flavogalonic acid dilactone and terchebulin as bioactive compounds. About 80% of the crude extracts provided a MIC value ≤4 mg/ml against bacteria. The extracts which revealed the highest potency were: methanolic extracts of Terminalia laxiflora (wood; MIC = 0.25 mg/ml) followed by Acacia totrtilis (bark), Ambrosia maritima (aerial part), Argemone mexicana (seed), C. hartmannianum (bark), Terminalia brownii (wood) and 50% ethanolic extract of T. brownii (bark) with MIC values of 0.5 mg/ml. T. laxiflora (wood) and C. hartmannianum (bark) which belong to combretaceae family showed an inhibitory activity over 50% at

  12. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  13. Metabolites of cannabidiol identified in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D J; Mechoulam, R

    1990-03-01

    1. Urine from a dystonic patient treated with cannabidiol (CBD) was examined by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry for CBD metabolites. Metabolites were identified as their trimethylsilyl (TMS), [2H9]TMS, and methyl ester/TMS derivatives and as the TMS derivatives of the product of lithium aluminium deuteride reduction. 2. Thirty-three metabolites were identified in addition to unmetabolized CBD, and a further four metabolites were partially characterized. 3. The major metabolic route was hydroxylation and oxidation at C-7 followed by further hydroxylation in the pentyl and propenyl groups to give 1"-, 2"-, 3"-, 4"- and 10-hydroxy derivatives of CBD-7-oic acid. Other metabolites, mainly acids, were formed by beta-oxidation and related biotransformations from the pentyl side-chain and these were also hydroxylated at C-6 or C-7. The major oxidized metabolite was CBD-7-oic acid containing a hydroxyethyl side-chain. 4. Two 8,9-dihydroxy compounds, presumably derived from the corresponding epoxide were identified. 5. Also present were several cyclized cannabinoids including delta-6- and delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. 6. This is the first metabolic study of CBD in humans; most observed metabolic routes were typical of those found for CBD and related cannabinoids in other species.

  14. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosowicz, J.; Gembicki, M.; Schneider, E.; Eder, M.

    1977-01-01

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T 3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T 3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T 3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T 3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T 3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  16. Isolation of glycine betaine and proline betaine from human urine. Assessment of their role as osmoprotective agents for bacteria and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, S T; Kunin, C M

    1987-01-01

    Human urine is osmoprotective for enteric bacteria, permitting E. coli to grow with high concentrations of NaCl and other salts and even higher concentrations of sucrose and mannitol but not urea. The active material in urine is soluble in methanol and is precipitated by ammonium reineckate at acid pH. Using gel filtration and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we have identified two major osmoprotective compounds in urine. One is glycine betaine; the other is proline betaine as demonstrate...

  17. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  18. Occurrence investigation of perfluorinated compounds in surface water from East Lake (Wuhan, China) upon rapid and selective magnetic solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yusun; Tao, Yun; Li, Huarong; Zhou, Tingting; Jing, Tao; Zhou, Yikai; Mei, Surong

    2016-12-01

    Using a novel magnetic nanocomposite as adsorbent, a convenient and effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure was established for selective separation and concentration of nine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in surface water sample. Then an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) system was employed for detection of PFCs. Good linearity of the developed analytical method was in the range of 0.5-100 ng L-1 with R2 > 0.9917, and the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.029 to 0.099 ng L-1. At three fortified concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 ng L-1, the spiked recoveries of PFCs were in the range of 90.05-106.67% with RSDs < 12.62% (n = 3). The proposed analytical method was applied for determination of PFCs in surface water from East Lake (Wuhan, China). The total concentrations of nine PFCs ranged from 30.12 to 125.35 ng L-1, with perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluoroctanoic acid as the most prevalent PFCs, and the greatest concentrations of PFCs were observed in Niuchao lakelet. The concentrations of the PFCs (C ≥ 11) were mostly less than the limits of quantification (LOQs), attributed to the possibility that the more hydrophobic long-chain PFCs are potential to accumulate in sediment and aquatic biota.

  19. β-Caryophyllene, a Compound Isolated from the Biblical Balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis, Is a Selective Apoptosis Inducer for Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Amiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biblical balm of Gilead (Commiphora gileadensis was investigated in this study for anticancerous activity against tumor cell lines. The results obtained from ethanol-based extracts and from essential oils indicated that β-caryophyllene (trans-(1R,9S-8-methylene-4,11,11-trimethylbicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene is a key component in essential oils extracted from the balm of Gilead. β-Caryophyllene can be found in spice blends, citrus flavors, soaps, detergents, creams, and lotions, as well as in a variety of food and beverage products, and it is known for its anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, and antifungal properties. It is also a potent cytotoxic compound over a wide range of cell lines. In the current paper, we found that Commiphora gileadensis stem extracts and essential oil have an antiproliferative proapoptotic effect against tumor cells and not against normal cells. β-caryophyllene caused a potent induction of apoptosis accompanied by DNA ladder and caspase-3 catalytic activity in tumor cell lines. In summary, we showed that C. gileadensis stems contain an apoptosis inducer that acts, in a selective manner, against tumor cell lines and not against normal cells.

  20. The Urine Marker Test: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Urine Collection for Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylansted; Elsborg, Peter; Wetzke, Monika; Woldemariam, Getachew A; Huppertz, Bernd; Keller, Ruprecht; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance of this new method via two questionnaires (n = 253). Furthermore, a third study (n = 91) investigated whether ingestion of the marker can identify the urine as coming from a specific person and whether the marker interferes with the detection of prohibited substances. The results indicate that this new method finds wide acceptance both from athletes who have only heard about the procedure and those who have actually tested the new method. Furthermore, the marker, which can identify urine as coming from a specific person, does not interfere with the detection of prohibited substances.

  1. Qualitative profiling and quantification of neonicotinoid metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Taira

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid pesticides have been widely applied for the production of fruits and vegetables, and occasionally detected in conventionally grown produce. Thus oral exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides may exist in the general population; however, neonicotinoid metabolites in human body fluids have not been investigated comprehensively. The purpose of this study is the qualitative profiling and quantitative analysis of neonicotinoid metabolites in the human spot urine by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. Human urine samples were collected from three patients suspected of subacute exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides. A qualitative profiling of urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS with a database of nominal molecular weights of 57 known metabolites of three neonicotinoid pesticides (acetamiprid, Imidacloprid, and clothianidin, as well as the parent compounds. Then a quantitative analysis of selected urinary metabolites was performed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS with a standard pesticide and metabolite, which were detected by the qualitative profiling. The result of qualitative profiling showed that seven metabolites, i.e. an acetamiprid metabolite, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid; three Imidacloprid metabolites, 5-hydroxy-Imidacloprid, 4,5-dihydroxy-imidacloprid, 4,5-dehydro-Imidacloprid; a common metabolite of acetamiprid and Imidacloprid, N-(6-chloronicotinoyl-glycine; and two clothianidin metabolites, N-desmethyl-clothianidin, N-(2-(methylsulfanylthiazole-5-carboxyl-glycine, as well as acetamiprid, were detected in the urine of three cases. The result of the quantitative analysis showed N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was determined in the urine of one case, which had been collected on the first visit, at a concentration of 3.2 ng/mL. This is the first report on the qualitative and quantitative detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in

  2. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of phenylbutyrate, phenylacetate benzoate and their corresponding metabolites phenylacetylglutamine and hippurate in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea, Maurice D; Herebian, Diran; Meissner, Thomas; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2010-12-01

    Inborn errors of urea metabolism result in hyperammonemia. Treatment of urea cycle disorders can effectively lower plasma ammonium levels and results in survival in the majority of patients. Available medications for treating urea cycle disorders include sodium benzoate (BA), sodium phenylacetate (PAA), and sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) and are given to provide alternate routes for disposition of waste nitrogen excretion. In this study, we develop and validate a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippuric acid in plasma and urine from children with inborn errors of urea synthesis. Plasma extracts and diluted urine samples were injected on a reverse-phase column and identified and quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in negative ion mode. Deuterated analogues served as internal standards. Analysis time was 7 min. Assay precision, accuracy, and linearity and sample stability were determined using enriched samples. Quantification limits of the method were 100 ng/ml (0.3-0.8 μmol/L) for all analytes, and recoveries were >90%. Inter- and intraday relative standard deviations were <10%. Our newly developed LC-MS/MS represents a robust, sensitive, and rapid method that allows simultaneous determination of the five compounds in plasma and urine.

  3. Role of Urine Drug Testing in the Current Opioid Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Gagan

    2017-12-01

    While the evidence for urine drug testing for patients on chronic opioid therapy is weak, the guidelines created by numerous medical societies and state and federal regulatory agencies recommend that it be included as one of the tools used to monitor patients for compliance with chronic opioid therapy. To get the most comprehensive results, clinicians should order both an immunoassay screen and confirmatory urine drug test. The immunoassay screen, which can be performed as an in-office point-of-care test or as a laboratory-based test, is a cheap and convenient study to order. Limitations of an immunoassay screen, however, include having a high threshold of detectability and only providing qualitative information about a select number of drug classes. Because of these restrictions, clinicians should understand that immunoassay screens have high false-positive and false-negative rates. Despite these limitations, though, the results can assist the clinician with making preliminary treatment decisions. In comparison, a confirmatory urine drug test, which can only be performed as a laboratory-based test, has a lower threshold of detectability and provides both qualitative and quantitative information. A urine drug test's greater degree of specificity allows for a relatively low false-negative and false-positive rate in contrast to an immunoassay screen. Like any other diagnostic test, an immunoassay screen and a confirmatory urine drug test both possess limitations. Clinicians must keep this in mind when interpreting an unexpected test result and consult with their laboratory when in doubt about the meaning of the test result to avoid making erroneous decisions that negatively impact both the patient and clinician.

  4. Selective hydrogenolysis of Α–O–4, Β–O–4, 4–O–5 C–O bonds of lignin-model compounds and lignin-containing stillage derived from cellulosic bioethanol processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Monedero, B.; Ruiz, M. P.; Bimbela, F.; Faria, J.

    2017-01-01

    Benzyl phenyl ether (BPE), phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) and diphenyl ether (DPE) have been selected as model compounds of the most abundant and significant ether linkages found within the complex structure of lignin (e.g. α–O–4, β–O–4, and 4–O–5, respectively). The catalytic hydrogenolysis of these

  5. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It ...

  6. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  7. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test ( ...

  8. The determination of 210Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  9. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español ...

  10. Iron(III-salophene: an organometallic compound with selective cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo S Lange

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this pioneer study to the biological activity of organometallic compound Iron(III-salophene (Fe-SP the specific effects of Fe-SP on viability, morphology, proliferation, and cell-cycle progression on platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines were investigated.Fe-SP displayed selective cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 (ovarian epithelial adenocarcinoma cell lines at concentrations between 100 nM and 1 microM, while the viability of HeLa cells (epithelial cervix adenocarcinoma or primary lung or skin fibroblasts was not affected. SKOV-3 cells in contrast to fibroblasts after treatment with Fe-SP revealed apparent hallmarks of apoptosis including densely stained nuclear granular bodies within fragmented nuclei, highly condensed chromatin and chromatin fragmentation. Fe-SP treatment led to the activation of markers of the extrinsic (Caspase-8 and intrinsic (Caspase-9 pathway of apoptosis as well as of executioner Caspase-3 while PARP-1 was deactivated. Fe-SP exerted effects as an anti-proliferative agent with an IC(50 value of 300 nM and caused delayed progression of cells through S-phase phase of the cell cycle resulting in a complete S-phase arrest. When intra-peritoneally applied to rats Fe-SP did not show any systemic toxicity at concentrations that in preliminary trials were determined to be chemotherapeutic relevant doses in a rat ovarian cancer cell model.The present report suggests that Fe-SP is a potent growth-suppressing agent in vitro for cell lines derived from ovarian cancer and a potential therapeutic drug to treat such tumors in vivo.

