WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected tin-based lead-free

  1. Thermal analysis of selected tin-based lead-free solder alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián; Sopoušek, J.; Trnková, L.

    2009-01-01

    ) and thermodynamic calculations using the CALPHAD approach. The amount of the alloying elements in the materials was chosen to be close to the respective eutectic composition and the nominal compositions were the following: Sn-3.7Ag-0.7Cu, Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-1Bi (in wt.%). Thermal effects during melting and solidifying...... were experimentally studied by the DSC technique. The microstructure of the samples was determined by the light microscopy and the composition of solidified phases was obtained by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The solidification behaviour under equilibrium conditions...

  2. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  3. Lead-free piezoceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-04

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  4. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  5. Size effects in tin-based lead-free solder joints: Kinetics of bond formation and mechanical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Ousama Mohamed Omer

    Continuous miniaturization of microelectronic interconnects demands smaller joints with comparable microstructural and structural sizes. As the size of joints become smaller, the volume of intermetallics (IMCs) becomes comparable with the joint size. As a result, the kinetics of bond formation changes and the types and thicknesses of IMC phases that form within the constrained region of the bond varies. This dissertation focuses on investigating combination effects of process parameters and size on kinetics of bond formation, resulting microstructure and the mechanical properties of joints that are formed under structurally constrained conditions. An experiment is designed where several process parameters such as time of bonding, temperature, and pressure, and bond thickness as structural chracteristic, are varied at multiple levels. The experiment is then implemented on the process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is then utilized to determine the bond thickness, IMC phases and their thicknesses, and morphology of the bonds. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is used to determine the grain size in different regions, including the bulk solder, and different IMC phases. Physics-based analytical models have been developed for growth kinetics of IMC compounds and are verified using the experimental results. Nanoindentation is used to determine the mechanical behavior of IMC phases in joints in different scales. Four-point bending notched multilayer specimen and four-point bending technique were used to determine fracture toughness of the bonds containing IMCs. Analytical modeling of peeling and shear stresses and fracture toughness in tri-layer four-point bend specimen containing intermetallic layer was developed and was verified and validated using finite element simulation and experimental results. The experiment is used in conjunction with the model to calculate and verify the fracture toughness of Cu6Sn5 IMC materials. As expected two different IMC phases, η-phase (Cu6Sn 5) and epsilon-phase (Cu3Sn), were found in almost all the cases regardless of the process parameters and size levels. The physics-based analytical model was successfully able to capture the governing mechanisms of IMC growth: chemical reaction controlled and diffusion-controlled. Examination of microstructures of solder joints of different sizes revealed the size of the solder joint has no effect on the type of IMCs formed during the process. Joint size, however, affected the thickness of IMC layers significantly. IMC layers formed in the solder joints of smaller sizes were found to be thicker than those in the solder joints of larger sizes. The growth rate constants and activation energies of Cu3Sn IMC layer were also reported and related to joint thickness. In an effort to optimize the EBSD imaging in the multi-layer configuration, an improved specimen preparation technique and optimum software parameters were determined. Nanoindentation results show that size effects play a major role on the mechanical properties of micro-scale solder joints. Smaller joints show higher Young's modulus, hardness, and yield strength and lower work hardening exponents comparing to thicker joints. To obtain the stress concentration factors in a multilayer specimen with IMC layer as bonding material, a four-point bending notched configuration was used. The analytical solutions developed for peeling and shear stresses in notched structure were used to evaluate the stresses at IMC interface layers. Results were in good agreement with the finite-element simulation. The values of interfacial stresses were utilized in obtaining fracture toughness of the IMC material. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Lead free solder mechanics and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, John Hock Lye

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free solders are used extensively as interconnection materials in electronic assemblies and play a critical role in the global semiconductor packaging and electronics manufacturing industry. Electronic products such as smart phones, notebooks and high performance computers rely on lead-free solder joints to connect IC chip components to printed circuit boards. Lead Free Solder: Mechanics and Reliability provides in-depth design knowledge on lead-free solder elastic-plastic-creep and strain-rate dependent deformation behavior and its application in failure assessment of solder joint reliability. It includes coverage of advanced mechanics of materials theory and experiments, mechanical properties of solder and solder joint specimens, constitutive models for solder deformation behavior; numerical modeling and simulation of solder joint failure subject to thermal cycling, mechanical bending fatigue, vibration fatigue and board-level drop impact tests. This book also: Discusses the mechanical prope...

  7. Efficient Lead-Free Solar Cells Based on Hollow {en}MASnI3 Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weijun; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Mao, Lingling; Chen, Michelle; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-10-18

    Tin-based perovskites have very comparable electronic properties to lead-based perovskites and are regarded as possible lower toxicity alternates for solar cell applications. However, the efficiency of tin-based perovskite solar cells is still low and they exhibit poor air stability. Here, we report lead-free tin-based solar cells with greatly enhanced performance and stability using so-called "hollow" ethylenediammonium and methylammonium tin iodide ({en}MASnI 3 ) perovskite as absorbers. Our results show that en can improve the film morphology and most importantly can serve as a new cation to be incorporated into the 3D MASnI 3 lattice. When the cation of en becomes part of the 3D structure, a high density of SnI 2 vacancies is created resulting in larger band gap, larger unit cell volume, lower trap-state density, and much longer carrier lifetime compared to classical MASnI 3 . The best-performing {en}MASnI 3 solar cell has achieved a high efficiency of 6.63% with an open circuit voltage of 428.67 mV, a short-circuit current density of 24.28 mA cm -2 , and a fill factor of 63.72%. Moreover, the {en}MASnI 3 device shows much better air stability than the neat MASnI 3 device. Comparable performance is also achieved for cesium tin iodide solar cells with en loading, demonstrating the broad scope of this approach.

  8. NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current state of the lead-free electronics project. It characterizes the test articles, which were built with lead-free solder and lead-free component finishes. The tests performed and reported on are: thermal cycling, combine environments testing, mechanical shock testing, vibration testing and drop testing.

  9. Progress in engineering high strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontsev, Serhiy O; Eitel, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns are strongly driving the need to replace the lead-based piezoelectric materials currently employed as multilayer actuators. The current review describes both compositional and structural engineering approaches to achieve enhanced piezoelectric properties in lead-free materials. The review of the compositional engineering approach focuses on compositional tuning of the properties and phase behavior in three promising families of lead-free perovskite ferroelectrics: the titanate, alkaline niobate and bismuth perovskites and their solid solutions. The 'structural engineering' approaches focus instead on optimization of microstructural features including grain size, grain orientation or texture, ferroelectric domain size and electrical bias field as potential paths to induce large piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoceramics. It is suggested that a combination of both compositional and novel structural engineering approaches will be required in order to realize viable lead-free alternatives to current lead-based materials for piezoelectric actuator applications. (topical review)

  10. Progress in engineering high strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontsev, Serhiy O; Eitel, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns are strongly driving the need to replace the lead-based piezoelectric materials currently employed as multilayer actuators. The current review describes both compositional and structural engineering approaches to achieve enhanced piezoelectric properties in lead-free materials. The review of the compositional engineering approach focuses on compositional tuning of the properties and phase behavior in three promising families of lead-free perovskite ferroelectrics: the titanate, alkaline niobate and bismuth perovskites and their solid solutions. The ‘structural engineering’ approaches focus instead on optimization of microstructural features including grain size, grain orientation or texture, ferroelectric domain size and electrical bias field as potential paths to induce large piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoceramics. It is suggested that a combination of both compositional and novel structural engineering approaches will be required in order to realize viable lead-free alternatives to current lead-based materials for piezoelectric actuator applications. PMID:27877343

  11. NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). depots. and support contractors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain thaI increasingly provides parts with lead-free finishes. some labeled no differently and intenningled with their SnPb counterparts. Allowance oflead-free components presents one of the greatest risks to the reliability of military and aerospace electronics. The introduction of components with lead-free lenninations, tennination finishes, or circuit boards presents a host of concerns to customers. suppliers, and maintainers of aerospace and military electronic systems such as: 1. Electrical shorting due to tin whiskers; 2. Incompatibility oflead-free processes and parameters (including higher melting points of lead-free alloys) with other materials in the system; and 3. Unknown material properties and incompatibilities that could reduce solder joint re liability.

  12. High Energy, Lead-Free Ignition Formulation for Thermate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tracy, Gene

    2002-01-01

    ... in the AN-Ml4 thermate grenade. This lead-free formulation has provided reliable ignition of the XM89 over a temperature range of -25 degrees F - 120 degrees F when using the M201 Al fuze as the initiator...

  13. Lead-Free Experiment in a Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, J. F.; Strickland, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum addresses the Lead-Free Technology Experiment in Space Environment that flew as part of the seventh Materials International Space Station Experiment outside the International Space Station for approximately 18 months. Its intent was to provide data on the performance of lead-free electronics in an actual space environment. Its postflight condition is compared to the preflight condition as well as to the condition of an identical package operating in parallel in the laboratory. Some tin whisker growth was seen on a flight board but the whiskers were few and short. There were no solder joint failures, no tin pest formation, and no significant intermetallic compound formation or growth on either the flight or ground units.

  14. Characterization of lead-free solders for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongtao

    The characterization of lead-free solders, especially after isothermal aging, is very important in order to accurately predict the reliability of solder joints. However, due to lack of experimental testing standards and the high homologous temperature of solder alloys (Th > 0.5T m even at room temperature), there are very large discrepancies in both the tensile and creep properties provided in current databases for both lead-free and Sn-Pb solder alloys. In this research, mechanical measurements of isothermal aging effects and the resulting changes in the materials behavior of lead-free solders were performed. A novel specimen preparation procedure was developed where the solder uniaxial test specimens are formed in high precision rectangular cross-section glass tubes using a vacuum suction process. Using specimens fabricated with the developed procedure, isothermal aging effects and viscoplastic material behavior evolution have been characterized for 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405) and 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solders, which are commonly used as the solder ball alloy in lead-free BGAs and other components. Analogous tests were performed with 63Sn-37Pb eutectic solder samples for comparison purposes. Up to 40% reduction in tensile strength was observed for water quenched specimens after two months of aging at room temperature. Creep deformation also increased dramatically with increasing aging durations. Microstructural changes during room temperature aging were also observed and recorded for the solder alloys and correlated with the observed mechanical behavior changes. Aging effects at elevated temperatures for up to 6 months were also investigated. Thermal aging caused significant tensile strength loss and deterioration of creep deformation. The thermal aging results also showed that after an initial tensile strength drop, the Sn-Pb eutectic solder reached a relatively stable stage after 200 hours of aging. However, for SAC alloy, both the tensile and

  15. SIGNUM: A Matlab, TIN-based landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refice, A.; Giachetta, E.; Capolongo, D.

    2012-08-01

    Several numerical landscape evolution models (LEMs) have been developed to date, and many are available as open source codes. Most are written in efficient programming languages such as Fortran or C, but often require additional code efforts to plug in to more user-friendly data analysis and/or visualization tools to ease interpretation and scientific insight. In this paper, we present an effort to port a common core of accepted physical principles governing landscape evolution directly into a high-level language and data analysis environment such as Matlab. SIGNUM (acronym for Simple Integrated Geomorphological Numerical Model) is an independent and self-contained Matlab, TIN-based landscape evolution model, built to simulate topography development at various space and time scales. SIGNUM is presently capable of simulating hillslope processes such as linear and nonlinear diffusion, fluvial incision into bedrock, spatially varying surface uplift which can be used to simulate changes in base level, thrust and faulting, as well as effects of climate changes. Although based on accepted and well-known processes and algorithms in its present version, it is built with a modular structure, which allows to easily modify and upgrade the simulated physical processes to suite virtually any user needs. The code is conceived as an open-source project, and is thus an ideal tool for both research and didactic purposes, thanks to the high-level nature of the Matlab environment and its popularity among the scientific community. In this paper the simulation code is presented together with some simple examples of surface evolution, and guidelines for development of new modules and algorithms are proposed.

  16. Lead-free piezoceramics – Where to move on?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hyo Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free piezoceramics aiming at replacing the market-dominant lead-based ones have been extensively searched for more than a decade worldwide. Some noteworthy outcomes such as the advent of commercial products for certain applications have been reported, but the goal, i.e., the invention of a lead-free piezocermic, the performance of which is equivalent or even superior to that of PZT-based piezoceramics, does not seem to be fulfilled yet. Nevertheless, the academic effort already seems to be culminated, waiting for a guideline to a future research direction. We believe that a driving force for a restoration of this research field needs to be found elsewhere, for example, intimate collaborations with related industries. For this to be effectively realized, it would be helpful for academic side to understand the interests and demands of the industry side as well as to provide the industry with new scientific insights that would eventually lead to new applications. Therefore, this review covers some of the issues that are to be studied further and deeper, so-to-speak, lessons from the history of piezoceramics, and some technical issues that could be useful in better understanding the industry demands. As well, the efforts made in the industry side will be briefly introduced for the academic people to catch up with the recent trends and to be guided for setting up their future research direction effectively.

  17. Possible Lead Free Nanocomposite Dielectrics for High Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kurpati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand to improve the energy density of dielectric capacitors for satisfying the next generation material systems. One effective approach is to embed high dielectric constant inclusions such as lead zirconia titanate in polymer matrix. However, with the increasing concerns on environmental safety and biocompatibility, the need to expel lead (Pb from modern electronics has been receiving more attention. Using high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires could lead to further enhancement of energy density. Therefore, the present brief review work focuses on the feasibility of development of a lead-free nanowire reinforced polymer matrix capacitor for energy storage application. It is expected that Lead-free sodium Niobate nanowires (NaNbO3 and Boron nitride will be a future candidate to be synthesized using simple hydrothermal method, followed by mixing them with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/ divinyl tetramethyl disiloxanebis (benzocyclobutene matrix using a solution-casting method for Nanocomposites fabrication. The energy density of NaNbO3 and BN based composites are also be compared with that of lead-containing (PbTiO3/PVDF Nano composites to show the feasibility of replacing lead-containing materials from high-energy density dielectric capacitors. Further, this paper explores the feasibility of these materials for space applications because of high energy storage capacity, more flexibility and high operating temperatures. This paper is very much useful researchers who would like to work on polymer nanocomposites for high energy storage applications.

  18. Lead-free bearing alloys for engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Lorenz; Ågren, John; Ludwig, Andreas; Tonn, Babette; Gránásy, László; Mathiesen, Ragnvald; Arnberg, Lars; Anger, Gerd; Reifenhäuser, Bernd; Lauer, Michael; Garen, Rune; Gust, Edgar

    2005-10-01

    Recent developments to reduce the fuel consumption, emission and air pollution, size and weight of engines for automotive, truck, ship propulsion and electrical power generation lead to temperature and load conditions within the engines that cannot be borne by conventional bearings. Presently, only costly multilayer bearings with electroplated or sputtered surface coatings can cope with the load/speed combinations required. Ecological considerations in recent years led to a ban by the European Commission on the use of lead in cars a problem for the standard bronze-lead bearing material. This MAP project is therefore developing an aluminium-based lead-free bearing material with sufficient hardness, wear and friction properties and good corrosion resistance. Only alloys made of components immiscible in the molten state can meet the demanding requirements. Space experimentation plays a crucial role in optimising the cast microstructure for such applications.

  19. An Approach for Impression Creep of Lead Free Microelectronic Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Onofrio A.

    2002-06-01

    Currently, the microelectronics industry is transitioning from lead-containing to lead-free solders in response to legislation in the EU and Japan. Before an alternative alloy can be designated as a replacement for current Pb-Sn extensive testing must be accomplished. One major characteristic of the alloy that must be considered is creep. Traditionally, creep testing requires numerous samples and a long tin, which thwarts the generation of comprehensive creep databases for difficult to prepare samples such as microelectronic solder joints. However, a relatively new technique, impression creep enables us to rapidly generate creep data. This test uses a cylindrical punch with a flat end to make an impression on the surface of a specimen under constant load. The steady state velocity of the indenter is found to have the same stress and temperature dependence as the conventional unidirectional creep test using bulk specimens. This thesis examines impression creep tests of eutectic Sn-Ag. A testing program and apparatus was developed constructed based on a servo hydraulic test frame. The apparatus is capable of a load resolution of 0.01N with a stability of plus/minus 0.1N, and a displacement resolution of 0.05 microns with a stability of plus/minus 0.1 microns. Samples of eutectic Sn-Ag solder were reflowed to develop the microstructure used in microelectronic packaging. Creep tests were conducted at various stresses and temperatures and showed that coarse microstructures creep more rapidly than the microstructures in the tested regime.

  20. Characterization of the microstructure of tin-silver lead free solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtony, Tamás, E-mail: hurtony@ett.bme.hu [Department of Electronics Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Egry József utca 18, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szakál, Alex; Almásy, László [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Len, Adél [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs (Hungary); Kugler, Sándor [Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary); Bonyár, Attila; Gordon, Péter [Department of Electronics Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Egry József utca 18, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-07-05

    Reliability and lifetime are the two most relevant design considerations in the production of safety critical assemblies. For example in a modern automobile dozens of electronic assemblies are integrated in which thousands of solder joints are mounting the electronic components to the printed circuit boards. There exists no standardised and universal observation method for characterising the fine microstructure of such solder joints. Previously we have developed a new method for the quantitative characterization of lead-free solder alloys and in present study the validity of the proposed method is demonstrated. Microstructure of Sn-3.5Ag lead free solder alloy was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Solder samples were solidified with different cooling rates in order to induce differences in the microstructure. Microstructure of the ingots was revealed by selective electrochemical etching. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were measured before and after the selective etching process. The complex impedance spectra contain information about microstructure of the solder alloys. Comparison and modelling of two EIS spectra allowed obtaining a characteristic parameter of surface structure of the etched specimens. The EIS measurements were complemented with small angle neutron scattering measurements and scanning electron microscopy, in order to correlate the EIS parameter with the magnitude of the interface of the β-Sn and Ag{sub 3}Sn phases.

  1. KNN–NTK composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T., E-mail: ta-matsuoka@mg.ngkntk.co.jp; Kozuka, H.; Kitamura, K.; Yamada, H.; Kurahashi, T.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K. [NGK SPARK PLUG Co., Ltd., 2808 Iwasaki, Komaki, Aichi 485-8510 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    A (K,Na)NbO₃-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was successfully densified. It exhibited an enhanced electromechanical coupling factor of kₚ=0.52, a piezoelectric constant d₃₃=252 pC/N, and a frequency constant Nₚ=3170 Hz m because of the incorporation of an elaborate secondary phase composed primarily of KTiNbO₅. The ceramic's nominal composition was 0.92K₀.₄₂Na₀.₄₄Ca₀.₀₄Li₀.₀₂Nb₀.₈₅O₃–0.047K₀.₈₅Ti₀.₈₅Nb₁.₁₅O₅–0.023BaZrO₃ –0.0017Co₃O₄–0.002Fe₂O₃–0.005ZnO, abbreviated herein as KNN–NTK composite. The KNN–NTK ceramic exhibited a dense microstructure with few microvoids which significantly degraded its piezoelectric properties. Elemental maps recorded using transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM–EDS) revealed regions of high concentrations of Co and Zn inside the NTK phase. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that a small portion of the NTK phase was converted into K₂(Ti,Nb,Co,Zn)₆O₁₃ or CoZnTiO₄ by a possible reaction between Co and Zn solutes and the NTK phase during a programmed sintering schedule. TEM studies also clarified a distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces. Such an NTK phase filled voids between KNN particles, resulting in an improved chemical stability of the KNN ceramic. The manufacturing process was subsequently scaled to 100 kg per batch for granulated ceramic powder using a spray-drying technique. The properties of the KNN–NTK composite ceramic produced using the scaled-up method were confirmed to be identical to those of the ceramic prepared by conventional solid-state reaction sintering. Consequently, slight changes in the NTK phase composition and the distortion around the KNN/NTK interfaces affected the KNN–NTK composite ceramic's piezoelectric characteristics.

  2. Interfacial Reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloy on Cu: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Mei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the function and importance of Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys in electronics industry and the interfacial reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joint at various solder forms and solder reflow conditions. The Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys are examined in bulk and in thin film. It then examines the effect of soldering conditions to the formation of intermetallic compounds such as Cu substrate selection, structural phases, morphology evolution, the growth kinetics, temperature and time is also discussed. Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder alloys are the most promising candidate for the replacement of Sn-Pb solders in modern microelectronic technology. Sn-Ag-Cu solders could possibly be considered and adapted in miniaturization technologies. Therefore, this paper should be of great interest to a large selection of electronics interconnect materials, reliability, processes, and assembly community.

  3. Lead Free Frangible Ammunition Exposure at United States Air Force Small Arms Firing Ranges, 2005 - 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moran, Michael P; Ott, Darrin K

    2008-01-01

    ...) has performed related to health concerns expressed by Security Forces Combat Arms (CATM) instructors regarding exposure to contaminants generated during the discharge of lead free frangible ammunition...

  4. Current Problems and Possible Solutions in High-Temperature Lead-Free Soldering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Aleš; Andersson, D.; Hoo, N.; Pearce, J.; Watson, A.; Dinsdale, A.; Mucklejohn, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2012), s. 629-637 ISSN 1059-9495 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : lead-free soldering, * materials for high-temperature LF * new technologies for HT lead-free soldering Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2012

  5. Lead-free piezoelectric materials and ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Taghaddos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials have been vastly used in ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging. In this paper, firstly, the most promising lead-free compositions with perovskite structure for medical imaging applications have been reviewed. The electromechanical properties of various lead-free ceramics, composites, and single crystals based on barium titanate, bismuth sodium titanate, potassium sodium niobate, and lithium niobate are presented. Then, fundamental principles and design considerations of ultrasonic transducers are briefly described. Finally, recent developments in lead-free ultrasonic probes are discussed and their acoustic performance is compared to lead-based transducers. Focused transducers with different beam focusing methods such as lens focusing and mechanical shaping are explained. Additionally, acoustic characteristics of lead-free probes including the pulse-echo results as well as their imaging capabilities for various applications such as phantom imaging, in vitro intravascular ultrasound imaging of swine aorta, and in vivo or ex vivo imaging of human eyes and skin are reviewed.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in engineering high strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontsev, Serhiy O.; Eitel, Richard E.

    2010-08-01

    Environmental concerns are strongly driving the need to replace the lead-based piezoelectric materials currently employed as multilayer actuators. The current review describes both compositional and structural engineering approaches to achieve enhanced piezoelectric properties in lead-free materials. The review of the compositional engineering approach focuses on compositional tuning of the properties and phase behavior in three promising families of lead-free perovskite ferroelectrics: the titanate, alkaline niobate and bismuth perovskites and their solid solutions. The 'structural engineering' approaches focus instead on optimization of microstructural features including grain size, grain orientation or texture, ferroelectric domain size and electrical bias field as potential paths to induce large piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoceramics. It is suggested that a combination of both compositional and novel structural engineering approaches will be required in order to realize viable lead-free alternatives to current lead-based materials for piezoelectric actuator applications.

  7. High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives: Possibilities and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-temperature solders have been widely used as joining materials to provide stable interconnections that resist a severe thermal environment and also to facilitate the drive for miniaturization. High-lead containing solders have been commonly used as high-temperature solders. The development...... of high-temperature lead-free solders has become an important issue for both the electronics and automobile industries because of the health and environmental concerns associated with lead usage. Unfortunately, limited choices are available as high-temperature lead-free solders. This work outlines...... the criteria for the evaluation of a new high-temperature lead-free solder material. A list of potential ternary high-temperature lead-free solder alternatives based on the Au-Sn and Au-Ge systems is proposed. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison of the high-temperature stability of microstructures...

  8. Lead-Free Antiferroelectric Silver Niobate Tantalate with High Energy Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Liu, Qing; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Jing-Feng

    2017-08-01

    Antiferroelectric materials that display double ferroelectric hysteresis loops are receiving increasing attention for their superior energy storage density compared to their ferroelectric counterparts. Despite the good properties obtained in antiferroelectric La-doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 -based ceramics, lead-free alternatives are highly desired due to the environmental concerns, and AgNbO 3 has been highlighted as a ferrielectric/antiferroelectric perovskite for energy storage applications. Enhanced energy storage performance, with recoverable energy density of 4.2 J cm -3 and high thermal stability of the energy storage density (with minimal variation of ≤±5%) over 20-120 °C, can be achieved in Ta-modified AgNbO 3 ceramics. It is revealed that the incorporation of Ta to the Nb site can enhance the antiferroelectricity because of the reduced polarizability of B-site cations, which is confirmed by the polarization hysteresis, dielectric tunability, and selected-area electron diffraction measurements. Additionally, Ta addition in AgNbO 3 leads to decreased grain size and increased bulk density, increasing the dielectric breakdown strength, up to 240 kV cm -1 versus 175 kV cm -1 for the pure counterpart, together with the enhanced antiferroelectricity, accounting for the high energy storage density. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effect of Strain Rate on Joint Strength and Failure Mode of Lead-Free Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Guo, Fu

    2018-03-01

    In surface mount technology, the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint has a shorter impact lifetime than a traditional lead-tin solder joint. In order to improve the impact property of SnAgCu lead-free solder joints and identify the effect of silver content on tensile strength and impact property, impact experiments were conducted at various strain rates on three selected SnAgCu based solder joints. It was found that joint failure mainly occurred in the solder material with large plastic deformation under low strain rate, while joint failure occurred at the brittle intermetallic compound layer without any plastic deformation at a high strain rate. Joint strength increased with the silver content in SnAgCu alloys in static tensile tests, while the impact property of the solder joint decreased with increasing silver content. When the strain rate was low, plastic deformation occurred with failure and the tensile strength of the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint was higher than that of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu; when the strain rate was high, joint failure mainly occurred at the brittle interface layer and the Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu solder joint had a better impact resistance with a thinner intermetallic compound layer.

  10. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO3 Piezoelectric Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO3 piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO3 sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO3 nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H3O+ groups in the absorbed H2O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential.

  11. Development of a Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Transducer for Health Monitoring in the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the fabrication process for the development of a flexible piezopolymeric transducer for health monitoring applications, based on lead-free, piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO thin films. All the selected materials are compatible with the space environment and were deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature, in view of preserving the total flexibility of the structures, which is an important requirement to guarantee coupling with cylindrical fuel tanks whose integrity we want to monitor. The overall transducer architecture was made of a c-axis-oriented ZnO thin film coupled to a pair of flexible Polyimide foils coated with gold (Au electrodes. The fabrication process started with the deposition of the bottom electrode on Polyimide foils. The ZnO thin film and the top electrode were then deposited onto the Au/Polyimide substrates. Both the electrodes and ZnO layer were properly patterned by wet-chemical etching and optical lithography. The assembly of the final structure was then obtained by gluing the upper and lower Polyimide foils with an epoxy resin capable of guaranteeing low outgassing levels, as well as adequate thermal and electrical insulation of the transducers. The piezoelectric behavior of the prototypes was confirmed and evaluated by measuring the mechanical displacement induced from the application of an external voltage.

  12. Self-lubricating tribological characterization of lead free Fe-Cu based plain bearing material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhaib Mushtaq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of lead on environment and thereby its reciprocity on the health of mankind, there is a growing emphasis on resisting the usage of lead in bearings. Owing to this, new bearing materials that provide comparable tribological performance to that of lead containing alloys are being developed. In this study, lead free Fe-Cu based powders with addition of elements such as tin, molybdenum disulfide and Nano boron nitride (BN have been developed by powder metallurgy (PM technique in order to improve the tribological and mechanical properties. The powder mixtures were compressed at a pressure of 500 MPa, and then sintered in dry hydrogen atmosphere at 9000C for 50 minutes. The mechanical and tribological properties obtained due to addition of the said elements is presented in this study. The tribological behavior of the selected alloys is analyzed by reciprocating-sliding tests under dry conditions. The morphology of wear scars and the microstructure of the wear surfaces were investigated. The material with 2.5 wt.% of Sn exhibited the highest value of hardness, the material with 7.5 wt.% of Nano BN comparably shows the low coefficient of friction and wear rate as compared with 5 wt.% of Nano BN.

  13. Embeddability behaviour of tin-based bearing material in dry sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeren, Adalet

    2007-01-01

    In this study, tin-based bearing material has been investigated in dry sliding conditions. The low Sb content (7%) is known as SAE 12 and is Sn-Sb-Cu alloy and is widely used in the automotive industry. Wear and friction characteristics were determined with respect to sliding distance, sliding speed and bearing load, using a Tecquipment HFN type 5 journal bearing test equipment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-disperse X-ray spectrography (EDX) are used to understand the tribological events, especially embeddability. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the tribological properties of tin-based bearing alloy used especially in heavy industrial service conditions. Tests were carried out in dry sliding conditions, since despite the presence of lubricant film, under heavy service conditions dry sliding may occur from time to time, causing local wear. As a result of local wear, bearing materials and bearing may be out of their tolerance limits in their early lifetime. Embeddability is an important property due to inversely affecting the hardness and the strength of the bearing

  14. Advancement on Lead-Free Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Faruk; Shafie, Suhaidi; Lim, Hong Ngee; Musa, Abubakar Ohinoyi

    2018-06-14

    Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.

  15. PCBs with immersion tin finish - some experiences with lead-free reflow process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukat, K.; Koziol, G.; Sitek, J.; Borecki, J.; Hackiewicz, H. [Tele and Radio Research Inst., Warsaw (Poland); Merkle, H.; Schroeder, S. [Ormecon Chemie GmbH and Co. KG, Ammersbek (Germany); Girulska, A.; Gardela, K. [Eldos Sp. z o.o., Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Substitution of lead-free solders in electronic assemblies requires changes in the conventional SnPb finishes of PCBs. The Craft project ''PRINT'' objectives respond to this challenge. Its main goal is to develop and implement the new technology of high solderability immersion tin for printed circuit boards at small and medium enterprises. The subject of the research was organic based immersion tin coating which would fulfil demands of SMT. In the paper the results of reflow soldering process on PCBs covered by Ormecon registered immersion tin finish with using lead-free solder pastes will be described. Solderability of tin coating as well as wettability of lead-free solder paste will be presented. (orig.)

  16. Key questions and responses regarding the transition to use of lead-free ammunition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Kanstrup, Niels; Gremse, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Questions and concerns about the use of lead-free ammunition in hunting were encountered during the Oxford Lead Symposium. Many originated from commonly-held, but unsubstantiated, reports that have hindered the transition to use of lead-free ammunition in the UK and elsewhere. This paper examines...... and answers the principal reservations raised about the use of lead-free hunting ammunition. The issue of how the evidence for lead exposure and toxicity to wildlife from discharged lead shot cartridges could be better communicated to the public to enhance adoption of lead–free ammunition is addressed....... The paper presents evidence to assuage concerns about the effectiveness and nontoxicity of lead ammunition substitutes, their suitability for British shooting and weapons, and their role in wildlife health protection. Collectively, these answers to concerns could lower the public resistance to use of lead...

  17. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  18. Physical properties of lead free solders in liquid and solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiaoui, Souad

    2007-04-17

    The European legislation prohibits the use of lead containing solders in Europe. However, lead free solders have a higher melting point (typical 20%) and their mechanical characteristics are worse. Additional problems are aging and adhesion of the solder on the electronic circuits. Thus, research activities must focus on the optimization of the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based lead free solders chosen by the industry. Two main objectives are treated in this work. In the center of the first one is the study of curious hysteresis effects of metallic cadmium-antimony alloys after thermal cycles by measuring electronic transport phenomena (thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity). The second objective, within the framework of ''cotutelle'' between the universities of Metz and of Chemnitz and supported by COST531, is to study more specifically lead free solders. A welding must well conduct electricity and well conduct and dissipate heat. In Metz, we determined the electrical conductivity, the thermoelectric power and the thermal conductivity of various lead free solders (Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Sb) as well in the liquid as well in the solid state. The results have been compared to classical lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. In Chemnitz we measured the surface tension, the interfacial tension and the density of lead free solders. We also measured the viscosity of these solders without and with additives, in particular nickel. These properties were related to the industrial problems of wettability and spreadability. Lastly, we solidified alloys under various conditions. We observed undercooling. We developed a technique of mixture of nanocrystalline powder with lead free solders ''to sow'' the liquid bath in order to obtain ''different'' solids which were examined using optical and electron microscopy. (orig.)

  19. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion

  20. A Feasibility Study of Lead Free Solders for Level 1 Packaging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the lead free ternary combinations that satisfied the solidification requirement for a solder used in level 1 packaging applications, using the CALPHAD approach. The segregation profiles of the promising candidates were analyzed after scrutinizing the equilib......An attempt has been made to determine the lead free ternary combinations that satisfied the solidification requirement for a solder used in level 1 packaging applications, using the CALPHAD approach. The segregation profiles of the promising candidates were analyzed after scrutinizing...

  1. The thermodynamic database COST MP0602 for materials for high-temperature lead-free soldering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Aleš; Dinsdale, A.; Watson, A.; Vřešťál, J.; Zemanová, Adéla; Brož, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 339-346 ISSN 1450-5339 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD11024 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : CALPHAD method * lead-free solders * thermodynamic database Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2012

  2. Fundamentals of lead-free solder interconnect technology from microstructures to reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Choong-Un; Ma, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the fundamental concepts behind lead-free solder and interconnection technology. Readers will find a description of the rapidly increasing presence of electronic systems in all aspects of modern life as well as the increasing need for predictable reliability in electronic systems. The physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders are examined in detail, and building on fundamental science, the mechanisms responsible for damage and failure evolution, which affect reliability of lead-free solder joints are identified based on microstructure evolution.  The continuing miniaturization of electronic systems will increase the demand on the performance of solder joints, which will require new alloy and processing strategies as well as interconnection design strategies. This book provides a foundation on which improved performance and new design approaches can be based.  In summary, this book:  Provides an up-to-date overview on lead-free soldering tech...

  3. Giant piezoelectricity in potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

    2014-02-19

    Environment protection and human health concern is the driving force to eliminate the lead from commercial piezoelectric materials. In 2004, Saito et al. [ Saito et al., Nature , 2004 , 432 , 84 . ] developed an alkali niobate-based perovskite solid solution with a peak piezoelectric constant d33 of 416 pC/N when prepared in the textured polycrystalline form, intriguing the enthusiasm of developing high-performance lead-free piezoceramics. Although much attention has been paid on the alkali niobate-based system in the past ten years, no significant breakthrough in its d33 has yet been attained. Here, we report an alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramic with the largest d33 of ∼490 pC/N ever reported so far using conventional solid-state method. In addition, this material system also exhibits excellent integrated performance with d33∼390-490 pC/N and TC∼217-304 °C by optimizing the compositions. This giant d33 of the alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramics is ascribed to not only the construction of a new rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary but also enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Our finding may pave the way for "lead-free at last".

  4. Reliability and microstructure of lead-free solder joints in industrial electronics after accelerated thermal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaltro, F.; Biglari, M.H.; Kodentsov, A.; Yakovleva, O.; Brom, E.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of lead-free (LF) solder joints in surface-mounted device components (SMD) has been investigated after thermo-cycle testing. Kirkendall voids have been observed at the interface component/solder together with the formation of fractures. The evolution, the morphology and the elemental

  5. Electrochemical migration of lead-free solder alloys in Na2SO4 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medgyes, Balint; Ádám, Sándor; Tar, Lajos

    2017-01-01

    The effect of sulphate ion concentration on electrochemical migration of lead-free solder alloys was investigated with the use of water drop tests, by applying an in-situ optical and electrical inspection system. According to the Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) values it was found that in the case of...

  6. Flexible Piezoelectric Touch Sensor by Alignment of Lead-Free Alkaline Niobate Microcubes in PDMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Mascarenhas, N.T.; Schelen, J.B.J.; de Leeuw, D.M.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive, lead-free, and flexible piezoelectric touch sensor is reported based on composite films of alkaline niobate K0.485Na0.485Li0.03NbO3 (KNLN) powders aligned in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. KNLN powder is fabricated by

  7. Luminescence investigations of rare earth doped lead-free borate glasses modified by MO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janek, Joanna, E-mail: janek.joanna@gmail.com; Sołtys, Marta; Żur, Lidia; Pietrasik, Ewa; Pisarska, Joanna; Pisarski, Wojciech A.