  11. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of factors affecting volatile compound formation in roasted pumpkin seeds with selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, T; Barringer, S

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo and maxima) seeds are uniquely flavored and commonly consumed as a healthy roasted snack. The objective was to determine dominant volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds, and the effect of seed coat, moisture content, fatty acid ratio, total lipids, reducing sugars, and harvest year on volatile formation. Sensory was conducted to evaluate overall liking of seed variety and texture. Seed processing included extraction from the fruit, dehydration, and roasting (150 °C). Oil extraction was done using soxhlet, fatty acid profile using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector, and reducing sugars using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and UV-spectroscopy. Headspace analysis of seeds was performed by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Volatiles dominating in raw pumpkin seeds were lipid aldehydes, ethyl acetate, 2,3-butandione, and dimethylsulfide. Compounds contributing to roasted aroma include alkylpyrazines and Strecker and lipid aldehydes. Overall, hull-less seeds had higher volatile lipid aldehydes and Strecker aldehydes. Seeds dehydrated to a moisture content of 6.5% before roasting had higher initial and final volatile concentrations than seeds starting at 50% moisture. Higher oil content resulted in higher lipid aldehyde formation during roasting with a moderate correlation between free fatty acid ratio and corresponding lipid aldehyde. Harvest year (2009 compared with 2010) had a significant impact on volatile formation in hull-less seeds, but not as much as variety differences. No significant correlation was found between reducing sugars and volatile formation. Sensory showed that hull-less seeds were liked significantly more than hulled seeds. Elucidation of aromatic flavor development during roasting with SIFT-MS provides information on flavor release and offers better control during processing. Knowledge of volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds and effects of seed coat, moisture content, seed composition, and

  14. A compound structure of ELM based on feature selection and parameter optimization using hybrid backtracking search algorithm for wind speed forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Li, Chaoshun; Fu, Wenlong; Peng, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid approach is proposed for wind speed forecasting. • The variational mode decomposition (VMD) is optimized to decompose the original wind speed series. • The input matrix and parameters of ELM are optimized simultaneously by using a hybrid BSA. • Results show that OVMD-HBSA-ELM achieves better performance in terms of prediction accuracy. - Abstract: Reliable wind speed forecasting is essential for wind power integration in wind power generation system. The purpose of paper is to develop a novel hybrid model for short-term wind speed forecasting and demonstrates its efficiency. In the proposed model, a compound structure of extreme learning machine (ELM) based on feature selection and parameter optimization using hybrid backtracking search algorithm (HBSA) is employed as the predictor. The real-valued BSA (RBSA) is exploited to search for the optimal combination of weights and bias of ELM while the binary-valued BSA (BBSA) is exploited as a feature selection method applying on the candidate inputs predefined by partial autocorrelation function (PACF) values to reconstruct the input-matrix. Due to the volatility and randomness of wind speed signal, an optimized variational mode decomposition (OVMD) is employed to eliminate the redundant noises. The parameters of the proposed OVMD are determined according to the center frequencies of the decomposed modes and the residual evaluation index (REI). The wind speed signal is decomposed into a few modes via OVMD. The aggregation of the forecasting results of these modes constructs the final forecasting result of the proposed model. The proposed hybrid model has been applied on the mean half-hour wind speed observation data from two wind farms in Inner Mongolia, China and 10-min wind speed data from the Sotavento Galicia wind farm are studied as an additional case. Parallel experiments have been designed to compare with the proposed model. Results obtained from this study indicate that the

  15. Validation of a multi-analyte HPLC-DAD method for determination of uric acid, creatinine, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and 2-methylhippuric acid in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, Daniela; Grunwald, Soeren; Hoeke, Henrike; Mueller, Andrea; Roeder, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-15

    During the last decades exposure sciences and epidemiological studies attracts more attention to unravel the mechanisms for the development of chronic diseases. According to this an existing HPLC-DAD method for determination of creatinine in urine samples was expended for seven analytes and validated. Creatinine, uric acid, homovanillic acid, niacinamide, hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were separated by gradient elution (formate buffer/methanol) using an Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution column (4.6mm×100mm). No interfering signals were detected in mobile phase. After injection of blank urine samples signals for the endogenous compounds but no interferences were detected. All analytes were linear in the selected calibration range and a non weighted calibration model was chosen. Bias, intra-day and inter-day precision for all analytes were below 20% for quality control (QC) low and below 10% for QC medium and high. The limits of quantification in mobile phase were in line with reported reference values but had to be adjusted in urine for homovanillic acid (45mg/L), niacinamide 58.5(mg/L), and indole-3-acetic acid (63mg/L). Comparison of creatinine data obtained by the existing method with those of the developed method showing differences from -120mg/L to +110mg/L with a mean of differences of 29.0mg/L for 50 authentic urine samples. Analyzing 50 authentic urine samples, uric acid, creatinine, hippuric acid, and 2-methylhippuric acid were detected in (nearly) all samples. However, homovanillic acid was detected in 40%, niacinamide in 4% and indole-3-acetic acid was never detected within the selected samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic prescribing practices for catheter urine culture results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient's treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient

  17. Neonicotinoid concentrations in urine from chronic kidney disease patients in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Risako; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Harada, Kouji H; Chandrajith, Rohana; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Abeysekera, Tilak; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used around the world since the 1990s. Reports have been made since the 1990s of rice paddy farmers in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka suffering from chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu). A preliminary evaluation of the exposure of local farmers in the NCR of Sri Lanka to neonicotinoids was performed. We analyzed neonicotinoid and neonicotinoid metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples. We selected 40 samples, 10 from farmers with CKDu and 10 from controls from each of two areas, Medawachchiya and Girandurukotte. Imidacloprid and desmethyl-acetamiprid were found at significantly higher concentrations in the control samples (with medians of 51 ng/l and 340 ng/l, respectively) than in the CKDu samples (medians of 15 ng/l and 150 ng/l, respectively) when the results were not adjusted for the creatinine contents. None of the six compounds that were measured in the urine samples were found at significantly higher concentrations in the CKDu samples than in the control samples. None of the neonicotinoid concentrations in the samples analyzed in this study exceeded the concentrations that have been found in samples from the general population of Japan. Farmers (both with and without CKDu) living in CKDu-endemic areas in the NCR of Sri Lanka are exposed to lower neonicotinoid concentrations than non-occupationally exposed residents of Japan.

  18. Inter-laboratory comparison of elemental analysis and gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Part I: delta13C measurements of selected compounds for the development of an isotopic Grob-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, F; Janeiro, A; Calderone, G; Rojas, J M Moreno; Rhodes, C; Gonthier, L A; Martin, F; Lees, M; Mosandl, A; Sewenig, S; Hener, U; Henriques, B; Ramalho, L; Reniero, F; Teixeira, A J; Guillou, C

    2007-03-01

    This study was directed towards investigating suitable compounds to be used as stable isotope reference materials for gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) calibration. Several compounds were selected from those used in the 'Grob-test' mixture. Oxygen- and nitrogen-containing substances were added to these compounds to allow the mixture to be used as a possible multi-isotopic calibration tool for 2H/1H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratio determinations. In this paper we present the results of delta13C measurements performed by the consortium of the five laboratories taking part in this inter-calibration exercise. All the compounds were individually assessed for homogeneity, short-term stability and long-term stability by means of EA-IRMS, as required by the bureau communitaire de reference (BCR) Guide for Production of Certified Reference Materials. The results were compared then with the GC-C-IRMS measurements using both polar and non-polar columns, and the final mixture of selected compounds underwent a further certification exercise assessing limits of accuracy and reproducibility under specified GC-C-IRMS conditions. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Application of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Mateusz Kacper; Wiergowski, Marek; Aszyk, Justyna; Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Biziuk, Marek

    2018-01-30

    Amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) are the most popular amphetamine-type stimulants. The use of these substances is a serious societal problem worldwide. In this study, a method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the six aforementioned amphetamine derivatives in blood and urine. The detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The most important advantage of the method is the minimal sample volume (as low as 200μL) required for the extraction procedure. The validation parameters, i.e., the recovery (90.5-104%), inter-day accuracy (94.2-109.1%) and precision (0.5-5.8%), showed the repeatability and sensitivity of the method for both matrices and indicated that the proposed procedure fulfils internationally established acceptance criteria for bioanalytical methods The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of real blood and urine samples examined in 22 forensic toxicological cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work presenting the use of GC-MS/MS for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in blood and urine. In view of the low limits of detection (0.09-0.81ng/mL), limits of quantification (0.26-2.4ng/mL), and high selectivity, the procedure can be applied for drug monitoring in both fatal and non-fatal intoxication cases in routine toxicology analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/proteininurine.html Protein in Urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Protein in Urine Test? A protein in urine test ...

  1. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  2. For reliable urine cultures in the detection of complicated urinary tract infection, do we use urine specimens obtained with urethral catheter or a nephrostomy tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Gülay; Deveci, Özcan; Dede, Onur; Utanğac, Mazhar; Dağgulli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Hatipoğlu, Namık Kemal

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of urine cultures obtained either from urethral, and percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters. This study included 328 consecutive patients that underwent PCN at our institution with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) between July 2010 and April 2015. Results of urine cultures obtained from the urethral and nephrostomy catheters were compared. This study included 152 male and 176 female patients. Mean age of the patients was 46.2±24.3 years. The main indications were obstructive uropathy due to urolithiasis complicated with pyonephrosis 145 (44%), malignant disease (n=87; 26%), pregnancy (n=26; 8%), and anatomical abnormality (n=23; 7%). One hundred and twenty three patients had diabetes mellitus. The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Blood cultures showed the same results for the PCN and bladder urine cultures. The bladder urine culture was positive in 304 patients, while the PCN urine culture in 314 patients. PCN is an important treatment for the management of pyonephrosis. Cultures from the PCN yield valuable information that is not available from urethral urine cultures, and is a guiding tool for antibiotic therapy selection.

  3. DETERMINATION OF 3-HYDROXY-3-PYRROLINE-2-ONE IN URINE AND STUDY OF ITS EXCRETION FROM THE ORGANISM OF LABORATORY ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bulgakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that almost any disease of the central nervous system is accompanied by the development of cognitive disorders. The drugs of choice in the complex therapy in this case are nootropics. On the world market racetam group, i.e. derivatives of alpha-pyrrolidone, prevails among nootropics, and the derivatives have a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. Currently, this group continues to expand. By the employees of Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy (PSPA, ruled by Professor V.L. Gein, a new biologically active compound, a 3-pyrrolin-2-one derivative KOH-1 was synthesized. This compound is at the preclinical research stage now.The aim of this work was the development of methods for determination of KOH-1 in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, the study of excretion KOH-1 from the organism of laboratory animals.Materials and methods. Studies on the development of methods were carried out by using a liquid chromatograph LC-20 Prominence (Shimadzu, Japan with a diode-array detector. The validation was carried out in accordance with the requirements for bioanalytical methods, in terms of selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The study of excretion of KOH-1 was performed on white non-linear male rats weighing 300-400 g. The substance KOH-1 was administered once orally in a suspension of starch mucus at a dose of 100 mg/kg.Results and discussion. As a result of the research, the  method for determining the biologically active compound KOH-1 in urine has been developed. The validation showed its suitability for pharmacokinetic studies. The data on daily excretion of KOH-1 in urine after a single oral administration to rats were obtained.Conclusion. The developed conditions for the chromatographic determination of KOH-1 in urine can be used in pharmacokinetic studies, both at the preclinical and clinical stages of the study of a potential drug. The data on excretion of KOH-1 will allow to determine the ways of

  4. Simple and suitable immunosensor for β-lactam antibiotics analysis in real matrixes: milk, serum, urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Giovanni; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-03-15

    The anti-penicillin G was conjugated to avidin-peroxidase and biotin to obtain immunogen and competitor which were then used to develop a competitive immunosensor assay for the detection of penicillin G and other β-lactam antibiotics, with Kaff values of the order of 10(8) M(-1). The new immunosensor appears to afford a number of advantages in terms of sensitivity, possibility of "in situ" analysis, but especially of simplicity and lower costs, compared with other existing devices, or different chemical instrumental methods reported in the literature and used for the analysis of β-lactam compounds. Satisfactory results were found in the analysis of real matrixes and good recoveries were obtained by applying the standard addition method to spiked milk, urine, serum and drug samples. The new device uses an amperometric electrode for hydrogen peroxide as transducer, the BSA-penicillin G immobilized on polymeric membrane overlapping the amperometric transducer and the peroxidase enzyme as marker. It proved to be highly sensitive, inexpensive and easily reproducible; LOD was of the order of 10(-11)M. Lastly, the new immunosensor displayed low selectivity versus the entire class of β-lactam antibiotics and higher selectivity toward other classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahpour, Shabnam; Selamat, Jinap; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Khatib, Alfi; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2018-02-13

    This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83-13.78%) and FRAP (84.9-2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract), followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively), for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract), 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sepahpour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83–13.78% and FRAP (84.9–2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract, followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively, for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract, 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  7. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  8. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity

  9. Bioactive Natural Product and Superacid Chemistry for Lead Compound Identification: A Case Study of Selective hCA III and L-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibitors for Hypotensive Agent Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carreyre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dodoneine (Ddn is one of the active compounds identified from Agelanthus dodoneifolius, which is a medicinal plant used in African pharmacopeia and traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. In the context of a scientific program aiming at discovering new hypotensive agents through the original combination of natural product discovery and superacid chemistry diversification, and after evidencing dodoneine’s vasorelaxant effect on rat aorta, superacid modifications allowed us to generate original analogues which showed selective human carbonic anhydrase III (hCA III and L-type Ca2+ current inhibition. These derivatives can now be considered as new lead compounds for vasorelaxant therapeutics targeting these two proteins.

  10. Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Alhaider, Abdul Qader; Raish, Mohammad; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from the author's laboratory indicated that camel urine possesses antiplatelet activity and anti-cancer activity which is not present in bovine urine. The objective of this study is to compare the volatile and elemental components of bovine and camel urine using GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis. We are interested to know the component that performs these biological activities. The freeze dried urine was dissolved in dichloromethane and then derivatization process followed by using BSTFA for GC-MS analysis. Thirty different compounds were analyzed by the derivatization process in full scan mode. For ICP-MS analysis twenty eight important elements were analyzed in both bovine and camel urine. The results of GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis showed marked difference in the urinary metabolites. GC-MS evaluation of camel urine finds a lot of products of metabolism like benzene propanoic acid derivatives, fatty acid derivatives, amino acid derivatives, sugars, prostaglandins and canavanine. Several research reports reveal the metabolomics studies on camel urine but none of them completely reported the pharmacology related metabolomics. The present data of GC-MS suggest and support the previous studies and activities related to camel urine.

  11. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Selected endocrine disrupting compounds (vinclozolin, flutamide, ketoconazole and dicofol): effects on survival, occurrence of males, growth, molting and reproduction of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeba, Maher H; Hilscherová, Klára; Mazurová, Edita; Bláha, Ludek

    2008-05-01

    Pollution-induced endocrine disruption in vertebrates and invertebrates is a worldwide environmental problem, but relatively little is known about effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in planktonic crustaceans (including Daphnia magna). Aims of the present study were to investigate acute 48 h toxicity and sub-chronic (4-6 days) and chronic (21 days) effects of selected EDCs in D. magna. We have investigated both traditional endpoints as well as other parameters such as sex determination, maturation, molting or embryogenesis in order to evaluate the sensitivity and possible use of these endpoints in ecological risk assessment. We have studied effects of four model EDCs (vinclozolin, flutamide, ketoconazole and dicofol) on D. magna using (i) an acute 48 h immobilization assay, (ii) a sub-chronic, 4-6 day assay evaluating development and the sex ratio of neonates, and (iii) a chronic, 21 day assay studying number of neonates, sex of neonates, molting frequency, day of maturation and the growth of maternal organisms. Acute EC50 values in the 48 h immobilization test were as follows (mg/L): dicofol 0.2, ketoconazole 1.5, flutamide 2.7, vinclozolin >3. Short-term, 4-6 day assays with sublethal concentrations showed that the sex ratio in Daphnia was modulated by vinclozolin (decreased number of neonate males at 1 mg/L) and dicofol (increase in males at 0.1 mg/L). Flutamide (up to 1 mg/L) had no effect on the sex of neonates, but inhibited embryonic development at certain stages during chronic assay, resulting in abortions. Ketoconazole had no significant effects on the studied processes up to 1 mg/L. Sex ratio modulations by some chemicals (vinclozolin and dicofol) corresponded to the known action of these compounds in vertebrates (i.e. anti-androgenicity and anti-oestrogenicity, respectively). Our study revealed that some chemicals known to affect steroid-regulated processes in vertebrates can also affect sublethal endpoints (e.g. embryonic sex determination

  13. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  14. Serum and urine metabolomic fingerprinting in diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Deja, Stanisław; Mulak, Agata; Ząbek, Adam; Jawień, Ewa; Pawełka, Dorota; Banasik, Mirosław; Mastalerz-Migas, Agnieszka; Balcerzak, Waldemar; Kaliszewski, Krzysztof; Skóra, Jan; Barć, Piotr; Korta, Krzysztof; Pormańczuk, Kornel; Szyber, Przemyslaw; Litarski, Adam; Młynarz, Piotr

    2014-01-07

    To evaluate the utility of serum and urine metabolomic analysis in diagnosing and monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Serum and urine samples were collected from 24 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 19 patients with the Crohn's disease (CD) and 17 healthy controls. The activity of UC was assessed with the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, while the activity of CD was determined using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index. The analysis of serum and urine samples was performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All spectra were exported to Matlab for preprocessing which resulted in two data matrixes for serum and urine. Prior to the chemometric analysis, both data sets were unit variance scaled. The differences in metabolite fingerprints were assessed using partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curves were used to evaluate the quality and prediction performance of the obtained PLS-DA models. Metabolites responsible for separation in models were tested using STATISTICA 10 with the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and the Student's t test (α = 0.05). The comparison between the group of patients with active IBD and the group with IBD in remission provided good PLS-DA models (P value 0.002 for serum and 0.003 for urine). The metabolites that allowed to distinguish these groups were: N-acetylated compounds and phenylalanine (up-regulated in serum), low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoproteins (decreased in serum) as well as glycine (increased in urine) and acetoacetate (decreased in urine). The significant differences in metabolomic profiles were also found between the group of patients with active IBD and healthy control subjects providing the PLS-DA models with a very good separation (P value fingerprinting of serum and urine has the potential to be a useful tool in distinguishing patients with active IBD from those in remission.

  15. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyungguen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR

  16. Data on Occurrence of Selected Trace Metals, Organochlorines, and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Edible Fish Tissues From Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moring, J. B

    2002-01-01

    ... organic compounds to support a human health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou...

  17. [Development of automatic urine monitoring system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Chen, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    An automatic urine monitoring system is presented to replace manual operation. The system is composed of the flow sensor, MSP430f149 single chip microcomputer, human-computer interaction module, LCD module, clock module and memory module. The signal of urine volume is captured when the urine flows through the flow sensor and then displayed on the LCD after data processing. The experiment results suggest that the design of the monitor provides a high stability, accurate measurement and good real-time, and meets the demand of the clinical application.

  18. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  19. Occurrence and temporal variability of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in select sources of drinking water : results of the focused survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzer, Gregory C.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale use of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and its high solubility, low soil adsorption, and low biodegradability, has resulted in its detection in ground water and surface water in many places throughout the United States. Studies by numerous researchers, as well as many State and local environmental agencies, have discovered high levels of MTBE in soils and ground water at leaking underground gasoline-storage-tank sites and frequent occurrence of low to intermediate levels of MTBE in reservoirs used for both public water supply and recreational boating.In response to these findings, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation sponsored an investigation of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Nation's sources of drinking water. The goal of the investigation was to provide additional information on the frequency of occurrence, concentration, and temporal variability of MTBE and other VOCs in source water used by community water systems (CWSs). The investigation was completed in two stages: (1) reviews of available literature and (2) the collection of new data. Two surveys were associated with the collection of new data. The first, termed the Random Survey, employed a statistically stratified design for sampling source water from 954 randomly selected CWSs. The second, which is the focus of this report, is termed the Focused Survey, which included samples collected from 134 CWS source waters, including ground water, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and streams, that were suspected or known to contain MTBE. The general intent of the Focused Survey was to compare results with the Random Survey and provide an improved understanding of the occurrence, concentration, temporal variability, and anthropogenic factors associated with frequently detected VOCs. Each sample collected was analyzed for 66 VOCs, including MTBE and three other ether gasoline oxygenates (hereafter termed gasoline oxygenates). As part of

  20. Voltammetric Determination of Thiodiglycolic Acid in Urine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlasková, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Heyrovský, Michael; Pelclová, D.; Novotný, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 375, - (2003), s. 164-168 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : urine * thioglycolic acid * voltammetry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.715, year: 2003

  1. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  2. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  3. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  4. Determination of 131I and thorium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Rute Miwa

    1978-01-01

    Methods for the determination of 131 I and Thorium in urine have been developed taking into account the monitoring needs for people who handle with these radioisotopes. The method for determining 131 I is based in the use of silver chloride to separate iodine by precipitation from the sample; the detection was carried out in a Nal (Tl) well type scintillator connected to a single channel analyser. This method has the following advantages; it is easy and relatively fast as well as selective, showing a separation yield higher than 80%. Thorium in urine was determined by colorimetry after the mineralization of the sample using nitric acid, and sulphuric acid, and then oxygen peroxide. The chromophore reagent used was Thoron (disodium salt of 2-(2-hydroxy-3,6-disulfo-l-naphthylazo) benzenearsonic acid).The absorbance was measured in a spectro colorimeter at a fixed wavelength (530 nm). The method proved to be simple allowing a separation yield of about 80%. The most representative sample for a monitoring program in a 131 I production laboratory has been established. The 131 I concentration in urine of individuals with chronic contamination have also been measured; an interpretation of these results is discussed. (author)