    2016-09-01

    Series of lead-free borate glasses with different oxide modifiers and lanthanide ions were prepared. The effect of oxide modifiers MO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) on spectroscopic properties of trivalent Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Er, Pr) were systematically investigated. Especially, the luminescence spectra of Ln{sup 3+}-doped lead-free borate glasses are presented and discussed in relation to the impact of selective components (CaO, SrO and BaO). Several spectroscopic parameters, such as the fluorescence intensity ratio R/O (Eu{sup 3+}) and measured luminescence lifetimes for the {sup 5}D{sub 0} (Eu{sup 3+}), {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} (Er{sup 3+}) and {sup 1}D{sub 2} (Pr{sup 3+}) excited states of lanthanide ions were analyzed in details. The research proved that spectroscopic properties of trivalent Ln{sup 3+} depend significantly on kind of presence oxide modifiers MO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) in glass host matrices. - Highlights: • Luminescence of Ln{sup 3+}-doped borate glasses was presented and discussed. • Effect of glass modifiers on spectroscopic properties of rare earths was studied. • Measured luminescence lifetimes of Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Er, Pr) were analyzed. • Luminescence intensity ratios R/O (Eu{sup 3+}) were determined.

  8. Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Jones

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectrics have widespread use in today’s sensor and actuator technologies. However, most commercially available piezoelectric materials, e.g., Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3 (PZT,are comprised of more than 60 weight percent lead (Pb. Dueto its harmful effects, there is a strong impetus to identify new lead-free replacement materials with comparable properties to those of PZT. This review highlights recent developments in several lead-free piezoelectric materials including BaTiO3, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, Na0.5K0.5NbO3, and their solid solutions. The factors that contribute to strong piezoelectric behavior are described and a summary of the properties for the various systems is provided.

  9. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Bi-X Lead-Free Solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sn-Bi base lead-free solders are proposed as one of the most popular alloys due to the low melting temperature (eutectic point: 139°C and low cost. However, they are not widely used because of the lower wettability, fatigue resistance, and elongation compared to traditional Sn-Pb solders. So the alloying is considered as an effective way to improve the properties of Sn-Bi solders with the addition of elements (Al, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, In, Sb, and rare earth and nanoparticles. In this paper, the development of Sn-Bi lead-free solders bearing elements and nanoparticles was reviewed. The variation of wettability, melting characteristic, electromigration, mechanical properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds reaction, and creep behaviors was analyzed systematically, which can provide a reference for investigation of Sn-Bi base solders.

  10. Finite element analysis of vibration energy harvesting using lead-free piezoelectric materials: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuruddh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the performance of various piezoelectric materials is simulated for the unimorph cantilever-type piezoelectric energy harvester. The finite element method (FEM is used to model the piezolaminated unimorph cantilever structure. The first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT and linear piezoelectric theory are implemented in finite element simulations. The genetic algorithm (GA optimization approach is carried out to optimize the structural parameters of mechanical energy-based energy harvester for maximum power density and power output. The numerical simulation demonstrates the performance of lead-free piezoelectric materials in unimorph cantilever-based energy harvester. The lead-free piezoelectric material K0.5Na0.5NbO3-LiSbO3-CaTiO3 (2 wt.% has demonstrated maximum mean power and maximum mean power density for piezoelectric energy harvester in the ambient frequency range of 90–110 Hz. Overall, the lead-free piezoelectric materials of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-LiSbO3 (KNN-LS family have shown better performance than the conventional lead-based piezoelectric material lead zirconate titanate (PZT in the context of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Aligned Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanofibers for Wearable Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Ji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flexible lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers, based on BNT-ST (0.78Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.22SrTiO3 ceramic and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE copolymers, were fabricated by an electrospinning method and the effects of the degree of alignment in the nanofibers on the piezoelectric characteristics were investigated. The microstructure of the lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was observed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM and the orientation was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT images. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed that the phase was not changed by the electrospinning process and maintained a perovskite phase. Polarization-electric field (P-E loops and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM were used to investigate the piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric nanofibers, according to the degree of alignment—the well aligned piezoelectric nanofibers had higher piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the output voltage of the aligned lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was measured according to the vibration frequency and the bending motion and the aligned piezoelectric nanofibers with a collector rotation speed of 1500 rpm performed the best.

  12. Ultrasonic Transducer Fabricated Using Lead-Free BFO-BTO+Mn Piezoelectric 1-3 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mn-doped 0.7BiFeO3-0.3BaTiO3 (BFO-0.3BTO+Mn 1% mol lead-free piezoelectric ceramic were fabricated by traditional solid state reaction. The phase structure, microstructure, and ferroelectric properties were investigated. Additionally, lead-free 1–3 composites with 60% volume fraction of BFO-BTO+Mn ceramic were fabricated for ultrasonic transducer applications by a conventional dice-and-fill method. The BFO-BTO+Mn 1-3 composite has a higher electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt = 46.4% and lower acoustic impedance (Za ~ 18 MRayls compared with that of the ceramic. Based on this, lead-free piezoelectric ceramic composite, single element ultrasonic transducer with a center frequency of 2.54 MHz has been fabricated and characterized. The single element transducer exhibits good performance with a broad bandwidth of 53%. The insertion loss of the transducer was about 33.5 dB.

  13. The Surface Extraction from TIN based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Myoung-Jong; Howat, Ian M.

    2017-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide critical information for a wide range of scientific, navigational and engineering activities. Submeter resolution, stereoscopic satellite imagery with high geometric and radiometric quality, and wide spatial coverage are becoming increasingly accessible for generating stereo-photogrammetric DEMs. However, low contrast and repeatedly-textured surfaces, such as snow and glacial ice at high latitudes, and mountainous terrains challenge existing stereo-photogrammetric DEM generation techniques, particularly without a-priori information such as existing seed DEMs or the manual setting of terrain-specific parameters. To utilize these data for fully-automatic DEM extraction at a large scale, we developed the Surface Extraction from TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm. SETSM is fully automatic (i.e. no search parameter settings are needed) and uses only the sensor model Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). SETSM adopts a hierarchical, combined image- and object-space matching strategy utilizing weighted normalized cross-correlation with both original distorted and geometrically corrected images for overcoming ambiguities caused by foreshortening and occlusions. In addition, SETSM optimally minimizes search-spaces to extract optimal matches over problematic terrains by iteratively updating object surfaces within a Triangulated Irregular Network, and utilizes a geometric-constrained blunder and outlier detection in object space. We prove the ability of SETSM to mitigate typical stereo-photogrammetric matching problems over a range of challenging terrains. SETSM is the primary DEM generation software for the US National Science Foundation's ArcticDEM project.

  14. Interventional Angiography: Radiation Protection for the Examiner by using Lead-free Gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamusella, Peter; Scheer, Fabian; Lüdtke, Christopher Wilhelm; Wiggermann, Philipp; Wissgott, Christian; Andresen, Reimer

    2017-07-01

    The radiation exposure to unprotected parts of the body requires special attention for the interventional radiologist. During angiographic procedures, hands are exposed to the direct X-ray beam and scattered radiation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure of examiners hand with the use of lead-free X-ray protective gloves in clinical practice in terms of shielding and sense of touch. The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure of examiners hand with the use of lead-free X-ray protective gloves in clinical practice in terms of shielding and sense of touch. Phantom measurements were conducted in the direct X-ray beam and the area of scattered radiation with and without shielding. Examiner measurements were determined in interventional angiographies in clinical routine of the lower limb in antegrade puncture technique through the femoral artery. In 24 out of 50 interventions, an elastic natural rubber latex glove with lead-free metal shielding against radiation was used. All measurements were performed with a direct dosimeter. After the intervention, an opinion of the examiner was requested for evaluation of the sense of touch. Phantom measurements; when using the protective glove in the direct X-ray beam, a significant increase of the Dose Area Product (DAP) (1084.2-1603.8 mGy*cm 2 ; 67.6%; pgloves were used, a significant increase of the DAP (6183.2-10462.9 mGy*cm 2 ; 59.1%; pgloves is characterized by a shielding effect against X-ray scattered radiation, without restricting the sense of touch. A significant reduction in radiation doses to the examiner can be accomplished with these gloves in the area of scattered radiation only. If the gloves were used in the direct X-ray beam, especially while the artery puncture was performed, a significant increase of the dose values was observed.

  15. Performance testing of lead free primers: blast waves, velocity variations, and environmental testing

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Amy; Summer, Peter David; Courtney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for lead free primers based on diazodinitrophenol (DDNP)compared with tests on lead styphnate based primers. First, barrel friction measurements in 5.56 mm NATO are presented. Second, shot to shot variations in blast waves are presented as determined by detonating primers in a 7.62x51mm rifle chamber with a firing pin, but without any powder or bullet loaded and measuring the blast wave at the muzzle with a high speed pressure transducer. Third, variations in primer blas...

  16. Mechanical performances of lead-free solder joint connections with applications in the aerospace domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana PADURARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some theoretical and experimental aspects regarding the tribological performances of lead-free solder joint connections, with application in the aerospace domain. In order to highlight the mechanical and tribological properties of solder joint in correlation with different pad finishes, there were made some mechanical determinations using a dedicated Share Test System. The theoretical model highlights the link between the experimental results and the influence of gravitational acceleration on the mechanical and functional integrity of the electronic assemblies that works in vibration environment. The paper novelty is provided by the interdisciplinary experiment that offers results that can be used in the mechanical, tribological, electronical and aerospace domains.

  17. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium-potassium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Golubko, N. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Kiselev, D. A.; Kislyuk, A. M.; Panda, P. K.

    Lead-free sodium-potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  18. Texturation of lead-free BaTiO3-based piezoelectric ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Ngueteu-Kamlo , A; Levassort , F; Pham Thi , M; Marchet , Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Nowadays, piezoelectric ceramics are integrated in a wide range of devices, in particular in ultrasonic applications (underwater sonar systems, medical imaging, non-destructive testing…). Most of them use Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). However, due to health care and environmental problems, lead content must be reduced in such applications [1]. Recent reviews demonstrated that few lead-free materials families can be considered: the alkaline-niobates (K0.5Na0.5NbO3), the alkaline-b...

  19. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium–potassium niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Politova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free sodium–potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1−x(K0.5Na0.5NbO3–xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  20. Evaluation of covalency of ions in lead-free perovskite-type dielectric oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa Takesue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic states of ions in lead-free perovskite-type dielectric oxides have been investigated with a first-principle cluster calculation. For this calculation a double-perovskite cluster model based upon the simple cubic ABO3 was used; A and B are both the cations, and O is the oxygen anion. Systematic variations of ionic species for A and B, and lengths of the model cube edge were given to the model. Results of charge transfers of the ions show that their magnitudes depend on the edge length; the lager length leads to the higher transfer magnitude. This tendency implies spatial tolerance of the ions to the clusters, and are expected to correlate with electric polarizability and dipole reversibility of this kind of oxides. The density of states and the overlap population indicate that the higher cation valence causes the higher covalency of the anions. Considering all results together provides us an idea to obtain lead-free high-performance ferroelectrics, as high as the lead-based solid solutions.

  1. Silver Niobate Lead-Free Antiferroelectric Ceramics: Enhancing Energy Storage Density by B-Site Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gao, Jing; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Jing-Feng

    2018-01-10

    Lead-free dielectric ceramics with high recoverable energy density are highly desired to sustainably meet the future energy demand. AgNbO 3 -based lead-free antiferroelectric ceramics with double ferroelectric hysteresis loops have been proved to be potential candidates for energy storage applications. Enhanced energy storage performance with recoverable energy density of 3.3 J/cm 3 and high thermal stability with minimal energy density variation (<10%) over a temperature range of 20-120 °C have been achieved in W-modified AgNbO 3 ceramics. It is revealed that the W 6+ cations substitute the B-site Nb 5+ and reduce the polarizability of B-site cations, leading to the enhanced antiferroelectricity, which is confirmed by the polarization hysteresis and dielectric tunability. It is believed that the polarizability of B-site cations plays a dominant role in stabilizing the antiferroelectricity in AgNbO 3 system, in addition to the tolerance factor, which opens up a new design approach to achieve stable antiferroelectric materials.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on micromechanical hardness of lead-free solder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Wilfred [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Irman Abdul; Jalar, Azman; Kamil, Insan; Bakar, Maria Abu [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusoff, Wan Yusmawati Wan [Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sg. Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Lead-free solders are important material in nano and microelectronic surface mounting technology for various applications in bio medicine, environmental monitoring, spacecraft and satellite instrumentation. Nevertheless solder joint in radiation environment needs higher reliability and resistance to any damage caused by ionizing radiations. In this study a lead-free 99.0Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu wt.% (SAC) solder joint was developed and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation to investigate the effects of the ionizing radiation to micromechanical hardness of the solder. Averaged hardness of the SAC joint was obtained from nanoindentation test. The results show a relationship between hardness values of indentations and the increment of radiation dose. Highest mean hardness, 0.2290 ± 0.0270 GPa was calculated on solder joint which was exposed to 5 Gray dose of gamma radiation. This value indicates possible radiation hardening effect on irradiated solder. The hardness gradually decreased to 0.1933 ± 0.0210 GPa and 0.1631 ± 0.0173 GPa when exposed to doses 50 and 500 gray respectively. These values are also lower than the hardness of non irradiated sample which was calculated as 0.2084 ± 0.0.3633 GPa indicating possible radiation damage and needs further related atomic dislocation study.

  3. High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Lead-Free Inorganic Antimony Halide Perovskite Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Ying; Deng, Hui; Farooq, Umar; Yang, Xiaokun; Khan, Jahangeer; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng

    2017-09-26

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of lead halide perovskite have recently received great attention owing to their remarkable performances in optoelectronic applications. However, their wide applications are hindered from toxic lead element, which is not environment- and consumer-friendly. Herein, we utilized heterovalent substitution of divalent lead (Pb 2+ ) with trivalent antimony (Sb 3+ ) to synthesize stable and brightly luminescent Cs 3 Sb 2 Br 9 QDs. The lead-free, full-inorganic QDs were fabricated by a modified ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy. A photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) was determined to be 46% at 410 nm, which was superior to that of other reported halide perovskite QDs. The PL enhancement mechanism was unraveled by surface composition derived quantum-well band structure and their large exciton binding energy. The Br-rich surface and the observed 530 meV exciton binding energy were proposed to guarantee the efficient radiative recombination. In addition, we can also tune the inorganic perovskite QD (Cs 3 Sb 2 X 9 ) emission wavelength from 370 to 560 nm via anion exchange reactions. The developed full-inorganic lead-free Sb-perovskite QDs with high PLQY and stable emission promise great potential for efficient emission candidates.

  4. Lead-free piezoelectrics based on potassium-sodium niobate with giant d(33).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binyu; Wu, Jiagang; Cheng, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

    2013-08-28

    High-performance lead-free piezoelectrics (d33 > 400 pC/N) based on 0.96(K0.5Na0.5)0.95Li0.05Nb1-xSbxO3-0.04BaZrO3 with the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary have been designed and prepared. The R-T phase boundary lies the composition range of 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07, and the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with the compositions near the phase boundary are significantly enhanced. In addition, the ceramic with x = 0.07 has a giant d33 of ~425 pC/N, which is comparable to that (~416 pC/N) of textured KNN-based ceramics (Saito, Y.; Takao, H.; Tani, T.; Nonoyama, T.; Takatori, K.; Homma, T.; Nagaya, T.; Nakamura, M. Nature 2004, 432, 84). The underlying physical mechanisms for enhanced piezoelectric properties are addressed. We believe that the material system is the most promising lead-free piezoelectric candidates for the practical applications.

  5. Low temperature synthesis & characterization of lead-free BCZT ceramics using molten salt method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai Shree, K.; Chandrakala, E.; Das, Dibakar

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric properties are greatly influenced by the synthesis route, microstructure, stoichiometry of the chemical composition, purity of the starting materials. In this study, molten salt method was used to prepare lead-free BCZT ceramics. Molten salt method is one of the simplestmethods to prepare chemically-purified, single phase powders in high yield often at lower temperatures and shorten reaction time. Calcination of the molten salt synthesized powders resulted in asingle-phase perovskite structure at 1000 °C which is ˜ 350 °C less than the conventional solid-sate reaction method. With increasing calcination temperature the average template size was increased (˜ 0.5-2 µm). Formation of well dispersive templates improves the sinterability at lower temperatures. Lead-free BCZT ceramics sintered at 1500 °C for 2 h resulted in homogenous and highly dense microstructure with ˜92% of the theoretical density and a grain size of ˜ 35 µm. This highly dense microstructure could enhance the piezoelectric properties of the system.

  6. Requirements for the transfer of lead-free piezoceramics into application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Koruza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent review for the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS by the expert committee, appointed by the European Union, stated that the replacement of PZT “… may be scientifically and technologically practical to a certain degree …”, although replacement “… is scientifically and technically still impractical in the majority of applications.” Thus, two decades of sustained research and development may be approaching fruition, at first limited to a minority of applications. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to assess the viability of lead-free piezoceramics over a broad range of application-relevant properties. These are identified and discussed in turn: 1. Cost, 2. Reproducibility, 3. Mechanical and Thermal Properties, 4. Electrical Conductivity, and 5. Lifetime. It is suggested that the worldwide efforts into the development of lead-free piezoceramics now require a broader perspective to bring the work to the next stage of development by supporting implementation into real devices. Guidelines about pertinent research requirements into a wide range of secondary properties, measurement techniques, and salient literature are provided.

  7. Review and Perspectives of Aurivillius Structures as a Lead-Free Piezoelectric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Moure

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU-Directives 2002/95/EC, 2002/96/EC, lead-based piezoceramics must be substituted in the future with more environmentally friendly alternatives, only when a reliable alternative is found. This is why an increasing interest has grown in the research community to find lead free piezoelectric materials that fulfil the requirements for this substitution. Different families of compounds have been shown to be possible candidates for this use, such as bismuth and niobates based perovskites, pyrochlores, etc. However, a material with piezoelectric coefficients similar to those of PZT (lead zirconate titanate, Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 has not been yet found. Besides, each of these families has its specific characteristics in terms of remnant polarization, coercive field or application temperature. Thus, the choice of each material should be made according to the specific needs of the application. In this sense, Aurivillius-type structure materials (also known as Bismuth Layered Structure Ferroelectrics, BLSF can take advantage of their specific properties for uses as Lead Free Piezoelectric systems. Some of them have a high Curie temperature, which make them good candidates to be used as high temperature piezoelectrics; high coercive fields, which facilitates their use as actuators; or a high switching fatigue resistance, which can be useful for future applications as Ferroelectric Random Access Memories (FERAM.

  8. Development, Characterization and Piezoelectric Fatigue Behavior of Lead-Free Perovskite Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eric Andrew

    Much recent research has focused on the development lead-free perovskite piezoelectrics as environmentally compatible alternatives to lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Two main categories of lead free perovskite piezoelectric ceramic systems were investigated as potential replacements to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for actuator devices. First, solid solutions based on Li, Ta, and Sb modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) lead-free perovskite systems were created using standard solid state methods. Secondly, Bi-based materials a variety of compositions were explored for (1-x)(Bi 0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O 3 (BNT-BZT) and Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi 0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO 3 (BZT-BKT-BNT). It was shown that when BNT-BKT is combined with increasing concentrations of Bi(Zn1/2i1/2)O3 (BZT), a transition from normal ferroelectric behavior to a material with large electric field induced strains was observed. The higher BZT containing compositions are characterized by large hysteretic strains(> 0.3%) with no negative strains that might indicate domain switching. This work summarizes and analyzes the fatigue behavior of the new generation of Pb-free piezoelectric materials. In piezoelectric materials, fatigue is observed as a degradation in the electromechanical properties under the application of a bipolar or unipolar cyclic electrical load. In Pb-based materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), fatigue has been studied in great depth for both bulk and thin film applications. In PZT, fatigue can result from microcracking or electrode effects (especially in thin films). Ultimately, however, it is electronic and ionic point defects that are the most influential mechanism. Therefore, this work also analyzes the fatigue characteristics of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of the modified-KNN and BNT-BKT-BZT compositions developed. The defect chemistry that underpins the fatigue behavior will be examined and the results will be compared to the existing body of work on PZT. It will

  9. Tuning the electrocaloric enhancement near the morphotropic phase boundary in lead-free ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goupil, Florian; McKinnon, Ruth; Koval, Vladimir; Viola, Giuseppe; Dunn, Steve; Berenov, Andrey; Yan, Haixue; Alford, Neil Mcn.

    2016-06-01

    The need for more energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly alternatives in the refrigeration industry to meet global emission targets has driven efforts towards materials with a potential for solid state cooling. Adiabatic depolarisation cooling, based on the electrocaloric effect (ECE), is a significant contender for efficient new solid state refrigeration techniques. Some of the highest ECE performances reported are found in compounds close to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). This relationship between performance and the MPB makes the ability to tune the position of the MPB an important challenge in electrocaloric research. Here, we report direct ECE measurements performed on MPB tuned NBT-06BT bulk ceramics with a combination of A-site substitutions. We successfully shift the MPB of these lead-free ceramics closer to room temperature, as required for solid state refrigeration, without loss of the criticality of the system and the associated ECE enhancement.

  10. Effect of surface oxide on the melting behavior of lead-free solder nanowires and nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fan; Rajathurai, Karunaharan; Cui, Qingzhou; Zhou, Guangwen; NkengforAcha, Irene; Gu Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free nanosolders have shown promise in nanowire and nanoelectronics assembly. Among various important parameters, melting is the most fundamental property affecting the assembly process. Here we report that the melting behavior of tin and tin/silver nanowires and nanorods can be significantly affected by the surface oxide of nanosolders. By controlling the nanosolder reflow atmosphere using a flux, the surface oxide of the nanowires/nanorods can be effectively removed and complete nanosolder melting can be achieved. The complete melting of the nanosolders leads to the formation of nanoscale to microscale spherical solder balls, followed by Ostwald ripening phenomenon. The contact angle of the microscale solder balls formed on Si substrate was measured by direct electron microscopic imaging. These results provide new insights into micro- and nanoscale phase transition and liquid droplet coalescence from nanowires/nanorods to spheroids, and are relevant to nanoscale assembly and smaller ball grid array formation.

  11. Extrinsic Contribution and Instability Properties in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Piezoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo García

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Piezoceramic materials generally exhibit a notable instability of their functional properties when they work under real external conditions. This undesirable effect, known as nonlinear behavior, is mostly associated with the extrinsic contribution to material response. In this article, the role of the ferroelectric domain walls’ motion in the nonlinear response in the most workable lead-based and lead-free piezoceramics is reviewed. Initially, the extrinsic origin of the nonlinear response is discussed in terms of the temperature dependence of material response. The influence of the crystallographic phase and of the phase boundaries on the material response are then reviewed. Subsequently, the impact of the defects created by doping in order to control the extrinsic contribution is discussed as a way of tuning material properties. Finally, some aspects related to the grain-size effect on the nonlinear response of piezoceramics are surveyed.

  12. Reliability of lead-free solder joints with different PCB surface finishes under thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yanghua [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xia_yanghua@hotmail.com; Xie Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2008-04-24

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies under thermal cycling was investigated. Thin small outline package (TSOP) devices with FeNi leads were reflow soldered on FR4 PCB (printed circuit board) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes (organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)) were studied. The results show that OSP finish reveals better performance than its ENIG counterparts. The crack originates at the fringe of heel fillet in both cases. The propagation of crack in the ENIG case is along the device/solder interface, while in the case of OSP, the crack extends parallel to the solder/PCB interface. When the OSP finishes are employed, many Cu6Sn5 precipitates form inside the bulk solder and have a strengthening effect on the solder joint, resulting in better reliability performance as compared to those with ENIG finishes.

  13. Salient features, response and operation of Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Ishtiaq, P.M.; Darzi, M.A.; Mir, T.A.; Shah, G.N.

    2016-01-01

    Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor (LFGNM) provides continuous ground level intensity measurements of atmospheric secondary neutrons produced in interactions of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's constituent atmosphere. We report the LFGNM detector salient features and simulation of its energy response for 10"−"1"1 MeV to 10"4 MeV energy incident neutrons using the FLUKA Monte Carlo package. An empirical calibration of the LFGNM detector carried out with a Pu–Be neutron source for maximising its few MeV neutron counting sensitivity is also presented. As an illustration of its functionality a single representative transient solar modulation event recorded by LFGNM depicting Forbush decrease in integrated neutron data for which the geospace consequences are well known is also presented. Performance of LFGNM under actual observation conditions for effectively responding to transient solar modulation is seen to compare well with other world-wide conventional neutron monitors.

  14. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  15. Electrically Induced Strain and Polarization Fatigue in Lead-Free Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Daniel

    Piezoelectric ceramics have traditionally been used in commercial applications such as actuators and sensors. By far the most popular piezoceramics currently in use are Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based (PZT) ceramics. PZT ceramics are able to produce large strain and polarization with the application of an electric field, and this is due to the Morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). A MPB is associated with the boundary between tetragonal and rhombohedral perovskite phases. A disadvantage of PZT ceramics is that they contain ? 60 wt. % of lead. Since lead is toxic, this poses an environmental and health hazard because lead is released into the surroundings during fabrication and disposal. Because of this, there is a push to discover lead-free alternatives that have comparable properties to PZT but none of the health risks. One possibility is Bi 1/2(Na0.8K0.2)1/2Ti0.985 Ta0.015O3 (BNKT-1.5Ta). In addition to comparable electrical properties, any lead-free alternatives must have decent fatigue resistance to be useful for applications. This thesis focuses on the fatigue properties of BNKT-1.5Ta. The composition demonstrates high strain for a given applied electric field. To determine the fatigue resistance of BNKT-1.5Ta, data was gathered on how strain and polarization changed over number of cycles. Furthermore, fatigue tests at different temperatures were performed to ascertain if temperature affected fatigue life. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and dielectric measurements were also collected to further examine any change in crystal structure and relative permittivity, respectively, before and after cycling.

  16. Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar N. Mathad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.

  17. Lead-free, air-stable all-inorganic cesium bismuth halide perovskite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin; Hong, Feng; Mao, Xin; Li, Yajuan [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Junsheng [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (China); Department of Chemical Physics and NanoLund, Chemical Center, Lund University (Sweden); Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tonu [Department of Chemical Physics and NanoLund, Chemical Center, Lund University (Sweden); Yang, Songqiu; Deng, Weiqiao; Han, Keli [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2017-10-02

    Lead-based perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have outstanding optical properties and cheap synthesis conferring them a tremendous potential in the field of optoelectronic devices. However, two critical problems are still unresolved and hindering their commercial applications: one is the fact of being lead-based and the other is the poor stability. Lead-free all-inorganic perovskite Cs{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}X{sub 9} (X=Cl, Br, I) NCs are synthesized with emission wavelength ranging from 400 to 560 nm synthesized by a facile room temperature reaction. The ligand-free Cs{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Br{sub 9} NCs exhibit blue emission with photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) about 0.2 %. The PLQE can be increased to 4.5 % when extra surfactant (oleic acid) is added during the synthesis processes. This improvement stems from passivation of the fast trapping process (2-20 ps). Notably, the trap states can also be passivated under humid conditions, and the NCs exhibited high stability towards air exposure exceeding 30 days. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite for piezoelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a flexible nanocomposite-based nanogenerator, in which piezoelectric nanostructures are mixed with polymers, important parameters to increase the output power include using long nanowires with high piezoelectricity and decreasing the dielectric constant of the nanocomposite. Here, we report on piezoelectric power generation from a lead-free LiNbO3 nanowire-based nanocomposite. Through ion exchange of ultra-long Na2Nb2O6-H2O nanowires, we synthesized long (approximately 50 μm in length) single-crystalline LiNbO3 nanowires having a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 approximately 25 pmV-1). By blending LiNbO3 nanowires with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer (volume ratio 1:100), we fabricated a flexible nanocomposite nanogenerator having a low dielectric constant (approximately 2.7). The nanogenerator generated stable electric power, even under excessive strain conditions (approximately 105 cycles). The different piezoelectric coefficients of d33 and d31 for LiNbO3 may have resulted in generated voltage and current for the e33 geometry that were 20 and 100 times larger than those for the e31 geometry, respectively. This study suggests the importance of the blending ratio and strain geometry for higher output-power generation in a piezoelectric nanocomposite-based nanogenerator. PACS 77.65.-j; 77.84.-s; 73.21.Hb PMID:24386884

  19. An equivalent dipole analysis of PZT ceramics and lead-free piezoelectric single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed Equivalent Dipole Model for describing the electromechanical properties of ionic solids in terms of 3 ions and 2 bonds has been applied to PZT ceramics and lead-free single crystal piezoelectric materials, providing analysis in terms of an effective ionic charge and the asymmetry of the interatomic force constants. For PZT it is shown that, as a function of composition across the morphotropic phase boundary, the dominant bond compliance peaks at 52% ZrO2. The stiffer of the two bonds shows little composition dependence with no anomaly at the phase boundary. The effective charge has a maximum value at 50% ZrO2, decreasing across the phase boundary region, but becoming constant in the rhombohedral phase. The single crystals confirm that both the asymmetry in the force constants and the magnitude of effective charge are equally important in determining the values of the piezoelectric charge coefficient and the electromechanical coupling coefficient. Both are apparently temperature dependent, increasing markedly on approaching the Curie temperature.

  20. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Choi, T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Safari, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.1,Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180° domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be ~53 pm V-1 for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  1. Ultrahigh Piezoelectric Properties in Textured (K,Na)NbO3 -Based Lead-Free Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Xiaolong; Zhu, Fangyuan; Zhang, Xingmin

    2018-02-01

    High-performance lead-free piezoelectric materials are in great demand for next-generation electronic devices to meet the requirement of environmentally sustainable society. Here, ultrahigh piezoelectric properties with piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 ≈700 pC N -1 , d 33 * ≈980 pm V -1 ) and planar electromechanical coupling factor (k p ≈76%) are achieved in highly textured (K,Na)NbO 3 (KNN)-based ceramics. The excellent piezoelectric properties can be explained by the strong anisotropic feature, optimized engineered domain configuration in the textured ceramics, and facilitated polarization rotation induced by the intermediate phase. In addition, the nanodomain structures with decreased domain wall energy and increased domain wall mobility also contribute to the ultrahigh piezoelectric properties. This work not only demonstrates the tremendous potential of KNN-based ceramics to replace lead-based piezoelectrics but also provides a good strategy to design high-performance piezoelectrics by controlling appropriate phase and crystallographic orientation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Finite Element Study on Acoustic Energy Harvesting Using Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuruddh; Sharma, Anshul; Kumar, Rajeev; Vaish, Rahul

    2018-02-01

    In this article, a numerical investigation is performed for ambient acoustic energy harvesting at a low-frequency acoustic signal. A model of a quarter-wavelength resonator with a rectangular cross section is constructed, and piezoelectric-laminated bimorph plates are placed inside the system. Finite element modeling is implemented to numerically formulate the piezoelectric energy harvester. With the application of acoustic pressure at the open end of the resonator, amplified acoustic pressure inside the tube vibrates the piezolaminated bimorphs inside the tube, thus generating electric potential on the piezoelectric layers. To generate higher voltage and power in the acoustic harvester, multiple piezolaminated plates are positioned inside the resonator. The lead-free piezoelectric material K0.475Na0.475Li0.05 (Nb0.92Ta0.05Sb0.03)O3 (KNLNTS) is laminated on the host structure as a layer of piezoelectric material for the acoustic energy harvester. With the application of an acoustic sound pressure of 1 dB at the opening of the tube, a maximum output voltage of 16.3 V is measured at the first natural frequency, while the maximum power calculated is 0.033 mW. Maximum voltage is obtained when five piezoelectric bimorphs are place inside the resonator. At the second natural frequency, the maximum voltage measured is 8.40 V, obtained when eight piezoelectric bimorphs are placed inside the resonator, and the maximum power calculated is 0.020 mW.

  3. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazari, M; Safari, A [Glenn Howatt Electroceramics Laboratories, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Choi, T; Cheong, S-W [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2010-01-20

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K{sub 0.44},Na{sub 0.52},Li{sub 0.04})(Nb{sub 0.84},Ta{sub 0.1},Sb{sub 0.06})O{sub 3} (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180{sup 0} domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be {approx}53 pm V{sup -1} for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  4. High-Performance Red-Light Photodetector Based on Lead-Free Bismuth Halide Perovskite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiao-Wei; Kong, Wei-Yu; Wang, You-Yi; Zhu, Jin-Miao; Luo, Lin-Bao; Wang, Zheng-Hua

    2017-06-07

    In this study, we developed a sensitive red-light photodetector (RLPD) based on CsBi 3 I 10 perovskite thin film. This inorganic, lead-free perovskite was fabricated by a simple spin-coating method. Device analysis reveals that the as-assembled RLPD was very sensitive to 650 nm light, with an on/off ratio as high as 10 5 . The responsivity and specific detectivity of the device were estimated to be 21.8 A/W and 1.93 × 10 13 Jones, respectively, which are much better than those of other lead halide perovskite devices. In addition, the device shows a fast response (rise time: 0.33 ms; fall time: 0.38 ms) and a high external quantum efficiency (4.13 × 10 3 %). It is also revealed that the RLPD has a very good device stability even after storage for 3 months under ambient conditions. In summary, we suggest that the CsBi 3 I 10 perovskite photodetector developed in this study may have potential applications in future optoelectronic systems.

  5. Methylammonium Bismuth Iodide as a Lead-Free, Stable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Solar Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Brandt, Riley E; Osherov, Anna; Stevanović, Vladan; Stranks, Samuel D; Wilson, Mark W B; Kim, Hyunho; Akey, Austin J; Perkins, John D; Kurchin, Rachel C; Poindexter, Jeremy R; Wang, Evelyn N; Bawendi, Moungi G; Bulović, Vladimir; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-02-18

    Methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX3 ) perovskites exhibit exceptional carrier transport properties. But their commercial deployment as solar absorbers is currently limited by their intrinsic instability in the presence of humidity and their lead content. Guided by our theoretical predictions, we explored the potential of methylammonium bismuth iodide (MBI) as a solar absorber through detailed materials characterization. We synthesized phase-pure MBI by solution and vapor processing. In contrast to MAPbX3, MBI is air stable, forming a surface layer that does not increase the recombination rate. We found that MBI luminesces at room temperature, with the vapor-processed films exhibiting superior photoluminescence (PL) decay times that are promising for photovoltaic applications. The thermodynamic, electronic, and structural features of MBI that are amenable to these properties are also present in other hybrid ternary bismuth halide compounds. Through MBI, we demonstrate a lead-free and stable alternative to MAPbX3 that has a similar electronic structure and nanosecond lifetimes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Study on interfacial reaction between lead-free solders and alternative surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Rabiatul Aisha; Ourdjini, A.; Saliza Osman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the interfacial reactions occurring during reflow soldering between Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder and two surface finishes: electroless nickel/ immersion gold (ENIG) and immersion silver (IAg). The study focuses on interfacial reactions evolution and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMC) formed during soldering and isothermal ageing at 150 degree Celsius for up to 2000 hours. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure IMC thickness and examine the morphology of IMC respectively, whereas the IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results showed that the IMC formed on ENIG finish is thinner compared to that formed on IAg finish. For IAg surface finish, Cu 6 Sn 5 IMCs with scallop morphology are formed at the solder/ surface finish interface after reflow while a second IMC, Cu 3 Sn was formed between the copper and Cu 6 Sn 5 IMC after the isothermal ageing treatment. For ENIG surface finish both (Cu,Ni) 6 Sn 5 and (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 are formed after soldering. Isothermal aging of the solder joints formed on ENIG finish was found to have a significant effect on the morphology of the intermetallics by transforming to more spherical and denser morphology in addition to increase i their thickness with increased ageing time. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of lead-free ternary component BST–BCT–BZT ceramic capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sreenivas Puli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline sample of lead-free 1/3(Ba0.70Sr0.30TiO3 + 1/3(Ba0.70Ca0.30TiO3 + 1/3(BaZr0.20Ti0.80O3(BST-BCT-BZT ceramic was synthesized by solid state reaction method. Phase purity and crystal structure of as-synthesized materials was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity studies demonstrated frequency-independent behavior, indicating that the studied sample has typical diffuse phase transition behavior with partial thermal hysteresis. A ferroelectric phase transition between cubic and tetragonal phase was noticed near room temperature (~ 330 K. Bulk P–E hysteresis loop showed a saturation polarization of 20.4 μC/cm2 and a coercive field of ~ 12.78 kV/cm at a maximum electric field of ~ 115 kV/cm. High dielectric constant (ε ~ 5773, low dielectric loss (tan δ ~ 0.03 were recorded at room temperature. Discharge energy density of 0.44 J/cm3 and charge energy density of 1.40 J/cm3 were calculated from nonlinear ferroelectric hysteresis loop at maximum electric field. Dielectric constant at variable temperatures and electric fields, ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition and energy storage properties were thoroughly discussed.