  5. Peptidomics of urine and other biofluids for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauça, Josep Miquel; Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of most current cancer biomarkers make early cancer diagnosis a challenging task. The comprehensive study of peptides and small proteins in a living system, known as "peptidomics," represents an alternative technological approach to the discovery of potential biomarkers for the assessment of a wide variety of pathologies. This review examines the current status of peptidomics for several body fluids, with a focus on urine, for cancer diagnostics applications. Several studies have used high-throughput technologies to characterize the peptide content of different body fluids. Because of its noninvasive collection and high stability, urine is a valuable source of candidate cancer biomarkers. A wide variety of preanalytical issues concerning patient selection and sample handling need to be considered, because not doing so can affect the quality of the results by introducing bias and artifacts. Optimization of both the analytical strategies and the processing of bioinformatics data is also essential to minimize the false-discovery rate. Peptidomics-based studies of urine and other body fluids have yielded a number of biomolecules and peptide panels with potential for diagnosing different types of cancer, especially of the ovary, prostate, and bladder. Large-scale studies are needed to validate these molecules as cancer biomarkers. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Occurrence of riboflavinyl glucoside in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Ohishi, Nobuko; Yagi, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the metabolism of riboflavin, [2- 14 C]-riboflavin was administered orally to a rat. The urine pooled for 24 h after administration was fractionated by paper and silica gel thin layer chromatographies using various solvent systems. Among the radioactive metabolites, riboflavinyl glucoside was found along with 7-carboxy lumichrome and 8-carboxy lumichrome. The radioactivity of riboflavinyl glucoside comprised about 6 % of the total radioactivity excreted in the urine during 24 h. (author)

  7. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of ketamine metabolites from dried urine and on-line quantification by supercritical fluid chromatography and single mass detection (on-line SFE-SFC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Robert; Fassauer, Georg M; Link, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    On-line solid-phase supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and chromatography (SFC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has been evaluated for its usefulness with respect to metabolic profiling and pharmacological investigations of ketamine in humans. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid, highly selective and sensitive SFE-SFC-MS method for the quantification of ketamine and its metabolites in miniature amounts in human urine excluding liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Several conditions were optimized systematically following the requirements of the European Medicines Agency: selectivity, carry-over, calibration curve parameters (LLOQ, range and linearity), within- and between-run accuracy and precision, dilution integrity, matrix effect, and stability. The method, which required a relatively small volume of human urine (20 μL per sample), was validated for pharmacologically and toxicologically relevant concentrations ranging from 25.0 to 1000 ng/mL (r 2  > 0.995). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for all compounds was found to be as low as 0.5 ng. In addition, stability of analytes during removal of water from the urine samples using different conditions (filter paper or ISOLUTE® HM-N) was studied. In conclusion, the method developed in this study can be successfully applied to studies of ketamine metabolites in humans, and may pave the way for routine application of on-line SFE-SFC-MS in clinical investigations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Variability in the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy after urine infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Uren, R.; Irwig, L.; Bernard, E.; Knight, J.; Sureshkumar, P.; Roy, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: This study investigated the extent of and potential reasons for interpretation disagreement of 99m Tc-DMSA scans after urine infection in children. Methods: 441 scans were selected from children with first urine infection (UTI) from 1993-1995. 294 scans were performed at a median time of seven days after UTI and 147 in children free from infection over one year follow-up. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reported according to whether renal abnormality was present or absent and used the four level grading system described by Goldraich: grade 1-no more than two cortical defects; grade 2 -more than 2 defects; grade 3-diffuse reduction in uptake with or without defects; grade 4 -shrunken kidney <10% function. Indices for variability used were the percentage of agreement and kappa statistic, expressed as a percentage. For the grading scale used, both measures were weighted with integers representing the number of categories from perfect agreement. Disagreement was analysed for children, kidneys and kidney zones. Results: There was agreement in 86 per cent (kappa 69%) for the normal-abnormal DMSA scan dichotomy, the weighted agreement was 94 per cent (kappa 82%) for the grading scale. Disagreement of DMSA scan interpretation ≥ two grades was present in three cases (0.7%). The same level of agreement was present for the patient, kidney and kidney zones comparisons. Agreement was not influenced by age or the timing of scintigraphy after urine infection. Conclusion: Two experienced physicians showed good agreement in the interpretation DMSA scintigraphy in children after urine infection and using the grading system of Goldraich

  10. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  11. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  12. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  13. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Sforzolini, G S; Conti, R; Fagioli, F

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; 'before working time', 'after working time', and also during Sunday. The results showed that urine samples collected 'before' occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure.

  14. The sometimes competing retrieval and Van Hamme & Wasserman models predict the selective role of within-compound associations in retrospective revaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James; Rhodes, L Jack; Kysor, Sarah; Narasiwodeyar, Sanjay

    2017-11-21

    The correlation between blocking and within-compound memory is stronger when compound training occurs before elemental training (i.e., backward blocking) than when the phases are reversed (i.e., forward blocking; Melchers et al., 2004, 2006). This trial order effect is often interpreted as problematic for performance-focused models that assume a critical role for within-compound associations in both retrospective revaluation and traditional cue competition. The present manuscript revisits this issue using a computational modeling approach. The fit of sometimes competing retrieval (SOCR; Stout & Miller, 2007) was compared to the fit of an acquisition-focused model of retrospective revaluation and cue competition. These simulations reveal that SOCR explains this trial order effect in some situations based on its use of local error reduction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. High throughput-screening of animal urine samples: It is fast but is it also reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Advanced analytical technologies like ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry can be used for veterinary drug screening of animal urine. The technique is sufficiently robust and reliable to detect veterinary drugs in urine samples of animals where the maximum residue limit of these compounds in organs like muscle, kidney, or liver has been exceeded. The limitations and possibilities of the technique are discussed. The most critical point is the variability of the drug concentration ratio between the tissue and urine. Ways to manage the false positive and false negatives are discussed. The capability to confirm findings and the possibility of semi-targeted analysis are also addressed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamato, Naohisa (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1988-05-01

    Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been revealed that inorganic arsenic is methylated in the human body to form MAA (methylarsonic acid) and DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid). It appears therefore that the arsenic present in the human urine is a mixture of the arsenic originating from marine products and the arsenic metabolized in vivo. Recent studies have shown that inorganic arsenic and methylarsenic compounds are quite different in toxicity and effect on the living body due to their difference in chemical species. Finding the chemical species of arsenic in the urine and hair of normal subjects will therefore provide valuable basal data for the biological monitoring of arsenic exposure and for toxicological studies of arsenic.

  17. A study of sulfur-containing compounds in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath and in the oral cavity using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pysanenko, A.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2008), 046004-1-13 ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : sulfur-containing compounds * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Selective determination of semi-volatile thiophene compounds in water by molecularly imprinted polymer thin films with direct headspace gas chromatography sulfur chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Hassan Y; Bottaro, Christina S

    2018-02-26

    Water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) thin films are coupled with headspace gas chromatography sulfur chemiluminescence detection (HS-GC-SCD) to create a new approach for the determination of trace concentrations of thiophene compounds in water samples. Thiophene compounds are persistent, typically petrogenic, organic pollutants of concern due to their potential for biomagnification and bioaccumulation, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity in terrestrial and aquatic fauna. Identification and quantitation in water, particularly following oil spills, is a priority. Following adsorption of the thiophenes to the MIPs, the MIP-bound analytes are analyzed directly by HS-GC-SCD, with minimal sample manipulation and virtually no organic solvent. Calibration curves of spiked seawater were linear from 5 μg L -1 to 100 μg L -1 and limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.24-0.82 μg L -1 . Low matrix effects were observed in the analysis of thiophene compounds in seawater making the method suitable for use in fresh and saline waters without modification. Acceptable reproducibility was obtained for analysis of thiophene compounds from spiked seawater samples at RSDs ≤7.0% (n = 3).

  19. An exploratory comparative study of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and emitted by skin using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turner, C.; Parekh, B.; Walton, Ch.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Evans, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2008), s. 526-532 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * volatile compounds * aldehydes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.772, year: 2008

  20. Rapid determination of anti-estrogens by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in urine: Method validation and application to real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerace, E; Salomone, A; Abbadessa, G; Racca, S; Vincenti, M

    2012-02-01

    A fast screening protocol was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine anti-estrogenic agents (aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, clomiphene, drostanolone, formestane, letrozole, mesterolone, tamoxifen, testolactone) plus five of their metabolites in human urine. After an enzymatic hydrolysis, these compounds can be extracted simultaneously from urine with a simple liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline conditions. The analytes were subsequently analyzed by fast-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (fast-GC/MS) after derivatization. The use of a short column, high-flow carrier gas velocity and fast temperature ramping produced an efficient separation of all analytes in about 4 min, allowing a processing rate of 10 samples/h. The present analytical method was validated according to UNI EN ISO/IEC 17025 guidelines for qualitative methods. The range of investigated parameters included the limit of detection, selectivity, linearity, repeatability, robustness and extraction efficiency. High MS-sampling rate, using a benchtop quadrupole mass analyzer, resulted in accurate peak shape definition under both scan and selected ion monitoring modes, and high sensitivity in the latter mode. Therefore, the performances of the method are comparable to the ones obtainable from traditional GC/MS analysis. The method was successfully tested on real samples arising from clinical treatments of hospitalized patients and could profitably be used for clinical studies on anti-estrogenic drug administration.

  1. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  2. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-02-15

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated.

  3. Parabens and Their Metabolites in Pet Food and Urine from New York State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, Rajendiran; Borkar, Sonali; Lee, Sunmi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2018-03-20

    The exposure of pets, such as dogs and cats, to a wide range of chemicals present in the indoor environment and the concomitant increase in noninfectious diseases in these companion animals are a concern. Nevertheless, little is known about the sources and pathways of exposure to chemicals in pets. In this study, we determined the concentrations of parabens in commercially available cat and dog foods as well as in urine samples from these pets collected from the Albany area of the state of New York in the United States. Parabens, especially methyl paraben (MeP), and their metabolites were found in all pet food and urine samples. The mean concentrations of total parabens (i.e., sum of parabens and their metabolites) in dog ( n = 23) and cat ( n = 35) food were 1350 and 1550 ng/g fresh wt, respectively. Dry food contained higher concentrations of parabens and their metabolites than did wet food, and cat food contained higher concentrations of target chemicals than did dog food. The mean concentrations of total parabens found in dog ( n = 30) and cat ( n = 30) urine were 7230 and 1040 ng/mL, respectively. In both pet food and urine, MeP (among parabens) and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB) (among metabolites) were the dominant compounds. The metabolites of parabens accounted for ∼99% (∼99.1% in food and ∼98.9% in urine) of the total concentrations in both food and urine. The profiles of parabens and their metabolites in the urine of dogs and cats varied. In addition to diet, other sources of paraben exposures were found for dogs, whereas, for cats, the majority of exposures was identified as related to diet.