  8. An equivalent dipole analysis of PZT ceramics and lead-free piezoelectric single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    The recently proposed Equivalent Dipole Model for describing the electromechanical properties of ionic solids in terms of 3 ions and 2 bonds has been applied to PZT ceramics and lead-free single crystal piezoelectric materials, providing analysis in terms of an effective ionic charge and the asymmetry of the interatomic force constants. For PZT it is shown that, as a function of composition across the morphotropic phase boundary, the dominant bond compliance peaks at 52% ZrO2. The stiffer of the two bonds shows little composition dependence with no anomaly at the phase boundary. The effective charge has a maximum value at 50% ZrO2, decreasing across the phase boundary region, but becoming constant in the rhombohedral phase. The single crystals confirm that both the asymmetry in the force constants and the magnitude of effective charge are equally important in determining the values of the piezoelectric charge coefficient and the electromechanical coupling coefficient. Both are apparently temperature dependent, increasing markedly on approaching the Curie temperature.

  9. Wetting behaviour of lead-free Sn-based alloys on Cu and Ni substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, S.; Ricci, E.; Borzone, G.; Novakovic, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the framework of the study of new lead-free solder alloys for technical applications in electronic devices. In the focus of this characterisation the wetting behaviour of several Sn-rich alloys belonging to the In-Sn, Au-Sn and Cu-Sn systems has been studied by measuring the contact angle variations on Cu and Ni substrates as a function of time and temperature. The interface between the alloy and the substrate has been analysed by the use of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in order to study the reaction between the alloy and the solid substrate and the possible formation of different compounds at the interface. A remarkable effect of the two different substrates on the behaviour of the contact angle as a function of temperature and on the morphology of the interface between the liquid solder and the solid substrate was observed for the In-Sn and Cu-Sn, while the Au-Sn system shows a very similar wetting behaviour on Cu and Ni

  10. Endurance of lead-free assembly under board level drop test and thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yanghua [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xia_yanghua@hotmail.com; Xie Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2008-06-12

    The reliability of lead-free electronic assemblies under board level drop test and thermal cycling was investigated. TSOP (thin small outline package) devices with FeNi leads were reflow soldered on FR4 PCB (printed circuit board) with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu (wt%) solder. The effects of different PCB finishes (organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)) on the reliability performance were studied. The results show that the assemblies with ENIG finishes reveal better reliability performance than its OSP counterparts under drop test, however, the OSP samples outperform those with ENIG finishes under thermal cycling. The failure mechanism is different under these two test conditions: the solder joints fracture into the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer under drop test, and cracks initiate in the bulk solder under thermal cycling. The surface finishes have an effect on the failure mode. The propagation of crack in the ENIG case is along the device/solder interface, while in the case of OSP, the crack extends parallel to the solder/PCB interface.

  11. Comparative shear tests of some low temperature lead-free solder pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzei, Mihai; Plotog, Ioan; Varzaru, Gaudentiu; Cucu, Traian C.

    2016-12-01

    The range of electronic components and as a consequence, all parts of automotive electronic equipment operating temperatures in a vehicle is given by the location of that equipment, so the maximum temperature can vary between 358K and 478K1. The solder joints could be defined as passive parts of the interconnection structure of automotive electronic equipment, at a different level, from boards of electronic modules to systems. The manufacturing costs reduction necessity and the RoHS EU Directive3, 7 consequences generate the trend to create new Low-Temperature Lead-Free (LTLF) solder pastes family9. In the paper, the mechanical strength of solder joints and samples having the same transversal section as resistor 1206 case type made using the same LTLF alloys into Vapour Phase Soldering (VPS) process characterized by different cooling rates (slow and rapid) and two types of test PCBs pads finish, were benchmarked at room temperature. The presented work extends the theoretical studies and experiments upon heat transfer in VPSP in order to optimize the technology for soldering process (SP) of automotive electronic modules and could be extended for home and modern agriculture appliances industry. The shear forces (SF) values of the LTLF alloy samples having the same transversal section as resistor 1206 case type will be considered as references values of a database useful in the new solder alloy creation processes and their qualification for automotive electronics domain.

  12. Enhanced interfacial thermal transport in pnictogen tellurides metallized with a lead-free solder alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devender,; Ramanath, Ganpati, E-mail: Ramanath@rpi.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lofgreen, Kelly; Devasenathipathy, Shankar; Swan, Johanna; Mahajan, Ravi [Intel Corporation, Assembly Test and Technology Development, Chandler, Arizona 85226 (United States); Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian [Department of Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Controlling thermal transport across metal–thermoelectric interfaces is essential for realizing high efficiency solid-state refrigeration and waste-heat harvesting power generation devices. Here, the authors report that pnictogen chalcogenides metallized with bilayers of Sn{sub 96.5}Ag{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5} solder and Ni barrier exhibit tenfold higher interfacial thermal conductance Γ{sub c} than that obtained with In/Ni bilayer metallization. X-ray diffraction and x-ray spectroscopy indicate that reduced interdiffusion and diminution of interfacial SnTe formation due to Ni layer correlates with the higher Γ{sub c}. Finite element modeling of thermoelectric coolers metallized with Sn{sub 96.5}Ag{sub 3}Cu{sub 0.5}/Ni bilayers presages a temperature drop ΔT ∼ 22 K that is 40% higher than that obtained with In/Ni metallization. Our results underscore the importance of controlling chemical intermixing at solder–metal–thermoelectric interfaces to increase the effective figure of merit, and hence, the thermoelectric cooling efficiency. These findings should facilitate the design and development of lead-free metallization for pnictogen chalcogenide-based thermoelectrics.

  13. Lead-free piezoelectric KNN-BZ-BNT films with a vertical morphotropic phase boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The lead-free piezoelectric 0.915K0.5Na0.5NbO3-0.075BaZrO3-0.01Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (0.915KNN-0.075BZ-0.01BNT films were prepared by a chemical solution deposition method. The films possess a pure rhomobohedral perovskite phase and a dense surface without crack. The temperature-dependent dielectric properties of the specimens manifest that only phase transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase occurred and the Curie temperature is 217 oC. The temperature stability of ferroelectric phase was also supported by the stable piezoelectric properties of the films. These results suggest that the slope of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB for the solid solution formed with the KNN and BZ in the films should be vertical. The voltage-induced polarization switching, and a distinct piezo-response suggested that the 0.915 KNN-0.075BZ-0.01BNT films show good piezoelectric properties.

  14. Intrinsic Defect Physics in Indium-based Lead-free Halide Double Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Jian-Bo; Liu, Bai-Xin; Huang, Bing

    2017-09-21

    Lead-free halide double perovskites (HDPs) are expected to be promising photovoltaic (PV) materials beyond organic-inorganic halide perovskite, which is hindered by its structural instability and toxicity. The defect- and stability-related properties of HDPs are critical for the use of HDPs as important PV absorbers, yet their reliability is still unclear. Taking Cs 2 AgInBr 6 as a representative, we have systemically investigated the defect properties of HDPs by theoretical calculations. First, we have determined the stable chemical potential regions to grow stoichiometric Cs 2 AgInBr 6 without structural decomposition. Second, we reveal that Ag-rich and Br-poor are the ideal chemical potential conditions to grow n-type Cs 2 AgInBr 6 with shallow defect levels. Third, we find the conductivity of Cs 2 AgInBr 6 can change from good n-type, to poorer n-type, to intrinsic semiconducting depending on the growth conditions. Our studies provided important guidance for experiments to fabricate Pb-free perovskite-based solar cell devices with superior PV performances.

  15. Dielectric response and pyroelectric properties of lead-free ferroelectric Ba3(VO42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Pati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents results of dielectric response, pyroelectric behavior and conductivity study of lead-free ferroelectric barium orthovanadate (Ba3(VO42 or Ba3V2O8 ceramic, for a wide range of temperature and frequency. An X-ray diffraction study suggests the formation of a single-phase compound in trigonal crystal system. The SEM micrograph of gold-coated pellet sample shows well-defined and homogeneous morphology. Detailed studies of dielectric parameters (εr and tan δ of the compound as a function of temperature and frequency reveal their independence over a wide range of temperature and frequency. The nature of Polarization versus electric field (P–E hysteresis loop of Ba3V2O8 at room temperature suggests its ferroelectric nature. The temperature dependence of pyroelectric coefficient and figure of merits of the sample support its dielectric response. The nature of variation of dc conductivity with temperature confirms the Arrhenius and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR behavior of the material.

  16. Electrical properties and temperature stability of a new kind of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanyu; Wu Jiagang; Xiao Dingquan; Zhang Bin; Wu Wenjuan; Shi Wei; Zhu Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    0.995[(K 0.50 Na 0.50 ) 0.94 Li 0.06 ]NbO 3 -0.005AETiO 3 (AE=Ca, Sr, Mg, Ba) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by normal sintering. The effects of the AETiO 3 and poling temperature on the electrical properties of the ceramics were carefully studied, and the temperature stability of the electrical properties of the ceramics was also investigated. The experimental results show that the ceramics with Li and CaTiO 3 possess the pure phase, Li and AETiO 3 improves the electrical properties of the pure (K 0.50 Na 0.50 )NbO 3 ceramics, the poling temperature near tetragonal and orthorhombic phase transition will enhance the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics and the KNLN-CT ceramics exhibit good temperature stability of electrical properties for tetragonal and orthorhombic phase transition below room temperature. The KNLN-CT ceramics exhibit relatively good properties: d 33 = 172 pC N -1 , k p = 0.43, tan δ = 0.032, ε r = 771 and T c = 465 deg. C. As a result, the KNLN-CT ceramic is promising candidate material for piezoelectric devices.

  17. Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramics Co-Fired with Nickel Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Kawada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been extensively studied, many problems must still be overcome before they are suitable for practical use. One of the main problems is fabricating a multilayer structure, and one solution attracting growing interest is the use of lead-free multilayer piezoelectric ceramics. The paper reviews work that has been done by the authors on lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. Nickel inner electrodes have many advantages, such as high electromigration resistance, high interfacial strength with ceramics, and greater cost effectiveness than silver palladium inner electrodes. However, widely used lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics cannot be co-fired with nickel inner electrodes, and silver palladium inner electrodes are usually used for lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. A possible alternative is lead-free ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. We have thus been developing lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. The normalized electric-field-induced thickness strain (Smax/Emax of a representative alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramic structure with nickel inner electrodes was 360 pm/V, where Smax denotes the maximum strain and Emax denotes the maximum electric field. This value is about half that for the lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics that are widely used. However, a comparable value can be obtained by stacking more ceramic layers with smaller thicknesses. In the paper, the compositional design and process used to co-fire lead-free ceramics with nickel inner electrodes are introduced, and their piezoelectric properties and reliabilities are shown. Recent advances are introduced, and future development is discussed.

  18. Extending lead-free hybrid photovoltaic materials to new structures: thiazolium, aminothiazolium and imidazolium iodobismuthates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyue; Wang, Qifei; Nichol, Gary S; Morrison, Carole A; Han, Hongwei; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil

    2018-05-09

    We report on the synthesis, crystal structures, optoelectronic properties and solar cell device studies of three novel organic-inorganic iodobismuthates - [C3H4NS]3[Bi2I9] ([TH]3[Bi2I9]), [C3H4N2]3[Bi2I9] ([IM]3[Bi2I9]) and [C3H5N2S][BiI4] ([AT][BiI4]) as lead-free light harvesters. [TH]3[Bi2I9] and [IM]3[Bi2I9] show zero-dimensional structures, whereas a one-dimensional edge-sharing chain structure of BiI6-octahedra was observed in [AT][BiI4], with interchain short II contacts also giving rise to the possibility of three-dimensional charge transport ability. Accordingly, greater energy dispersion in the band structure of [AT][BiI4] can be observed, and less contribution from the organic moities at the conduction band minimum in [AT][BiI4] than [TH]3[Bi2I9] have been confirmed by density functional theory calculations. Moreover, bandgap values are redshifted from 2.08 eV for [TH]3[Bi2I9] and 2.00 eV for [IM]3[Bi2I9] to 1.78 eV for [AT][BiI4], determined by UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy. Power conversion efficiency of 0.47% has been achieved by using ([AT][BiI4]) as the light absorber in a hole-conductor-free, fully printable solar cell, with relatively good reproducibility. We also note the observation of a capacitance effect for the first time in a photovoltaic device with bismuth-based solar absorber, which may be related to the mesoporous carbon counter-electrode.

  19. Effect of phosphorus element on the comprehensive properties of Sn-Cu lead-free solder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangdong; Shi Yaowu; Hao Hu; Xia Zhidong; Lei Yongping; Guo Fu

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of phosphorus on the creep fatigue properties of Sn-Cu eutectic lead-free solder was carried out. The experimental results show that the melting temperature was almost not changed with adding small amount of P element. However, the addition of trace P element led to the decrease in the property of creep fatigue. The fractography analysis by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that ductile fracture was the dominant failure behavior in the process of creep fatigue test of Sn0.7Cu and Sn0.7Cu0.005P specimens. It should be pointed out that there is significant difference in the fractographs between the joints of Sn0.7Cu solder and Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder. In the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu solder joint, the microstructure is prolonged along testing direction, and the dimples were more than the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint. In addition, the voids could be found on the Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint, and trace P addition may increase the rate of forming void of Sn0.7Cu solder joint. The voids can potentially lead to crack initiation or propagation sites in the solder joint. As a result, the creep fatigue of solder joint containing P such as Sn0.7Cu0.005P offers worse property compared to Sn0.7Cu solder joint.

  20. Lead-Free MA2CuCl(x)Br(4-x) Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortecchia, Daniele; Dewi, Herlina Arianita; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Chen, Shi; Baikie, Tom; Boix, Pablo P; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Soci, Cesare; Mathews, Nripan

    2016-02-01

    Despite their extremely good performance in solar cells with efficiencies approaching 20% and the emerging application for light-emitting devices, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites suffer from high content of toxic, polluting, and bioaccumulative Pb, which may eventually hamper their commercialization. Here, we present the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) Cu-based hybrid perovskites and study their optoelectronic properties to investigate their potential application in solar cells and light-emitting devices, providing a new environmental-friendly alternative to Pb. The series (CH3NH3)2CuCl(x)Br(4-x) was studied in detail, with the role of Cl found to be essential for stabilization. By exploiting the additional Cu d-d transitions and appropriately tuning the Br/Cl ratio, which affects ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions, the optical absorption in this series of compounds can be extended to the near-infrared for optimal spectral overlap with the solar irradiance. In situ formation of Cu(+) ions was found to be responsible for the green photoluminescence of this material set. Processing conditions for integrating Cu-based perovskites into photovoltaic device architectures, as well as the factors currently limiting photovoltaic performance, are discussed: among them, we identified the combination of low absorption coefficient and heavy mass of the holes as main limitations for the solar cell efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of 2D copper perovskite as light harvesters and lays the foundation for further development of perovskite based on transition metals as alternative lead-free materials. Appropriate molecular design will be necessary to improve the material's properties and solar cell performance filling the gap with the state-of-the-art Pb-based perovskite devices.

  1. Fluxless flip-chip bonding using a lead-free solder bumping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Kousar, S.; Pitzl, D.; Arab, S.

    2017-09-01

    With the LHC exceeding the nominal instantaneous luminosity, the current barrel pixel detector (BPIX) of the CMS experiment at CERN will reach its performance limits and undergo significant radiation damage. In order to improve detector performance in high luminosity conditions, the entire BPIX is replaced with an upgraded version containing an additional detection layer. Half of the modules comprising this additional layer are produced at DESY using fluxless and lead-free bumping and bonding techniques. Sequential solder-jetting technique is utilized to wet 40-μm SAC305 solder spheres on the silicon-sensor pads with electroless Ni, Pd and immersion Au (ENEPIG) under-bump metallization (UBM). The bumped sensors are flip-chip assembled with readout chips (ROCs) and then reflowed using a flux-less bonding facility. The challenges for jetting low solder volume have been analyzed and will be presented in this paper. An average speed of 3.4 balls per second is obtained to jet about 67 thousand solder balls on a single chip. On average, 7 modules have been produced per week. The bump-bond quality is evaluated in terms of electrical and mechanical properties. The peak-bump resistance is about 17.5 mΩ. The cross-section study revealed different types of intermetallic compounds (IMC) as a result of interfacial reactions between UBM and solder material. The effect of crystalline phases on the mechanical properties of the joint is discussed. The mean shear strength per bump after the final module reflow is about 16 cN. The results and sources of yield loss of module production are reported. The achieved yield is 95%.

  2. Pyroelectric and dielectric properties of lead-free ferroelectric Ba3Nb2O8 ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, Biswajit; Choudhary, R.N.P.; Das, Piyush R.; Parida, B.N.; Padhee, R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Barium orthoniobate (lead-free perovskite) crystallizes as palmierite with structural stability. • The material exhibits ferroelectric phase transition of diffuse-type suitable for devices. • The low values of ε r and tan δ at high frequencies makes it a potential candidate for microwave applications. • The material has very good pyroelectric properties for detector application. • The material exhibits smaller value of dc activation energy. - Abstract: The present study highlights ferroelectric phase transition, dielectric, pyroelectric properties and conduction mechanism of highly crystallized barium orthoniobate (Ba 3 Nb 2 O 8 ) ceramic, prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction studies show the formation of a single-phase compound in hexagonal crystal system. Detailed studies of dielectric parameters (ε r and tan δ) of the compound as a function of temperature and frequency reveal their independence over a wide range of temperature and frequency. An anomaly in ε r suggests the possible existence of a ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition of diffuse-type in the material. The low dielectric loss and moderate relative permittivity make this material (with certain modification) a potential candidate for microwave applications. Studies of pyroelectric properties reveal that the materials have reasonably high figure of merit useful for fabrication of pyroelectric detectors. The low-leakage current and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior of the sample have been verified from J–E plots. The nature of variation of dc conductivity with temperature confirms the Arrhenius and NTCR behavior of the material

  3. Effect of phosphorus element on the comprehensive properties of Sn-Cu lead-free solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guangdong, E-mail: liguangdong@emails.bjut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China); Shi Yaowu; Hao Hu; Xia Zhidong; Lei Yongping; Guo Fu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Ping Le Yuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2010-02-18

    In the present work, the effect of phosphorus on the creep fatigue properties of Sn-Cu eutectic lead-free solder was carried out. The experimental results show that the melting temperature was almost not changed with adding small amount of P element. However, the addition of trace P element led to the decrease in the property of creep fatigue. The fractography analysis by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that ductile fracture was the dominant failure behavior in the process of creep fatigue test of Sn0.7Cu and Sn0.7Cu0.005P specimens. It should be pointed out that there is significant difference in the fractographs between the joints of Sn0.7Cu solder and Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder. In the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu solder joint, the microstructure is prolonged along testing direction, and the dimples were more than the fractograph of Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint. In addition, the voids could be found on the Sn0.7Cu0.005P solder joint, and trace P addition may increase the rate of forming void of Sn0.7Cu solder joint. The voids can potentially lead to crack initiation or propagation sites in the solder joint. As a result, the creep fatigue of solder joint containing P such as Sn0.7Cu0.005P offers worse property compared to Sn0.7Cu solder joint.

  4. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  5. In-situ Investigation of Lead-free Solder Alloy Formation Using a Hot-plate Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, René; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the advantages of using a hot-plate microscope for investigation of new (high-temperature) lead- free solders as in-situ analysis tool and preparation equipment. A description of the equipment and the preparation method is given and some examples are outlined. The formation...

  6. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of the microstructural mechanisms for the piezoelectricity in lead-free perovskite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Cheng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free materials with superior piezoelectricity are in increasingly urgent demand in the current century, because the industrial standard Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based piezoelectrics, which contain over 60 weight% of the toxic element lead, pose severe environmental hazards. Although significant research efforts have been devoted in the past decade, no effective lead-free substitute for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 has been identified yet. One of the primary hindrances to the development of lead-free piezoelectrics lies in the ignorance of the microstructural mechanism for the electric-field-induced strains in the currently existing compositions. In this dissertation, the microstructural origin for the high piezoelectricity in (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 [(1-x)BNT-xBT], the most widely studied lead-free piezoelectric system, has been elucidated.

  7. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syh, J [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers.

  8. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syh, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers

  9. Mesoporous Tin-Based Oxide Nanospheres/Reduced Graphene Composites as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Half/Full Cells and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyan; Li, Aihua; Dong, Caifu; Li, Chuanchuan; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-10-04

    The large volume variations of tin-based oxides hinder their extensive application in the field of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, structure design, hybrid fabrication, and carbon-coating approaches have been simultaneously adopted to address these shortcomings. To this end, uniform mesoporous NiO/SnO 2 @rGO, Ni-Sn oxide@rGO, and SnO 2 @rGO nanosphere composites have been selectively fabricated. Among them, the obtained NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite exhibited a high capacity of 800 mAh g -1 at 1000 mA g -1 after 400 cycles. The electrochemical mechanism of NiO/SnO 2 as an anode for LIBs has been preliminarily investigated by ex situ XRD pattern analysis. Furthermore, an NiO/SnO 2 @rGO-LiCoO 2 lithium-ion full cell showed a high capacity of 467.8 mAh g -1 at 500 mA g -1 after 100 cycles. Notably, the NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite also showed good performance when investigated as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). It is believed that the unique mesoporous nanospherical framework, synergistic effects between the various components, and uniform rGO wrapping of NiO/SnO 2 shorten the Li + ion diffusion pathways, maintain sufficient contact between the active material and the electrolyte, mitigate volume changes, and finally improve the electrical conductivity of the electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electromechanical properties of engineered lead free potassium sodium niobate based materials =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Asif

    K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN), is the most promising lead free material for substituting lead zirconate titanate (PZT) which is still the market leader used for sensors and actuators. To make KNN a real competitor, it is necessary to understand and to improve its properties. This goal is pursued in the present work via different approaches aiming to study KNN intrinsic properties and then to identify appropriate strategies like doping and texturing for designing better KNN materials for an intended application. Hence, polycrystalline KNN ceramics (undoped, non-stoichiometric; NST and doped), high-quality KNN single crystals and textured KNN based ceramics were successfully synthesized and characterized in this work. Polycrystalline undoped, non-stoichiometric (NST) and Mn doped KNN ceramics were prepared by conventional ceramic processing. Structure, microstructure and electrical properties were measured. It was observed that the window for mono-phasic compositions was very narrow for both NST ceramics and Mn doped ceramics. For NST ceramics the variation of A/B ratio influenced the polarization (P-E) hysteresis loop and better piezoelectric and dielectric responses could be found for small stoichiometry deviations (A/B = 0.97). Regarding Mn doping, as compared to undoped KNN which showed leaky polarization (P-E) hysteresis loops, B-site Mn doped ceramics showed a well saturated, less-leaky hysteresis loop and a significant properties improvement. Impedance spectroscopy was used to assess the role of Mn and a relation between charge transport - defects and ferroelectric response in K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) and Mn doped KNN ceramics could be established. At room temperature the conduction in KNN which is associated with holes transport is suppressed by Mn doping. Hence Mn addition increases the resistivity of the ceramic, which proved to be very helpful for improving the saturation of the P-E loop. At high temperatures the conduction is dominated by the motion of ionized oxygen

  11. NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project. DRAFT Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The use of conventional tin-lead (SnPb) in circuit board manufacturing is under ever-increasing political scrutiny due to increasing regulations concerning lead. The "Restriction of Hazardous Substances" (RoHS) directive enacted by the European Union (EU) and a pact between the United States National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI), Europe's Soldertec at Tin Technology Ltd. and the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) are just two examples where worldwide legislative actions and partnerships/agreements are affecting the electronics industry. As a result, many global commercial-grade electronic component suppliers are initiating efforts to transition to lead-free (Pb-free) in order to retain their worldwide market. Pb-free components are likely to find their way into the inventory of aerospace or military assembly processes under current government acquisition reform initiatives. Inventories "contaminated" by Pb-free will result in increased risks associated with the manufacturing, product reliability, and subsequent repair of aerospace and military electronic systems. Although electronics for military and aerospace applications are not included in the RoHS legislation, engineers are beginning to find that the commercial industry's move towards RoHS compliance has affected their supply chain and changed their parts. Most parts suppliers plan to phase out their non-compliant, leaded production and many have already done so. As a result, the ability to find leaded components is getting harder and harder. Some buyers are now attempting to acquire the remaining SnPb inventory, if it's not already obsolete. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), depots, and support contractors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain that increasingly provides more and more parts with Pb-free finishes-some labeled no differently than their Pb counterparts-while at the same time providing the traditional Pb parts

  12. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Lead-Free Solder Joints in Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SnAgCu solder alloys were considered as one of the most popular lead-free solders because of its good reliability and mechanical properties. However, there are also many problems that need to be solved for the SnAgCu solders, such as high melting point and poor wettability. In order to overcome these shortcomings, and further enhance the properties of SnAgCu solders, many researchers choose to add a series of alloying elements (In, Ti, Fe, Zn, Bi, Ni, Sb, Ga, Al, and rare earth and nanoparticles to the SnAgCu solders. In this paper, the work of SnAgCu lead-free solders containing alloying elements and nanoparticles was reviewed, and the effects of alloying elements and nanoparticles on the melting temperature, wettability, mechanical properties, hardness properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds, and whiskers were discussed.

  13. Fabrication of Radiation Shielding Glasses Based on Lead-free High Refractive Index Glasses Prepared from Local Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Dutchaneepet, Jirapan; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Lead glasses that show high refractive index are the best know and most popular for radiation shielding. Due to harmful effects of lead and considering the health as well as the environmental issues, lead-free glasses were developed. In this work, content of Chumphon sand was fixed at 40 % (by weight) as a main composition but concentrations of BaCO3 were varied from 6 to 30 % (by weight). It was found that the absorption coefficient of the glass samples containing 30 % BaCO3 was 0.233 cm-1 for Ba-133. The density was also measured. It can be concluded that the prepared lead free glasses offered adequate shielding to gamma radiation in comparison with the lead ones. These glasses were one of the environmental friendly materials

  14. Colloidal Nanocrystals of Lead-Free Double-Perovskite (Elpasolite) Semiconductors: Synthesis and Anion Exchange To Access New Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Sidney E; Crites, Evan N; De Siena, Michael C; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2018-02-14

    Concerns about the toxicity and instability of lead-halide perovskites have driven a recent surge in research toward alternative lead-free perovskite materials, including lead-free double perovskites with the elpasolite structure and visible bandgaps. Synthetic approaches to this class of materials remain limited, however, and no examples of heterometallic elpasolites as nanomaterials have been reported. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of colloidal nanocrystals of Cs 2 AgBiX 6 (X = Cl, Br) elpasolites using a hot-injection approach. We further show that postsynthetic modification through anion exchange and cation extraction can be used to convert these nanocrystals to new materials including Cs 2 AgBiI 6 , which was previously unknown experimentally. Nanocrystals of Cs 2 AgBiI 6 , synthesized via a novel anion-exchange protocol using trimethylsilyl iodide, have strong absorption throughout the visible region, confirming theoretical predictions that this material could be a promising photovoltaic absorber. The synthetic methodologies presented here are expected to be broadly generalizable. This work demonstrates that nanocrystal ion-exchange reactivity can be used to discover and develop new lead-free halide perovskite materials that may be difficult or impossible to access through direct synthesis.

  15. Lead-Free Hybrid Perovskite Absorbers for Viable Application: Can We Eat the Cake and Have It too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lusheng; Gao, Peng

    2018-02-01

    Many years since the booming of research on perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the hybrid perovskite materials developed for photovoltaic application form three main categories since 2009: (i) high-performance unstable lead-containing perovskites, (ii) low-performance lead-free perovskites, and (iii) moderate performance and stable lead-containing perovskites. The search for alternative materials to replace lead leads to the second group of perovskite materials. To date, a number of these compounds have been synthesized and applied in photovoltaic devices. Here, lead-free hybrid light absorbers used in PV devices are focused and their recent developments in related solar cell applications are reviewed comprehensively. In the first part, group 14 metals (Sn and Ge)-based perovskites are introduced with more emphasis on the optimization of Sn-based PSCs. Then concerns on halide hybrids of group 15 metals (Bi and Sb) are raised, which are mainly perovskite derivatives. At the same time, transition metal Cu-based perovskites are also referred. In the end, an outlook is given on the design strategy of lead-free halide hybrid absorbers for photovoltaic applications. It is believed that this timely review can represent our unique view of the field and shed some light on the direction of development of such promising materials.

  16. Strong and anisotropic magnetoelectricity in composites of magnetostrictive Ni and solid-state grown lead-free piezoelectric BZT–BCT single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribabu Palneedi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at developing lead-free magnetoelectric (ME composites with performances as good as lead (Pb-based ones, this study employed (001 and (011 oriented 82BaTiO3-10BaZrO3-8CaTiO3 (BZT–BCT piezoelectric single crystals, fabricated by the cost-effective solid-state single crystal growth (SSCG method, in combination with inexpensive, magnetostrictive base metal Nickel (Ni. The off-resonance, direct ME coupling in the prepared Ni/BZT–BCT/Ni laminate composites was found to be strongly dependent on the crystallographic orientation of the BZT–BCT single crystals, as well as the applied magnetic field direction. Larger and anisotropic ME voltage coefficients were observed for the composite made using the (011 oriented BZT–BCT single crystal. The optimized ME coupling of 1 V/cm Oe was obtained from the Ni/(011 BZT–BCT single crystal/Ni composite, in the d32 mode of the single crystal, when a magnetic field was applied along its [100] direction. This performance is similar to that reported for the Ni/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PMN–PZT single crystal/Ni, but larger than that obtained from the Ni/Pb(Zr,TiO3 ceramic/Ni composites. The results of this work demonstrate that the use of lead-free piezoelectric single crystals with special orientations permits the selection of desired anisotropic properties, enabling the realization of customized ME effects in composites.

  17. Lead-free piezoelectric transducers for vibration-based energy harvesting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roescher, Mark

    2011-11-15

    Future applications like piezoelectric energy harvesters in addition with increasing environmental awareness ultimately demand novel sophisticated material systems in the field of piezoelectrics as an alternative to the long-established system lead-zirconate-titanate. In this publication state-of-the-art microgenerators have been designed to possess nonlinear Duffing oscillator characteristics. It is shown by measurement and simulation that lead-zirconate-titanate may hence no longer be the first choice in material selection for a piezoelectric microgenerator. Polyvinylidene fluoride has been integrated in a piezoelectric microgenerator and identified as an extraordinarily promising material system for transducer applications being highly insusceptible to stretching induced material failure. Finally, a fundamentally new chemical synthesis approach has been developed for the fabrication of potassium-sodium-niobate films that may also be suitable for other complex oxides.

  18. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Lead-Free Solder Joints in Electronic Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    SnAgCu solder alloys were considered as one of the most popular lead-free solders because of its good reliability and mechanical properties. However, there are also many problems that need to be solved for the SnAgCu solders, such as high melting point and poor wettability. In order to overcome these shortcomings, and further enhance the properties of SnAgCu solders, many researchers choose to add a series of alloying elements (In, Ti, Fe, Zn, Bi, Ni, Sb, Ga, Al, and rare earth) and nanoparti...

  19. Lead-free sliding overplate for highly loaded big end bearings; Bleifreie Laufschicht fuer hochbelastete Haupt- und Pleuellager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, N.; Schnell, L.; Arnold, G. [Federal-Mogul Wiesbaden GmbH and Co. KG (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Lead has always been an important metal in plain bearing technology. Completely lead-free solutions for high-end engine applications are still not considered to be technically achievable. Therefore, the European End of Life Directive (2000/53/EC), which took effect on 1 July 2003, lists copper-based lead/bronze bearings as an exception. The bearing group of Federal-Mogul has now announced its exit from the lead industry and addresses the issue layer by layer. A recently introduced adaptive bearing offers a lead-free overplate for high-performance internal combustion engine applications. This new bearing changes its technical characteristics during the running-in phase. (orig.) [German] Blei war schon immer eine wichtige Komponente in der Gleitlagertechnik. Bis heute gelten vollstaendig bleifreie Loesungen fuer hochbelastete Gleitlager als technisch nicht machbar. Deshalb nennt die europaeische Altautoverordnung (2000/53/EG), die seit dem 1. Juli 2003 in Kraft ist, als Ausnahme die kupferbasierten Bleibronzelager. Die Gleitlagergruppe von Federal-Mogul hat jetzt ihren Rueckzug aus der Verarbeitung von Blei angekuendigt und geht das Thema Schicht fuer Schicht an. Ein kuerzlich eingefuehrtes, anpassungsfaehiges Lager fuer High-End-Verbrennungsmotoren verfuegt ueber eine bleifreie Laufschicht. Bei diesem neuen Lager veraendern sich die technischen Eigenschaften waehrend der Einlaufphase. (orig.)

  20. Laser soldering of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi lead-free solder pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junichi; Nakahara, Sumio; Hisada, Shigeyoshi; Fujita, Takeyoshi

    2004-10-01

    It has reported that a waste of an electronics substrate including lead and its compound such as 63Sn-37Pb has polluted the environment with acid rain. For that environment problem the development of lead-free solder alloys has been promoted in order to find out the substitute for Sn-Pb solders in the United States, Europe, and Japan. In a present electronics industry, typical alloys have narrowed down to Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn lead-free solder. In this study, solderability of Pb-free solder that are Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi alloy was studied on soldering using YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser and diode laser. Experiments were peformed in order to determine the range of soldering parameters for obtaining an appropriate wettability based on a visual inspection. Joining strength of surface mounting chip components soldered on PCB (printed circuit board) was tested on application thickness of solder paste (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm). In addition, joining strength characteristics of eutectic Sn-Pb alloy and under different power density were examined. As a result, solderability of Sn-Ag-Cu (Pb-free) solder paste are equivalent to that of coventional Sn-Pb solder paste, and are superior to that of Sn-Zn-Bi solder paste in the laser soldering method.

  1. A brief review of Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3-(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics: Past, present and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Huajun; Chen, Wen

    2018-03-01

    As one kind of most crucial and emerging lead-free piezoelectric systems, Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3-(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) based lead-free piezoceramics have attracted worldwide attention in recent years. Much progress has been made, however, a summary which covers both the recent progress and the remained problems is urgently needed to further push this field forward. In this review, a brief background of the development of BCZT based lead-free piezoceramics was illustrated firstly. Then, the internal mechanism for the high piezoelectric response would be elaborated. Current research status was discussed in detail in the third section. Various strategies including: (1) Using distinct synthesis routes, (2) adopting different sintering techniques, (3) doping with foreign ions and/or second components, (4) grain size control, were exploited to improve the comprehensive performance and in turn broaden their application areas. In this part, some recently representative works were touched in detail and several existing problems were pointed out. Last, some critical comments (some thoughts related to the potential and future development of BCZT system) were given based on the current research status and existing problems. All in all, this review is devoted to summarizing the milestones in the past, classifying selected recent works and analyzing the prospects of BCZT based ceramics. It can be expected that, this first review that concentrates on BCZT based ceramics obviously would provide useful guidance for the research community.

  2. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujan, G.K.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu 6 Sn 5 from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping of flux

  3. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  4. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun, E-mail: lijuna@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Yang [Department of chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Zhongxiang [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S. [Multifunctional Electronic Materials and Device Research Lab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lead-free K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} single crystals were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. • The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of as-grown crystals were systematically investigated. • The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N. • The coercive fields of P–E hysteresis loops are quite small, about or less than 1 kV/mm. - Abstract: Lead-free potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals with the composition of K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (abbreviated as KLTN, x = 0.51, 0.60, 0.69, 0.78) were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. Their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in as-grown crystals have been systematically investigated. The phase transitions and Curie temperatures were determined from dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. Piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors in thickness mode, length-extensional mode and longitudinal mode were obtained. The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N are comparable to the lead-based PZT composition. The polarization versus electric field hysteresis loops show saturated shapes. In short, lead-free niobium-rich KLTN system possesses comparable properties to those in important lead-based piezoelectric material nowadays.

  5. Lead Free Electric Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    fluorocarbon-based polymer (PolyChloroTriFluoroEthylene). No longer produced by 3M, this material is available from sources in Japan . This material contains...2. Filter 3. Vacuum dry MIC 4. Lightly grind MIC (mortar and pestle ) 5. Add hexane 6. Add BTATz 7. Magnetic stirring (20 min.) 8. Add

  6. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Bi,Na)TiO3-based thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO3-BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films deposited on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 substrates were reported. Thin films of 350 nm thickness exhibited small signal dielectric permittivity and loss tangent values of 750 and 0.15, respectively, at 1 kHz. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements indicated a remanent polarization value of 30 μC/cm2 with a coercive field of 85-100 kV/cm. The thin film transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) of these films after poling at 600 kV/cm was found to be -2.2 C/m2. The results indicate that these BNT-based thin films are a potential candidate for lead-free piezoelectric devices.