  4. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  5. Urine stability and steroid profile: towards a screening index of urine sample degradation for anti-doping purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Monica; Abate, Maria Gabriella; Alocci, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Stinchelli, Raffaella; Molaioni, Francesco; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-01-10

    The presence of microorganisms in urine samples, under favourable conditions of storage and transportation, may alter the concentration of steroid hormones, thus altering the correct evaluation of the urinary steroid profile in doping control analysis. According to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA technical document TD2004 EAAS), a testosterone deconjugation higher than 5% and the presence of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the deconjugated fraction, are reliable indicators of urine degradation. The determination of these markers would require an additional quantitative analysis since the steroids screening analysis, in anti-doping laboratories, is performed in the total (free+conjugated) fraction. The aim of this work is therefore to establish reliable threshold values for some representative compounds (namely 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione) in the total fraction in order to predict directly at the screening stage the potential microbial degradation of the urine samples. Preliminary evidence on the most suitable degradation indexes has been obtained by measuring the urinary concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric every day for 15 days in the deconjugated, glucuronide and total fraction of 10 pools of urines from 60 healthy subjects, stored under different pH and temperature conditions, and isolating the samples with one or more markers of degradation according to the WADA technical document TD2004EAAS. The threshold values for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione were therefore obtained correlating the testosterone deconjugation rate with the urinary concentrations of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the total fraction. The threshold values suggested as indexes of urine degradation in the total fraction were: 10 ng mL(-1) for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione

  6. The precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate for P and K recovery from synthetic urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangning; Li, Jiyun; Zheng, Min; Zhang, Chi; Xie, Tao; Wang, Chengwen

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients recovery from urine to close the nutrient loop is one of the most attractive benefits of source separation in wastewater management. The current study presents an investigation of the thermodynamic modeling of the recovery of P and K from synthetic urine via the precipitation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (MPP). Experimental results show that maximum recovery efficiencies of P and K reached 99% and 33%, respectively, when the precipitation process was initiated only through adding dissolvable Mg compound source. pH level and molar ratio of Mg:P were key factors determining the nutrient recovery efficiencies. Precipitation equilibrium of MPP and magnesium sodium phosphate heptahydrate (MSP) was confirmed via precipitates analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Spectrometer and an X-ray Diffractometer. Then, the standard solubility products of MPP and MSP in the synthetic urine were estimated to be 10(-12.2 ± 0.0.253) and 10(-11.6 ± 0.253), respectively. The thermodynamic model formulated on chemical software PHREEQC could well fit the experimental results via comparing the simulated and measured concentrations of K and P in equilibrium. Precipitation potentials of three struvite-type compounds were calculated through thermodynamic modeling. Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAP) has a much higher tendency to precipitate than MPP and MSP in normal urine while MSP was the main inhibitor of MPP in ammonium-removed urine. To optimize the K recovery, ammonium should be removed prior as much as possible and an alternative alkaline compound should be explored for pH adjustment rather than NaOH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elemental sulfur identified in urine of cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ben V; Visser, Runine; Moses, Alvira; Le Roux, Maritha

    2006-06-01

    The urine of the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is almost odorless, and probably for this reason, it has not attracted much attention from scientists. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified 27 and 37 constituents in the headspace vapor of the urine of male and female cheetah, respectively. These constituents, composed of hydrocarbons, short-chain ethers, aldehydes, saturated and unsaturated cyclic and acyclic ketones, 2-acetylfuran, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfone, phenol, myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid), urea, and elemental sulfur, are all present in the headspace vapor in very small quantities; dimethyl disulfide is present in such a low concentration that it cannot be detected by the human nose. This is only the second example of elemental sulfur being secreted or excreted by an animal. It is hypothesized that the conversion of sulfur-containing compounds in the cheetah's diet to elemental sulfur and to practically odorless dimethyl sulfone enables this carnivore to operate as if "invisible" to the olfactory world of its predators as well as its prey, which would increase its chances of survival.

  8. Analysis of the isobaric compounds propanol, acetic acid and methyl formate in humid air and breath by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pysanenko, A.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 285, 1-2 (2009), s. 42-48 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256; GA ČR GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * isobaric compound * propanol * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2009

  9. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of selected fruits from Madeira Island by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and screening for their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Pinto, Joana; Castilho, Paula C

    2015-04-15

    Five fruits species commonly cultivated and consumed in Madeira Island (Portugal) were investigated for their phenolic profile by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) and antioxidant potential. A large number of compounds were characterised, flavonoids and phenolic acids being the major components found in target samples, 39 compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, cyanogenic glycosides and organic acids) were identified in cherimoyas, lemons, papayas, passion-fruits and strawberries for the first time. Furthermore, all samples were systematically analysed for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents along with two radical scavenging methods (ABTS and ORAC) for antioxidant activity measurement. Target fruits presented high phenolic contents which is responsible for most of the antioxidant activity against radical reactive species (R(2)>0.80). Quantitative data showed that anthocyanins, in particular pelargonidin-3-O-hexoside (>300 mg/100 mL), present only in strawberries were the compounds in largest amounts but are the ones which contribute less to the antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships between structure, ionization profile and sensitivity of exogenous anabolic steroids under electrospray ionization and analysis in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-04-01

    The relationships between the ionization profile, sensitivity, and structures of 64 exogenous anabolic steroids (groups I-IV) was investigated under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. The target analytes were ionized as [M + H](+) or [M + H-nH2 O](+) in the positive mode, and these ions were used as precursor ions for selected reaction monitoring analysis. The collision energy and Q3 ions were optimized based on the sensitivity and selectivity. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.05-20 ng/mL for the 64 steroids. The LODs for 38 compounds, 14 compounds and 12 compounds were in the range of 0.05-1, 2-5 and 10-20 ng/mL, respectively. Steroids including the conjugated keto-functional group at C3 showed good proton affinity and stability, and generated the [M + H](+) ion as the most abundant precursor ion. In addition, the LODs of steroids using the [M + H](+) ion as the precursor ion were mostly distributed at low concentrations. In contrast, steroids containing conjugated/unconjugated hydroxyl functional groups at C3 generated [M + H - H2 O](+) or [M + H - 2H2 O](+) ions, and these steroids showed relatively high LODs owing to poor stability and multiple ion formation. An LC-MS/MS method based on the present ionization profile was developed and validated for the determination of 78 steroids (groups I-V) in human urine. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Combination of 2D/3D ligand-based similarity search in rapid virtual screening from multimillion compound repositories. Selection and biological evaluation of potential PDE4 and PDE5 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krisztina; Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Fabó, Gabriella; Szaszkó, Mária; Bognár, Melinda; Magyar, Csaba; Simon, István; Szisz, Dániel; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2014-05-28

    Rapid in silico selection of target focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases but the generated library requires further focusing by various 2D/3D chemoinformatics tools. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with a ligand-based 3D method (Screen3D) which applies flexible matching to align reference and target compounds in a dynamic manner and thus to assess their structural and conformational similarity. In the first case study we compared the 2D and 3D similarity scores on an existing dataset derived from the biological evaluation of a PDE5 focused library. Based on the obtained similarity metrices a fusion score was proposed. The fusion score was applied to refine the 2D similarity search in a second case study where we aimed at selecting and evaluating a PDE4B focused library. The application of this fused 2D/3D similarity measure led to an increase of the hit rate from 8.5% (1st round, 47% inhibition at 10 µM) to 28.5% (2nd round at 50% inhibition at 10 µM) and the best two hits had 53 nM inhibitory activities.

  12. Determination of uranium isotopes in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellis, I.R.; Silva, D.V.F.M. Rey; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2017-01-01

    Variable concentrations of uranium occur naturally in waters, plant products and soils. Small amounts of this element are routinely incorporated by man. Occupationally exposed individuals (IOEs) are subject to the incorporation of higher amounts of uranium into their work routines. The effects on human health resulting from the incorporation of uranium in environmental doses are not very well established and are currently recognized as of little relevance. The incorporation resulting from occupational activities, where higher doses can be found, represents a health risk resulting from chemical damages to the kidneys. Considering that uranium is eliminated from the human body through urine and feces, and that the concentration in the urine can be obtained by means of radiochemical analyzes, this can be considered an efficient indirect method to verify the incorporation of this element. In the work the isotopes of 234 U, 235 U and 238 U were analyzed in urine samples of IOEs and the rate of uranium present in them was verified

  13. Measurement of menadione in urine by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Peterson, James; Choi, Sang-Woon; Suttie, John; Barakat, Susan; Booth, Sarah L

    2010-09-15

    Menadione is a metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using a C(30) column, post-column zinc reduction and fluorescence detection was developed to measure urinary menadione. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol with 0.55% aqueous solution and 5% DI H(2)O. Menaquinone-2 (MK-2) was used as an internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.999 for both menadione and MK-2. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.3pmole menadione/mL urine. Sample preparation involved hydrolysis of menadiol conjugates and oxidizing the released menadiol to menadione. Using this method, urinary menadione was shown to increase in response to 3 years of phylloquinone supplementation. This HPLC method is a sensitive and reproducible way to detect menadione in urine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  15. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  16. Data on Occurrence of Selected Trace Metals, Organochlorines, and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Edible Fish Tissues From Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moring, J. B

    2002-01-01

    .... Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile...

  17. Pharmacology of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, HN-56249: a novel compound exhibiting a marked preference for the human enzyme in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Fellier, H; Christoph, T; Kremminger, P; Hartmann, M; Blaschke, H; Rovensky, F; Towart, R; Stimmeder, D

    2000-04-01

    HN-56249 (3-(2,4-dichlorothiophenoxy)-4-methylsulfonylamino-benzenesu lfonamide), a highly selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is the prototype of a novel series of COX inhibitors comprising bicyclic arylethersulfonamides; of this series HN-56249 is the most potent and selective human COX-2 inhibitor. HN-56249 inhibited platelet aggregation as a measure of COX-1 activity only moderately (IC50 26.5+/-1.7 microM). In LPS-stimulated monocytic cells the release of prostaglandin (PG) F1alpha as a measure of COX-2 was markedly inhibited (IC50 0.027+/-0.001 microM). Thus, HN-56249 showed an approximately 1000-fold selectivity for COX-2 in intact cells. In whole blood assays HN-56249 showed a potent inhibitory activity for COX-2 (IC50 0.78+/-0.37 microM) only. COX-1 was only weakly inhibited (IC50 867+/-181 microM). Hence, HN-56249 exhibited a greater than 1000-fold selectivity for whole blood COX-2. HN-56249 surpassed the COX-2 selectivities of the COX-2 selective inhibitors 3-cyclohexyloxy-4-methylsulfonylamino-nitrobenzene (NS-398) and 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methyl-sulfonylamino-1-indanone (flosulide) in the intact cell assays by eight- and threefold, respectively, and in the whole blood assays by approximately 40-fold. Following i.v. administration HN-56249 inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema only moderately (ID50 26.2+/-5.7 mg/kg, mean +/- SEM), approximately tenfold less potent than indomethacin (ID50 2.1+/-0.2 mg/kg, mean +/- SEM). After oral administration HN-56249 reversed thermal hyperalgesia in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test, however, some 30-fold less potently than diclofenac. Comparing the inhibitory potency of HN-56249 against human COX-2 with that against murine COX-2 in intact cells revealed a 300-fold selectivity for the human enzyme. Similar effects were observed with other COX-2-selective arylethersulfonamides. In contrast, non-COX-2-selective arylethersulfonamides, including a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor, inhibited

  18. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  19. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  20. Investigating the potential of selected natural compounds to increase the potency of pyrethrum against houseflies Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Tanya; Gunning, Robin V; Allen, Geoff R

    2012-01-01

    oil, grapefruit oil and parsley seed oil, with 59, 50 and 41% mortality respectively, compared with 18% mortality with unsynergised pyrethrum. Against 381zb houseflies, the most effective natural synergists were parsley seed oil and dillapiole oil. Esterase inhibition by the natural compounds and PBO...... in vitro showed no correlation with pyrethrum synergism in vivo, whereas the inhibition of oxidases in vitro more closely correlated with pyrethrum synergism in vivo. CONCLUSION: Dillapiole oil and parsley seed oil showed the greatest potential as pyrethrum synergists. PBO remained the most effective...

  1. Selective arsenical purification of substances during an alkaline treatment process of an uranium and/or molybdenum bearing ore by means of a magnesium compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Lamerant, J.M.; Pallez, Francois.

    1983-01-01

    The ores is digested by means of an aqueous liquor of sodium or potassium carbonate and/or bicarbonate, the digestion being carried out under conditions of concentrations, temperatures and pressures bringing about the solubilization of the uranium and/or molybdenum and the arsenic present in the core. A solid phase suspension is lifted from a liquid phase and the phases are separated. The arsenic solubilized during the digestion is extracted as magnesium arsenate by treatment of the medium containing the arsenic by means of a magnesium compound [fr

  2. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  3. Improved in-tube electro-membrane extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for simple and selective determination of ionic compounds: Optimization by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    In this work, an efficient sample clean-up method, named in-tube electro-membrane extraction, is modified to resolve the formation of bubbles in the extraction process. This modified method is applied for the extraction of two model analytes including tartrazine and sunset yellow from food samples. The method is based on the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference, and on this basis the analytes under investigation, as anionic compounds, simply migrate from the donor phase and concentrate in the acceptor phase. A thin polypropylene sheet placed in the tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and it separates 30 μL of the aqueous acceptor from 1.2 mL of the aqueous donor. This setup can be used to solve the problem of extracting highly hydrophilic analytes. Response surface methodology is used for optimization of the experimental parameters so that under the optimized conditions, the method provides a good linearity in the range of 50-1000 ng/mL, low limits of detection (15-25 ng/mL), good extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations below 8.1%, n = 5), and high extraction recoveries (54-76%). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Monitoring of selected skin- and breath-borne volatile organic compounds emitted from the human body using gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; Wiesenhofer, Helmut; Allers, Maria; Zimmermann, Stefan; Güntner, Andreas T; Pineau, Nicolay J; Lederer, Wolfgang; Agapiou, Agapios; Mayhew, Christopher A; Ruzsanyi, Veronika

    2018-02-15

    Human smuggling and associated cross-border crimes have evolved as a major challenge for the European Union in recent years. Of particular concern is the increasing trend of smuggling migrants hidden inside shipping containers or trucks. Therefore, there is a growing demand for portable security devices for the non-intrusive and rapid monitoring of containers to detect people hiding inside. In this context, chemical analysis of volatiles organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the human body is proposed as a locating tool. In the present study, an in-house made ion mobility spectrometer coupled with gas chromatography (GC-IMS) was used to monitor the volatile moieties released from the human body under conditions that mimic entrapment. A total of 17 omnipresent volatile compounds were identified and quantified from 35 ion mobility peaks corresponding to human presence. These are 7 aldehydes (acrolein, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-ethacrolein, n-hexanal, n-heptanal, benzaldehyde), 3 ketones (acetone, 2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone), 5 esters (ethyl formate, ethyl propionate, vinyl butyrate, butyl acetate, ethyl isovalerate), one alcohol (2-methyl-1-propanol) and one organic acid (acetic acid). The limits of detection (0.05-7.2 ppb) and relative standard deviations (0.6-11%) should be sufficient for detecting these markers of human presence in field conditions. This study shows that GC-IMS can be used as a portable field detector of hidden or entrapped people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chrysotoxine, a novel bibenzyl compound selectively antagonizes MPP⁺, but not rotenone, neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Xian; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Wong, Ngok-Shun; Sze, Cho-Wing; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Wai; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Yan-Bo

    2012-07-11

    Chrysotoxine is a naturally occurring bibenzyl compound found in medicinal Dendrobium species. We previously reported that chrysotoxine structure-specifically suppressed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic cell death. Whether chrysotoxine and other structurally similar bibenzyl compounds could also inhibit the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)) and rotenone has not been investigated. We showed herein that chrysotoxine inhibited MPP(+), but not rotenone, induced dopaminergic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction as indexed by the decrease in membrane potential, increase in calcium concentration and NF-κB activation triggered by MPP(+) were blocked by chrysotoxine pretreatment. The imbalance between the pro-apoptotic signals (Bax, caspase-3, ERK and p38 MAPK) and the pro-survival signals (Akt/PI3K/GSK-3β) induced by MPP(+) was partially or totally rectified by chrysotoxine. The results indicated that ROS inhibition, mitochondria protection, NF-κB modulation and regulation of multiple signals determining cell survival and cell death were involved in the protective effects of chrysotoxine against MPP(+) toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Given the different toxic profiles of 6-OHDA and MPP(+) as compared to rotenone, our results also indicated that DAT inhibition may partially account for the neuroprotective effects of chrysotoxine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of RSP, NO2 and selected volatile organic compounds at 32 shoe stalls located near busy roadways in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyunjoo; Chung, Moonho; Yang, Wonho

    2004-01-01

    It is suspected that persons who work in indoor environments near busy roadways are exposed to elevated levels of air pollutants during working hours. This study evaluated the potential exposure and source contribution associated with traffic-related air pollution for workers (polishers and repairmen) in shoe stalls from each of 32 districts during working hours in Seoul, Korea. The shoe stalls have been located at very close distances to the busy roadways. In this study, shoe stall workers could be exposed to high levels of respirable suspended particulate (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from outdoor sources such as traffic exhaust, as well as indoor sources in the shoe stalls such as dust on the shoes, portable gas ranges, organic solvents, adhesives and shoe polish. Compounds of particular note included indoor mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene were 0.732, 6.777, 4.080 and 1.302 mg/m 3 , respectively, in all shoe stalls. Mean indoor/outdoor ratios for toluene and m/p-xylene concentrations were 54.52 and 20.84, respectively. The contribution of vehicle exhaust emissions to indoor air quality of shoe stalls was identified by means of correlating the relationships between simultaneously measured air pollutant concentrations indoors and outdoors. Unlike RSP and NO 2 , indoor VOCs concentrations of shoe stalls mainly originated from indoor sources vs. outdoor sources

  7. Comparative urine analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics : Method development, evaluation, and application to proteinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Horvatovich, Peter L.; Hoekman, Berend; Reijmers, Theo H.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    We describe a platform for the comparative profiling of urine using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and multivariate statistical data analysis. Urinary compounds were separated by gradient elution and subsequently detected by electrospray Ion-Trap MS. The lower limit

  8. N-acetylated metabolites in urine: proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study on patients with inborn errors of metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelke, U.F.H.; Liebrand-van Sambeek, M.L.F.; Jong, J.G.N. de; Leroy, J.G.; Morava, E.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Wevers, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no comprehensive analytical technique to analyze N-acetylated metabolites in urine. Many of these compounds are involved in inborn errors of metabolism. In the present study, we examined the potential of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy as a tool to

  9. A study of organic binding of incorporated tritium by means of the organic components of human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, M.

    1976-01-01

    The change in tritium activity of metabolytic fractions of urine of persons working in the production of tritium labelled compounds was studied. The radioactivity of the separated fractions was measured during a 20 day period. A carbamide fraction proved to be the most sensitive to incorporative cases owing to its organic component fractioned together with the carbamide. (K.A.)

  10. Pilot study of the pharmacokinetics of betel nut and betel quid biomarkers in saliva, urine, and hair of betel consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Li, Xingnan; Lai, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 600 million people worldwide practise the carcinogenic habit of betel nut/quid chewing. Carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds have been identified in saliva or urine of betel chewers and the betel alkaloid arecoline in hair from habitual betel quid chewers. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of these compounds have been little explored. Assessment of betel use by biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cessation programmes aimed at reducing betel consumpti...

  11. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in urine as a marker on coagulation activity in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexels, Fredrik; Dahl, Ola E; Pripp, Are H; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Borris, Lars C; Haslund, Anniken; Gudmundsen, Tor E; Lauritzen, Trine; Lassen, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    We have recently reported that increased levels of urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 reflected radiologically verified deep vein thrombosis. In this study we evaluated whether urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 was associated with pulmonary embolism in non-selected patients. Patients with clinical suspected pulmonary embolism were interviewed on comorbidities and medications. Urine was collected from each patient before radiological examination and snap frozen until analysed on urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 with an ELISA kit. Imaging of the pulmonary arteries were conducted with contrast enhanced computer tomography. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 44/197 patients. Non-significantly higher urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were found in non-selected patients with pulmonary embolism vs. those without (p=0.324). Significantly higher urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were found in the pulmonary embolism positive patients without comorbidities (n=13) compared to the control group (n=28) (p=0.009). The calculated sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value using the lowest detectable urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 level was 82%, 34% and 87%, respectively. There was no significant urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 level difference in patients with and without pulmonary embolism. In non-comorbide pulmonary embolism positive patients the urine prothrombin fragment 1+2 levels were significantly higher compared to the control group. The negative predictive value found in this study indicates that uF1+2 has the potential to identify patients with a low risk of PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. State-of-the art of selective detection and identification of I-, Br-, Cl-, and F-containing compounds in gas chromatography and liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Cato; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2004-09-24

    This review article presents an overview of halogen-specific detection in gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC). Attention is primarily focused on the use of plasma emission spectroscopy and plasma mass spectrometry as detectors, but other halogen-selective detection principles are also mentioned. Different instrumental configurations are discussed both with respect to technical set-up and performance, the principal reasons for halogen-selective detection are highlighted, and recent applications are reviewed from areas such as environmental chemistry, petroleum characterization, and drug analysis.

  13. Occurrence and potential transport of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds from wastewater-treatment plant influent and effluent to groundwater and canal systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Adam L.; Katz, Brian G.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    An increased demand for fresh groundwater resources in South Florida has prompted Miami-Dade County to expand its water reclamation program and actively pursue reuse plans for aquifer recharge, irrigation, and wetland rehydration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), initiated a study in 2008 to assess the presence of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in the influent and effluent at three regional wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) operated by the WASD and at one WWTP operated by the City of Homestead, Florida (HSWWTP).

  14. Radioimmunoassay of bleomycin in plasma and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teale, J.D.; Clough, J.M.; Marks, V.