  7. Nanodomain Engineered (K, Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Enhanced Thermal and Cycling Reliabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Fang-Zhou; Wang, Ke; Cheng, Li-Qian

    2015-01-01

    - based materials, accepting the drawbacks of high temperature and cycling instabilities. Here, we present that CaZrO3-modified (K, Na)NbO3 piezoceramics not only possess excellent performance at ambient conditions benefiting from nanodomain engineering, but also exhibit superior stability against......The growing environmental concerns have been pushing the development of viable green alternatives for lead-based piezoceramics to be one of the priorities in functional ceramic materials. A polymorphic phase transition has been utilized to enhance piezoelectric properties of lead-free (K, Na)NbO3...... temperature fluctuation and electrical fatigue cycling. It was found that the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is temperature independent under 4 kV/mm, which can be attributed to enhanced thermal stability of electric field engineered domain configuration; whereas the electric field induced strain exhibits...

  8. Role of sintering time, crystalline phases and symmetry in the piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-modified ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Marcos, F.; Marchet, P.; Merle-Mejean, T.; Fernandez, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Lead-free KNN-modified piezoceramics of the system (Li,Na,K)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O 3 were prepared by conventional solid-state sintering. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed a perovskite phase, together with some minor secondary phase, which was assigned to K 3 LiNb 6 O 17 , tetragonal tungsten-bronze (TTB). A structural evolution toward a pure tetragonal structure with the increasing sintering time was observed, associated with the decrease of TTB phase. A correlation between higher tetragonality and higher piezoelectric response was clearly evidenced. Contrary to the case of the LiTaO 3 modified KNN, very large abnormal grains with TTB structure were not detected. As a consequence, the simultaneous modification by tantalum and antimony seems to induce during sintering a different behaviour from the one of LiTaO 3 modified KNN.

  9. Role of sintering time, crystalline phases and symmetry in the piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-modified ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Marcos, F., E-mail: frmarcos@icv.csic.es [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Marchet, P.; Merle-Mejean, T. [SPCTS, UMR 6638 CNRS, Universite de Limoges, 123, Av. A. Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Fernandez, J.F. [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    Lead-free KNN-modified piezoceramics of the system (Li,Na,K)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O{sub 3} were prepared by conventional solid-state sintering. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed a perovskite phase, together with some minor secondary phase, which was assigned to K{sub 3}LiNb{sub 6}O{sub 17}, tetragonal tungsten-bronze (TTB). A structural evolution toward a pure tetragonal structure with the increasing sintering time was observed, associated with the decrease of TTB phase. A correlation between higher tetragonality and higher piezoelectric response was clearly evidenced. Contrary to the case of the LiTaO{sub 3} modified KNN, very large abnormal grains with TTB structure were not detected. As a consequence, the simultaneous modification by tantalum and antimony seems to induce during sintering a different behaviour from the one of LiTaO{sub 3} modified KNN.

  10. Mechanical confinement for improved energy storage density in BNT-BT-KNN lead-free ceramic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, 175 001 (India)

    2014-08-15

    With the advent of modern power electronics, embedded circuits and non-conventional energy harvesting, the need for high performance capacitors is bound to become indispensible. The current state-of-art employs ferroelectric ceramics and linear dielectrics for solid state capacitance. However, lead-free ferroelectric ceramics propose to offer significant improvement in the field of electrical energy storage owing to their high discharge efficiency and energy storage density. In this regards, the authors have investigated the effects of compressive stress as a means of improving the energy storage density of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. The energy storage density of 0.91(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3}-0.02(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ferroelectric bulk ceramic was analyzed as a function of varying levels of compressive stress and operational temperature .It was observed that a peak energy density of 387 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained at 100 MPa applied stress (25{sup o}C). While a maximum energy density of 568 mJ.cm{sup -3} was obtained for the same stress at 80{sup o}C. These values are indicative of a significant, 25% and 84%, improvement in the value of stored energy compared to an unloaded material. Additionally, material's discharge efficiency has also been discussed as a function of operational parameters. The observed phenomenon has been explained on the basis of field induced structural transition and competitive domain switching theory.

  11. Evolution of phase structure and giant strain at low driving fields in Bi-based lead-free incipient piezoelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Rahman, Jamil Ur; Zaman, Arif; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nb-doped BNBT–SZ ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state method. • A giant normalized strain of 825 pm/V at 4 kV/mm was achieved. • A large strain of 0.20% triggered at a relatively low field of 3 kV/mm. • Highest strain obtained in BNT-based ceramics at such a low driving field. • Ferroelectric to ergodic-relaxor phase transition occurred with Nb-doping. - Abstract: Lead-free 0.99[(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 ) 0.935 Ba 0.065 Ti (1–x) Nb x O 3 ]–0.01SrZrO 3 (BNBTNb100x–SZ, with Nb100x = 0–1) ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide route. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering was utilized for the structural evolution of Nb-modified BNBT–SZ ceramics at average and short-scale localized structure. Temperature dependent dielectric properties showed ferroelectric–ergodic relaxor (FE–ER) transition in Nb-modified BNBT–SZ ceramics by producing a significant disruption of the long-range FE order. A giant normalized strain of 825 pm/V at 4 kV/mm was achieved at Nb1.0. Interestingly, at a relatively low applied field of 3 kV/mm, the Nb0.75 sample displayed a large electric field-induced strain (EFIS) response of 0.20%, which is highest value obtained in non-textured lead-free BNT-based ceramics at such low driving field. The structural distortion induced by doping and electric poling is correlated with the dielectric, ferroelectric and EFIS response, and the evolution of giant strain was ascribed to reversible field induced phase transition from ER–FE phase

  12. Mechanical confinement for improved energy storage density in BNT-BT-KNN lead-free ceramic capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of modern power electronics, embedded circuits and non-conventional energy harvesting, the need for high performance capacitors is bound to become indispensible. The current state-of-art employs ferroelectric ceramics and linear dielectrics for solid state capacitance. However, lead-free ferroelectric ceramics propose to offer significant improvement in the field of electrical energy storage owing to their high discharge efficiency and energy storage density. In this regards, the authors have investigated the effects of compressive stress as a means of improving the energy storage density of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. The energy storage density of 0.91(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3-0.02(K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ferroelectric bulk ceramic was analyzed as a function of varying levels of compressive stress and operational temperature .It was observed that a peak energy density of 387 mJ.cm-3 was obtained at 100 MPa applied stress (25oC. While a maximum energy density of 568 mJ.cm-3 was obtained for the same stress at 80oC. These values are indicative of a significant, 25% and 84%, improvement in the value of stored energy compared to an unloaded material. Additionally, material's discharge efficiency has also been discussed as a function of operational parameters. The observed phenomenon has been explained on the basis of field induced structural transition and competitive domain switching theory.

  13. Giant Piezoelectricity and High Curie Temperature in Nanostructured Alkali Niobate Lead-Free Piezoceramics through Phase Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Haijun; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2016-11-30

    Because of growing environmental concerns, the development of lead-free piezoelectric materials with enhanced properties has become of great interest. Here, we report a giant piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) of 550 pC/N and a high Curie temperature (T C ) of 237 °C in (1-x-y)K 1-w Na w Nb 1-z Sb z O 3- xBiFeO 3- yBi 0.5 Na 0.5 ZrO 3 (KN w NS z -xBF-yBNZ) ceramics by optimizing x, y, z, and w. Atomic-resolution polarization mapping by Z-contrast imaging reveals the intimate coexistence of rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases inside nanodomains, that is, a structural origin for the R-T phase boundary in the present KNN system. Hence, the physical origin of high piezoelectric performance can be attributed to a nearly vanishing polarization anisotropy and thus low domain wall energy, facilitating easy polarization rotation between different states under an external field.

  14. The micro-droplet behavior of a molten lead-free solder in an inkjet printing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M H; Chou, H H; Hwang, W S

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the droplet formation of molten Sn3.0 wt%Ag0.5 wt%Cu alloy by an inkjet printing process was conducted. The printing process used a piezoelectric print head with a nozzle orifice diameter of 50 µm. Micro-droplets of a molten lead-free solder were ejected at 230 °C. The print head was driven by a bipolar pulse 40 V in amplitude. The major variables for this study were two pulse times; t rise /t finalrise and t fall , as well as N 2 back-pressure in the molten solder reservoir. Under various printing conditions, extrusion of the liquid column, contraction of liquid thread and pinch-off of liquid thread at nozzle exit were observed by monitoring the dynamics of the molten solder droplet ejection process. The droplet formation was found to be insensitive to t rise and t finalrise in the range of 250–1000 µs. The behavior of droplet formation was, however, significantly affected by the transfer rate, t fall , in the range of 30–60 µs and t fall of 50 µs yielded the most desirable condition of single droplet formation. The N 2 back-pressure was also found to be critical, where a back pressure between 10 and 21 kPa could give the desirable single-droplet formation condition

  15. Elevated-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Sn-0.7Cu- xSiC Nanocomposite Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Mahmudi, R.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical properties of Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu lead-free solder alloy reinforced with 0 vol.%, 1 vol.%, 2 vol.%, and 3 vol.% 100-nm SiC particles have been assessed using the shear punch testing technique in the temperature range from 25°C to 125°C. The composite materials were fabricated by the powder metallurgy route by blending, compacting, sintering, and finally extrusion. The 2 vol.% SiC-containing composite showed superior mechanical properties. In all conditions, the shear strength was adversely affected by increasing test temperature, and the 2 vol.% SiC-containing composite showed superior mechanical properties. Depending on the test temperature, the shear yield stress and ultimate shear strength increased, respectively, by 3 MPa to 4 MPa and 4 MPa to 5.5 MPa, in the composite materials. The strength enhancement was mostly attributed to the Orowan particle strengthening mechanism due to the SiC nanoparticles, and to a lesser extent to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the particles and matrix in the composite solder. A modified shear lag model was used to predict the total strengthening achieved by particle addition, based on the contribution of each of the above mechanisms.

  16. Effect of trace elements on the interface reactions between two lead-free solders and copper or nickel substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Sn-Pb solder alloys are being replaced, because of environmental and health concerns about lead toxicity. Among some alternative alloy systems, the Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base alloy systems have been studied and reveal promising properties. The reliability of a solder joint is affected by the solder/substrate interaction and the nature of the layers formed at the interface. The solder/substrate reactions, for Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base solder alloys, were evaluated in what concerns the morphology and chemical composition of the interface layers. The effect of the addition of P, at low levels, on the chemical composition of the layers present at the interface was studied. The phases formed at the interface between the Cu or Ni substrate and a molten lead-free solder at 250ºC, were studied for different stage times and alloy compositions. The melting temperatures, of the studied alloys, were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Identification of equilibrium phases formed at the interface layer, and the evaluation of their chemical composition were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS. Different interface characteristics were obtained, namely for the alloys containing Zn. The obtained IML layer thickness was compared, for both types of alloy systems.

  17. Effects of improved process for CuO-doped NKN lead-free ceramics on high-power piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Ling; Tsai, Cheng-Che; Liou, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Li, Bing-Jing; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of the electrical proper- ties of CuO-doped (Na(0.5)K(0.5))NbO(3) (NKN) ceramics prepared separately using the B-site oxide precursor method (BO method) and conventional mixed-oxide method (MO method) on high-power piezoelectric transformers (PTs) were investigated. The performances of PTs made with these two substrates were compared. Experimental results showed that the output power and temperature stability of PTs could be enhanced because of the lower resonant impedance of the ceramics prepared using the BO method. In addition, the output power of PTs was more affected by the resonant impedance than by the mechanical quality factor (Q(m)) of the ceramics. The PTs fabricated with ceramics prepared using the BO method showed a high efficiency of more than 94% and a maximum output power of 8.98 W (power density: 18.3 W/cm(3)) with temperature increase of 3°C under the optimum load resistance (5 kΩ) and an input voltage of 150 V(pp). This output power of the lead-free disk-type PTs is the best reported so far.

  18. Characterization of exposure to byproducts from firing lead-free frangible ammunition in an enclosed, ventilated firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabinski, Christin M; Methner, Mark M; Jackson, Jerimiah M; Moore, Alexander L; Flory, Laura E; Tilly, Trevor; Hussain, Saber M; Ott, Darrin K

    2017-06-01

    U.S. Air Force small arms firing ranges began using copper-based, lead-free frangible ammunition in the early 2000s due to environmental and health concerns related to the use of lead-based ammunition. Exposure assessments at these firing ranges have routinely detected chemicals and metals in amounts much lower than their mass-based occupational exposure limits, yet, instructors report work-related health concerns including respiratory distress, nausea, and headache. The objective of this study at one firing range was to characterize the aerosol emissions produced by weapons during firing events and evaluate the ventilation system's effectiveness in controlling instructor exposure to these emissions. The ventilation system was assessed by measuring the range static air pressure differential and the air velocity at the firing line. Air flow patterns were near the firing line. Instructor exposure was sampled using a filter-based air sampling method for metals and a wearable, real-time ultrafine particle counter. Area air sampling was simultaneously performed to characterize the particle size distribution, morphology, and composition. In the instructor's breathing zone, the airborne mass concentration of copper was low (range = free frangible ammunition. Using an ultrafine particle counter appears to be an alternative method of assessing ventilation effectiveness in removing ultrafine particulate produced during firing events.

  19. Investigating the Formation Process of Sn-Based Lead-Free Nanoparticles with a Chemical Reduction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhao, B.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, B.; Zou, Ch.; Zhai, Q.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y.; Acquah, S.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of a promising lead-free solder alloy (Sn 3.5 Ag (wt.%, Sn Ag) and Sn 3.0 Ag 0.5 Cu (wt.%, SAC)) were synthesized through a chemical reduction method by using anhydrous ethanol and 1,10-phenanthroline as the solvent and surfactant, respectively. To illustrate the formation process of Sn-Ag alloy based nanoparticles during the reaction, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the phases of the samples in relation to the reaction time. Different nucleation and growth mechanisms were compared on the formation process of the synthesized nanoparticles. The XRD results revealed different reaction process compared with other researchers. There were many contributing factors to the difference in the examples found in the literature, with the main focus on the formation mechanism of crystal nuclei, the solubility and ionizability of metal salts in the solvent, the solid solubility of Cu in Ag nuclei, and the role of surfactant on the growth process. This study will help define the parameters necessary for the control of both the composition and size of the nanoparticles

  20. Hybrid input-output approach to metal production and its application to the introduction of lead-free solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2008-05-15

    The production process of metals such as copper, lead, and zinc is characterized by mutual interconnections and interdependence, as well as by the occurrence of a large number of byproducts, which include precious or rare metals, such as gold, silver, bismuth, and indium. On the basis of the framework of waste input-output (WIO), we present a hybrid 10 model that takes full account of the mutual interdependence among the metal production processes and the interdependence between them and all the other production sectors of the economy as well. The combination of a comprehensive representation of the whole national economy and the introduction of process knowledge of metal production allows for a detailed analysis of different materials-use scenarios under the consideration of full supply chain effects. For illustration, a hypothetical case study of the introduction of lead-free solder involving the production of silver as a byproduct of copper and lead smelting processes was developed and implemented using Japanese data. To meet the increased demand for the recovery and recycling of silver resources from end-of-life products, the final destination of metal silver in terms of products and user categories was estimated, and the target components with the highest silver concentration were identified.

  1. Microstructure and adhesion strength of Sn-9Zn-xAg lead-free solders wetted on Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.-C.; Chou, S.-M.; Hon, M.-H.; Wang, M.-C.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and adhesion strength of the Sn-9Zn-xAg lead-free solders wetted on Cu substrates have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and pull-off testing. The liquidus temperatures of the Sn-9Zn-xAg solder alloys are 222.1, 226.7, 231.4 and 232.9 deg. C for x = 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%, respectively. A flat interface can be obtained as wetted at 350 deg. C at a rate of 11.8 mm/s. The adhesion strength of the Sn-9Zn-xAg/Cu interfaces decreases from 23.09 ± 0.31 to 12.32 ± 1.40 MPa with increasing Ag content from 2.5 to 7.5 wt% at 400 deg. C. After heat treatment at 150 deg. C, the adhesion strength of the Sn-9Zn-xAg/Cu interface decreases with increasing aging time

  2. Methodology for Analyzing Strain States During In-Situ Thermomechanical Cycling in Individual Lead Free Solder Joints Using Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bite; Bieler, Thomas R.; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    To examine how a lead-free solder joint deforms in a thermal cycling environment, both the elastic and plastic stress and strain behavior must be understood. Methods to identify evolution of the internal strain (stress) state during thermal cycling are described. A slice of a package containing a single row of solder joints was thermally cycled from 0 C to 100 C with a period of about 1 h with concurrent acquisition of transmission Laue patterns using synchrotron radiation. These results indicated that most joints are single crystals, with some being multicrystals with no more than a few Sn grain orientations. Laue patterns were analyzed to estimate local strains in different crystal directions at different temperatures during a thermal cycle. While the strains perpendicular to various crystal planes all vary in a similar way, the magnitude of strain varies. The specimens were subsequently given several hundred additional thermal cycles and measured again to assess changes in the crystal orientations. These results show that modest changes in crystal orientations occur during thermal cycling.

  3. X-ray protective clothing. Does DIN 6857-1 allow an objective comparison between lead-free and lead-composite materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, H.; Schlattl, H.; Hoeschen, C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The validity of DIN 6857-1 to establish lead equivalence for protective clothing is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. Materials and Methods: Commercially available protective clothing made of lead, lead-free and lead-composite materials has been tested regarding its protective efficacy. The analysis has been performed on the one hand in accordance with the test conditions described in the manufacturing standard DIN EN 61331-3 and on the other hand following the new DIN 6857-1 standard. Additionally, measurements have been carried out under simulated patient conditions by using an Alderson-Rando phantom. Results: Following DIN EN 61331-3, the lead-free protective clothing achieved the required protective efficacy only at a restricted tube-voltage range. The test according to DIN 6857-1 showed that the protective criteria were fulfilled only by one lead-composite apron, but not by the three lead-free aprons examined. Thus, in order to guarantee the same protection as lead between 50 and 120 kV, the conditions of DIN 6857-1 must be fulfilled. Conclusion: A modification of DIN EN 61331-3 to account for secondary radiation is strongly advised in the case of lead-free materials. In summary, most of the protective lead-free aprons in use should be used with care, particularly for examinations with a high dose. (orig.)

  4. FY 1998 report on the waste processing/recycling related technology, 'The R and D of lead-free solder standardization'; 1998 nendo haikibutsu shori recycle kanren gijutsu seika hokokusho. Namari free handa kikakuka nado kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To reduce the environmental pollution caused by lead eluted from the electronic equipment waste, the R and D on lead-free solder were conducted and the results were summarized. As to the basic characteristics, the evaluation test method was studied in terms of the range of melting temperature, mechanical strength, wettability and joint strength, to select a uniform test method. As the lead-free solder, Sn-Ag alloys were mainly used and mixed in a combination of Cu, Bi and In. Changes in characteristics were made clear by adding trace elements such as Ge, Mn and P. Relating to the applied characteristics, in selection of solder materials, materials were selected for which evaluation of the commercialization is proceeded with from a viewpoint of promotion of commercialization. Concerning the experimental evaluation of characteristics of lead-free solder in mounted substrates, it was indicated that basically lead-free solder can be practically used. Further, it was indicated that the Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi system depends not on solder composition but on active force, printing accuracy and flux characteristic of solder paste, that improvement of solder paste has an effect on mounting characteristics. (NEDO)

  5. The effect of graphene on the intermetallic and joint strength of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayappan, R.; Salleh, A.; Andas, J.

    2017-09-01

    Solder has been widely used in electronic industry as interconnection for electronic packaging. European Union and Japan have restricted the use of Sn-Pb solder as it contains lead which can harmful to human health and environment. Due to this, many researches have been done in order to find a suitable replacement for the lead solder. Although many lead-free solders are available, the Sn-3.5Ag solder with the addition of graphene seem to be a suitable candidate. In this study, a 0.07 wt% graphene nanosheet was added into the Sn-3.5Ag solder and this composite solder was prepared under powder metallurgy method. The solder was reacted with copper substrate at 250 °C for one minute. For joint strength analysis, two copper strips were soldered together. The solder joint was aged at temperature 100 °C for 500 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the interfacial reaction and Instron machine was used to determine the joint strength. Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was formed at the interface between the Cu substrate and the solders. Composite solder showed the retardation of the intermetallic growth compared to the plain solder. The thickness value of the intermetallic was used to calculate the growth rate the IMC. The graphene nanosheets added solder has lower growth rate which is 3.86 × 10-15 cm2/s compared to the plain solder 7.15 × 10-15 cm2/s. Shear strength analysis show that the composite solder has higher joint compared to the plain solder.

  6. High energy storage density over a broad temperature range in sodium bismuth titanate-based lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Yan, Fei; Lin, Ying; Wang, Tong; Wang, Fen

    2017-08-18

    A series of (1-x)Bi 0.48 La 0.02 Na 0.48 Li 0.02 Ti 0.98 Zr 0.02 O 3 -xNa 0.73 Bi 0.09 NbO 3 ((1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN) (x = 0-0.14) ceramics were designed and fabricated using the conventional solid-state sintering method. The phase structure, microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and energy storage properties of the ceramics were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Na 0.73 Bi 0.09 NbO 3 (NBN) could decrease the remnant polarization (P r ) and improve the temperature stability of dielectric constant obviously. The working temperature range satisfying TCC 150  °C  ≤±15% of this work spans over 400 °C with the compositions of x ≥ 0.06. The maximum energy storage density can be obtained for the sample with x = 0.10 at room temperature, with an energy storage density of 2.04 J/cm 3 at 178 kV/cm. In addition, the (1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN ceramics exhibit excellent energy storage properties over a wide temperature range from room temperature to 90 °C. The values of energy storage density and energy storage efficiency is 0.91 J/cm 3 and 79.51%, respectively, for the 0.90LLBNTZ-0.10NBN ceramic at the condition of 100 kV/cm and 90 °C. It can be concluded that the (1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN ceramics are promising lead-free candidate materials for energy storage devices over a broad temperature range.

  7. Boosting the Recoverable Energy Density of Lead-Free Ferroelectric Ceramic Thick Films through Artificially Induced Quasi-Relaxor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddigari, Mahesh; Palneedi, Haribabu; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Lim, Kyung Won; Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Ryu, Jungho

    2018-06-08

    Dielectric ceramic film capacitors, which store energy in the form of electric polarization, are promising for miniature pulsed power electronic device applications. For a superior energy storage performance of the capacitors, large recoverable energy density, along with high efficiency, high power density, fast charge/discharge rate, and good thermal/fatigue stability, is desired. Herein, we present highly dense lead-free 0.942[Na 0.535 K 0.480 NbO 3 ]-0.058LiNbO 3 (KNNLN) ferroelectric ceramic thick films (∼5 μm) demonstrating remarkable energy storage performance. The nanocrystalline KNNLN thick film fabricated by aerosol deposition (AD) process and annealed at 600 °C displayed a quasi-relaxor ferroelectric behavior, which is in contrast to the typical ferroelectric nature of the KNNLN ceramic in its bulk form. The AD film exhibited a large recoverable energy density of 23.4 J/cm 3 , with an efficiency of over 70% under the electric field of 1400 kV/cm. Besides, an ultrahigh power density of 38.8 MW/cm 3 together with a fast discharge speed of 0.45 μs, good fatigue endurance (up to 10 6 cycles), and thermal stability in a wide temperature range of 20-160 °C was also observed. Using the AD process, we could make a highly dense microstructure of the film containing nano-sized grains, which gave rise to the quasi-relaxor ferroelectric characteristics and the remarkable energy storage properties.

  8. Interconnection of thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties in directionally solidified Sn–Sb lead-free solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marcelino; Costa, Thiago [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Otávio [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará — IFPA, 66093-020 Belém, PA (Brazil); Spinelli, José E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos — UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cheung, Noé, E-mail: cheung@fem.unicamp.br [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Considerable effort is being made to develop lead-free solders for assembling in environmental-conscious electronics, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. The search for substitute alloys of Pb–Sn solders has increased in order to comply with different soldering purposes. The solder must not only meet the expected levels of electrical performance but may also have appropriate mechanical strength, with the absence of cracks in the solder joints. The Sn–Sb alloy system has a range of compositions that can be potentially included in the class of high temperature solders. This study aims to establish interrelations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Sb alloys (2 wt.%Sb and 5.5 wt.%Sb) samples, which were directionally solidified under cooling rates similar to those of reflow procedures in industrial practice. A complete high-cooling rate cellular growth is shown to be associated with the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy and a reverse dendrite-to-cell transition is observed for the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy. Strength and ductility of the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy are shown not to be affected by the cellular spacing. On the other hand, a considerable variation in these properties is associated with the cellular region of the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy casting. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Sn–2 wt.%Sb alloy is characterized by high-cooling rates cells. • Reverse dendrite > cell transition occurs for Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: cells prevail for cooling rates > 1.2 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: the dendritic region occurs for cooling rates < 0.9 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: tensile properties are improved with decreasing cellular spacing.

  9. Determination of temperature dependency of material parameters for lead-free alkali niobate piezoceramics by the inverse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ogo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium potassium niobate (NKN piezoceramics have been paid much attention as lead-free piezoelectric materials in high temperature devices because of their high Curie temperature. The temperature dependency of their material parameters, however, has not been determined in detail up to now. For this purpose, we exploit the so-called Inverse Method denoting a simulation-based characterization approach. Compared with other characterization methods, the Inverse Method requires only one sample shape of the piezoceramic material and has further decisive advantages. The identification of material parameters showed that NKN is mechanically softer in shear direction compared with lead zirconate titanate (PZT at room temperature. The temperature dependency of the material parameters of NKN was evaluated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 150 °C. As a result, we figured out that dielectric constants and piezoelectric constants show a monotonous and isotropic increment with increasing temperature. On the other hand, elastic stiffness constant c 44 E of NKN significantly decreased in contrast to other elastic stiffness constants. It could be revealed that the decrement of c 44 E is associated with an orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition. Furthermore, ratio of elastic compliance constants s 44 E / s 33 E exhibited similar temperature dependent behavior to the ratio of piezoelectric constants d15/d33. It is suspected that mechanical softness in shear direction is one origin of the large piezoelectric shear mode of NKN. Our results show that NKN are suitable for high temperature devices, and that the Inverse Method should be a helpful approach to characterize material parameters under their practical operating conditions for NKN.

  10. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  11. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  12. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  13. Effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Yao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hon, Min-Hsiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Ru; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Li, Wang-Long [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The microstructure of these solder alloys are composed of Sn-rich phase and Ag{sub 3}Sn. • The grain size of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys increases with rose aging time. • The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloys. • TEM observed that Bi appears as oblong shape fine particles. -- Abstract: The effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of the Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys are investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and a universal testing machine. The experimental results show that the microstructure of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys is composed of Sn-rich phase and AgZn{sub 3}. No other intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with Bi content was observed in the solder matrix for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag solder alloys with various Bi contents before and after aging at 150 °C for different durations. The lattice parameter increases significantly with increasing aging time or Bi addition. The size of Sn-rich grain increased gradually with aging time increased, but decreases with Bi content increases. The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloy before aging.

  14. Effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Yao; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chen, Ying-Ru; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Li, Wang-Long

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure of these solder alloys are composed of Sn-rich phase and Ag 3 Sn. • The grain size of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys increases with rose aging time. • The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloys. • TEM observed that Bi appears as oblong shape fine particles. -- Abstract: The effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of the Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys are investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and a universal testing machine. The experimental results show that the microstructure of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys is composed of Sn-rich phase and AgZn 3 . No other intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with Bi content was observed in the solder matrix for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag solder alloys with various Bi contents before and after aging at 150 °C for different durations. The lattice parameter increases significantly with increasing aging time or Bi addition. The size of Sn-rich grain increased gradually with aging time increased, but decreases with Bi content increases. The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloy before aging

  15. Lead-free (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition driving MEMS-based piezoelectric cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Vu, H.T.; Vu, Hung N.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Thin film capacitors of the lead-free (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) with (100) orientation were grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/SOI (silicon-on-insulator) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films are pure phases and do not show other crystal orientations. The remnant polarization Pr, saturation polarization

  16. Growth and characterization of lead-free (K,Na)NbO3-based piezoelectric single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hairui

    2016-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric materials have received increasing attention in the last decade, driven by environmental issues and health concerns. Of considerable interest is the (K,Na)NbO 3 (KNN)-based system, which possesses a relatively high Curie temperature and good piezoelectric properties. Abundant publications on KNN-based polycrystalline ceramics increased the interest in studying their single-crystalline form, based on two major concerns. The first concern refers to the negative role of grain interactions on the electromechanical response. The second concern deals with domain engineering. The relationship between external electric field direction, crystallographic orientation, and spontaneous polarization vectors for a specific structure can be more readily established in single crystals and thus offers a pathway for an in-depth understanding of fundamental mechanism and potential applications. The exciting enhancement of both piezoelectric and ferroelectric response in lead-based single crystals also encourages the further exploration of KNN-based piezoelectric crystals, as they possess the same perovskite structure. The main goal of this thesis is to find possible approaches for improved electromechanical properties in KNN-based piezoelectric single crystals. In Chapter 2, the current development of KNN-based single crystals as piezoelectrics is reviewed, following a short introduction of fundamental knowledge on piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics. Both submerged-seed solution growth and top-seeded solution growth techniques were employed to produce single crystals, as described detailed in Chapter 3. Emphasis is subsequently placed on issues of the crystal growth process, effective methods to enhance electrical properties, and crystallographic orientation-dependent electrical properties in Li-, Ta-, and/or Sb-substituted KNN single crystals. The main conclusions from the crystal growth aspect are presented in Chapter 4 and can be summarized as follows: (i

  17. Growth and characterization of lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3}-based piezoelectric single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hairui

    2016-10-19

    Lead-free piezoelectric materials have received increasing attention in the last decade, driven by environmental issues and health concerns. Of considerable interest is the (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN)-based system, which possesses a relatively high Curie temperature and good piezoelectric properties. Abundant publications on KNN-based polycrystalline ceramics increased the interest in studying their single-crystalline form, based on two major concerns. The first concern refers to the negative role of grain interactions on the electromechanical response. The second concern deals with domain engineering. The relationship between external electric field direction, crystallographic orientation, and spontaneous polarization vectors for a specific structure can be more readily established in single crystals and thus offers a pathway for an in-depth understanding of fundamental mechanism and potential applications. The exciting enhancement of both piezoelectric and ferroelectric response in lead-based single crystals also encourages the further exploration of KNN-based piezoelectric crystals, as they possess the same perovskite structure. The main goal of this thesis is to find possible approaches for improved electromechanical properties in KNN-based piezoelectric single crystals. In Chapter 2, the current development of KNN-based single crystals as piezoelectrics is reviewed, following a short introduction of fundamental knowledge on piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics. Both submerged-seed solution growth and top-seeded solution growth techniques were employed to produce single crystals, as described detailed in Chapter 3. Emphasis is subsequently placed on issues of the crystal growth process, effective methods to enhance electrical properties, and crystallographic orientation-dependent electrical properties in Li-, Ta-, and/or Sb-substituted KNN single crystals. The main conclusions from the crystal growth aspect are presented in Chapter 4 and can be summarized as follows

  18. (C6H13N)2BiI5: A One-Dimensional Lead-Free Perovskite-Derivative Photoconductive Light Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weichuan; Tao, Kewen; Ji, Chengmin; Sun, Zhihua; Han, Shiguo; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhenyue; Luo, Junhua

    2018-04-16

    Lead-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have recently attracted intense interest as environmentally friendly, low-cost, chemically stable light absorbers. Here, we reported a new one-dimensional (1D) zigzag chainlike light-absorbing hybrid material of (C 6 H 13 N) 2 BiI 5 , in which the corner-sharing octahedral bismuth halide chains are surrounded by organic cations of tetramethylpiperidinium. This unique zigzag 1D hybrid perovskite-derivative material shows a narrow direct band gap of 2.02 eV and long-lived photoluminescence, which is encouraging for optoelectronic applications. Importantly, it behaves as a typical semiconducting material and displays obvious photoresponse in the visible-light range. This work opens a potential pathway for the further application of 1D lead-free hybrids.

  19. High-Pressure Band-Gap Engineering in Lead-Free Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 Double Perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qian [Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, SUSTech, Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 P.R. China; College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 P.R. China; Wang, Yonggang [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium, HPSynC, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Pan, Weicheng [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, WNLO and School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, HUST, Wuhan 430074 P.R. China; Yang, Wenge [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium, HPSynC, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Zou, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 P.R. China; Tang, Jiang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, WNLO and School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, HUST, Wuhan 430074 P.R. China; Quan, Zewei [Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, SUSTech, Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 P.R. China

    2017-11-15

    Novel inorganic lead-free double perovskites with improved stability are regarded as alternatives to state-of-art hybrid lead halide perovskites in photovoltaic devices. The recently discovered Cs2AgBiBr6 double perovskite exhibits attractive optical and electronic features, making it promising for various optoelectronic applications. However, its practical performance is hampered by the large band gap. In this work, remarkable band gap narrowing of Cs2AgBiBr6 is, for the first time, achieved on inorganic photovoltaic double perovskites through high pressure treatments. Moreover, the narrowed band gap is partially retainable after releasing pressure, promoting its optoelectronic applications. This work not only provides novel insights into the structure–property relationship in lead-free double perovskites, but also offers new strategies for further development of advanced perovskite devices.

  20. Measurement of erosion of stainless steel by molten lead-free solder using micro-focus x-ray CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tadashi; Kang, Songai

    2009-01-01

    The severe erosion damage, which is caused by a molten lead-free solder, of wave solder equipment made into stainless steel has been encountered in operation. Then, the higher maintenance frequency and reduced life time of wave solder machine component is a serious issue in a manufacturing process. In this study, the evaluation method of erosion of stainless steel by molten lead-free solders was investigated using micro-focus X-ray systems for fluoroscopic and computed tomography (CT). As a result, it was found that the fluoroscopic image could truly reconstruct the cross-shape of the stainless steel sample after immersion test without destruction. In the case of X-ray systems for fluoroscopic and CT used in this study, three-dimensional data can be obtained. Therefore, it was possible to easily check the whole picture of the test sample after immersion test and to decide the maximum erosion depth of test sample. (author)

  1. Prediction of activities of all components in the lead-free solder systems Bi-In-Sn and Bi-In-Sn-Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Dongping

    2008-01-01

    The activities of components of the ternary lead-free solder systems Al-Sn-Zn at 973 K, Zn-Cu-Sn at 1023 K and Bi-In-Sn at 1000 and 1050 K have been predicted by a novel molecular interaction volume model-MIVM and the results are in good agreement with experimental data. Then the activities of all components of the Bi-In-Sn at 550 K and the Bi-In-Sn-Zn quaternary system at 700 K have been further predicted and the results are reasonable and reliable. This shows that the model may be a superior alternative for describing interfacial chemical reactions between lead-free solder alloys and common base materials and for the calculation of their phase diagrams because MIVM has certain physical meaning from the viewpoint of statistical thermodynamics and requires only two infinite dilute activity coefficients for each sub-binary system

  2. High-pressure band-gap engineering in lead-free Cs{sub 2}AgBiBr{sub 6} double perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qian [Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, SUSTech, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Wang, Yonggang; Yang, Wenge [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium, HPSynC, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, IL (United States); Pan, Weicheng; Tang, Jiang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, WNLO and School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, HUST, Wuhan (China); Zou, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Quan, Zewei [Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, SUSTech, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2017-12-11

    Novel inorganic lead-free double perovskites with improved stability are regarded as alternatives to state-of-art hybrid lead halide perovskites in photovoltaic devices. The recently discovered Cs{sub 2}AgBiBr{sub 6} double perovskite exhibits attractive optical and electronic features, making it promising for various optoelectronic applications. However, its practical performance is hampered by the large band gap. In this work, remarkable band gap narrowing of Cs{sub 2}AgBiBr{sub 6} is, for the first time, achieved on inorganic photovoltaic double perovskites through high pressure treatments. Moreover, the narrowed band gap is partially retainable after releasing pressure, promoting its optoelectronic applications. This work not only provides novel insights into the structure-property relationship in lead-free double perovskites, but also offers new strategies for further development of advanced perovskite devices. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Assessment of the effects of the Japanese shift to lead-free solders and its impact on material substitution and environmental emissions by a dynamic material flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Masaaki; Tsunemi, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free electronics has been extensively studied, whereas their adoption by society and their impact on material substitution and environmental emissions are not well understood. Through a material flow analysis (MFA), this paper explores the life cycle flows for solder-containing metals in Japan, which leads the world in the shift to lead-free solders in electronics. The results indicate that the shift has been progressing rapidly for a decade, and that substitutes for lead in solders, which include silver and copper, are still in the early life cycle stages. The results also show, however, that such substitution slows down during the late life cycle stages owing to long electronic product lifespans. This deceleration of material substitution in the solder life cycle may not only preclude a reduction in lead emissions to air but also accelerate an increase in silver emissions to air and water. As an effective measure against ongoing lead emissions, our scenario analysis suggests an aggressive recycling program for printed circuit boards that utilizes an existing recycling scheme. -- Highlights: ► We model the life cycle flows for solder-containing metals in Japan. ► The Japanese shift to lead-free solders progresses rapidly for a decade. ► Substitution for lead in solders slows down during the late life cycle stages. ► The deceleration of substitution precludes a reduction in lead emissions to air.