    1977-01-01

    Antibodies to bleomycin were raised by immunization of sheep and rabbits with bleomycin-albumin conjugates. The combination of a high-titre, high-avidity sheep antiserum and iodinated bleomycin produced a radioimmunoassay sensitive to 8 ng of bleomycin per ml of plasma or urine. Untreated specimens (100 μl) of plasma or urine could be added directly to the assay tubes. The anti-serum was specific for bleomycin and showed no cross-reaction with other anti-cancer agents used in combination chemotherapy. Over a concentration range of 20 to 100 ng/ml. recovery of bleomycin from plasma was 110% and from urine, 93%. Repeated assay of plasma samples showed a decrease in bleomycin levels unless the samples were kept at 4 0 C or below. Assay of bleomycin levels in plasma and urine from patients under treatment with bleomycin showed similarities with results reported using a microbiological assay. The radioimmunoassay offers a more reliable, rapid and sensitive method for the measurement of bleomycin. (author)

  15. Potentiometric determination of iodides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikolaev, B.A.; Primakova, L.N.; Rakhman'ko, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Variants of potentiometric method: determination using a calibrations plot, the Gran method, and the double addition method are considered. The method of double additions of the test solution to the reference one is suggested as the most favorable method of determining iodides in urine under clinical laboratory conditions. Refs. 5, tabs. 2

  16. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  17. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  18. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the

  19. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  20. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  1. Determination of natural thorium in urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Jammet, H.

    1959-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of thorium in urine is described. After precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, dissolution of the precipitate, extraction at pH 4-4.2 with cupferron in chloroformic solution and mineralization, a colorimetric determination of thorium with thorin is performed. It is thus possible to detect about 2 γ of thorium in the sample. (author) [fr

  2. URINE CULTURE CONTAMINATION: A ONE-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Background: Urine culture contamination is a significant cause of delay in treatment of patients being investigated for urinary tract infection. ... Lowest contamination rates were in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) and intensive ... The female gender was found to be the most significant predictor of higher contamination rate.

  3. Rapid determination of {sup 90}Sr in urine samples using AnaLig Sr-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilohuscin, J.; Dulanska, S.; Gardonova, V. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    This work describes the use of IBC's AnaLig Sr-01 molecular recognition technology product to effectively and selectively pre-concentrate, separate and recover strontium from urine samples. This method uses two-stage columns separation consisting of two different commercial products Eichrom's Pre-filter Material and AnaLig Sr-01 column from IBC Advanced Technologies. This method does not involve co-precipitation of strontium as phosphates and oxalates from urine samples. The new rapid method separates strontium-90 with high chemical recovery (authors)

  4. Stability of Synthetic Cathinones in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksberg, Lindsay; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    In this report, we evaluate the concentration, pH, temperature and analyte-dependent effects on cathinone stability in preserved human urine. A total of 22 synthetic cathinones were evaluated at 100 ng/mL and 1,000 ng/mL in pH 4 and pH 8 urine over 6 months. Specimens were stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C and 32°C. The stability of synthetic cathinones was highly dependent on urine pH and storage temperature. Cathinones were considerably more stable in acidic urine (pH 4) at low temperature. In alkaline urine (pH 8) at 32°C, significant losses (>20%) were observed within hours for the majority of drugs. In contrast, all drugs were stable in frozen and refrigerated urine at pH 4 for the duration of the study. These results highlight the importance of sample storage and the potential for pre-analytical changes in concentration during routine shipping and handling of specimens. Significant structural influence was also observed. Cathinones bearing a tertiary amine (pyrrolidine group) were significantly more stable than their secondary amine counterparts. The methylenedioxy group also exerted a significant stabilizing effect on both the tertiary and secondary amines. In the absence of the methylenedioxy group, no significant differences in stability were observed between the unsubstituted and ring substituted secondary amines. Half-lives at ambient temperature in pH 8 urine ranged from 9 h (3-fluoromethcathinone) to 4.3 months (methylenedioxypyrovalerone and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone), demonstrating the importance of analyte dependence, and the dual stabilizing effect of both the pyrollidine and methylenedioxy groups. Biological evidence may be subjected to a variety of environmental conditions prior to, and during transport to the forensic laboratory. These findings demonstrate the inherent instability of certain cathinone species in biological evidence under some conditions. Moreover, this study highlights the need for quantitative drug findings in

  5. Application of a macrocyclic compound, bambus[6]uril, in tailor-made liquid membranes for highly selective electromembrane extractions of inorganic anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Šindelář, V.; Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 950, JAN (2017), s. 49-56 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bambus[6]uril * electromembrane extraction selectivity * inorganic anions Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  6. Direct 19F NMR observation of the conformational selection of optically active rotamers of the antifolate compound fluoronitropyrimethamine bound to enzyme dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, S.J.B.; Birdsall, B.; Feeney, J.; Griffin, R.J.; Stevens, M.F.G.; Roberts, G.C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The molucular basis of the binding of the lipophilic antifolate compound fluoronitropyrimethamine to its target enzyme dihydrofolate reductase has been investigated using a combination of 19 F NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanical calculations 19 F NMR reveals the presence of two different conformational states for the fluoronitropyrimethamine-Lactobacillus casei enzyme complex. MM2 molecular mechanical calculations predict restricted rotation about the C5-C1 bond of the ligand and this give rise to two slowly interconverting rotamers which are an enantiomeric pair. The results of 19 F NMR spectroscopy reveal that both these isomers bind to the enzyme, with different affinities. There is no detectable interconversion of the bound rotamers themselves on the NMR timescale. The effect of the addition of co-enzyme to the sample is to reverse the preference the enzyme has for each rotamer. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Background concentrations of selected radionuclides, organic compounds, and chemical constituents in ground water in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, B.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Background concentrations of radionuclides, organic compounds, and other chemical constituents in water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in Idaho were estimated from groundwater sample analyses. Detectable concentrations of transuranic elements should not be present in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer. Background concentrations of tritium generally range from 75 to 150 pCi/L. Strontium-90 and iodine-129 concentrations generally are 0 and from 0.05 pCi/L, respectively. At the INEL, comparison of the mean and median concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and iodine-129 indicates that operations locally have affected concentrations in groundwater. Gross alpha-particle and beta-particle radioactivity in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranges from 0 to 5 pCi/L and 0 to 8 pCi/L, respectively. Background gamma radiation in groundwater is attributed to cesium-137, cobalt-60, and potassium-40. Cesium-137 and cobalt-60 concentrations generally are zero in groundwater at the INEL. Naturally occurring concentrations of potassium-40 probably are about 300 pCi/L. Background concentrations of organic compounds in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer generally are less than 0.2 microg/L. Background arsenic and chromium concentrations both are about 2 to 3 microg/L. Barium concentrations are from about 50 to about 70 microg/L. Lead and mercury concentrations generally are less than 5 microg/L and 0.1 microg/L, respectively. Cadmium, selenium, and silver concentrations generally are less than 1 microg/L. Nitrate concentrations range from 0 to about 1.4 mg/L

  8. Metabolite profiling of bendamustine in urine of cancer patients after administration of [14C]bendamustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbelman, Anne-Charlotte; Jansen, Robert S; Rosing, Hilde; Darwish, Mona; Hellriegel, Edward; Robertson, Philmore; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2012-07-01

    Bendamustine is an alkylating agent consisting of a mechlorethamine derivative, a benzimidazole group, and a butyric acid substituent. A human mass balance study showed that bendamustine is extensively metabolized and subsequently excreted in urine. However, limited information is available on the metabolite profile of bendamustine in human urine. The objective of this study was to elucidate the metabolic pathways of bendamustine in humans by identification of its metabolites excreted in urine. Human urine samples were collected up to 168 h after an intravenous infusion of 120 mg/m(2) (80-95 μCi) [(14)C]bendamustine. Metabolites of [(14)C]bendamustine were identified using liquid chromatography (high-resolution)-tandem mass spectrometry with off-line radioactivity detection. Bendamustine and a total of 25 bendamustine-related compounds were detected. Observed metabolic conversions at the benzimidazole and butyric acid moiety were N-demethylation and γ-hydroxylation. In addition, various other combinations of these conversions with modifications at the mechlorethamine moiety were observed, including hydrolysis (the primary metabolic pathway), cysteine conjugation, and subsequent biotransformation to mercapturic acid and thiol derivatives, N-dealkylation, oxidation, and conjugation with phosphate, creatinine, and uric acid. Bendamustine-derived products containing phosphate, creatinine, and uric acid conjugates were also detected in control urine incubated with bendamustine. Metabolites that were excreted up to 168 h after the infusion included products of dihydrolysis and cysteine conjugation of bendamustine and γ-hydroxybendamustine. The range of metabolic reactions is generally consistent with those reported for rat urine and bile, suggesting that the overall processes involved in metabolic elimination are qualitatively the same in rats and humans.

  9. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  10. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples

  11. Development of a method based on on-line reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled by means of an adsorption-desorption interface for the analysis of selected chiral volatile compounds in methyl jasmonate treated strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema; Ruiz Del Castillo, Maria Luisa

    2010-02-12

    A method based on the use of the through oven transfer adsorption-desorption (TOTAD) interface in on-line coupling between reversed phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (RPLC-GC) for the determination of chiral volatile compounds was developed. In particular, the method was applied to the study of the influence of methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment on the production and enantiomeric composition of selected aroma compounds in strawberry. The compounds studied were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (i.e. furaneol), which were examined on days 3, 6 and 9 after treatment. The method developed resulted in relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 21.6%, 8.1% and 9.8% and limits of detection (LD) of 0.04, 0.07 and 0.02mg/l for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol, respectively. The application of the RPLC-TOTAD-GC method allowed higher levels of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, linalool and furaneol to be detected, particularly after 9 days of treatment. Besides, MJ demonstrated to affect the enantiomeric distribution of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. On the contrary, the enantiomeric composition of linalool and furaneol kept constant in both control and MJ-treated strawberries throughout the study. These results are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolites of 5F-AKB-48, a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, identified in human urine and liver microsomal preparations using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Niels Bjerre; Pedersen, Anders Just; Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    New types of synthetic cannabinoid designer drugs are constantly introduced to the illicit drug market to circumvent legislation. Recently, N-​(1-Adamant​yl)-​1-​(5-​fluoropentyl)-​1H-​indazole-​3-​carboxamide (5F-AKB-48), also known as 5F-APINACA, was identified as an adulterant in herbal products. This compound deviates from earlier JHW-type synthetic cannabinoids by having an indazole ring connected to an adamantyl group via a carboxamide linkage. Synthetic cannabinoids are completely metabolized, and identification of the metabolites is thus crucial when using urine as the sample matrix. Using an authentic urine sample and high-resolution accurate-mass Fourier transform Orbitrap mass spectrometry, we identified 16 phase-I metabolites of 5F-AKB-48. The modifications included mono-, di-, and trihydroxylation on the adamantyl ring alone or in combination with hydroxylation on the N-fluoropentylindazole moiety, dealkylation of the N-fluoropentyl side chain, and oxidative loss of fluorine as well as combinations thereof. The results were compared to human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations, which predominantly showed time-dependent formation of mono-, di-, and trihydroxylated metabolites having the hydroxyl groups on the adamantyl ring. The results presented here may be used to select metabolites specific of 5F-AKB-48 for use in clinical and forensic screening. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  14. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  15. A Direct Aqueous Derivatization GSMS Method for Determining Benzoylecgonine Concentrations in Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Da Valle, Ylenia; Giusiani, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and reliable method for extraction and quantification of benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaine (COC) in urine is presented. Propyl-chloroformate was used as derivatizing agent, and it was directly added to the urine sample: the propyl derivative and COC were then recovered by liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect the analytes in selected ion monitoring mode. The method proved to be precise for BZE and COC both in term of intraday and interday analysis, with a coefficient of variation (CV)0.999 and >0.997, respectively) within the range investigated. The method, applied to thirty authentic samples, showed to be very simple, fast, and reliable, so it can be easily applied in routine analysis for the quantification of BZE and COC in urine samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Combined Metabolomic Analysis of Plasma and Urine Reveals AHBA, Tryptophan and Serotonin Metabolism as Potential Risk Factors in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Leitner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has severe implications for the health of the mother and the fetus. Therefore, early prediction and an understanding of the physiology are an important part of prenatal care. Metabolite profiling is a long established method for the analysis and prediction of metabolic diseases. Here, we applied untargeted and targeted metabolomic protocols to analyze plasma and urine samples of pregnant women with and without GDM. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of metabolomic profiles revealed markers such as 2-hydroxybutanoic acid (AHBA, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid (BHBA, amino acids valine and alanine, the glucose-alanine-cycle, but also plant-derived compounds like sitosterin as different between control and GDM patients. PLS-DA and VIP analysis revealed tryptophan as a strong variable separating control and GDM. As tryptophan is biotransformed to serotonin we hypothesized whether serotonin metabolism might also be altered in GDM. To test this hypothesis we applied a method for the analysis of serotonin, metabolic intermediates and dopamine in urine by stable isotope dilution direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SID-MS. Indeed, serotonin and related metabolites differ significantly between control and GDM patients confirming the involvement of serotonin metabolism in GDM. Clustered correlation coefficient visualization of metabolite correlation networks revealed the different metabolic signatures between control and GDM patients. Eventually, the combination of selected blood plasma and urine sample metabolites improved the AUC prediction accuracy to 0.99. The detected GDM candidate biomarkers and the related systemic metabolic signatures are discussed in their pathophysiological context. Further studies with larger cohorts are necessary to underpin these observations.