  4. Effect of poling process on piezoelectric properties of BCZT - 0.08 wt.% CeO{sub 2} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrakala, E.; Praveen, J. Paul; Das, Dibakar, E-mail: ddse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences & Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The properties of lead free piezoelectric materials can be tuned by suitable doping in the A and B sites of the perovskite structure. In the present study, cerium has been identified as a dopant to investigate the piezoelectric properties of lead-free BCZT system. BCZT – 0.08 wt.%CeO{sub 2} lead-free ceramics have been synthesized using sol-gel technique and the effects of CeO{sub 2} dopant on their phase structure and piezoelectric properties were investigated systematically. Poling conditions, such as temperature, electric field, and poling time have been optimized to get enhanced piezoelectric response. The optimized poling conditions (50°C, 3Ec and 30min) resulted in high piezoelectric charge coefficient d{sub 33} ~ 670pC/N, high electromechanical coupling coefficient k{sub p} ~ 60% and piezoelectric voltage coefficient g{sub 33} ~ 14 mV.m/N for BCZT – 0.08wt.% CeO{sub 2} ceramics.

  5. Polymorphic phase transition dependence of piezoelectric properties in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 lead-free ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongliang; Zhou Wancheng; Luo Fa; Zhu Dongmei; Qu Shaobo; Li Ye; Pei Zhibin

    2008-01-01

    Lead-free ceramics (1 - x)(K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 -x(Bi 0.5 K 0.5 )TiO 3 [(1 - x)KNN-xBKT] were synthesized by conventional solid-state sintering. The phase structure, microstructure and electrical properties of (1 - x)KNN-xBKT ceramics were investigated. At room temperature, the polymorphic phase transition (from the orthorhombic to the tetragonal phase) (PPT) was identified at x = 0.02 by the analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns and dielectric spectroscopy. Enhanced electrical properties (d 33 = 251 pC N -1 , k p = 0.49, k t = 0.50, ε 33 T / ε 0 =1260, tan δ = 0.03 and T C = 376 deg. C) were obtained in the ceramics with x = 0.02 owing to the formation of the PPT at 70 deg. C and the selection of an optimum poling temperature. The related mechanisms for high piezoelectric properties in (1 - x)KNN-xBKT (x = 0.02) ceramics were discussed. In addition, the results confirmed that the selection of the optimum poling temperature was an effective way to further improve the piezoelectric properties of KNN-based ceramics. The enhanced properties were comparable to those of hard Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 ceramics and indicated that the (1 - x)KNN-xBKT (x = 0.02) ceramic was a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate material for actuator and transducer applications

  6. Electrocaloric effect and luminescence properties of lanthanide doped (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 lead free materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannen, M.; Lahmar, A.; Asbani, B.; El Marssi, M.; Khemakhem, H.; Kutnjak, Z.; Es Souni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline lead-free Sodium Bismuth Titanate (NBT) ferroelectric ceramics doped with rare earth (RE) element are prepared using solid state reaction method. Optical, ferroelectric, and electrocaloric properties were investigated. The introduction of RE 3+ ions in the NBT host lattice shows different light emissions over the wavelength range from visible to near infrared region. The ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loops exhibit an antiferroelectric-like character near room temperature indicating possible existence of a morphotropic phase boundary. The enhanced electrocaloric response was observed in a broad temperature range due to nearly merged phase transitions. Coexistence of optical and electrocaloric properties is very promising for photonics or optoelectronic device applications

  7. Lead-free Ba0.8Ca0.2(ZrxTi1−x)O3 ceramics with large electrocaloric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbani, B.; Dellis, J.-L.; Lahmar, A.; Gagou, Y.; El Marssi, M.; Courty, M.; Djellab, K.; Amjoud, M.; Mezzane, D.; Kutnjak, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The electrocaloric effect was investigated in lead-free Zr doped Ba 0.8 Ca 0.2 (Zr x Ti 1−x )O 3 (BCTZ) ceramics synthesized by a conventional sintering process. Room-temperature x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the tetragonal structure is obtained in BCTZ for x ≤ 0.08 and a pseudo cubic phase for x > 0.08. The dielectric spectroscopy and calorimetry revealed that the Curie temperature decreases as a consequence of Zr doping and that the BCTZ exhibits a first order ferroelectric phase transition. The electrocaloric effect was determined by the calculation of the electrocaloric change of temperature (ΔT) using the Maxwell relation based on the P–E hysteresis loops measured at different temperatures. A large electrocaloric responsivity ΔT/ΔE = 0.34 × 10 −6  Km/V was found for x = 0.04, which significantly exceeds of values found so far in other lead-free electrocaloric materials

  8. First-principles study of electronic and optical properties of lead-free double perovskites Cs2NaBX6 (B = Sb, Bi; X = Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Yamamoto, Kumiko; Iikubo, Satoshi; Hayase, Shuzi; Ma, Tingli

    2018-06-01

    Organolead halide perovskite is regarded as the most promising light-harvesting material for next-generation solar cells; however, the intrinsic instability and toxicity of lead are still of great concern. Bismuth is ecofriendly and has electronic properties similar to those of lead, which has gradually attracted interest for optoelectronic applications. However, the valence state of bismuth is different from that of lead, eliminating the possibility of replacing lead by bismuth in organolead halide perovskites. To address this matter, one feasible strategy is to construct B-site double perovskites by the combination of Bi3+ and B+ in 1:1 ratio. In this work, lead-free halide double perovskites of the form Cs2NaBX6 (B = Sb, Bi; X = Cl, Br, I) were investigated by first-principles calculations. The electronic properties, optical absorption coefficients, and thermodynamic stability of these compounds were investigated to ascertain their potential application in solar energy conversion. The results provide theoretical support for the exploration of lead-free perovskite materials in potential optoelectronic applications.

  9. Lead-free soldering: Investigation of the Cu-Sn-Sb system along the Sn:Sb = 1:1 isopleth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, INSTM UdR Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Borzone, G., E-mail: borzone@chimica.unige.it [Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, INSTM UdR Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Zanicchi, G.; Delsante, S. [Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genoa, INSTM UdR Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genoa (Italy)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > In the electronics industry, the solder alloys commonly used for assembly belong to the Sn-Pb system. Fulfilment of the EU RoHS (reduction of hazardous substances) requires the development of new lead-free alloys for applications in electronics, with the same or possibly better characteristics than the traditional Sn-Pb alloys. > This research concerns the investigation of the constitutional properties of the Cu-Sn-Sb system which is considered as lead-free replacement for high-temperature applications. - Abstract: The Cu-Sn-Sb system has been experimentally investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). DSC was used to identify a total number of five invariant ternary reactions and the Sn:Sb = 1:1 isopleth section up to 65 at.% Cu was constructed by combining the DSC data with the EPMA analyses of annealed alloys and literature information. The composition limits of the binary phases were detected.

  10. Electrochemical Behavior of Sn-9Zn- xTi Lead-Free Solders in Neutral 0.5M NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chuantong; Jiu, Jinting; Nagao, Shijo; Nogi, Masaya; Koga, Hirotaka; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Gong; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2018-05-01

    Electrochemical techniques were employed to study the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Sn-9Zn- xTi ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 wt.%) lead-free solders in neutral 0.5M NaCl solution, aiming to figure out the effect of Ti content on the corrosion properties of Sn-9Zn, providing information for the composition design of Sn-Zn-based lead-free solders from the perspective of corrosion. EIS results reveal that Ti addition was involved in the corrosion product layer and changed electrochemical interface behavior from charge transfer control process to diffusion control process. The trace amount of Ti addition (0.05 wt.%) can refine the microstructure and improve the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn solder, evidenced by much lower corrosion current density ( i corr) and much higher total resistance ( R t). Excess Ti addition (over 0.1 wt.%) led to the formation of Ti-containing IMCs, which were confirmed as Sn3Ti2 and Sn5Ti6, deteriorating the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn- xTi solders. The main corrosion products were confirmed as Sn3O(OH)2Cl2 mixed with small amount of chlorine/oxide Sn compounds.

  11. Large Piezoelectric Strain with Superior Thermal Stability and Excellent Fatigue Resistance of Lead-Free Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Grain Orientation-Controlled Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yi; Ren, Wei; Niu, Gang; Wang, Lingyan; Zhao, Jinyan; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Ming; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Liu, Liqiang; Karaki, Tomoaki

    2018-03-19

    Environment-friendly lead-free piezoelectric materials with high piezoelectric response and high stability in a wide temperature range are urgently needed for various applications. In this work, grain orientation-controlled (with a 90% ⟨001⟩ c -oriented texture) (K,Na)NbO 3 -based ceramics with a large piezoelectric response ( d 33 *) = 505 pm V -1 and a high Curie temperature ( T C ) of 247 °C have been developed. Such a high d 33 * value varies by less than 5% from 30 to 180 °C, showing a superior thermal stability. Furthermore, the high piezoelectricity exhibits an excellent fatigue resistance with the d 33 * value decreasing within only by 6% at a field of 20 kV cm -1 up to 10 7 cycles. These exceptional properties can be attributed to the vertical morphotropic phase boundary and the highly ⟨001⟩ c -oriented textured ceramic microstructure. These results open a pathway to promote lead-free piezoelectric ceramics as a viable alternative to lead-based piezoceramics for various practical applications, such as actuators, transducers, sensors, and acoustic devices, in a wide temperature range.

  12. Design and Development for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications of Lead-Free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxides-Based Electro-Ceramics with Improved Sensing Properties via Physisorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Manna, Ayan; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Azrin Shah, Nabila Farhana; Radzi, Zamri; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many attractive potential uses of ceramic materials as humidity sensors, some unavoidable drawbacks, including toxicity, poor biocompatibility, long response and recovery times, low sensitivity and high hysteresis have stymied the use of these materials in advanced applications. Therefore, in present investigation, we developed a capacitive humidity sensor using lead-free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxide (CMFTO)-based electro-ceramics with perovskite structures synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. This technique helps maintain the submicron size porous morphology of the developed lead-free CMFTO electro-ceramics while providing enhanced water physisorption behaviour. In comparison with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the presented CMFTO-based humidity sensor shows a high sensitivity of up to 3000% compared to other materials, even at lower signal frequency. The best also shows a rapid response (14.5 s) and recovery (34.27 s), and very low hysteresis (3.2%) in a 33%–95% relative humidity range which are much lower values than those of existing conventional sensors. Therefore, CMFTO nano-electro-ceramics appear to be very promising materials for fabricating high-performance capacitive humidity sensors. PMID:27455263

  13. High frequency transducer for vessel imaging based on lead-free Mn-doped (K0.44Na0.56)NbO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinpeng; Xue, Saidong; Zhao, Xiangyong; Wang, Feifei; Tang, Yanxue; Duan, Zhihua; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou; Yue, Qingwen; Zhou, Huifang; Luo, Haosu; Fang, Bijun

    2017-08-01

    We report a high frequency ultrasonic transducer up to 50 MHz for vessel imaging based on a lead-free (K0.44Na0.56)NbO3-0.5 mol. % Mn (Mn-KNN) single crystal, which has a high electromechanical coupling coefficient kt of 0.64 and a large thickness frequency constant Nt of 3210 kHz . mm. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Mattaei (KLM) equivalent circuit model was utilized to simulate and optimize the pulse-echo response combined with PiezoCAD software. Theoretically, a high -6 dB bandwidth of 74.94% was obtained at a center frequency of 50.47 MHz and optimized matching conditions. The experimental results showed a center frequency of 51.8 MHz with a -6 dB bandwidth of 70.2%. The excellent global performance makes this lead-free single-crystal transducer quite potential in an environmentally friendly vessel imaging transducer.

  14. Preparation and piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with pressure-less sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongliang; Li Zhimin; Tang Fusheng; Qu Shaobo; Pei Zhibin; Zhou Wancheng

    2006-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 (abbreviated as KNN) with the relative density of 97.6% have been synthesized by press-less sintering owing to the careful control of processing conditions. The phase structure of KNN ceramics with different sintering temperature and heating rate was analyzed. Results show that the pure perovskite phase with orthorhombic symmetry is in all ceramics specimens. The effect of heating rate and sintering temperature on microstructure and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics was investigated. The densification behavior and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics were enhanced by improving heating rate and sintering temperature. Pure KNN ceramics sintered at 1120 deg. C with heating rate of 5 deg. C/min showed optimized densification and piezoelectric properties (ρ = 4.4 g/cm 3 , d 33 = 120 pC/N -1 , k p = 0.40 and T c = 400 deg. C). The results show that KNN is a promising candidate for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

  15. Surface Morphology Study of Nanostructured Lead-Free Solder Alloy Sn-Ag-Cu Developed by Electrodeposition: Effect of Current Density Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakinah Mohd Yusof

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Nanostructured lead-free solder Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC was developed by electrodeposition method at room temperature. Electrolite bath which comprised of the predetermined quantity of tin methane sulfonate, copper sulfate and silver sulfate were added sequentially to MSA solution. The methane sulphonic acid (MSA based ternary Sn-Ag-Cu bath was developed by using tin methane sulfonate as a source of Sn ions while the Cu+ and Ag+ ions were obtained from their respective sulfate salts. The rate of the electrodeposition was controlled by variation of current density. The addition of the buffer, comprising of sodium and ammonium acetate helped in raising the pH solution. During the experimental procedure, the pH of solution, composition of the electrolite bath, and the electrodeposition time were kept constant. The electrodeposited rate, deposit composition and microstructure were investigated as the effect of current density. The electrodeposited solder alloy was characterized for their morphology using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM. In conclusion, vary of current density will play significant role in the surface morphology of nanostructured lead-free solder SAC developed. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  16. An ultrasonic therapeutic transducers using lead-free Na0.5K0.5NbO3-CuNb2O6 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming-Ru; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Cheng-Che

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper, CN was added to NKN ceramics to decrease the sintering temperature and to improve the density and piezoelectric characteristics. The influence of CuNb 2 O 6 (CN) content on the microstructure, electrical properties, temperature stability, and mechanical properties of the synthesized samples was investigated. Results show that the samples synthesized with CN-doped not only improved the density but also exhibited superior piezoelectric characteristic, temperature stability of resonance frequency (TCF), and elastic stiffness coefficient than those of pure NKN piezoelectric ceramics. → The bulk density (4.47 g/cm 3 ), k p (40%), k t (45%), Q m (1642), C 33 D (19.64 x 10 10 N/m 2 ), TCF (-0.011%/ o C) and TCC (0.135%/ o C) values for NKN-01CN ceramics obtained from experiments show excellent 'hard' piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, a lead-free NKN-01CN ultrasonic therapeutic transducer was successfully driven by a self-tuning circuit. - Abstract: In this work, we reports on the CuNb 2 O 6 (CN) modified lead-free Na 0.5 K 0.5 NbO 3 (NKN) based piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction methods and sintered at 1075 o C for 3 h. A secondary phase of K 4 CuNb 8 O 23 was found in the XRD pattern of NKN-based ceramics as the CN dopants is 1 mol%. Microstructural analyses of un-doped and CN-doped ceramics were performed in a scanning electron microscope. The influence of CN content on the microstructure, electrical properties, temperature stability, and mechanical properties of the synthesized ceramics was investigated. The results show that the synthesized ceramics with CN-doped not only had improved density but also exhibited superior piezoelectric characteristics, temperature stability of resonance frequency (TCF), and a better elastic stiffness coefficient than those of pure NKN piezoelectric ceramics. The bulk density (4.47 g/cm 3 ), k p (40%), k t (45%), Q m (1642), C 33 D (19.64 x 10 10 N/m 2 ), TCF (-0

  17. BiFeO3-doped (Na0.5K0.5NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyi Sun et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1−x(Na0.5K0.5NbO3-xBiFeO3 (x=0~0.07 were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements revealed that an increase in the amount of BiFeO3 dopant resulted in a decrease in the orthorhombic-tetragonal and tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature of the material. One percent BiFeO3 additive suppressed grain growth, which not only benefits the sintering of ceramics but also enhances the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties, where d33=145pC/N, kp=0.31, Qm=80, Pr=11.3 μC cm−2 and Ec=16.5 kV cm−1. As xBF>0.01, both piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties decreased rapidly with an increasing amount of dopant.

  18. Structural, microstructural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead free Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sarita; Sharma, Hakikat; Negi, N. S.

    2018-05-01

    Lead free Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3(BCTZ) ceramic has been synthesized by sol-gel method. Properties of material are studied at different sintering temperatures for 5 hours. Structural and microstructural properties are analyzed by using X-ray diffractrometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at annealing temperature of 850°C and 1050°C XRD pattern confirm the perovskite structure of the material without any unwanted phases crystalinity increased with increase of sintering temperature so as roughness and porosity is decreased as shown by SEM micrographs. There is large improvement in density with rise of sintering temperature which also leads to drastic change in ferroelectric and dielectric properties.

  19. Correlation between the structure and the piezoelectric properties of lead-free (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 ceramics studied by XRD and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Marchet, Pascal; Romero, Juan José; Fernández, Jose F

    2011-09-01

    This article reviews on the use of Raman spectroscopy for the study of (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O(3) lead-free piezoceramics. Currently, this material appears to be one of the most interesting and promising alternatives to the well-known PZT piezoelectric materials. In this work, we prepare piezoceramics with different stoichiometries and study their structural, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties. By using both Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we establish a direct correlation between the structure and the properties. The results demonstrate that the wavenumber of the A(1g) vibration is proportional to the tetragonality, the remnant polarization, and the piezoelectric coefficients of these materials. Thus, Raman spectroscopy appears as a very useful technique for a fast evaluation of the crystalline structure and the ferroelectric/ piezoelectric properties.

  20. Effect of Different HTM Layers and Electrical Parameters on ZnO Nanorod-Based Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation has been done using SCAPS-1D to examine the efficiency of CH3NH3SnI3-based solar cells including various HTM layers such as spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN. ZnO nanorod array has been considered as an ETM layer. Device parameters such as thickness of the CH3NH3SnI3 layer, defect density of interfaces, density of states, and metal work function were studied. For optimum parameters of all three structures, efficiency of 20.21%, 20.23%, and 18.34% has been achieved for spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN, respectively. From the simulations, an alternative lead-free perovskite solar cell is introduced with the CH3NH3SnI3 absorber layer, ZnO nanorod ETM layer, and Cu2O HTM layer.

  1. Enhanced Energy-Storage Density and High Efficiency of Lead-Free CaTiO3-BiScO3 Linear Dielectric Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui; Tian, Enke; Song, Hongzhou; Wang, Hongxian; Li, Longtu

    2017-06-14

    A novel lead-free (1 - x)CaTiO 3 -xBiScO 3 linear dielectric ceramic with enhanced energy-storage density was fabricated. With the composition of BiScO 3 increasing, the dielectric constant of (1 - x)CaTiO 3 -xBiScO 3 ceramics first increased and then decreased after the composition x > 0.1, while the dielectric loss decreased first and increased. For the composition x = 0.1, the polarization was increased into 12.36 μC/cm 2 , 4.6 times higher than that of the pure CaTiO 3 . The energy density of 0.9CaTiO 3 -0.1BiScO 3 ceramic was 1.55 J/cm 3 with the energy-storage efficiency of 90.4% at the breakdown strength of 270 kV/cm, and the power density was 1.79 MW/cm 3 . Comparison with other lead-free dielectric ceramics confirmed the superior potential of CaTiO 3 -BiScO 3 ceramics for the design of ceramics capacitors for energy-storage applications. First-principles calculations revealed that Sc subsitution of Ti-site induced the atomic displacement of Ti ions in the whole crystal lattice, and lattice expansion was caused by variation of the bond angles and lenghths. Strong hybridization between O 2p and Ti 3d was observed in both valence band and conduction band; the hybridization between O 2p and Sc 3d at high conduction band was found to enlarge the band gap, and the static dielectric tensors were increased, which was the essential for the enhancement of polarization and dielectric properties.

  2. Novel optically active lead-free relaxor ferroelectric (Ba0.6Bi0.2Li0.2)TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Rao, Vaibhav; Barvat, Arun; Pal, Prabir; Kumar, Ashok; Dutta, Soma; Tomar, M; Gupta, Vinay; Scott, J F

    2016-01-01

    We discovered a near-room-temperature lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric (Ba 0.6 Bi 0.2 Li 0.2 )TiO 3 (BBLT) having A-site compositionally disordered ABO 3 perovskite structure. Microstructure-property relations revealed that the chemical inhomogeneities and development of local polar nano-regions (PNRs) are responsible for dielectric dispersion as a function of probe frequencies and temperatures. Rietveld analysis indicates mixed crystal structure with 80% tetragonal structure (space group P4mm) and 20% orthorhombic structure (space group Amm2), which is confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron diffraction (HRTEM). Dielectric constant and tangent loss dispersion with and without illumination of light obey nonlinear Vogel–Fulcher (VF) relations. The material shows slim polarization–hysteresis (P – E) loops and excellent displacement coefficients (d 33 ∼ 233 pm V −1 ) near room temperature, which gradually diminish near the maximum dielectric dispersion temperature (T m ) . The underlying physics for light-sensitive dielectric dispersion was probed by x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), which strongly suggests that mixed valence of bismuth ions, especially Bi 5+ ions, comprise most of the optically active centers. Ultraviolet photoemission measurements showed most of the Ti ions are in 4 +  states and sit at the centers of the TiO 6 octahedra; along with asymmetric hybridization between O 2 p and Bi 6 s orbitals, this appears to be the main driving force for net polarization. This BBLT material may open a new path for environmental friendly lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric research. (paper)

  3. Low sintering temperature and high piezoelectric properties of Li-doped (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Zr)O3 lead-free ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Ruan, Xuezheng; Zhao, Kunyun; He, Xueqing; Zeng, Jiangtao; Li, Yongsheng; Zheng, Liaoying; Park, Chul Hong; Li, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Li-doped Ba 0.85 Ca 0.15 Ti 0.9 Zr 0.1 O 3 (BCZT) lead-free piezoceramics were prepared by the two-step synthesis and solid-state reaction method. • Their sintering temperature decreases from about 1540 °C down to about 1400 °C. • With the proper addition of Li, the densities and grain sizes of ceramics increase. • The ceramics not only have the characteristics of hard piezoceramics but also possesses the features of soft piezoceramics at low sintering temperature. - Abstract: Li-doped Ba 0.85 Ca 0.15 Ti 0.9 Zr 0.1 O 3 (BCZT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the two-step synthesis and the solid-state reaction method. The density and grain size of ceramics sufficiently increases by Li-doped sintering aid, and their sintering temperature decreases from about 1540 °C down to about 1400 °C. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phase structure of Li-doped BCTZ ceramics is changed with the sintering temperature, which is consistent with their phase transition observed by the temperature-dependent dielectric curves. The well-poled Li-doped BCZT ceramics show a high piezoelectric constant d 33 (512 pC/N) and a planar electromechanical coupling factor k p (0.49), which have the characteristics of soft Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) piezoceramic, on the other hand, the mechanical quality factor Q m is about 190, which possesses the features of hard PZT piezoceramics. The enhanced properties of the Li-doped BCZT are explained by the combination of Li-doped effect and sintering effect on the microstructure and the phase transition around room temperature

  4. Low sintering temperature and high piezoelectric properties of Li-doped (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoming [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ruan, Xuezheng; Zhao, Kunyun [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); He, Xueqing [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zeng, Jiangtao, E-mail: zjt@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Yongsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zheng, Liaoying [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Park, Chul Hong [Department of Physics Education, Pusan National University, Pusan 609735 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Guorong [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Li-doped Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15}Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} (BCZT) lead-free piezoceramics were prepared by the two-step synthesis and solid-state reaction method. • Their sintering temperature decreases from about 1540 °C down to about 1400 °C. • With the proper addition of Li, the densities and grain sizes of ceramics increase. • The ceramics not only have the characteristics of hard piezoceramics but also possesses the features of soft piezoceramics at low sintering temperature. - Abstract: Li-doped Ba{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15}Ti{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} (BCZT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the two-step synthesis and the solid-state reaction method. The density and grain size of ceramics sufficiently increases by Li-doped sintering aid, and their sintering temperature decreases from about 1540 °C down to about 1400 °C. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phase structure of Li-doped BCTZ ceramics is changed with the sintering temperature, which is consistent with their phase transition observed by the temperature-dependent dielectric curves. The well-poled Li-doped BCZT ceramics show a high piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} (512 pC/N) and a planar electromechanical coupling factor k{sub p} (0.49), which have the characteristics of soft Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) piezoceramic, on the other hand, the mechanical quality factor Q{sub m} is about 190, which possesses the features of hard PZT piezoceramics. The enhanced properties of the Li-doped BCZT are explained by the combination of Li-doped effect and sintering effect on the microstructure and the phase transition around room temperature.

  5. Growth of Ca, Zr co-doped BaTiO3 lead-free ferroelectric single crystal and its room-temperature piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglin Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free Ca, Zr co-doped BaTiO3 (BCZT single crystal with a dimension up to 2mm×2mm×2mm was grown by a spontaneous nucleation technique using KF as the flux. The composition of the studied single crystal was defined to be Ba0.798Ca0.202Zr0.006Ti0.994O3, corresponding to a tetragonal phase at room temperature. The oriented single crystal exhibited a quasi-static piezoelectric constant of approximately 232 pC/N. The effective piezoelectric coefficient d33* of the single domain crystal obtained under a unipolar electric field of 35 kV/cm was 179 pm/V. Rayleigh analysis was used to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the room-temperature piezoelectricity of BCZT single crystal. The extrinsic contribution was estimated up to 40% due to the irreversible domain wall movement. Furthermore a sixth-order polynomial of Landau expansion was employed to analyze the intrinsic contribution to piezoelectricity of BCZT single crystal. The large energy barriers inhibited polarization rotations, leading to the relatively low piezoelectricity.

  6. Fabrication of Lead-Free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 Thin Films by Aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Christensen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ceramics are widely used in actuator applications, and currently the vast majority of these devices are based on Pb ( Zr , Ti O 3 , which constitutes environmental and health hazards due to the toxicity of lead. One of the most promising lead-free material systems for actuators is based on Bi 0 . 5 Na 0 . 5 TiO 3 (BNT, and here we report on successful fabrication of BNT thin films by aqueous chemical solution deposition. The precursor solution used in the synthesis is based on bismuth citrate stabilized by ethanolamine, NaOH , and a Ti-citrate prepared from titanium tetraisopropoxide and citric acid. BNT thin films were deposited on SrTiO 3 and platinized silicon substrates by spin-coating, and the films were pyrolized and annealed by rapid thermal processing. The BNT perovskite phase formed after calcination at 500 °C in air. The deposited thin films were single phase according to X-ray diffraction, and the microstructures of the films shown by electron microscopy were homogeneous and dense. Decomposition of the gel was thoroughly investigated, and the conditions resulting in phase pure materials were identified. This new aqueous deposition route is low cost, robust, and suitable for development of BNT based thin film for actuator applications.

  7. Evolving morphotropic phase boundary in lead-free (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wook; Daniels, John E.; Jones, Jacob L.; Tan, Xiaoli; Thomas, Pamela A.; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rödel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between structure and electrical properties of lead-free (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-100xBT) polycrystalline piezoceramics was investigated systematically by in situ synchrotron diffraction technique, combined with electrical property characterization. It was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between a rhombohedral and a tetragonal phase evolved into a morphotropic phase region with electric field. In the unpoled material, the MPB was positioned at the transition from space group R3m to P4mm (BNT-11BT) with optimized permittivity throughout a broad single-phase R3m composition regime. Upon poling, a range of compositions from BNT-6BT to BNT-11BT became two-phase mixture, and maximum piezoelectric coefficient was observed in BNT-7BT. It was shown that optimized electrical properties are related primarily to the capacity for domain texturing and not to phase coexistence.

  8. Evolving morphotropic phase boundary in lead-free (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 piezoceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Wook; Roedel, Juergen; Daniels, John E.; Jones, Jacob L.; Tan Xiaoli; Thomas, Pamela A.; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between structure and electrical properties of lead-free (1-x)(Bi 1/2 Na 1/2 )TiO 3 -xBaTiO 3 (BNT-100xBT) polycrystalline piezoceramics was investigated systematically by in situ synchrotron diffraction technique, combined with electrical property characterization. It was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between a rhombohedral and a tetragonal phase evolved into a morphotropic phase region with electric field. In the unpoled material, the MPB was positioned at the transition from space group R3m to P4mm (BNT-11BT) with optimized permittivity throughout a broad single-phase R3m composition regime. Upon poling, a range of compositions from BNT-6BT to BNT-11BT became two-phase mixture, and maximum piezoelectric coefficient was observed in BNT-7BT. It was shown that optimized electrical properties are related primarily to the capacity for domain texturing and not to phase coexistence.

  9. Fabrication of lead-free piezoelectric Li2CO3-added (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 ceramics under controlled low oxygen partial pressure and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noritake, Kouta; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yuitoo, Isamu; Takeuchi, Teruaki; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2018-02-01

    Reduction-resistant lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 piezoceramics with high piezoelectric constants were fabricated by optimizing the amount of Li2CO3 added. Oxygen partial pressure was controlled during the sintering of (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 ceramics in a reducing atmosphere using H2-CO2 gas. Enhanced grain growth and a high-polarization state after poling treatment were achieved by adding Li2CO3. Optimizing the amount of Li2CO3 added to (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O3 ceramics sintered under a low oxygen partial pressure resulted in improved piezoelectric properties while maintaining the high sintered density. The prepared Li2CO3-added ceramic samples had homogeneous microstructures with a uniform dispersion of each major constituent element. However, the residual Li content in the 3 mol % Li2CO3-added (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O3 ceramics after sintering was less than 0.3 mol %. Sintered bodies of this ceramic prepared in a CO2 (1.5%)-H2 (0.3%)/Ar reducing atmosphere (PO2 = 10-8 atm at 1350 °C), exhibited sufficient electrical resistivity and a piezoelectric constant (d 33) exceeding 500 pC/N. The piezoelectric properties of this nonreducible ceramic were comparable or superior to those of the same ceramic sintered in air.

  10. Lead-Free Sn-Ce-O Composite Coating on Cu Produced by Pulse Electrodeposition from an Aqueous Acidic Sulfate Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-10-01

    Pulse-electrodeposited Sn-Ce-O composite solder coatings were synthesized on a Cu substrate from an aqueous acidic solution containing stannous sulfate (SnSO4·3H2O), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and Triton X-100 as an additive. The codeposition was achieved by adding nano-cerium oxide powder in varying concentrations from 5 g/L to 20 g/L into the electrolytic bath. Microstructural characterization was carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the deposits consist mainly of tetragonal β (Sn) with reduced cerium oxide species. The composite coatings thus obtained exhibit a smaller grain size, possess higher microhardness, and a lower melting point than the monolithic Sn coating. The electrical resistivity of the developed composites increases, however, but lies within the permissible limits for current lead-free solder applications. Also, an optimum balance of properties in terms of microhardness, adhesion, melting point and resistivity can be obtained with 0.9 wt.% cerium oxide in the Sn matrix, which enables potential applications in solder joints and packaging.

  11. Effect of Multiple Reflow Cycles and Al2O3 Nanoparticles Reinforcement on Performance of SAC305 Lead-Free Solder Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikale, Sanjay; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2018-05-01

    The effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforcement on melting behavior, microstructure evolution at the interface and joint shear strength of 96.5Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder alloy subjected to multiple reflow cycles was investigated. The reinforced SAC305 solder alloy compositions were prepared by adding Al2O3 nanoparticles in different weight fractions (0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt.%) through mechanical dispersion. Cu/solder/Cu micro-lap-shear solder joint specimens were used to assess the shear strength of the solder joint. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the melting behavior of SAC305 solder nanocomposites. The solder joint interfacial microstructure was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase in melting temperature (T L) and melting temperature range of the SAC305 solder alloy by addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles were not significant. In comparison with unreinforced SAC305 solder alloy, the reinforcement of 0.05-0.5 wt.% of Al2O3 nanoparticles improved the solder wettability. The addition of nanoparticles in minor quantity effectively suppressed the Cu6Sn5 IMC growth, improved the solder joint shear strength and ductility under multiple reflow cycles. However, the improvement in solder properties was less pronounced on increasing the nanoparticle content above 0.1 wt.% of the solder alloy.

  12. Effect of MnO doping on the structure, microstructure and electrical properties of the (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 lead-free piezoceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Marcos, F.; Marchet, P.; Vendrell, X.; Romero, J.J.; Remondiere, F.; Mestres, L.; Fernandez, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · MnO doping effects on structure and properties of (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O 3 piezoceramics. · The structure changes towards an orthorhombic symmetry for higher MnO concentrations. · High doping levels induce a tetragonal tungsten-bronze secondary phase. · Mn 2+ doping modifies the phase transition temperature and the piezoelectric properties. · Manganese doping increases the mechanical quality factor Q m . - Abstract: Mn 2+ -doped (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by a conventional sintering technique. The effects of Mn 2+ doping on the phase structure, microstructure and ferro-piezoelectric properties of the ceramics have been evaluated. MnO doping modifies the (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O 3 structure, giving rise to the appearance of a TTB-like secondary phase and to changes on the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition temperature. The modification of this temperature induces a reduction of the piezoelectric constants, which is accompanied by an increase on the mechanical quality factor. Mn 2+ ions incorporate into the perovskite structure in different off ways depending on their concentration.

  13. Effect of cooling rate during solidification of Sn-9Zn lead-free solder alloy on its microstructure, tensile strength and ductile-brittle transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, K.N., E-mail: prabhukn_2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore 575 025 (India); Deshapande, Parashuram; Satyanarayan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore 575 025 (India)

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cooling rate on tensile and impact properties of Sn-9Zn alloy was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both DBTT and UTS of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimum cooling rate during solidification would minimize DBTT and maximize UTS. - Abstract: Solidification rate is an important variable during processing of materials, including soldering, involving solidification. The rate of solidification controls the metallurgical microstructure at the solder joint and hence the mechanical properties. A high tensile strength and a lower ductile-brittle transition temperature are necessary for reliability of solder joints in electronic circuits. Hence in the present work, the effect of cooling rate during solidification on microstructure, impact and tensile properties of Sn-9Zn lead-free solder alloy was investigated. Four different cooling media (copper and stainless steel moulds, air and furnace cooling) were used for solidification to achieve different cooling rates. Solder alloy solidified in copper mould exhibited higher cooling rate as compared to other cooling media. The microstructure is refined as the cooling rate was increased from 0.03 to 25 Degree-Sign C/s. With increase in cooling rate it was observed that the size of Zn flakes became finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix. Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. Fractured surfaces of impact test specimens showed cleavage like appearance and river like pattern at very low temperatures and dimple like appearance at higher temperatures. The tensile strength of the solder alloy solidified in Cu and stainless moulds were higher as compared to air and furnace cooled samples. It is therefore suggested that the cooling rate during solidification of the solder alloy should be optimum to maximize the strength and minimize the

  14. Effect of cooling rate during solidification of Sn–9Zn lead-free solder alloy on its microstructure, tensile strength and ductile–brittle transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, K.N.; Deshapande, Parashuram; Satyanarayan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of cooling rate on tensile and impact properties of Sn–9Zn alloy was assessed. ► Both DBTT and UTS of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. ► An optimum cooling rate during solidification would minimize DBTT and maximize UTS. - Abstract: Solidification rate is an important variable during processing of materials, including soldering, involving solidification. The rate of solidification controls the metallurgical microstructure at the solder joint and hence the mechanical properties. A high tensile strength and a lower ductile–brittle transition temperature are necessary for reliability of solder joints in electronic circuits. Hence in the present work, the effect of cooling rate during solidification on microstructure, impact and tensile properties of Sn–9Zn lead-free solder alloy was investigated. Four different cooling media (copper and stainless steel moulds, air and furnace cooling) were used for solidification to achieve different cooling rates. Solder alloy solidified in copper mould exhibited higher cooling rate as compared to other cooling media. The microstructure is refined as the cooling rate was increased from 0.03 to 25 °C/s. With increase in cooling rate it was observed that the size of Zn flakes became finer and distributed uniformly throughout the matrix. Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the solder alloy increased with increase in cooling rate. Fractured surfaces of impact test specimens showed cleavage like appearance and river like pattern at very low temperatures and dimple like appearance at higher temperatures. The tensile strength of the solder alloy solidified in Cu and stainless moulds were higher as compared to air and furnace cooled samples. It is therefore suggested that the cooling rate during solidification of the solder alloy should be optimum to maximize the strength and minimize the DBTT.

  15. Lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramic with planar-mode coupling coefficient comparable to that of conventional lead zirconate titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Kazushige; Matsuoka, Takayuki; Kitamura, Kazuaki; Yamada, Hideto; Hishida, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Masato

    2017-06-01

    We developed a (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with a KTiNbO5 system, (K1- x Na x )0.86Ca0.04Li0.02Nb0.85O3-δ-K0.85Ti0.85Nb1.15O5-BaZrO3-Fe2O3-MgO (K1- x N x N-NTK-FM). K1- x N x N-NTK-FM ceramic exhibits a very dense microstructure and a coupling coefficient of k p = 0.59, which is almost comparable to that of conventional lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramic has the Γ15 mode for a wide x range. The nanodomains of orthorhombic (K,Na)NbO3 with the M3 mode coexist within the tetragonal Γ15 mode (K,Na)NbO3 matrix. Successive phase transition cannot occur with increasing x. The maximum k p is observed at approximately the minimum x required to generate the M3 mode phase. Unlike the behavior at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in PZT, the characteristics of K1- x N x N-NTK-FM ceramic in this region changed moderately. This gentle phase transition seems to be a relaxor, although the diffuseness degree is not in line with this hypothesis. Furthermore, piezoelectric properties change from “soft” to “hard” upon the M3 mode phase aggregation.

  16. Mechanical bending strength of (Bi0.5Na0.5 TiO3-based lead-Free piezoelectric ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Takahashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 [BNT] is expected as one of candidate lead-free materials because these ceramics show relatively good high-power piezoelectric properties. In this study, we tried to understand the bending strength and fracture behavior of the BNT-based ceramics. To measure the bending strength, a three-point bending test on the basis of JIS was conducted using 12.0 × 4.0 × 1.0 mm3 specimens. An average bending strength, σA, of pure BNT ceramics sintered at 1100 °C for 2, 12 and 24 h were 217, 195 and 187 MPa, respectively. It is cleared that the σA increased with decreasing the sintering time, (grain size and pore size. We also investigated the bending strength of Nb2O5 doped BNT ceramics [BNT-Nb x, x = 0.05 ∼ 1.5 wt%] and MnCO3 doped BNT ceramics [BNT-Mn x, x = 0.5 and 1.0 wt%]. Values of the σA of BNT-Nb 0.5 and BNT-Mn 0.5 were 222, and 188 MPa, respectively. It is clarified that soft dopants (Nb can improve the bending strength of BNT-based ceramics. Additionally, hot-pressed BNT [HP-BNT] were sintered at 1050 °C for 5 h, and the σA of HP-BNT was 245 MPa.

  17. Effect of silver and indium addition on mechanical properties and indentation creep behavior of rapidly solidified Bi–Sn based lead-free solder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, Rizk Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties and indentation creep of the melt-spun process Bi–42 wt%Sn, Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%In, Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%Ag and Bi–38 wt%Sn–2 wt%In–2 wt%Ag were studied by dynamic resonance technique and Vickers indentation testing at room temperature and compared to that of the traditional Sn–37 wt%Pb eutectic alloy. The results show that the structure of Bi–42 wt%Sn alloy is characterized by the presence of rhombohedral Bi and body centered tetragonal β-Sn. The two ternary alloys exhibit additional constituent phases of intermetallic compounds SnIn 19 for Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%In and ε-Ag 3 Sn for Bi–40 wt%Sn–2 wt%Ag alloys. Attention has been paid to the role of intermetallic compounds on mechanical and creep behavior. The In and Ag containing solder alloy exhibited a good combination of higher creep resistance, good mechanical properties and lower melting temperature as compared with Pb–Sn eutectic solder alloy. This was attributed to the strengthening effect of Bi as a strong solid solution element in the Sn matrix and formation of intermetallic compounds β-SnBi, ε-Ag 3 Sn and InSn 19 which act as both strengthening agent and grain refiner in the matrix of the material. Addition of In and Ag decreased the melting temperature of Bi–Sn lead-free solder from 143 °C to 133 °C which was possible mainly due to the existence of InSn 19 and Ag 3 Sn intermetallic compounds. Elastic constants, internal friction and thermal properties of Bi–Sn based alloys have been studied and analyzed.

  18. Nucleation and Growth of Cu-Al Intermetallics in Al-Modified Sn-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2015-03-01

    Lead-free solder alloys Sn-Cu (SC) and Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) are widely used by the microelectronics industry, but enhanced control of the microstructure is needed to improve solder performance. For such control, nucleation and stability of Cu-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) solidification catalysts were investigated by variation of the Cu (0.7-3.0 wt.%) and Al (0.0-0.4 wt.%) content of SC + Al and SAC + Al alloys, and of SAC + Al ball-grid array (BGA) solder joints. All of the Al-modified alloys produced Cu-Al IMC particles with different morphologies and phases (occasionally non-equilibrium phases). A trend of increasing Cu-Al IMC volume fraction with increasing Al content was established. Because of solidification of non-equilibrium phases in wire alloy structures, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments revealed delayed, non-equilibrium melting at high temperatures related to quenched-in Cu-Al phases; a final liquidus of 960-1200°C was recorded. During cooling from 1200°C, the DSC samples had the solidification behavior expected from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Solidification of the ternary alloys commenced with formation of ternary β and Cu-Al δ phases at 450-550°C; this was followed by β-Sn, and, finally, Cu6Sn5 and Cu-Al γ1. Because of the presence of the retained, high-temperature phases in the alloys, particle size and volume fraction of the room temperature Cu-Al IMC phases were observed to increase when the alloy casting temperature was reduced from 1200°C to 800°C, even though both temperatures are above the calculated liquidus temperature of the alloys. Preliminary electron backscatter diffraction results seemed to show Sn grain refinement in the SAC + Al BGA alloy.

  19. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 K (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu6Sn5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu6Sn5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu6Sn5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu6Sn5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. The reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu6Sn5 was maintained for both alloys.

  20. Developments of high strength Bi-containing Sn0.7Cu lead-free solder alloys prepared by directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaowu, E-mail: xwhmaterials@aliyun.com [School of Mechanical Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li, Yulong [School of Mechanical Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Yi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Min, Zhixian [China Electronics Technology Group Corporation No. 38 Research Institute, Hefei 230088 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The Sn0.7Cu–xBi solder alloys were directionally solidified. • Both spacing and diameter of fibers decreased with increasing solidification rate. • The UTS and YS first increased with increased solidification rate, then decreased. • The UTS and YS of Sn0.7Cu–xBi first increased with increased Bi content. - Abstract: Bi-containing Sn0.7Cu (SC) eutectic solder alloys were prepared and subjected to directional solidification, through which new types of fiber reinforced eutectic composites were generated. The influences of Bi addition on the microstructures and tensile properties of directionally solidified (DS) Bi-containing eutectic SC lead-free solder alloys have been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and a tensile testing machine. The experimental results showed that addition of Bi could effectively reduce both the melting temperature and undercooling of SC solder alloy. The microstructures of DS SC–xBi solder alloys were composed of Sn-rich phase (β) and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} fiber. No other intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with Bi content were observed in the solder matrix for SC solder alloys with various Bi contents. Both fiber spacing and diameter all decreased gradually with increasing growth rate and/or Bi content. Besides, the regularity of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} fibers alignment also decreased with increasing growth rate, too. The tensile strengths of the SC–xBi eutectic solder alloys varied parabolically with growth rate (R). When R was 60 μm/s, maximum tensile strengths of 43.8, 55.2 and 56.37 MPa were reached for SC, SC0.7Bi and SC1.3Bi solder alloys. A comparison of tensile strength of SC, SC0.7Bi and SC1.3Bi with the same R indicated that the tensile strength increased with increasing Bi content, which was attributed to the presence of Bi and its role in refining microstructure and solid solution strengthening.

  1. Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric ceramics in NaNbO.sub.3./sub.-Sr.sub.0.5./sub.NbO.sub.3./sub.-LiNbO.sub.3./sub. solid solution system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raevskaya, S. I.; Dellis, J.L.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Prosandeev, S. A.; Raevski, I. P.; Lisitsina, S.O.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 317, - (2005), s. 241-243 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffuse phase transition * lead-free relaxors * solid solutions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  2. Morphotropic NaNbO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3}-CaZrO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics with temperature-insensitive piezoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Ruzhong, E-mail: piezolab@hfut.edu.cn, E-mail: rzzuo@hotmail.com; Qi, He; Fu, Jian [Institute of Electro Ceramics and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009 (China)

    2016-07-11

    A morphotropic NaNbO{sub 3}-based lead-free ceramic was reported to have temperature-insensitive piezoelectric and electromechanical properties (d{sub 33} = 231 pC/N, k{sub p} = 35%, T{sub c} = 148 °C, and low-hysteresis strain ∼0.15%) in a relatively wide temperature range. This was fundamentally ascribed to the finding of a composition-axis vertical morphotropic phase boundary in which coexisting ferroelectric phases are only compositionally driven and thermally insensitive. Both phase coexistence and nano-scaled domain morphology deserved well enhanced electrical properties, as evidenced by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our study suggests that the current lead-free ceramic would be a very promising piezoelectric material for actuator and sensor applications.

  3. Raman spectroscopy study of Na.sub.1/2./sub.Bi.sub.1/2./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub.-BaTiO.sub.3./sub. lead-free single crystal relaxor piezoelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregora, Ivan; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Simon, Elizabeth; Berta, Milan; Savinov, Maxim; Hlinka, Jiří; Luo, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 404, č. 1 (2010), s. 220-2 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA ČR GA202/06/0411; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : bismuth sodium niobate * lead-free titanates * relaxor * Raman spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  4. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-based perovskite solid solution in lead-free ferroelectric Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen The; Bac, Luong Huu; Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Hoang, Nguyen The; Van Vinh, Pham; Dung, Dang Duc

    2018-04-01

    The integration of ferromagnetism in lead-free ferroelectric materials is important to fabricate smart materials for electronic devices. In this work, (1 - x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 + xMgFeO3-δ materials (x = 0-9 mol%) were prepared through sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction characterization indicated that MgFeO3-δ materials existed as a well solid solution in lead-free ferroelectric Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 materials. The rhombohedral structure of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 materials was distorted due to the random distribution of Mg and Fe cations into the host lattice. The reduced optical band gap and the induced room-temperature ferromagnetism were due to the spin splitting of transition metal substitution at the B-site of perovskite Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 and the modification by A-site co-substitution. This work elucidates the role of secondary phase as solid solution in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 material for development of lead-free multiferroelectric materials.

  5. Structural, multiferroic, dielectric and magnetoelectric properties of (1-x)Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3-(x)CoFe2O4 lead-free composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, N. S.; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Hakikat; Shah, J.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2018-06-01

    High performance lead-free multiferroic composites with strong magnetoelectric coupling effect are desired to replace lead-based ceramics in multifunctional device applications due to increasing environmental issues. We report crystal structure, ferroelectric, magnetic, dielectric and magnetoelectric properties of (1-x)Ba0.85Ca0.15Ti0.90Zr0.10O3-(x)CoFe2O4 (BCTZ-CFO) lead-free composites with x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 synthesized by chemical solution method. BCTZ power was synthesized by sol-gel method while CFO was prepared by metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) method. The XRD results confirm successful formation of the BCTZ-CFO composites without presence of any impurity phase. At room temperature, the BCTZ-CFO composites show multiferroic behavior characterized by ferroelectric and ferromagnetic hysteresis curves. The composite having 10 wt% of CFO exhibited maximum polarization, remnant polarization and coercive field of Ps ∼ 5.1 μC/cm2, Pr ∼ 1.4 μC/cm2 and Ec ∼ 11.6 kV/cm respectively. The BCTZ-CFO composite with 90 wt% of CFO incorporation exhibits improved ferromagnetic properties with Ms ∼ 32 emu/g, Mr ∼ 11.7 emu/g and Hc ∼ 504 Oe. Mӧssbauer spectra analysis show two sets of six-line hyperfine patterns for BCTZ-CFO composites, indicating the presence of Fe3+ ions in both A and B sites. Increasing BCTZ content was found to decrease the hyperfine field strength at both sites and is consistent with the decreasing magnetic moment observed for the samples. The maximum dielectric constant value ε‧ ∼ 678 is obtained at 1 MHz for composite with 10 wt% of CFO phase. The results indicate that the BCTZ-CFO composites are potential lead-free room temperature multiferroic systems.

  6. Enhanced piezoelectricity in (1 -x)Bi1.05Fe1-yAyO3-xBaTiO3 lead-free ceramics: site engineering and wide phase boundary region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Jiang, Zhenggen; Wu, Jiagang

    2016-07-28

    Site engineering has been employed to modulate the piezoelectric activity of high temperature (1 -x)Bi1.05Fe1-yScyO3-xBaTiO3 lead-free ceramics fabricated by a conventional solid-state method together with a quenching technique. The effects of x and y content on the phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties have been investigated in detail. A wide rhombohedral (R) to pseudo-cubic (C) phase boundary was formed in the ceramics with x = 0.30 and 0 ≤y≤ 0.07, thus leading to enhanced piezoelectricity (d33 = 120-180 pC N(-1)), ferroelectricity (Pr = 19-22 μC cm(-2)) and a high Curie temperature (TC = 478-520 °C). In addition, the influence of different element substitutions for Fe(3+) on phase structure and electrical behavior was also investigated. Improved piezoelectricity (d33 = 160-180 pC N(-1)) and saturated P-E loops can be simultaneously achieved in the ceramics with A = Sc, Ga, and Al due to the R-C phase boundary. As a result, site engineering may be an efficient way to modulate the piezoelectricity of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics.

  7. Giant strain with low cycling degradation in Ta-doped [Bi_1_/_2(Na_0_._8K_0_._2)_1_/_2]TiO_3 lead-free ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Tan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Non-textured polycrystalline [Bi_1_/_2(Na_0_._8K_0_._2)_1_/_2](Ti_1_−_xTa_x)O_3 ceramics are fabricated and their microstructures and electrical properties are characterized. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the coexistence of the rhombohedral R3c and tetragonal P4bm phases in the form of nanometer-sized domains in [Bi_1_/_2(Na_0_._8K_0_._2)_1_/_2]TiO_3 with low Ta concentration. When the composition is x = 0.015, the electrostrain is found to be highly asymmetric under bipolar fields of ±50 kV/cm. A very large value of 0.62% is observed in this ceramic, corresponding to a large-signal piezoelectric coefficient d_3_3* of 1240 pm/V (1120 pm/V under unipolar loading). These values are greater than most previously reported lead-free polycrystalline ceramics and can even be compared with some lead-free piezoelectric single crystals. Additionally, this ceramic displays low cycling degradation; its electrostrain remains above 0.55% even after undergoing 10 000 cycles of ±50 kV/cm bipolar fields at 2 Hz. Therefore, Ta-doped [Bi_1_/_2(Na_0_._8K_0_._2)_1_/_2]TiO_3 ceramics show great potential for large displacement devices.

  8. Investigation of structural, ferroelectric, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of Ba0.92Ca0.08TiO3-BaTi0.96Zr0.04O3 lead-free electroceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Bhavna C.; Patil, S. I.; Kolekar, Y. D.

    2018-04-01

    Lead free ferroelectric with composition 0.55Ba0.92Ca0.08TiO3-0.45BaTi0.96Zr0.04O3 (BCT8-BZT4) was synthesized by solid state reaction method and investigated their structural, ferroelectric, piezoelectric and dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that BCT8-BZT4 ceramic possess both tetragonal (space group P4mm) and orthorhombic (space group Amm2) crystal structure which was further confirmed from Raman spectra spectroscopy. The micronized grains were observed from scanning electron micrographs while the presence of polarization-electric field hysteresis loop confirms ferroelectric nature of BCT8-BZT4 ceramic. Higher values of maximum polarization (Pmax = 22.27 μC/cm2), remnant polarization (Pr = 11.61 μC/cm2), coercive electric field (Ec = 4.77 kV/cm) and direct piezoelectric coefficient (d33) approximately 185 pC/N were observed. The real part of dielectric constant with frequency shows the usual dielectric dispersion behaviour at RT. The observed properties show that the lead free BCT8-BZT4 ceramic is suitable for ferroelectric memory device, piezoelectric sensor, capacitor, etc. applications.

  9. Lead-free/rare earth-free Green-light-emitting crystal based on organic-inorganic hybrid [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] with high emissive quantum yields and large crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xing-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Yuan; Li, Hong; Huang, Cui-Ping; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-01

    With the flourishing development of emitting materials, tremendous technological progress has been accomplished. However, they still face great challenges in convenient economical environmental-friendly large-scale commercial production. Herein we designed this organic-inorganic hybrid lead-free compound, an emerging class of high-efficiency emitting materials, [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] (1), which emits intense greenish photoluminescence with a high emissive quantum yields of 72.26%, was prepared through the convenient economical solution method. What's more, compared with rare earth fluorescent materials (especially green-emitting Tb), Mn material is rich in natural resources and low commercial cost, which would possess an increasingly predominant advantage in the preparation of luminescent materials. Additionally, the exceptional thermal stability as well as the low-cost/convenient preparation process makes crystal 1 with the large size of more than 1 cm to be an ideal technologically important green-emitting material and it would open up a new route towards the commercialization process of lead-free/rare earth-free hybrid emitting materials in display and sensing.

  10. Effects of the co-addition of LiSbO3-LiTaO3 on the densification of (Na1/2K1/2)NbO3 lead free ceramics by atmosphere sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Na; Fang Bijun; Wu Jian; Du Qingbo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This manuscript shows a synthesis method that can easily obtain excellent lead-free samples, which is valuable for industrial production. → Pure phase perovskite 0.94(Na 1/2 K 1/2 )NbO 3 -0.03LiSbO 3 -0.03LiTaO 3 (0.94NKN-0.03LS-0.03LT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with high relative density, being 94.73%, and excellent integral electrical properties, piezoelectric constant d 33 being 228 pC/N, were prepared by atmosphere sintering method. Which can be attributed to the co-doping of LiSbO 3 -LiTaO 3 . - Abstract: Pure phase perovskite 0.94(Na 1/2 K 1/2 )NbO 3 -0.03LiSbO 3 -0.03LiTaO 3 (0.94NKN-0.03LS-0.03LT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. Due to the co-addition of LiSbO 3 -LiTaO 3 , the 0.94NKN-0.03LS-0.03LT ceramics prepared by atmosphere sintering at 1040 deg. C exhibit high relative density, being 94.73%, and rather homogenous microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirmed that the sintered ceramics exhibit pure tetragonal perovskite structure. The 0.94NKN-0.03LS-0.03LT ceramics exhibit excellent integral electrical properties, in which the value of piezoelectric constant d 33 is 228 pC/N, the electromechanical coupling factors K p and K t are 0.220 and 0.230, respectively, the mechanical quality factor Q m is 32.19, and the remnant polarization P r is 23.06 μC/cm 2 . Such excellent electrical properties are considered as correlating with the high relative density of the synthesized ceramics induced by the co-doping of LiSbO 3 -LiTaO 3 .

  11. WETTABILITY STUDIES OF LEAD-FREE SOLDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... other industries due to its low cost and unique material properties like low melting point, avail- ability etc. However, the toxicity of lead during industrial production of components and the ... Companies in other countries. (for instance, many in the Japanese electronics in- dustries) began to introduce some ...

  12. LEAD-FREE BNKT PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An actuator is a device that converts input energy into mechanical energy. According to various types of input energy, various actuators have been advanced. Displacement in the electromagnetic, hydraulic and pneumatic actuators achieve by moving a piston via electromagnetic force or pressure, however the piezoelectric actuator (piezoceramic plates displace directly. Therefore, accuracy and speed in the piezoelectric device are higher than other types of actuators. In the present work, the high-field electromechanical response of high-quality (1−x(Bi 0.5Na0.5TiO3–x(Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 samples abbreviated to BNKTx with x = 0.18, 0.20, 0.22 and 0.24 ceramic materials across its MPB was investigated. The piezoelectrics and actuation characteristics were characterized. Ourresults indicate that x = 0.20, indeed, constitutes the best choice for the MPB composition in the system. Maximum of remanent polarization (37.5 μC cm−2 was obtained for x=0.20. High-field electromechanical responses were also obtained for BNKT0.20 samples. This material exhibited giant field induced strains of 0.13% under 1 kV mm -1 at room temperature.

  13. High Performance Lead--free Piezoelectric Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shashaank

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials find applications in number of devices requiring inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy.  These devices include different types of sensors, actuators and energy harvesting devices. A number of lead-based perovskite compositions (PZT, PMN-PT, PZN-PT etc.) have dominated the field in last few decades owing to their giant piezoresponse and convenient application relevant tunability. With increasing environmental concerns, in the last one decade, focus has be...

  14. Tetragonal-to-Tetragonal Phase Transition in Lead-Free (KxNa1−xNbO3 (x = 0.11 and 0.17 Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabin Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead free piezoelectric crystals of (KxNa1−xNbO3 (x = 0.11 and 0.17 have been grown by the modified Bridgman method. The structure and chemical composition of the obtained crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA. The domain structure evolution with increasing temperature for (KxNa1−xNbO3 (x = 0.11 and 0.17 crystals was observed using polarized light microscopy (PLM, where distinguished changes of the domain structures were found to occur at 400 °C and 412 °C respectively, corresponding to the tetragonal to tetragonal phase transition temperatures. Dielectric measurements performed on (K0.11Na0.89NbO3 crystals exhibited tetragonal to tetragonal and tetragonal to cubic phase transitions temperatures at 405 °C and 496 °C, respectively.

  15. Large Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-Free (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 Ceramics Prepared via Citrate Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Zhu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning; Luo, Haosu

    2017-01-01

    The 1 wt % Li-doped (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 (BCZT-Li) ceramics prepared by the citrate method exhibit improved phase purity, densification and electrical properties, which provide prospective possibility to develop high-performance electrocaloric materials. The electrocaloric effect was evaluated by phenomenological method, and the BCZT-Li ceramics present large electrocaloric temperature change ∆T, especially large electrocaloric responsibility ξ = ∆Tmax/∆Emax, which can be comparable to the largest values reported in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. The excellent electrocaloric effect is considered as correlating with the coexistence of polymorphic ferroelectric phases, which are detected by the Raman spectroscopy. The large ξ value accompanied by decreased Curie temperature (around 73 °C) of the BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method presents potential applications as the next-generation solid-state cooling devices. PMID:28927004

  16. Large Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-Free (Ba0.85Ca0.15(Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 Ceramics Prepared via Citrate Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1 wt % Li-doped (Ba0.85Ca0.15(Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 (BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method exhibit improved phase purity, densification and electrical properties, which provide prospective possibility to develop high-performance electrocaloric materials. The electrocaloric effect was evaluated by phenomenological method, and the BCZT-Li ceramics present large electrocaloric temperature change ∆T, especially large electrocaloric responsibility ξ = ∆Tmax/∆Emax, which can be comparable to the largest values reported in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. The excellent electrocaloric effect is considered as correlating with the coexistence of polymorphic ferroelectric phases, which are detected by the Raman spectroscopy. The large ξ value accompanied by decreased Curie temperature (around 73 °C of the BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method presents potential applications as the next-generation solid-state cooling devices.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-9Zn-xAl2O3 nanoparticles (x=0–1) lead-free solder alloy: First-principles calculation and experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Wen-qing; Yu, Xin-ye; Li, Heng; Ma, Le; Zuo, Wei; Dong, Peng; Wang, Wen-xian; Ding, Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-9Zn-x Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles (x=0–1) lead-free solder alloy. The interface structure, interface energy and electronic properties of Al 2 O 3 /Sn9Zn interface are investigated by first-principle calculation. On the experimental part, in comparison with the plain Sn-9Zn solder, the Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles incorporated into the solder matrix can inhibit the growth of coarse dendrite Sn-Zn eutectic structure and refine grains of the composite solders during the solidification process of the alloys. Moreover, the microhardness and average tensile strength of the solders with addition of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles increased with the increasing weight percentages of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles. These improved mechanical properties can be attributed to the microstructure developments and the dispersed Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles.

  18. Dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics of lead-free Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.84}K{sub 0.16}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} ceramics substituted with Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Juhyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semyung University Jechon, Chungbuk, 390-711 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dongon [Sunny Electronics Corporation, Chungju, 380-240 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yeongho [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Yusung-Gu, Taejon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jaeil [Department of Electricity, Dongseoul Tech. Jr. College, 255 Soo Jung-Ku, Sung Nam (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Moonyoung [Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Geotechnics Engineering, Semyung University Jechon, Chungbuk, 390-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-01

    In this study, lead-free Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.84}K{sub 0.16}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were fabricated with the variations of Sr substitution and their dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics were investigated. Through the analysis of XRD diffraction pattern and SEM, crystal structure and microstructure were evaluated. With the increasing amount of Sr substitution, dielectric constant linearly increased at the rate of about 90 per 1 mol% and Curie temperature decreased slightly. Also, the temperature dependence curve of dielectric constant moved leftward. At 4 mol% Sr substitution, T{sub c} of 292C, k{sub p} of 34.3%, k{sub t} of 45.32%, and d{sub 33} of 185 pC/N were obtained, respectively.

  19. Disk-type piezoelectric transformer of a Na0.5K0.5NbO3–CuNb2O6 lead-free ceramic for driving T5 fluorescent lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming-Ru; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Chan, I.-Hao; Yang, Song-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CuNb 2 O 6 dopants were doped into NKN ceramics not only improved the density but also exhibited superior piezoelectric characteristic, temperature stability of resonance frequency. ► Lead-free NKN-01CN piezoelectric transformer was simplified as an equivalent circuit and analyzed using MATLAB. ► An 8W T5 fluorescent lamp was successfully driven by the NKN-01CN piezoelectric transformer. - Abstract: Lead-free (Na 0.5 K 0.5 )NbO 3 (NKN) ceramics doped with 1 mol% CuNb 2 O 6 (CN) ceramics were prepared using the conventional mixed oxide method, with a sintering temperature of 1075 °C. Microstructural analyses of the NKN–01CN ceramics were carried out and compared, using X-ray diffraction (XRD). NKN–01CN ceramics sintered at 1075 °C not only exhibited excellent ‘hard’ piezoelectric properties of k p = 40%, k t = 45%, k 33 = 57%, a ferroelectric property of E c = 23 kV/cm, and an extraordinarily high mechanical quality factor (Q m ) of 1933 but also showed excellent stability with temperature (TCF = −154 ppm/°C). The piezoelectric transformer was simplified, using an equivalent circuit, and analyzed, using MATLAB; the simulation data agreed well with the experimental results. An efficiency of 95.7% was achieved for the NKN–01CN piezoelectric transformer with load resistance of 20 kΩ. An 8 W T5 fluorescent lamp was successfully driven by the NKN–01CN piezoelectric transformer.

  20. High performance Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BiAlO3-K0.5Na0.5NbO3 lead-free pyroelectric ceramics for thermal detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Ren, Weijun; Peng, Ping; Guo, Shaobo; Lu, Teng; Liu, Yun; Dong, Xianlin; Wang, Genshui

    2018-04-01

    Both high pyroelectric properties and good temperature stability of ferroelectric materials are desirable when used for applications in infrared thermal detectors. In this work, we report lead-free ternary 0.97(0.99Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.01BiAlO3)-0.03K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (BNT-BA-KNN) ceramics, which not only exhibits a large pyroelectric coefficient (p ˜ 3.7 × 10-8 C cm-2 K-1) and figures of merit (Fi, Fv, and Fd) but also shows excellent thermal stable properties. At room temperature, Fi, Fv, and Fd are determined as high as 1.32 × 10-10 m/V, 2.89 × 10-2 m2/C, and 1.15 × 10-5 Pa-1/2 at 1 kHz and 1.32 × 10-10 m/V, 2.70 × 10-2 m2/C, and 1.09 × 10-5 Pa-1/2 at 20 Hz, respectively. During the temperature range of RT to 85 °C, the achieved p, Fi, Fv, and Fd do not vary too much. The high depolarization temperature and the undispersed ferroelectric-ergodic relaxor phase transition with a sharp pyroelectric coefficient peak value of ˜400 × 10-8 C cm-2 K-1 are suggested to be responsible for this thermal stability, which ensures reliable actual operation. The results reveal the BNT-BA-KNN ceramics as promising lead-free candidates for infrared thermal detector applications.

  1. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free BaTiO{sub 3} doped Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin films from metal-organic solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Susant Kumar [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Semiconductor Science and Technology, Basic Research Laboratory (BRL), Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kwon; Hyung, Jung-Hwan [Department of Semiconductor Science and Technology, Basic Research Laboratory (BRL), Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Bok-Hee [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byung-Guk, E-mail: bkahn@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead-free BNT-BT thin films from an optimized metal-organic solution deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase and microstructure evolution with annealing temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A relatively low leakage current density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good dielectric constant of 613 at a frequency of 1 kHz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High remanent polarization and piezoelectric constant comparable to PZT thin films. - Abstract: Lead-free 0.94Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-0.06BaTiO{sub 3} (BNT-BT) piezoelectric thin films were prepared by metal-organic solution deposition onto a Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. A dense and well crystallized thin film with a perovskite phase was obtained by annealing these films at 700 Degree-Sign C. Atomic force microscopy showed that these films were smooth and crack-free with an average grain size on the order of 200 nm. Thin films of 356 nm thickness exhibited a small signal dielectric constant and a loss tangent at 1 kHz of 613 and 0.044, respectively. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements indicated a remanent polarization value of 21.5 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} with a coercive field of 164.5 kV/cm. The leakage current density of the thin film was 4.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm. A typical butterfly-shaped piezoresponse loop was observed and the effective piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) of the BNT-BT thin film was approximately 51.6 pm/V.

  2. Field-induced strain and polarization response in lead-free Bi1/2(Na0.80K0.20)1/2TiO3–SrZrO3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Ali; Rahman, Jamil Ur; Zaman, Arif; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Kim, Jin Soo; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won Jeong; Kim, Myong Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structure, field-induced strain, polarization and dielectric response of lead-free SrZrO 3 -modified Bi 1/2 (Na 0.80 K 0.20 ) 1/2 TiO 3 (abbreviated as BNKT–SZ100x, with x = 0–0.05) ceramics were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BNKT–SZ100x ceramics reveals no remarkable change in the crystal structure within the studied composition range. Around critical composition (x = 0.03) at a driving field of 6 kV mm −1 , large unipolar strain of 0.37% (S max /E max = 617) was obtained at room temperature. The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of BNKT ceramics were significantly increased at 2 mol%. At x = 0.02, remnant polarization reached a maximum value of 34 μC cm −2 , while the piezoelectric constant (d 33 ) attained maximum value of 190 pC/N. These results indicate that BNKT–SZ100x ceramics can be considered as promising candidate materials for lead-free piezoelectric actuator applications. - Highlights: • BNKT–SZ ceramics were synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction process. • Field-induced strain and piezoelectric constant were increased at critical composition. • BNKT–SZ100x ceramics at x = 0.03 exhibit a large field induced dynamic piezoelectric coefficient. • BNKT–SZ100x ceramics at x = 0.02 exhibit a high static piezoelectric constant. • The depolarization temperature of BNKT–SZ100x ceramics decrease with increase in SZ content

  3. An ultrasonic therapeutic transducers using lead-free Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}-CuNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming-Ru [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Tung-Fang Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung 829, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} In this paper, CN was added to NKN ceramics to decrease the sintering temperature and to improve the density and piezoelectric characteristics. The influence of CuNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CN) content on the microstructure, electrical properties, temperature stability, and mechanical properties of the synthesized samples was investigated. Results show that the samples synthesized with CN-doped not only improved the density but also exhibited superior piezoelectric characteristic, temperature stability of resonance frequency (TCF), and elastic stiffness coefficient than those of pure NKN piezoelectric ceramics. {yields} The bulk density (4.47 g/cm{sup 3}), k{sub p} (40%), k{sub t} (45%), Q{sub m} (1642), C{sub 33}{sup D} (19.64 x 10{sup 10} N/m{sup 2}), TCF (-0.011%/{sup o}C) and TCC (0.135%/{sup o}C) values for NKN-01CN ceramics obtained from experiments show excellent 'hard' piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, a lead-free NKN-01CN ultrasonic therapeutic transducer was successfully driven by a self-tuning circuit. - Abstract: In this work, we reports on the CuNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CN) modified lead-free Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} (NKN) based piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction methods and sintered at 1075 {sup o}C for 3 h. A secondary phase of K{sub 4}CuNb{sub 8}O{sub 23} was found in the XRD pattern of NKN-based ceramics as the CN dopants is 1 mol%. Microstructural analyses of un-doped and CN-doped ceramics were performed in a scanning electron microscope. The influence of CN content on the microstructure, electrical properties, temperature stability, and mechanical properties of the synthesized ceramics was investigated. The results show that the synthesized ceramics with CN-doped not only had improved density but also exhibited superior piezoelectric characteristics, temperature stability of resonance frequency (TCF), and a better elastic stiffness coefficient than those of pure NKN piezoelectric

  4. Role of A-site Ca and B-site Zr substitution in BaTiO3 lead-free compounds: Combined experimental and first principles density functional theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Bhavna C.; Saraf, Deepashri; Patil, S. I.; Kshirsagar, Anjali; James, A. R.; Kolekar, Y. D.; Ramana, C. V.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the combined experimental and theoretical simulation results of lead-free ferroelectrics, Ba(1-x)CaxTiO3 (x = 0.0-0.3) and BaTi(1-y)ZryO3 (y = 0.0-0.2), synthesized by standard solid state reaction method. First principles density functional calculations are used to investigate the electronic structure, dynamical charges, and spontaneous polarization of these compounds. In addition, the structural, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties are studied using extensive experiments. The X-ray diffraction and temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy studies indicate that the calcium (Ca) substituted compositions exhibit a single phase crystal structure, while zirconium (Zr) substituted compositions are biphasic. The scanning electron micrographs reveal the uniform and highly dense microstructure. The presence of polarization-electric field and strain-electric field hysteresis loops confirms the ferroelectric and piezoelectric nature of all the compositions. Our results demonstrate higher values for polarization, percentage strain, piezoelectric coefficients, and electrostrictive coefficient compared to those existing in the literature. For smaller substitutions of Ca and Zr in BaTiO3, a direct piezoelectric coefficient (d33) is enhanced, while the highest d33 value (˜300 pC/N) is observed for BaTi0.96Zr0.04O3 due to the biphasic ferroelectric behavior. Calculation of Born effective charges indicates that doping with Ca or Zr increases the dynamical charges on Ti as well as on O and decreases the dynamical charge on Ba. An increase in the dynamical charges on Ti and O is ascribed to the increase in covalency of Ti-O bond that reduces the polarizability of the crystal. A broader range of temperatures is demonstrated to realize the stable phase in the Ca substituted compounds. The results indicate enhancement in the temperature range of applicability of these compounds for device applications. The combined theoretical and experimental study is

  5. First-principles calculation of the effects of Li-doping on the structure and piezoelectricity of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Wei, L L; Chao, X L; Yang, Z P; Zhou, X Y

    2016-03-21

    The crystal structures of the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 and (K0.5Na0.5)0.94Li0.06NbO3 prepared by a solid-state method were investigated using first-principles calculations. The calculated values of piezoelectricity were in good agreement with the experimental data. We found that the primary contribution to piezoelectricity in this material comes from the hybridization of the O 2p and Nb 4d orbitals, which causes a change in the Nb-O bond length and the distortion of the Nb-O octahedral structure. Analysis of the band structure and the total density of states revealed that Li-doped (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 enhances hybridization of the O 2p and Nb 4d orbitals. This hybridization enhancement further reduces the Nb-O1 bond length and enhances the distortion of the Nb-O octahedron along the [001] direction, which may be the main reason for the improvement of the piezoelectric properties. In addition, the piezoelectric coefficients are calculated here, which show the same trend as the experimental results.