  17. Effect of Cow Urine on the Growth Characteristics of Fusarium lateritium, an Important Coffee Fungus in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Gotora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro assay was carried out to establish if cow urine at different concentrations (500 µL/mL, 300 µL/mL, 200 µL/mL, and 100 µL/mL can be used to control the growth of F. lateritium, the fungal agent causing Fusarium bark disease in coffee. The growth characteristics selected were conidial germination, germ tube length, mycelial growth rate, and sporulation. Copper oxychloride 50% W.P. was the standard, distilled water was the negative control, and undiluted cow urine was the positive control. The undiluted cow urine was most effective in inhibiting fungal growth with the rest of the cow urine concentrations showing dose dependent efficacy compared to the negative control (P < 0.01. Copper oxychloride had the highest efficacy of all treatments with the exception of the inhibition of mycelial growth where undiluted cow urine had higher efficacy and sporulation where efficacy was comparable to undiluted cow urine. There is potential for the use of cow urine as a means of controlling Fusarium bark disease with other advantages being availability, low cost, and limited environmental damage.

  18. Comparative metabolism and elimination of acetanilide compounds by rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K L; Larsen, G L; Feil, V J

    1994-10-01

    1. 14C-labelled propachlor, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, methoxypropachlor and some of their mercapturic acid pathway metabolites (MAP) were given to rat either by gavage or by perfusion into a renal artery. MAP metabolites were isolated from bile and urine. 2. Rat gavaged with propachlor and methoxypropachlor eliminated 14C mostly in urine, whereas rat gavaged with alachlor, butachlor and metolachlor eliminated 14C about equally divided between urine and faeces. When bile ducts were cannulated, the gavaged rat eliminated most of the 14C in bile for all compounds. The amount of 14C in bile from the propachlor-gavaged rat was less than that for the other acetanilides, with the difference being in the urine. 3. The mercapturic acid metabolites 2-methylsulphinyl-N-(1-methylhydroxyethyl)-N-phenylacetam ide and 2-methylsulphinyl-N-(1-methylmethoxyethyl)-N-phenylacetam ide were isolated from the urine and bile of the methoxypropachlor-gavaged rat. 4. Bile was the major route for 14C elimination when MAP metabolites of alachlor, butachlor and metolachlor were perfused into a renal artery. Urine was the major route for 14C elimination when MAP metabolites of propachlor and methoxypropachlor were perfused. Mercapturic acid conjugates were major metabolites in bile and urine when MAP metabolites were perfused. 5. We conclude that alkyl groups on the phenyl portion of the acetanilide causes biliary elimination to be favoured over urinary elimination.

  19. Urine storage under refrigeration preserves the sample in chemical, cellularity and bacteriuria analysis of ACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cristina Barcellos Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The analysis of urine abnormal constituents and sediment (ACS comprises tests of great diagnostic and prognostic value in clinical practice. When the analysis of ACS cannot be performed within two hours after collection, the sample must be preserved in order to avoid pre-analytical interferences. Refrigeration is the most applied technique due to its cost effectiveness. Moreover, it presents fewer inconveniences when compared to chemical preservation. However, changes in ACS may also occur in samples under refrigeration. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of refrigeration at 2 to 8ºC on the storage of urine samples within 24 hours. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 80 urine samples were selected from patients admitted at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF university hospital, which were tested for ACS at room temperature and stored under refrigeration for 6, 12 and 24 hours. RESULTS: The results showed that refrigeration proved to be effective when compared to samples kept at room temperature, inasmuch as the physical, chemical, microbial and cellularity features were preserved. Nevertheless, crystalluria was present after a 6- hour storage period. CONCLUSION: The tests revealed that cooling preserved cellularity and chemical characteristics of urine samples for up to 12 hours. Nonetheless, the precipitation of crystals was evident in this storage method. Thus, the possible consequences of storing urine samples for ACS test under these conditions should be included in the analysis report.

  20. Analysis of urine samples from metastatic bone cancer patients administered 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, W.F.; Stoneburner, L.K.; Price, D.R.; Fordyce, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    153 Sm-EDTMP is currently undergoing clinical evaluation as a radiotherapeutic agent for the relief of pain associated with cancer metastatic to bone. These clinical studies have demonstrated biodistributions similar to those seen earlier in animals, namely, rapid clearance from blood, selective uptake in bone and in particular metastatic bone lesions. The radioactivity not deposited in bone is cleared through the kidneys into the urine. In this study, urine samples collected from 9 patients injected with 153 Sm-EDTMP underwent complexation analysis via Pharmacia SP-Sephadex C25 cation exchange chromatography. The results showed 96.9 ± 1.7% of the radioactivity in the urine to be present as a complex of 153 Sm. An HPLC method was developed and it was demonstrated that different complexes of 153 Sm could be separated. A non-radioactive analytical standard of the Sm-EDTMP chelate was synthesized, characterized and shown to have the same HPLC retention profile as the 153 -EDTMP drug product. HPLC analysis was performed on six urine samples and in each case a single radioactivity peak with an elution profile the same as that of a 153 Sm-EDTMP standard was observed. These results indicate that the 153 Sm-EDTMP chelate is excreted intact in the urine of patients. (Author)

  1. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  2. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  3. Characterization of a series of anabaseine-derived compounds reveals that the 3-(4)-dimethylaminocinnamylidine derivative is a selective agonist at neuronal nicotinic alpha 7/125I-alpha-bungarotoxin receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Meyer, E M; Henry, J C; Muraskin, S I; Kem, W R; Papke, R L

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of the naturally occurring, nicotinic agonist anabaseine and novel derivatives has shown that these compounds have cytoprotective and memory-enhancing effects. The hypothesis that these arise at least in part through actions on brain nicotinic receptors was evaluated by examining the ability of these compounds to displace the binding of nicotinic ligands and to affect the function of the alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 7 receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The derivative 3-(4)-dimethylaminocinnamylidine anabaseine (DMAC) was found to be a selective alpha 7 receptor agonist; it was more potent than nicotine, acetylcholine, anabaseine, and other derivatives at activating the alpha 7 receptor subtype, while displaying little agonist activity at alpha 4 beta 2 and other receptor subtypes. Compared with anabaseine and the other derivatives, DMAC was the most potent at displacing 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin binding (putative alpha 7) and the least potent at displacing [3H]cytisine binding (putative alpha 4 beta 2) to brain membranes. Independently of agonist activities, all of the novel compounds displayed secondary inhibitory activity at both receptor subtypes. At the alpha 4 beta 2 receptor subtype, inhibition by the 3-(2,4)-dimethoxybenzylidene derivative was enhanced by coapplication of acetylcholine, suggesting a noncompetitive form of inhibition. Anabaseine and nicotine prolonged the time course of activation of alpha 4 beta 2 receptors, compared with acetylcholine, suggesting sequential channel-blocking activity. As selective agonists, anabaseine derivatives such as DMAC may be useful for elucidating the function of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors, including their potential role(s) in the cytoprotective and memory-enhancing effects of nicotinic agents.

  4. Effect of blood contamination on results of dipstick evaluation and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio for urine samples from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Behrend, Ellen N; Welles, Elizabeth G; Chew, Dennis J; Gaillard, Philippe R; Busler, Jessica N; Lee, Hollie P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of blood contamination on dipstick results, specific gravity (SG), and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio (UPCR) for urine samples from dogs and cats. SAMPLE Urine samples collected from 279 dogs and 120 cats. PROCEDURES Urine pools were made for each species (dogs [n = 60] and cats [30]). Blood was added to an aliquot of a pool, and serial dilutions were prepared with the remaining urine. Color and dipstick variables were recorded, and SG and UPCR were measured. For cats, 1 set of pools was used; for dogs, 2 sets were used. Comparisons were made between undiluted urine and spiked urine samples for individual colors. Repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare dipstick scores and UPCR results; χ 2 tests were used to compare proteinuria categorizations (nonproteinuric, borderline, or proteinuric). RESULTS Any blood in the urine resulted in significantly increased dipstick scores for blood. In both species, scores for bilirubin and ketones, pH, and SG were affected by visible blood contamination. No significant difference for the dipstick protein reagent results was evident until a sample was visibly hematuric. The UPCR was significantly increased in dark yellow samples of both species. Proteinuria categorizations differed significantly between undiluted urine and urine of all colors, except light yellow. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Any degree of blood contamination affected results of dipstick analysis. Effects depended on urine color and the variable measured. Microscopic blood contamination may affect the UPCR; thus, blood contamination may be a differential diagnosis for proteinuria in yellow urine samples.

  5. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  6. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  7. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zava, Theodore T.; Kapur, Sonia; Zava, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R 2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R 2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  8. The effect of soil mineral phases on the abiotic degradation of selected organic compounds. Progress report, June 31, 1990--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1993-05-31

    Tetraphenylborate (TPB) is used to precipitate radioactive 137Cs from high-level nuclear waste water at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operated by the US DOE at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The process is part of the procedure for the glassification of high-level nuclear waste in preparation for its long-term geological disposal. The decontaminated waste water contains millimolar quantities of TPB that will be processed into salt concretions. The transporation and use of large amounts of TPB can potentially result in the release of TPB into soil or aquatic environments. Previous study has shown that TPB degrades in soils to initially form diphenylborinic acid (DPBA) and biphenyl. DPBA appears to degrade further into other unidentified compounds which subsequently degrade into inorganic boron. The factors which promote the abiotic degradation of TPB need to be investigated since this chemical is used in the processing of radioactive wastes. TPB and its intermediate product, DPBA, have been reported to be toxic to microorganisms and plants, dependent on soil or water environments for their survival and growth.

  9. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-12-01

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R 1 ), ozonated (R 2 ) and catalytic ozonated (R 3 ) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH 3 -N and TN in R 3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single-laborat