  6. Isothermal phase transition and the transition temperature limitation in the lead-free (1-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBaTiO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dawei; Yao, Yonggang; Fang, Minxia; Luo, Zhengdong; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Linglong; Cui, Jian; Zhou, Zhijian; Bian, Jihong; Ren, Xiaobing; Yang, Yaodong

    2016-01-01

    Most ferroelectric transitions occur ultrafast and are time independent. However, here in (1-x) (Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 )TiO 3 -xBaTiO 3 , we have found a ferroelectric phase transition induced solely by increasing waiting time at certain temperatures (isothermal phase transition). Through cooling, a unique metastable state between a relaxor ferroelectric and a ferroelectric is unveiled, which in essence is initially a short-range ordered glassy state and then can evolve into a long-range ordered ferroelectric state through the isothermal process. It is also found that these isothermal ferroelectric transitions only occur within a specific temperature region with different waiting time needed. These features of isothermal phase transition can be understood by Landau theory analysis with the consideration of random defects as a competition between the thermodynamically favored long-range ordered state and the kinetically frustrated short-range ordered glassy state from random defects. This study offers a precise experimental as well as a phenomenological interpretation on the isothermal ferroelectric transition, which may help to further clarify the intricate structure-property relationship in this important lead-free piezoelectric material and other related systems.

  7. Energy storage properties and relaxor behavior of lead-free Ba1-xSm2x/3Zr0.15Ti0.85O3 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Lingxia; Yu, Shihui; Kang, Xinyu; Chen, Siliang

    2017-10-24

    Lead-free Ba 1-x Sm 2x/3 Zr 0.15 Ti 0.85 O 3 (BSZT) ceramics were synthesized by a solid state reaction route. The microstructure, dielectric relaxor behavior and energy storage properties of BSZT ceramics were studied. The growth of grain size was suppressed with the increase of Sm addition and kept in the submicrometer scale. Successive substitution of Sm 3+ for Ba 2+ disrupted the long-range dipole and promoted the increase of polar nano-region (PNR) size, resulting in the enhanced degree of relaxor behavior. The increasing PNR size also lead to the slimmer hysteresis loops and improved the energy storage efficiency. Furthermore, high saturated polarization (P max ) and low remnant polarization (P r ) were obtained due to the formation of defect dipoles, which facilitated the switch of PNRs and contributed to the enhancement of energy storage density. The x = 0.003 sample was found to exhibit a higher energy storage density of 1.15 J cm -3 and an energy storage efficiency of 92%. The result revealed that the BSZT ceramics may be a good candidate for energy storage application.

  8. Ferroelectric and impedance response of lead-free (B/sub o.5/N/sub 0.5/)TiO/sub 3/-BaZrO/sub 3/ piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, J. U.; Hussain, A.; Maqbool, A.; Kim, J. S.; Song, T. K.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric (0.96B/sub 0.5/N/sub 0.5/TiO/sub 3/)-0.04BaZrO/sub 3/ (BNT-BZ4) was synthesized by using a solid-state reaction method. SEM micrograph shows dense microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the formation of a BNB-BZ4 single phase having pseudocubic symmetry. A maximum value of remnant polarization (30 meuC/cm2) and piezoelectric constant (112 pC/N) was observed for BNT-BZ4 ceramic. The temperature dependences of the dielectric properties of BNT-BZ4 were investigated in the temperature range of 25-600 degree C at various frequencies (0.1 Hz-1 MHz). The maximum dielectric constant value (epsilonr) reaches a highest value of 4046 (at 10 kHz). The electrical properties were investigated by using complex impedance spectroscopy and provided better understanding of relaxation process. (author)

  9. Phase transitions and optical characterization of lead-free piezoelectric (K0.5Na0.5)0.96Li0.04(Nb 0.8Ta0.2)O3 thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2013-06-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric thin films, (K0.5Na0.5) 0.96Li0.04(Nb0.8Ta0.2)O 3, were epitaxially grown on MgO(001) and Nb-doped SrTiO 3(001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The optimum deposition temperature was found to be 600 C. Two types of in-plane orientations were observed in the films depending on the substrates used. The transmittance and photoluminescence spectra as well as the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the films were measured. The measured band-gap energy was found to be decreased with the deposition temperature. The dielectric constant decreased from 550 to 300 as the frequency increased from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The measured remnant polarization and coercive field were 4 μC/cm2 and 68 kV/cm, respectively. The phase transitions of the films were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Two distinct anomalies originating from the cubic-to-tetragonal (TC-T ~ 300 C) and tetragonal-to-orthorhombic (TT-O ~ 120 C) phase transitions were observed. Our results show that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool in identifying the phase transitions in ferroelectric thin films. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Electric Field-Induced Large Strain in Ni/Sb-co Doped (Bi0.5Na0.5) TiO3-Based Lead-Free Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Hao, Jigong; Xu, Zhijun; Li, Wei; Chu, Ruiqing

    2018-02-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.935Ba0.065Ti1- x (Ni0.5Sb0.5) x O3 (BNBT6.5- xNS) have been fabricated using conventional solid sintering technique. The effect of (Ni, Sb) doping on the phase structure and electrical properties of BNBT6.5 ceramics were systematically investigated. Results show that the addition of (Ni, Sb) destroyed the ferroelectric long-range order of BNBT6.5 and shifted the ferroelectric-relaxor transition temperature ( T F-R) down to room temperature. Thus, this process induced an ergodic relaxor phase at zero field in samples with x = 0.005. Under the electric field, the ergodic relaxor phase could reversibly transform to ferroelectric phase, which promotes the strain response with peak value of 0.38% (at 80 kV/cm, corresponding to d 33 * = 479 pm/V) at x = 0.005. Temperature-dependent measurements of both polarization and strain confirmed that the large strain originated from a reversible field-induced ergodic relaxor to ferroelectric phase transformation. The proposed material exhibits potential for nonlinear actuators.

  11. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 modified Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changrong; Liu Xinyu; Li Weizhou

    2008-01-01

    The (0.82 - x)Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 TiO 3 -0.18Bi 0.5 K 0.5 TiO 3 -xBiFeO 3 (x = 0-0.07) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by a conventional solid-state reaction method and the effect of BiFeO 3 addition on microstructure and electrical properties of the ceramics was investigated. The specimens with x ≤ 0.05 maintained a rhombohedral-tetragonal phase coexistence and changed into a rhombohedral phase when x > 0.05 in crystal structure. The addition of BiFeO 3 caused a promoted grain growth. All the specimens reveal a low-frequency dielectric dispersion in the frequency range of 40-1 MHz. The piezoelectric constant d 33 and the electromechanical coupling factor k p show an obvious improvement by the addition of small amount of BiFeO 3 , which shows optimum values of d 33 = 170 pC/N and k p = 0.366 at x = 0.03. Contrary to the enhancement of piezoelectric properties, Q m decreases with increasing BiFeO 3 content. The mechanisms of intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the dielectric and piezoelectric responses have been proposed. Intrinsic contributions are from the relative ion/cation shift that preserves the ferroelectric crystal structure. The remaining extrinsic contributions are from the domain-wall motion and point defects

  12. Structure and electrical properties of (1 − x) (Na0.5Bi0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3–x BiAlO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Peng; Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing; Wu, Xueyan; Li, Wei; Li, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (1 − x) BNBT6–x BA ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction method. ► Electrical properties of BNBT6 ceramics are improved by the addition of BA. ► (1 − x) BNBT6 - x BA ceramics at x = 0.0225 have the best electrical properties. - Abstract: (1 − x) (Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 ) 0.94 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 –x BiAlO 3 ((1 − x) BNBT6–x BA) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid-state processes. Effects of BiAlO 3 (BA) on the structure and electrical properties of (Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 ) 0.94 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 (BNBT6) ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data shows that (1 − x) BNBT6–x BA ceramics form the pure perovskite phases, and the ceramics have the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) when x r = 42.5 μC/cm 2 ), the highest piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 = 204 pC/N), the highest planar coupling factor (k p = 0.3292), the highest dielectric constant (ε r = 1687) and higher mechanical quality factor (Q m = 112)

  13. Overcoming Short-Circuit in Lead-Free CH3NH3SnI3 Perovskite Solar Cells via Kinetically Controlled Gas-Solid Reaction Film Fabrication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takamichi; Cao, Duyen H; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Song, Tze-Bin; Sato, Yoshiharu; Aramaki, Shinji; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-03-03

    The development of Sn-based perovskite solar cells has been challenging because devices often show short-circuit behavior due to poor morphologies and undesired electrical properties of the thin films. A low-temperature vapor-assisted solution process (LT-VASP) has been employed as a novel kinetically controlled gas-solid reaction film fabrication method to prepare lead-free CH3NH3SnI3 thin films. We show that the solid SnI2 substrate temperature is the key parameter in achieving perovskite films with high surface coverage and excellent uniformity. The resulting high-quality CH3NH3SnI3 films allow the successful fabrication of solar cells with drastically improved reproducibility, reaching an efficiency of 1.86%. Furthermore, our Kelvin probe studies show the VASP films have a doping level lower than that of films prepared from the conventional one-step method, effectively lowering the film conductivity. Above all, with (LT)-VASP, the short-circuit behavior often obtained from the conventional one-step-fabricated Sn-based perovskite devices has been overcome. This study facilitates the path to more successful Sn-perovskite photovoltaic research.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-9Zn-xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (x=0–1) lead-free solder alloy: First-principles calculation and experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Wen-qing; Yu, Xin-ye; Li, Heng; Ma, Le; Zuo, Wei [Taiyuan University of Technology, College of Material Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Dong, Peng; Wang, Wen-xian [Taiyuan University of Technology, College of Material Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-based Materials, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Ding, Min, E-mail: dingmin@tyut.edu.cn [Taiyuan University of Technology, College of Material Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-based Materials, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2016-12-15

    This paper studies microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-9Zn-x Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (x=0–1) lead-free solder alloy. The interface structure, interface energy and electronic properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Sn9Zn interface are investigated by first-principle calculation. On the experimental part, in comparison with the plain Sn-9Zn solder, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles incorporated into the solder matrix can inhibit the growth of coarse dendrite Sn-Zn eutectic structure and refine grains of the composite solders during the solidification process of the alloys. Moreover, the microhardness and average tensile strength of the solders with addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increased with the increasing weight percentages of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. These improved mechanical properties can be attributed to the microstructure developments and the dispersed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.

  15. Dielectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-(Bi0.5Li0.5)ZrO3 lead-free ceramics as high-temperature ceramic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tianxiang; Han, Feifei; Ren, Shaokai; Ma, Xing; Fang, Liang; Liu, Laijun; Kuang, Xiaojun; Elouadi, Brahim

    2018-04-01

    (1 - x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3- x(Bi0.5Li0.5)ZrO3 (labeled as (1 - x)KNN- xBLZ) lead-free ceramics were fabricated by a solid-state reaction method. A research was conducted on the effects of BLZ content on structure, dielectric properties and relaxation behavior of KNN ceramics. By combining the X-ray diffraction patterns with the temperature dependence of dielectric properties, an orthorhombic-tetragonal phase coexistence was identified for x = 0.03, a tetragonal phase was determined for x = 0.05, and a single rhombohedral structure occurred at x = 0.08. The 0.92KNN-0.08BLZ ceramic exhibits a high and stable permittivity ( 1317, ± 15% variation) from 55 to 445 °C and low dielectric loss (≤ 6%) from 120 to 400 °C, which is hugely attractive for high-temperature capacitors. Activation energies of both high-temperature dielectric relaxation and dc conductivity first increase and then decline with the increase of BLZ, which might be attributed to the lattice distortion and concentration of oxygen vacancies.

  16. Structural, morphological, dielectric and impedance spectroscopy of lead-free Bi(Zn{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 1/3})O{sub 3} electronic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, S.; Bhuyan, S.; Das, S.N.; Sahoo, S.; Choudhary, R.N.P.; Parida, K. [Siksha ' O' Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (India); Das, P. [Midnapore College, Department of Physics, Midnapore, West Bengal (India)

    2017-12-15

    A lead-free dielectric material [Bi(Zn{sub 2/3}Ta{sub 1/3})O{sub 3}] has been prepared using a solid state reaction technique at high-temperature. The resistive, conducting and capacitive characteristics of the prepared electronic material have been studied in different experimental conditions. The determination of basic crystal parameters and reflection indices confirm the development of polycrystalline compound with orthorhombic crystal structure. The study of frequency-temperature dependence of ac conductivity illustrates the nature and conduction mechanism of the material. On the basis of observed impedance data and detailed dielectric analysis, the existence of non-Debye type relaxation has been affirmed. The electronic charge carriers of compound have short range order that has been validated from the complex modulus and impedance spectrum. The detailed studies of resistive, capacitive, microstructural characteristics of the prepared material provide some useful data for considering the material as an electronic component for fabrication of devices. (orig.)

  17. Dual-enhancement of ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance in Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yongbin; Jia, Yanmin, E-mail: wuzheng@zjnu.cn, E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn; Wu, Jiang; Shen, Yichao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Wu, Zheng, E-mail: wuzheng@zjnu.cn, E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-07-28

    A mutual enhancement action between the ferro-/piezoelectric polarization and the photoluminescent performance of rare earth Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} (KNN) lead-free ceramics is reported. After Pr{sup 3+} doping, the KNN ceramics exhibit the maximum enhancement of ∼1.2 times in the ferroelectric remanent polarization strength and ∼1.25 times in the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33}, respectively. Furthermore, after undergoing a ferro-/piezoelectric polarization treatment, the maximum enhancement of ∼1.3 times in photoluminescence (PL) was observed in the poled 0.3% Pr{sup 3+} doped sample. After the trivalent Pr{sup 3+} unequivalently substituting the univalent (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sup +}, A-sites ionic vacancies will occur to maintain charge neutrality, which may reduce the inner stress and ease the domain wall motions, yielding to the enhancement in ferro-/piezoelectric performance. The polarization-induced enhancement in PL is attributed to the decrease of crystal symmetry abound the Pr{sup 3+} ions after polarization. The dual-enhancement of the ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance makes the Pr{sup 3+} doped KNN ceramic hopeful for piezoelectric/luminescent multifunctional devices.

  18. Effect of MnO doping on the structure, microstructure and electrical properties of the (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O{sub 3} lead-free piezoceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Marcos, F., E-mail: fernando.rubio-marcos@unilim.fr [Laboratoire de Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Universite de Limoges, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12, rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Marchet, P. [Laboratoire de Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Universite de Limoges, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12, rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Vendrell, X. [Grup de Quimica de l' Estat Solid, Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romero, J.J. [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Remondiere, F. [Laboratoire de Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Universite de Limoges, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12, rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Mestres, L. [Grup de Quimica de l' Estat Solid, Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fernandez, J.F. [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {center_dot} MnO doping effects on structure and properties of (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O{sub 3} piezoceramics. {center_dot} The structure changes towards an orthorhombic symmetry for higher MnO concentrations. {center_dot} High doping levels induce a tetragonal tungsten-bronze secondary phase. {center_dot} Mn{sup 2+} doping modifies the phase transition temperature and the piezoelectric properties. {center_dot} Manganese doping increases the mechanical quality factor Q{sub m}. - Abstract: Mn{sup 2+}-doped (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O{sub 3} lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been prepared by a conventional sintering technique. The effects of Mn{sup 2+} doping on the phase structure, microstructure and ferro-piezoelectric properties of the ceramics have been evaluated. MnO doping modifies the (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O{sub 3} structure, giving rise to the appearance of a TTB-like secondary phase and to changes on the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition temperature. The modification of this temperature induces a reduction of the piezoelectric constants, which is accompanied by an increase on the mechanical quality factor. Mn{sup 2+} ions incorporate into the perovskite structure in different off ways depending on their concentration.

  19. Multi-scale modeling of elasto-plastic response of SnAgCu lead-free solder alloys at different ageing conditions: Effect of microstructure evolution, particle size effects and interfacial failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Milad; Cugnoni, Joel, E-mail: joel.cugnoni@epfl.ch; Botsis, John

    2016-04-20

    In microelectronics applications, SnAgCu lead-free solder joints play the important role of ensuring both the mechanical and electrical integrity of the components. In such applications, the SnAgCu joints are subjected to elevated homologous temperatures for an extended period of time causing significant microstructural changes and leading to reliability issues. In this study, the link between the change in microstructures and deformation behavior of SnAgCu solder during ageing is explained by developing a hybrid multi-scale microstructure-based modeling approach. Herein, the SnAgCu solder alloy is seen as a three phase metal matrix composite in which Ag{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} hard intermetallics play the role of reinforcements and Sn the role of a ductile matrix. The hardening of the Sn matrix due to fine intermetallics in the eutectic mixture is modeled by incorporating the mean field effects of geometrically necessary dislocations. Subsequently, a two level homogenization procedure based on micromechanical finite element (FE) models is used to capture the interactions between the different phases. For this purpose, tomographic images of microstructures obtained by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and synchrotron X-Ray in different ageing conditions are directly used to generate statistically representative volume elements (RVE) using 3D FE models. The constitutive behavior of the solder is determined by sequentially performing two scales of numerical homogenization at the eutectic level and then at the dendrite level. For simplification, the anisotropy of Sn as well as the potential recovery processes have been neglected in the modeling. The observed decrease in the yield strength of solder due to ageing is well captured by the adopted modeling strategy and allows explaining the different ageing mechanisms. Finally, the effects of potential debonding at the intermetallic particle-matrix interface as well as particle fracture on the overall strength of solder are

  20. Monoclinic Cc-phase stabilization in magnetically diluted lead free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3—Evolution of spin glass like behavior with enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Asthana, Saket

    2015-09-01

    The effect of magnetic cation substitution on the phase stabilization, ferroelectric, dielectric and magnetic properties of a lead free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) system prepared by O2 atmosphere solid state sintering were studied extensively. Cobalt (Co) was chosen as the magnetic cation to substitute at the Ti-site of NBT with optimized 2.5 mol%. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data favours the monoclinic Cc phase stabilization strongly rather than the parent R3c phase. FE-SEM micrograph supports the single phase characteristics without phase segregation at the grain boundaries. The stabilized Cc space group was explained based on the collective local distortion effects due to spin-orbit stabilization at Co3+ and Co2+ functional centres. The phonon mode changes as observed in the TiO6 octahedral modes also support the Cc phase stabilization. The major Co3+-ion presence was revealed from corresponding crystal field transitions observed through solid state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhanced spontaneous polarization (Ps) from ≅38 μC cm-2 to 45 μC cm-2 could be due to the easy rotation of polarization vector along the {(1\\bar{1}0)}{{pc}} in Cc phase. An increase in static dielectric response (ɛ) from ɛ ≅ 42 to 60 along with enhanced diffusivity from γ ≅ 1.53 to 1.75 was observed. Magneto-thermal irreversibility and their magnetic field dependent ZFC/FC curves suggest the possibility of a spin glass like behaviour below 50 K. The monoclinic Cc phase stabilization as confirmed from structural studies was well correlated with the observed ferroic properties in magnetically diluted NBT.

  1. Effects of Fe2NiO4 nanoparticles addition into lead free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder pastes on microstructure and mechanical properties after reflow soldering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellvarajoo, Srivalli; Abdullah, M.Z.; Samsudin, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles added into SAC 305 by mechanical mixing to form nanocomposite solder paste. • Nanoparticles in the composite solder travels with flux to the outermost surface after reflow. • The intermetallics compound reduced with the addition of nanoparticles into solder paste. • The hardness increased with the addition of limited percentage of nanoparticles into SAC 305. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of the addition of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles into a SAC-305 lead-free solder paste. Iron, nickel, and oxide nano-elements were mixed with Pb-free solder alloying elements to produce a new form of nanocomposite solder paste, which can be a promising material in electronic packaging. The SAC-305 was mechanically added with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 wt.% of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles. The migration of nanoparticles in the nanocomposite solder paste to the outermost surface was clarified using the copper ‘sandwich’ method, which was performed after the reflow soldering process. Varying amounts of nanoparticles in the SAC-305 affected the IMC thickness and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite solder paste. The IMC thickness was reduced by 29.15%, 42.37%, and 59.00% after adding 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 wt.% of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles in the SAC-305, respectively. However, via nanoindentation method, the hardness of the nanocomposite solder was improved by 44.07% and 56.82% after adding 0.5 and 1.5 wt.% of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticles, respectively. If the addition of Fe 2 NiO 4 nanoparticle exceeded 1.5 wt.%, the hardness increased infinitely

  2. Dielectric, Piezoelectric, and Vibration Properties of the LiF-Doped (Ba0.95Ca0.05(Ti0.93Sn0.07O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By the conventional solid state reaction method, a small amount of lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the sintering promoter to improve the sintering and piezoelectric characteristics of (Ba0.95Ca0.05(Ti0.93Sn0.07O3 (BCTS lead-free piezoceramic sheets. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, the inferences of the crystalline and surface microstructures were obtained and analyzed. Then, the impedance analyzer and d33-meter were used to measure the dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics. In this study, the optimum sintering temperature of the BCTS sheets decreased from 1450 °C to 1390 °C due to LiF doping. For the 0.07 wt % LiF-doped BCTS sheets sintered at 1390 °C, the piezoelectric constant (d33 is 413 pC/N, the electric–mechanical coupling coefficient (kp is 47.5%, the dielectric loss (tan δ is 3.9%, and the dielectric constant (εr is 8100, which are all close to or even better than that of the pure undoped BCTS ceramics. The Curie temperature also improved, from 85 °C for pure BCTS to 140 °C for BCTS–0.07 LiF sheets. Furthermore, by using the vibration system and fixing 1.5 g tip mass at the end of the sheets, as the vibration frequency is 20 Hz, the proposed piezoelectric ceramic sheets also reveal a good energy harvesting performance at the maximum output peak voltage of 4.6 V, which is large enough and can be applied in modern low-power electronic products.

  3. Stable Ferroelectric Behavior of Nb-Modified Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 Lead-Free Relaxor Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Arif; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Ahmed, Tanveer; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and electric field-induced strain properties of lead-free Nb-modified 0.96Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.04Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BKT-BMT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. Crystal structure analysis showed a gradual phase transition from tetragonal to pseudocubic phase with increasing Nb content. The optimal piezoelectric property of small-signal d 33 was enhanced up to ˜ 68 pC/N with a lower coercive field ( E c) of ˜ 22 kV/cm and an improved remnant polarization ( P r) of ˜ 13 μC/cm2 for x = 0.020. A relaxor-like behavior with a frequency-dependent Curie temperature T m was observed, and a high T m around 320°C was obtained in the investigated system. This study suggests that the ferroelectric properties of BKT-BMT was significantly improved by means of Nb substitution. The possible shift of depolarization temperature T d toward high temperature T m may have triggered the spontaneous relaxor to ferroelectric phase transition with long-range ferroelectric order without any traces of a nonergodic relaxor state in contradiction with Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based systems. The possible enhancement in ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties near the critical composition x = 0.020 may be attributed to the increased anharmonicity of lattice vibrations which may facilitate the observed phase transition from a low-symmetry tetragonal to a high-symmetry cubic phase with a decrease in the lattice anisotropy of an undoped sample. This highly flexible (at a unit cell level) narrow compositional range triggers the enhancement of d 33 and P r values.

  4. Preparation and electrical properties of MoO{sub 3}-modified SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Zhongran, E-mail: ruiqingchu@sohu.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Chu, Ruiqing, E-mail: rqchu@lcu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Xu, Zhijun; Hao, Jigong; Wei, Denghu; Cheng, Renfei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Li, Guorong [The State Key Lab of High Performance Ceramics and Superfinemicrostructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, SrBi{sub 2}(Nb{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBNM-x), were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure, microstructure and electrical properties were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that the substitution formed layered perovskite structure. Plate-like morphology of the grains which is characteristic for layer-structure Aurivillius compounds was clearly observed for all the samples. The excellent electrical properties (e.g., d{sub 33}∼18 pC/N, 2P{sub r}∼20.34 μC/cm{sup 2}) and a high Curie temperature (e.g., T{sub c}∼458 °C) are simultaneously obtained in the ceramics with x = 0.12. Additionally, thermal annealing studies indicated that piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) of SBNM-0.12 ceramic remains almost unchanged (16 pC/N, only decrease by 12%) at temperatures below 400 °C, demonstrating that the Mo-modified SBN-based ceramics are the promising candidates for high-temperature applications. - Highlights: • Higher valent cation Mo{sup 6+} substituted for B-site Nb{sup 5+} in the perovskite layers ions. • The piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) of SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} ceramic is increased to be 18 pC/N. • The remnant polarization (2P{sub r}) of SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} ceramic is increased to be 20.34 μC cm{sup −2}. • SBNM-x ceramics show good temperature stability for high temperature applications.

  5. Comparative study of A-site order in the lead-free bismuth titanates M1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ag, Tl) from first-principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of enhancing chemical order in the relaxor ferroelectric Na 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 upon substitution of Na + by other monovalent cations M + using total energy calculations based on density functional theory. All chemically available monovalent cations M + , which are Li, Na, Ag, K, Tl, Rb and Cs, are considered and an analysis of the structurally relaxed structures in terms of symmetry-adapted distortion modes is given in order to quantify the chemically induced structural distortions. We demonstrate that the replacement of Na + by other monovalent cations can hardly alter the tendency of chemical order with respect to Na 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 . Only Tl 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 and Ag 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 show enhanced tendency for chemical ordering. Both heavy metals behave similar to the light alkali metals in terms of structural relaxations and relative stabilities of the ordered configurations. Although a comparison of the Goldschmidt factors of components (M TiO 3 ) − reveals for Tl a value above the upper stability limit for perovskites, the additional lone-pair effect of Tl + stabilizes the ordered structure. - Graphical abstract: Amplitudes of chemically induced distortion modes in different ordered perovskites M 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 and visualisation of atomic displacements associated with distortion mode X + 1 in the 001-ordered compounds Li 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 and Cs 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 . Due to a substantial size mismatch between bismuth (green) and caesium (dark blue), incorporation of the latter leads to enhanced displacements of oxygen atoms (red) and suppresses displacements of titanium (silver) as compared to lithium (light blue) or other smaller monovalent cations. - Highlights: • Lead-free A-site mixed bismuth titanates M 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 are studied by first-principles calculations. • Investigation of chemical ordering tendency for M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ag, and Tl. • Group theoretical analysis of different ordered structures. • Ag and Tl

  6. Preparation and electrical properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-KNbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Haimin; Luo Laihui; Li Weiping; Zhu Yuejin; Luo Haosu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bi 0.47 Na 0.47 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 -KNbO 3 ceramics exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties. → The optimized properties of the ceramics: d 33 = 195 pC/N; k t = 58.9; Q m = 113; E c = 19.5 kV/cm. → KNbO 3 has diffused into the Bi 0.47 Na 0.47 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 lattices to form a new solid solution. → Macro-micro domain switching occurs at depolarization temperature T d . - Abstract: Lead-free (1 - x)Bi 0.47 Na 0.47 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 -xKNbO 3 (BNBT-xKN, x = 0-0.08) ceramics were prepared by ordinary ceramic sintering technique. The piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics are investigated and discussed. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that KNbO 3 (KN) has diffused into Bi 0.47 Na 0.47 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 (BNBT) lattices to form a solid solution with a pure perovskite structure. Moderate additive of KN (x ≤ 0.02) in BNBT-xKN ceramics enhance their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. Three dielectric anomaly peaks are observed in BNBT-0.00KN, BNBT-0.01KN and BNBT-0.02KN ceramics. With the increment of KN in BNBT-xKN ceramics, the dielectric anomaly peaks shift to lower temperature. BNBT-0.01KN ceramic exhibits excellent piezoelectric properties and strong ferroelectricity: piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 = 195 pC/N; electromechanical coupling factor, k t = 58.9 and k p = 29.3%; mechanical quality factor, Q m = 113; remnant polarization, P r = 41.8 μC/cm 2 ; coercive field, E c = 19.5 kV/cm.

  7. Phase transition and piezoelectric properties of K0.48Na0.52NbO3-LiTa0.5Nb0.5O3-NaNbO3 lead-free ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Liangliang; Xu Bei; Cao Xiao; Deng Zhenqi; Tian Changsheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The evolution of the crystal structure for the new phase K 3 Li 2 Nb 5 O 15 was described. → The dielectric relaxor behavior would be strengthened by increasing plate-like NN. → k p and d 33 decrease with increasing amount of plate-like NN. → 0.01-0.03 mol of plate-like NN is a proper content for texturing ceramics by RTGG. - Abstract: Plate-like NaNbO 3 (NN) particles were used as the raw material to fabricate (1 - x)[0.93 K 0.48 Na 0.52 Nb O 3 -0.07Li(Ta 0.5 Nb 0.5 )O 3 ]-xNaNbO 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics using a conventional ceramic process. The effects of NN on the crystal structure and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction suggest that the perovskite phase coexists with the K 3 Li 2 Nb 5 O 15 phase, and the tilting of the oxygen octahedron is probably responsible for the evolution of the tungsten-bronze-typed K 3 Li 2 Nb 5 O 15 phase. The Curie temperature (T C ) is shifted to lower temperature with increasing NN content. (1 - x)[0.93 K 0.48 Na 0.52 NbO 3 -0.07Li(Ta 0.5 Nb 0.5 )O 3 ]-xNaNbO 3 ceramics show obvious dielectric relaxor characteristics for x > 0.03, and the relaxor behavior of ceramics is strengthened by increasing NN content. Both the electromechanical coupling factor (k p ) and the piezoelectric constant (d 33 ) decrease with increasing amounts of NN. 0.01-0.03 mol of plate-like NaNbO 3 in 0.93 K 0.48 Na 0.52 NbO 3 -0.07Li(Ta 0.5 Nb 0.5 )O 3 gives the optimum content for preparing textured ceramics by the RTGG method.

  8. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 piezoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-xNa0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d33 ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  9. Piezoelectric Ceramics of the (1 − x)Bi0.50Na0.50TiO3–xBa0.90Ca0.10TiO3 Lead-Free Solid Solution: Chemical Shift of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary, a Case Study for x = 0.06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar-Ocampo, Rodrigo; Pardo, Lorena; Ávila, David; Morán, Emilio; González, Amador M.; Bucio, Lauro; Villafuerte-Castrejón, María-Elena

    2017-01-01

    Research and development of lead-free piezoelectric materials are still the hottest topics in the field of piezoelectricity. One of the most promising lead-free family of compounds to replace lead zirconate–titanate for actuators is that of Bi0.50Na0.50TiO3 (BNT) based solid solutions. The pseudo-binary (1 − x)Bi0.50Na0.50TiO3–xBa1 − yCayTiO3 system has been proposed for high temperature capacitors and not yet fully explored as piezoelectric material. In this work, the solid solution with x = 0.06 and y = 0.10 was obtained by two different synthesis routes: solid state and Pechini, aiming at using reduced temperatures, both in synthesis (<800 °C) and sintering (<1150 °C), while maintaining appropriated piezoelectric performance. Crystal structure, ceramic grain size, and morphology depend on the synthesis route and were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, together with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of processing and ceramic microstructure on the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties were discussed in terms of a shift of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary, chemically induced by the synthesis route. PMID:28773096

  10. Effect of composition on electrical properties of lead-free Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaita, Pharatree [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-07-14

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with the composition of (1-x)Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x(Ba{sub 0.98}Nd{sub 0.02})TiO{sub 3} or (1-x) BNKT-xBNdT (with x = 0-0.20 mol fraction) have been synthesized by a conventional mixed-oxide method. The compositional dependence of phase structure and electrical properties of the ceramics were systemically studied. The optimum sintering temperature of all BNKT-BNdT ceramics was found to be 1125 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that BNdT effectively diffused into BNKT lattice during sintering to form a solid solution with a perovskite structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed a slight reduction of grain size when BNdT was added. It was found that BNKT-0.10BNdT ceramic exhibited optimum electrical properties ({epsilon}{sub r} = 1716, tan{delta} = 0.0701, T{sub c} = 327 Degree-Sign C, and d{sub 33} = 211 pC/N), suggesting that this composition has a potential to be one of a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate for dielectric and piezoelectric applications.

  11. High energy storage efficiency with fatigue resistance and thermal stability in lead-free Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}/BiMnO{sub 3} solid-solution films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yizhu; Zhou, Yunpeng; Lu, Qingshan; Zhao, Shifeng [Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot (China)

    2018-02-15

    The ferroelectric, leakage, dielectric, and energy storage properties of lead-free Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}/BiMnO{sub 3} (KNN/BMO) solid-solution films are investigated. The strong ferroelectric relaxation behaviors of slim ferroelectricity with small remanent polarization and coercive field induce a high energy-storage density and efficiency at room temperature. The energy density reaches 14.8 J cm{sup -3}, even the efficiency is up to 79.79% under the applied electric field of 985.66 kV cm{sup -1}. Moreover, the energy storage performances of KNN/BMO solid-solution films exhibit good thermal stability over a wide temperature range and high ferroelectric fatigue endurance after switching 10{sup 6} bipole electrical cycles. KNN/BMO solid-solution films can replace lead-based films and other outstanding lead-free systems in the energy storage performance. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Improving electrochemical performance of tin-based anodes formed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Sn-based thin films: Sn, Cu–Sn and Cu–Sn–C. The morphological and structural properties of the films were observed via ... decomposes into Li–Sn alloys (2) surrounded by Cu matrix ..... This work is a part of the research project 110M148.

  13. Enabling Lead Free Interconnects in DoD Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    STATEMENT Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An enhanced multi-pronged technology transfer approach will be designed to communicate...the needs of the weapon system program managers. Examples of risk will be given and information will be provided on where to access more detailed...Paul Zutter, Janelle Fowler, Holley Wingard, Jon Ahlbin, Charles Peltier, – Air Force • Paul Steiner, Tim Kalt, Gary Dowdy – NAVSEA • Mick Miller

  14. Microstructure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and limit the popularization of the materials in becoming a commercial product. ∗ ... yBiMnO3 (abbreviated as (1 − x − y)BNT–xBKT–yBM), was prepared by a ..... appearance of oxygen vacancies caused by adding BiMnO3 could dynamically ...

  15. Designing lead-free antiferroelectrics for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric capacitors, although presenting faster charging/discharging rates and better stability compared with supercapacitors or batteries, are limited in applications due to their low energy density. Antiferroelectric (AFE) compounds, however, show great promise due to their atypical polarization-versus-electric field curves. Here we report our first-principles-based theoretical predictions that Bi1−xRxFeO3 systems (R being a lanthanide, Nd in this work) can potentially allow high energy densities (100–150 J cm−3) and efficiencies (80–88%) for electric fields that may be within the range of feasibility upon experimental advances (2–3 MV cm−1). In addition, a simple model is derived to describe the energy density and efficiency of a general AFE material, providing a framework to assess the effect on the storage properties of variations in doping, electric field magnitude and direction, epitaxial strain, temperature and so on, which can facilitate future search of AFE materials for energy storage. PMID:28555655

  16. The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    and tabs. This standard also includes a test method for the Resistance to Dissolution/ Dewetting of Metallization. This standard is intended for use...Resistance to Dissolution/ Dewetting of Metallization. This standard is intended for use by both vendor and user. Appendix A 261 Baseline Practice Test and

  17. Thermomechanical behavior of tin-rich (lead-free) solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Rajen Singh

    In order to adequately characterize the behavior of ball-grid-array (BGA) Pb-free solder spheres in electronic devices, the microstructure and thermomechanical behavior need to be studied. Microstructure characterization of pure Sn, Sn-0.7Cu, Sn-3.5Ag, and Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu alloys was conducted using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, image analysis, and a novel serial sectioning 3D reconstruction process. Microstructure-based finite-element method (FEM) modeling of deformation in Sn-3.5Ag alloy was conducted, and it will be shown that this technique is more accurate when compared to traditional unit cell models for simulating and understanding material behavior. The effect of cooling rate on microstructure and creep behavior of bulk Sn-rich solders was studied. The creep behavior was evaluated at 25, 95, and 120°C. Faster cooling rates were found to increase the creep strength of the solders due to refinement of the solder microstructure. The creep behavior of Sn-rich single solder spheres reflowed on Cu substrates was studied at 25, 60, 95, and 130°C. Testing was conducted using a microforce testing system, with lap-shear geometry samples. The solder joints displayed two distinct creep behaviors: (a) precipitation-strengthening (Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.9Ag-0.7Cu) and (b) power law creep accommodated by grain boundary sliding (GBS) (Sn and Sn-0.7Cu). The relationship between microstructural features (i.e. intermetallic particle size and spacing), stress exponents, threshold stress, and activation energies are discussed. The relationship between small-length scale creep behavior and bulk behavior is also addressed. To better understand the damage evolution in Sn-rich solder joints during thermal fatigue, the local damage will be correlated to the cyclic hysteresis behavior and crystal orientations present in the Sn phase of solder joints. FEM modeling will also be utilized to better understand the macroscopic and local strain response of the lap shear geometry.

  18. Lead-free solder technology transfer from ASE Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    1999-10-19

    To safeguard the environmental friendliness of photovoltaics, the PV industry follows a proactive, long-term environmental strategy involving a life-of-cycle approach to prevent environmental damage by its processes and products from cradle to grave. Part of this strategy is to examine substituting lead-based solder on PV modules with other solder alloys. Lead is a toxic metal that, if ingested, can damage the brain, nervous system, liver and kidneys. Lead from solder in electronic products has been found to leach out from municipal waste landfills and municipal incinerator ash was found to be high in lead also because of disposed consumer electronics and batteries. Consequently, there is a movement in Europe and Japan to ban lead altogether from use in electronic products and to restrict the movement across geographical boundaries of waste containing lead. Photovoltaic modules may contain small amounts of regulated materials, which vary from one technology to another. Environmental regulations impact the cost and complexity of dealing with end-of-life PV modules. If they were classified as hazardous according to Federal or State criteria, then special requirements for material handling, disposal, record-keeping and reporting would escalate the cost of decommissioning the modules. Fthenakis showed that several of today's x-Si modules failed the US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for potential leaching of Pb in landfills and also California's standard on Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) for Pb. Consequently, such modules may be classified as hazardous waste. He highlighted potential legislation in Europe and Japan which could ban or restrict the use of lead and the efforts of the printed-circuit industries in developing Pb-free solder technologies in response to such expected legislation. Japanese firms already have introduced electronic products with Pb-free solder, and one PV manufacturer in the US, ASE Americas has used a Pb-free solder exclusively in their modules since 1993. Finding a safe, reliable and cost-effective substitute for lead-containing solders is not easy. Tin/lead solder has been the standard solder technology for several decades and extensive knowledge has been gained on the practical and theoretical aspects of its use. The printed circuit and the electronics industries recently embarked on a multi-million-dollar R and D effort to develop such alternatives, focusing on material properties, manufacturing processes, cost of alloys and long-term availability and reliability. Fthenakis outlined such efforts and listed alternatives examined by the electronics industries. One of the most promising alternatives (for electronics) is the 96.5%Sn/3.5%Ag solder that ASE Americas developed and use. ASE Americas' research and independent field testing showed it is at least as reliable as the standard one. This solder is slightly more expensive than the regular Sn/Pb solder. However, to the audience gratification, Steel Heddle, a solder manufacturer, announced that they will absorb the incremental cost and will supply 96.5%Sn/3.5%Ag at the same price as the conventional Sn/Pb solder ribbon. Another issue is the low TTLC for Ag in California (i.e., 0.5 g / kg of module), but Fthenakis showed that the Sn/Ag solder will add less than 10% of this quantity (i.e., 0.05 g of Ag / kg of module). The major point made by Fthenakis was that alternatives exist that are both environmentally benign and cost-effective, and that the PV industry can only benefit by being proactive in switching to Pb-free materials, thereby exceeding the expectations of its supporters and averting potential future legislation.

  19. Luminescence performance of Eu -doped lead-free zinc phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    luminescence properties in combination with its non-toxicity and non-hygroscopic nature ..... two colours will appear to the human eye as one colour and. Figure 10. ... [4] Mariappam C R, Govindaraj G, Rathan S V and Vijaya. Prakash G 2005 ...

  20. Lead-Free Electronics: Impact for Space Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pb is used as a constituent in solder alloys used to connect and attach electronic parts to printed wiring boards (PWBs). Similar Pbbearing alloys are electroplated or hot dipped onto the terminations of electronic parts to protect the terminations and make them solderable. Changing to Pb-free solders and termination finishes has introduced significant technical challenges into the supply chain. Tin/lead (Sn/Pb) alloys have been the solders of choice for electronics for more than 50 years. Pb-free solder alloys are available but there is not a plug-in replacement for 60/40 or 63/37 (Sn/Pb) alloys, which have been the industry workhorses.

  1. Medium Caliber Lead-Free Electric Primer. Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    2008). Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 lists lead compounds as carcinogens (27 CCR 27001 – Dec. 2008). EPA began a Phase I assessment to determine...primer cups was our standard method, wet loading using solvents (hexane and iso -propanol) was investigated to reduce risk of accidental ignition...LOADING OPERATION (Single Die) Wet primer mix charge with solvent (Hexane/ Iso -Propanol) and stir to mix to a uniform slurry Insert primer cup in

  2. Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villafuerte-Castrejón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry.

  3. Giant strain with low cycling degradation in Ta-doped [Bi{sub 1/2}(Na{sub 0.8}K{sub 0.2}){sub 1/2}]TiO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Tan, Xiaoli, E-mail: xtan@iastate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Non-textured polycrystalline [Bi{sub 1/2}(Na{sub 0.8}K{sub 0.2}){sub 1/2}](Ti{sub 1−x}Ta{sub x})O{sub 3} ceramics are fabricated and their microstructures and electrical properties are characterized. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the coexistence of the rhombohedral R3c and tetragonal P4bm phases in the form of nanometer-sized domains in [Bi{sub 1/2}(Na{sub 0.8}K{sub 0.2}){sub 1/2}]TiO{sub 3} with low Ta concentration. When the composition is x = 0.015, the electrostrain is found to be highly asymmetric under bipolar fields of ±50 kV/cm. A very large value of 0.62% is observed in this ceramic, corresponding to a large-signal piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33}* of 1240 pm/V (1120 pm/V under unipolar loading). These values are greater than most previously reported lead-free polycrystalline ceramics and can even be compared with some lead-free piezoelectric single crystals. Additionally, this ceramic displays low cycling degradation; its electrostrain remains above 0.55% even after undergoing 10 000 cycles of ±50 kV/cm bipolar fields at 2 Hz. Therefore, Ta-doped [Bi{sub 1/2}(Na{sub 0.8}K{sub 0.2}){sub 1/2}]TiO{sub 3} ceramics show great potential for large displacement devices.

  4. Magnetoelectric effect in lead free piezoelectric Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}–modified CFO based magnetostrictive (Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7} Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4}) particulate nanocomposite prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Megha [Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Desh Bhagat University, Mandi Govindgarh 147330, Punjab (India); Sharma, Puneet [School of Physics & Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, Punjab (India); Kumari, Mukesh; Singh, Anoop Pratap [Magnetics & Advanced ceramics laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India); Tyagi, Mintu, E-mail: mintutyagi@deshbhagatuniversity.in [Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Desh Bhagat University, Mandi Govindgarh 147330, Punjab (India)

    2017-03-15

    Lead free magnetoelectric composites that comprise Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} (CZFMO) and Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (BNT) were synthesized using sol-gel method and it's structural, dielectric, magnetic, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric (ME) properties were studied. The X-ray diffraction displayed the single phase formation of parent phases and the presence of two phases in the composites. The temperature dependent dielectric spectra of samples indicates two anomalies at ~220 °C and ~320 °C were ascribed to ferroelectric to antiferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transitions respectively. Room temperature (RT) magnetic measurements show that composites are soft magnetic. The composite with x=0.2, showed the large value of ME voltage coefficient (α{sub E})~58 mV/cmOe. Moreover, these ME composites provide a great opportunity as potential lead free systems for multifunctional devices. - Highlights: • In this work, Modified CFO based lead free particulate nanocomposites with significantly high value of ME coupling coefficient α{sub E} ~52 mV/cmOe have been prepared. • This sufficient high value of α{sub E} in such composites is obtained by manipulating/improving the piezomagnetic component. • The studies on BNT based particulate ME composites are very scarce in literature. However, no report is available in on the modified CFO based lead free particulate composites.

  5. Strong piezoelectricity in (1 - x)(K0.4Na0.6)(Nb0.96Sb0.04)O3-xBi0.5K0.5Zr1-ySnyO3 lead-free binary system: identification and role of multiphase coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Xiangjian; Xin, Lipeng; Lou, Xiaojie

    2015-03-18

    Here we report a strong piezoelectric activity in (1 - x)(K0.4Na0.6)(Nb0.96Sb0.04)O3-xBi0.5K0.5Zr1-ySnyO3 lead-free ceramics by designing different phase boundaries. The phase boundaries concerning rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) and rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) multiphase coexistence were attained by changing BKZS and Sn contents and then were identified by the X-ray diffraction patterns as well as temperature-dependent permittivity and ν1 Raman modes associated with BO6 perovskite octahedron. A high strain (strain = 0.21-0.28% and d33* = 707-880 pm/V) and a strong piezoelectric coefficient (d33 = 415-460 pC/N) were shown in the ceramics located at the multiphase coexistence region. The reported results of this work are superior to that (d33* ∼ 570 pm/V and d33 ∼ 416 pC/N) of the textured (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O3 ceramics [Nature 2004, 432, 84]. We believe that the material system of this work will become one of the most promising candidates for piezoelectric actuators.

  6. Preparation and characterization of Mn-doped Li{sub 0.06}(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}NbO{sub 3} lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with surface sol-gel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ae Ri; Lee, Seong Eui; Lee, Hee Chul [Korea Polytechnic University, Shiheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of Mn doping and sol-gel surface coating on the structural and the electrical properties of lead-free Li{sub 0.06}(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}NbO{sub 3}(LNKN) ceramics in disc form for use as eco-friendly piezoelectric devices. The 1-mol% Mn-doped LNKN ceramic showed a relatively high piezoelectric constant owing to its high density in the case of its being annealed at a temperature of 1010 .deg. C. A Mn-doped LNKN sol-gel solution with the same composition as that of the ceramics was spin-coated and sintered on both sides of the ceramic surfaces to acquire improved electrical properties. The sol-gel surface coating could play a decisive role in filling the pores, resulting in flat and stable interfaces between the electrodes and the piezoelectric elements. As a result, the highest piezoelectric constant, d{sub 33}, of 173 pC/N could be obtained for the Mn-doped LNKN ceramics with 420-nm-thick sol-gel surface coatings.

  7. Effects of MnO{sub 2} doping on structure, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.825NaNbO{sub 3}-0.175Ba{sub 0.6}(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ximing; Lin, Dunmin; Zheng, Qiaoji; Sun, Hailing; Wan, Yang; Wu, Xiaochun [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, and Visual Computing and Virtual Reality Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610066 (China); Wu, Lang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Lead-free ceramics 0.825NaNbO{sub 3}-0.175Ba{sub 0.6}(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} + xmol% MnO{sub 2} were prepared by an ordinary sintering technique and the effects of MnO{sub 2} doping on the structure, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics were studied. The ceramics with perovskite structure are transformed from tetragonal to pseudocubic phases by increasing the doping level of MnO{sub 2}. After the addition of MnO{sub 2}, the Curie temperature T{sub C} of the ceramics decreases and the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at T{sub C} becomes more diffusive. Because of the donor and acceptor doping effects of Mn ions simultaneously, the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33}, electromechanical coupling coefficient k{sub p}, relative permittivity {epsilon}{sub r}, and mechanical quality factor Q{sub m} are enhanced considerably after the addition of 1 mol% MnO{sub 2}. The ceramic with 1 mol% MnO{sub 2} doping possesses the optimum piezoelectricity (d{sub 33} = 131 pC/N and k{sub p} = 21.8%) and relatively high Q{sub m} = 627. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Phase structure, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of (K{sub 0.94-x}Na{sub x}Li{sub 0.06})(Nb{sub 0.94}Sb{sub 0.06})O{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Lingling; Lin, Dunmin; Zheng, Qiaoji; Wu, Xiaochun; Xu, Chenggang [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, and Visual Computing and Virtual Reality Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610066 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (K{sub 0.94-x}Na{sub x}Li{sub 0.06})(Nb{sub 0.94}Sb{sub 0.06})O{sub 3} have been fabricated by a conventional ceramic technique and the effects of K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio on the structure and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics have been studied. All the ceramics possess a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of tetragonal and orthorhombic phases is formed at room temperature in the ceramics with 0.45 {<=} x {<=} 0.55. The tetragonal-orthorhombic phase-transition temperature T{sub O-T} decreases from 110 to 54 C with x increasing from 0.35 to 0.55 and then increases from 84 to 144 C with x further increasing from 0.6 to 0.7, while the Curie temperature T{sub C} deceases from 388 to 348 C with x increasing from 0.35 to 0.70. Because of the coexistence of the two phases near room temperature, the ceramics with x = 0.50 exhibit the optimum piezoelectric properties: d{sub 33} = 230 pC/N and k{sub p} = 49%. The ceramics possess good time stability of piezoelectric properties. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Electric-field control of electronic transport properties and enhanced magnetoresistance in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/0.5BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-0.5Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3 lead-free multiferroic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian-Min; Gao, Guan-Yin; Liu, Yu-Kuai; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2017-10-01

    We report the fabrication of lead-free multiferroic structures by depositing ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) polycrystalline films on polished 0.5BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-0.5Ba0.7Ca0.3TiO3 (BZT-BCT) piezoelectric ceramic substrates. By applying electric fields to the BZT-BCT along the thickness direction, the resistivity of LSMO films can be effectively manipulated via the piezoelectric strain of the BZT-BCT. Moreover, the LSMO polycrystalline films exhibit almost temperature independent and significantly enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) below TC. At T = 2 K and H = 8 T, the MR of polycrystalline films is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of LSMO epitaxial films grown on (LaAlO3)0.3(SrAl1/2Ta1/2O3)0.7 single-crystal substrates. The enhanced MR mainly results from the spin-polarized tunneling of charge carriers across grain boundaries. The LSMO/BZT-BCT structures with electric-field controllable modulation of resistivity and enhanced MR effect may have potential applications in low-energy consumption and environmentally friendly electronic devices.

  10. Enhanced piezoelectric properties in vanadium-modified lead-free (K{sub 0.485}Na{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.015})(Nb{sub 0.88}Ta{sub 0.1}V{sub 0.02})O{sub 3} ceramics prepared from nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Roopam; Dhingra, Apurva; Pal, Soham; Chandramani Singh, K., E-mail: kongbam@gmail.com

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • (K{sub 0.485}Na{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.015})(Nb{sub 0.9−x}Ta{sub 0.1}V{sub x}) O{sub 3}(x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) ceramics were prepared. • These ceramics were synthesized from 35-nm powders. • Density, microstrain, crystallite size, tetragonality were high at x = 0.02. • Dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were enhanced at x = 0.02. • The increased properties are attributed to crystal structure and microstructure. - Abstract: Enhancing the piezoelectric properties of lead-free piezoceramics like alkaline niobate system has been an important research topic in our search for an alternative to widely used but highly toxic lead-based PZT piezoceramics system. In the present study, lead-free alkaline niobate-based compositions (K{sub 0.485}Na{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.015})(Nb{sub 0.9−x}Ta{sub 0.1}V{sub x})O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were synthesized using conventional solid state reaction method. Nanocrystalline powders of these compositions, produced by high energy ball milling, were sintered at 1050 °C for 4 h to produce corresponding ceramics. Increasing V{sup 5+} content in the ceramics from x = 0 to 0.02 results in a gradual increase in the room temperature dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) from 1185 to 1336, remnant polarization (P{sub r}) from 13.4 μC/cm{sup 2} to 17.1 μC/cm{sup 2}, electromechanical coupling factor (k{sub p}) from 0.37 to 0.40, and piezoelectric charge constant (d{sub 33}) from 156 pC/N to 185 pC/N. Further increase in x to 0.03 lowers these values to 1082, 13.4 μC/cm{sup 2}, 0.36 and 128 pC/N respectively. Correspondingly, the coercive field (E{sub c}) first shows a gradual decline from 8.5 kV/cm to 7.9 kV/cm and then a rise to 9.2 kV/cm, as x increases from 0 to 0.02 and then to 0.03. The enhancement of piezoelectric properties in (K{sub 0.485}Na{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.015})(Nb{sub 0.88}Ta{sub 0.1}V{sub 0.02})O{sub 3} ceramics is attributed to the associated higher values of density, tetragonality and

  11. Piezoelectric properties and diffusion phase transition around PPT of La-doped (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.44}Li{sub 0.04}) Nb{sub 0.8}Ta{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenlong, E-mail: yangwenlong1983@163.com; Wang, Li; Li, Haidong; Han, Junsheng; Xiu, Hanjiang; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-01

    Lead-free ceramics (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.44}Li{sub 0.04}){sub 1−3x}La{sub x}Nb{sub 0.8}Ta{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (KNLNT-Lax, x=0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 mol%) as non-polluting materials were prepared by solid state reaction method. The structure, piezoelectric proprieties and temperature stability of KNLNT ceramic with different La doping concentrations were investigated. The results show a transition from orthorhombic-tetragonal mix phase to tetragonal single phase with the variation of La{sup 3+} concentrations. The SEM micrographs of surface and fractured surface show a dense microstructure with few micropores. The La-doped KNLTN ceramic will be an alternative candidate contributes to excellent piezoelectric properties, which are found in the 0.75 mol% La-doped KNLNT ceramics, with d{sub 33}=215pC/N, k{sub p}=42.8%and Q{sub m}=89. It has been remarkably improved that the temperature stability of KNLTN-Lax piezoelectric properties at room temperature, and the dielectric relaxation can be observed obviously. The mechanism of La doping was analyzed in terms of valence compensation and polymorphic phase transition (PPT) diffusion. The orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition around room temperature and the relaxation transition were considered contributing to the excellent piezoelectric performance and improved temperature stability of La{sup 3+}-doped KNLTN.

  12. Enhanced temperature stability and quality factor with Hf substitution for Sn and MnO2 doping of (Ba0.97Ca0.03(Ti0.96Sn0.04O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with high Curie temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Che Tsai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of two-stage modifications for (Ba0.97Ca0.03(Ti0.96Sn0.04-xHfxO3 (BCTS4-100xH100x ceramics was studied. The trade-off composition was obtained by Hf substitution for Sn and MnO2 doping (two-stage modification which improves the temperature stability and piezoelectric properties. The phase structure ratio, microstructure, and dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and temperature stability properties were systematically investigated. Results showed that BCTS4-100xH100x piezoelectric ceramics with x=0.035 had a relatively high Curie temperature (TC of about 112 °C, a piezoelectric charge constant (d33 of 313 pC/N, an electromechanical coupling factor (kp of 0.49, a mechanical quality factor (Qm of 122, and a remnant polarization (Pr of 19μC/cm2. In addition, the temperature stability of the resonant frequency (fr, kp, and aging d33 could be tuned via Hf content. Good piezoelectric temperature stability (up to 110 °C was found with x =0.035. BCTS0.5H3.5 + a mol% Mn (BCTSH + a Mn piezoelectric ceramics with a = 2 had a high TC of about 123 °C, kp ∼ 0.39, d33 ∼ 230 pC/N, Qm ∼ 341, and high temperature stability due to the produced oxygen vacancies. This mechanism can be depicted using the complex impedance analysis associated with a valence compensation model on electric properties. Two-stage modification for lead-free (Ba0.97Ca0.03(Ti0.96Sn0.04O3 ceramics suitably adjusts the compositions for applications in piezoelectric motors and actuators.

  13. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free (1-x)(Na{sub 1−y}K{sub y})(Nb{sub 1−z}Sb{sub z})O{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasikumar, S., E-mail: sasikuhan@gmail.com [Research Centre and Post Graduate Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625 011, Tamil Nadu (India); Saravanan, R. [Research Centre and Post Graduate Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625 011, Tamil Nadu (India); Aravinth, K. [SSN Research Center, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-05-01

    The solid solutions of lead-free (1-x)(Na{sub 1-y}K{sub y})(Nb{sub 1-z}Sb{sub z})O{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} (with x=0.1, 0.2; y=0.03, 0.05; z=0.05, 0.1) (abbreviated as (1-x)NKNS-xBT) ceramics have been synthesized using conventional solid-state reaction method. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis show that all the grown specimens of NKNS display typical perovskite structure. With BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) addition, a structural phase transition from tetragonal to cubic structure has been observed. The structural parameters of (1-x)NKNS-xBT powders were determined by profile refinements based on the analysis of X-ray powder diffraction. The charge density distributions of the prepared samples have been investigated by observed structure factors to understand the chemical bonding nature of (1-x)NKNS-xBT powders. The optical absorption of the ceramics has been investigated using UV–visible spectrophotometer. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurements were performed to study the surface morphology of the prepared solid solutions. The elemental compositions of the (1-x)NKNS-xBT samples were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectrometer. The dielectric constant versus temperature plots of the solid solutions exhibit ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition, which is dependent on the BaTiO{sub 3} content. The ferroelectric nature of the samples has been determined through polarization and electric field hysteresis measurements.

  14. Gd2O3 doped 0.82Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.18Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Peng; Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing; Li, Wei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gd 2 O 3 doped BNKT18 piezoelectric ceramics were designed and prepared. ► The electrical properties of the BNKT18 ceramics are improved with the addition of Gd 2 O 3 . ► The BNKT18 ceramics doped with 0.4 wt.% Gd 2 O 3 has better electrical properties. -- Abstract: Gd 2 O 3 (0–0.8 wt.%)-doped 0.82Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 TiO 3 –0.18Bi 0.5 K 0.5 TiO 3 (BNKT18) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by a conventional solid-state process. The effects of Gd 2 O 3 on the microstructure, the dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data shows that Gd 2 O 3 in an amount of 0.2–0.8 wt.% can diffuse into the lattice of BNKT18 ceramics and form a pure perovskite phase. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicate that the grain size of BNKT18 ceramics decreases with the increase of Gd 2 O 3 content; in addition, all the modified ceramics have a clear grain boundary and a uniformly distributed grain size. At room temperature, the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the BNKT18 ceramics have been improved with the addition of Gd 2 O 3 , and the BNKT18 ceramics doped with 0.4 wt.% Gd 2 O 3 have the highest piezoelectric constant (d 33 = 137 pC/N), highest relative dielectric constant (ε r = 1023) and lower dissipation factor (tan δ = 0.044) at a frequency of 10 kHz. The BNKT18 ceramics doped with 0.2 wt.% Gd 2 O 3 have the highest planar coupling factor (k p = 0.2463).

  15. A review of the structure-property relationships in lead-free piezoelectric (1−x)Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–(x)BaTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuade, Ryan R.; Dolgos, Michelle R., E-mail: Michelle.Dolgos@oregonstate.edu

    2016-10-15

    Piezoelectric materials are increasingly being investigated for energy harvesting applications where (1−x)Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–(x)BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-BT) is an important lead-free piezoelectric material with potential to be used as an actuator in energy harvesting devices. Much effort has been put into modifying NBT-BT to tune the properties for specific applications, but there is currently no consensus regarding the structure-property relationships in this material, making targeted, rational design a major challenge. In this review, we will summarize the current body of knowledge of NBT-BT and discuss contradicting studies, unresolved problems, and future directions in the field. - Graphical abstract: This review of (1−x)Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–(x)BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-BT) summarizes the large body of literature regarding the structure-property relationships of this complex material. We highlight structural studies of the average and local structures of both unpoled and poled samples of NBT-BT at its morphotropic phase boundary and discuss them in context of the observed piezoelectric properties. - Highlights: • Local and average structure of NBT-BT at morphotropic phase boundary is reviewed. • Average structure of poled and unpoled samples of NBT-BT is discussed. • Structure-property relationships in NBT-BT and future directions are summarized.

  16. Effect of ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Na{sub 0.525}K{sub 0.443}Li{sub 0.037})(Nb{sub 0.883}Sb{sub 0.08}Ta{sub 0.037})O{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You-Seok; Yoo, Ju-Hyun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    (Na{sub 0.525}K{sub 0.443}Li{sub 0.037})(Nb{sub 0.883}Sb{sub 0.08}Ta{sub 0.037})O{sub 3} + x wt% ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NKLNST + x ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared via a conventional solid-state reaction for various values of x = 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2; then, the dielectric and the piezoelectric properties of these ceramics were investigated. A pure perovskite structure and a small secondary phase were observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns. For the 0.3-wt% ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} specimen, a density of ρ = 4.537 g/cm{sup 3}, an electromechanical coupling factor of k{sub P} = 0.432, a mechanical quality factor of Q{sub m} = 96, and piezoelectric constant of d{sub 33} = 209 pC/N were found to be optimal. These results indicate that the material with this composition is a promising candidate for use in a lead-free piezoelectric device.

  17. Domain wall motion and electromechanical strain in lead-free piezoelectrics: Insight from the model system (1 − x)Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}–x(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during application of electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutuncu, Goknur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Li, Binzhi [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Bowman, Keith [Illinois Institute of Technology, Armour College of Engineering, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: JacobJones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    The piezoelectric compositions (1 − x)Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}–x(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} (BZT-xBCT) span a model lead-free morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between room temperature rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at approximately x = 0.5. In the present work, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during electric field application are used to elucidate the origin of electromechanical strain in several compositions spanning the tetragonal compositional range 0.6 ≤ x ≤ 0.9. As BCT concentration decreases towards the MPB, the tetragonal distortion (given by c/a-1) decreases concomitantly with an increase in 90° domain wall motion. The increase in observed macroscopic strain is predominantly attributed to the increased contribution from 90° domain wall motion. The results demonstrate that domain wall motion is a significant factor in achieving high strain and piezoelectric coefficients in lead-free polycrystalline piezoelectrics.

  18. Microstructure and electrical properties of (1−x)[0.8Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-0.2Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}]-xBiCoO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710119 (China); Chen, Xiao-ming, E-mail: xmchen@snnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710119 (China); Qiu, Yan-zi [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710119 (China); Lian, Han-li [School of Science, Xi’an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi’an, 710121 (China); Chen, Wei-ting [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, 701, Taiwan (China)

    2017-01-15

    The (1−x)[0.8Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-0.2Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}]-xBiCoO{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, abbreviated as BNKT, BNKT-002Co, BNKT-005Co, respectively) lead-free ferroelectric ceramics were prepared via the solid state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics were investigated comparatively by using a combination of characterization techniques. All the samples exhibit typical X-ray diffraction peaks of ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure. The doping of BiCoO{sub 3} causes a decrease in lattice parameters and an increase in grain size of the ceramics. The Raman spectroscopy results suggest a lattice distortion due to the doping. It is found that BNKT-002Co and BNKT-005Co have higher depolarization temperatures compared with BNKT. The Curie-Weiss law and modified Curie-Weiss law explored a diffuse phase transition character for all the samples. The results of ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance suggests that BiCoO{sub 3}-doped ceramics possess higher defect concentration. The impedance analysis shows a temperature dependent relaxation behavior, and the activation energy for the electrical responses varies with the change of BiCoO{sub 3} amount. The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics decrease due to the doping of BiCoO{sub 3}. Based on the results of the Rayleigh analysis, it was suggested that the differences in the electrical properties among the ceramics are closely related to the change in oxygen vacancy concentration. - Highlights: • BNKT-xCo ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction method. • Electrical properties of BNKT ceramics are changed by the doping of BiCoO{sub 3}. • The doping causes a decrease in lattice parameters and an increase in grain size. • T{sub d} of the ceramics increases with increasing x. • Oxygen vacancies play key role in determining electrical properties of the ceramics.

  19. Microstructure and electrical properties of (1−x)[0.8Bi_0_._5Na_0_._5TiO_3-0.2Bi_0_._5K_0_._5TiO_3]-xBiCoO_3 lead-free ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiao-ming; Qiu, Yan-zi; Lian, Han-li; Chen, Wei-ting

    2017-01-01

    The (1−x)[0.8Bi_0_._5Na_0_._5TiO_3-0.2Bi_0_._5K_0_._5TiO_3]-xBiCoO_3 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, abbreviated as BNKT, BNKT-002Co, BNKT-005Co, respectively) lead-free ferroelectric ceramics were prepared via the solid state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics were investigated comparatively by using a combination of characterization techniques. All the samples exhibit typical X-ray diffraction peaks of ABO_3 perovskite structure. The doping of BiCoO_3 causes a decrease in lattice parameters and an increase in grain size of the ceramics. The Raman spectroscopy results suggest a lattice distortion due to the doping. It is found that BNKT-002Co and BNKT-005Co have higher depolarization temperatures compared with BNKT. The Curie-Weiss law and modified Curie-Weiss law explored a diffuse phase transition character for all the samples. The results of ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance suggests that BiCoO_3-doped ceramics possess higher defect concentration. The impedance analysis shows a temperature dependent relaxation behavior, and the activation energy for the electrical responses varies with the change of BiCoO_3 amount. The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics decrease due to the doping of BiCoO_3. Based on the results of the Rayleigh analysis, it was suggested that the differences in the electrical properties among the ceramics are closely related to the change in oxygen vacancy concentration. - Highlights: • BNKT-xCo ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction method. • Electrical properties of BNKT ceramics are changed by the doping of BiCoO_3. • The doping causes a decrease in lattice parameters and an increase in grain size. • T_d of the ceramics increases with increasing x. • Oxygen vacancies play key role in determining electrical properties of the ceramics.

  20. Ultrathin bismuth nanosheets from in situ topotactic transformation for selective electrocatalytic CO2 reduction to formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Wang, Yu; Yang, Hui; Deng, Jun; Wu, Jinghua; Li, Yafei; Li, Yanguang

    2018-04-03

    Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction to formate is desirable but challenging. Current attention is mostly focused on tin-based materials, which, unfortunately, often suffer from limited Faradaic efficiency. The potential of bismuth in carbon dioxide reduction has been suggested but remained understudied. Here, we report that ultrathin bismuth nanosheets are prepared from the in situ topotactic transformation of bismuth oxyiodide nanosheets. They process single crystallinity and enlarged surface areas. Such an advantageous nanostructure affords the material with excellent electrocatalytic performance for carbon dioxide reduction to formate. High selectivity (~100%) and large current density are measured over a broad potential, as well as excellent durability for >10 h. Its selectivity for formate is also understood by density functional theory calculations. In addition, bismuth nanosheets were coupled with an iridium-based oxygen evolution electrocatalyst to achieve efficient full-cell electrolysis. When powered by two AA-size alkaline batteries, the full cell exhibits impressive Faradaic efficiency and electricity-to-formate conversion efficiency.

  1. [Selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytzhak, A; Doron, Y; Lahat, E; Livne, A

    2012-10-01

    Selective mutism is an uncommon disorder in young children, in which they selectively don't speak in certain social situations, while being capable of speaking easily in other social situations. Many etiologies were proposed for selective mutism including psychodynamic, behavioral and familial etc. A developmental etiology that includes insights from all the above is gaining support. Accordingly, mild language impairment in a child with an anxiety trait may be at the root of developing selective mutism. The behavior will be reinforced by an avoidant pattern in the family. Early treatment and followup for children with selective mutism is important. The treatment includes non-pharmacological therapy (psychodynamic, behavioral and familial) and pharmacologic therapy--mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).

  2. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  3. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  4. Selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Alexandra; Major, Nili

    2016-02-01

    Selective mutism is a disorder in which an individual fails to speak in certain social situations though speaks normally in other settings. Most commonly, this disorder initially manifests when children fail to speak in school. Selective mutism results in significant social and academic impairment in those affected by it. This review will summarize the current understanding of selective mutism with regard to diagnosis, epidemiology, cause, prognosis, and treatment. Studies over the past 20 years have consistently demonstrated a strong relationship between selective mutism and anxiety, most notably social phobia. These findings have led to the recent reclassification of selective mutism as an anxiety disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. In addition to anxiety, several other factors have been implicated in the development of selective mutism, including communication delays and immigration/bilingualism, adding to the complexity of the disorder. In the past few years, several randomized studies have supported the efficacy of psychosocial interventions based on a graduated exposure to situations requiring verbal communication. Less data are available regarding the use of pharmacologic treatment, though there are some studies that suggest a potential benefit. Selective mutism is a disorder that typically emerges in early childhood and is currently conceptualized as an anxiety disorder. The development of selective mutism appears to result from the interplay of a variety of genetic, temperamental, environmental, and developmental factors. Although little has been published about selective mutism in the general pediatric literature, pediatric clinicians are in a position to play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating condition.

  5. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  6. Selective gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üstebay, D.; Castro, R.M.; Rabbat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in compression and distributed transform coding, we propose a new gossip algorithm called Selective Gossip to efficiently compute sparse approximations of network data. We consider running parallel gossip algorithms on the elements of a vector of transform coefficients.

  7. Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of SrTiO3-Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaAl0.5Nb0.5O3 Lead-Free Ceramics for High-Energy-Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Yang, Haibo; Lin, Ying; Wang, Tong

    2017-11-06

    Pulsed capacitors require high-recoverable energy-storage density (W rec ) and high energy-storage efficiency (η), which can be realized through the selection and adjustment of the composition. In this work, (1 - x)SrTiO 3 -x(0.95Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 TiO 3 -0.05BaAl 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 ) [(1 - x)ST-x(BNT-BAN)] ceramics were successfully prepared via the pressureless solid-state reaction method. The dielectric constant increases gradually with the introduction of BNT-BAN and obtains a maximum value of 3430 with the composition of 0.4ST-0.6(BNT-BAN) at 100 Hz, which is 10.39 times higher than that of the pure ST sample (∼330). Dispersive relaxor behaviors and ferroelectric performances can be enhanced with the introduction of BNT-BAN. The composition of 0.5ST-0.5(BNT-BAN) exhibits a high W rec of 1.89 J/cm 3 as well as a high η of 77%. Therefore, the (1 - x)ST-x(BNT-BAN) systems are candidate materials for pulsed capacitor applications.

  8. Ricardian selection

    OpenAIRE

    Finicelli, Andrea; Pagano, Patrizio; Sbracia, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the foundations of the relationship between trade and total factor productivity (TFP) in the Ricardian model. Under general assumptions about the autarky distributions of industry productivities, trade openness raises TFP. This is due to the selection effect of international competition � driven by comparative advantages � which makes "some" high- and "many" low-productivity industries exit the market. We derive a model-based measure of this effect that requires only production...

  9. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  10. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  11. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  12. Advanced structures in electrodeposited tin base anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haipeng; Jiang Changyin; He Xiangming; Ren Jianguo; Wan Chunrong

    2007-01-01

    A novel composite anode material consisted of electrodeposited Sn dispersing in a conductive micro-porous carbon membrane, which was directly coated on Cu current collector, was investigated. The composite material was prepared by: (1) casting a polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/dimethylformamide (DMF) solution that contained silica particles on a copper foil, (2) removing the solvent by evaporation, (3) dissolving the silica particles by immersing the copper foil into an alkaline solution, (4) drying the copper foil coated by micro-porous membrane, (5) electrodepositing Sn onto the copper foil through the micro-pores in the micro-porous membrane, and (6) annealing as-obtained composite material. This method provided the composite material with high decentralization of Sn and supporting medium purpose of conductive carbon membrane deriving from pyrolysis of PAN. SEM, XRD and EDS analysis confirmed this structure. The characteristic structure was beneficial to inhibit the aggregation between Sn micro-particles, to relax the volume expansion during cycling, and to improve the cycleability of electrode. Galvanostatic tests indicated the discharge capacity of the composite material remained over 550 mAh g -1 and 71.4% of charge retention after 30 cycles, while that of the electrode prepared by electrodepositing Sn on a bare Cu foil decreased seriously to 82.5 mAh g -1 and 13%. These results show that the composite material is a promising anode material with larger specific capacity and long cycle life for lithium ion batteries

  13. Investigation on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminium-Tin Based Plain Bearing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rameshkumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the Mechanical and Tribological properties of plain bearing alloys used especially in internal combustion engines. The mechanical properties namely Tensile strength and Hardness were investigated according to standard procedure. The sliding friction and wear properties of aluminium-tin alloy against high carbon high chromium steel were investigated at different normal loads as (29.43 N, 33.35 N and 36.25 N. Tests were carried in oil lubricated conditions with a sliding speed of 1 m/s. Prior to experimentation, the circulating engine oil 20w40 was heated to temperature of 800C using heater. The frictional behavior and wear property of aluminium-tin alloy were studied by means of pin-on-disk tribometer. The weight loss of the specimen was measured and wear and friction characteristics were calculated with respect to time, depth of wear track, sliding speed and bearing load. To determine the wear mechanism, the worn surfaces of the samples were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The optimum wear reduction was obtained at different normal loads and at same sliding speed.

  14. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail of carbothermic reaction, thermodynamic calculation was carried out and compared with experiments. From thermodynamic calculation and experiment, it was confirmed that Sn-based anodic slime could be reduced by controlling temperature and amount of carbon. However, any tendency between the reduction temperature and carbon content for the reduction reaction was not observed.

  15. Interaction of a tin-based capillary porous structure with ITER/DEMO relevant plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.W., E-mail: t.w.morgan@differ.nl; Bekerom, D.C.M. van den; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-08-15

    Sn filled capillary porous structures were exposed to high flux low temperature plasma conditions at the Pilot-PSI linear device. Enhanced erosion above that expected classically was investigated via spectroscopic observation of Sn{sup 0} emission from the plasma in front of the target surface while the surface temperature was monitored by both thermography and pyrometry. An anomalous erosion flux was observed as temperature increases, with onset for this occurrence varying strongly between different ion species. The results appear incompatible with existing ‘adatom’ models for the anomalous erosion flux. Further targets were exposed in turn to increasing heat fluxes and the heat removed determined from cooling water calorimetry, which was then compared to a solid Mo reference target. At high powers the total energy of the cooling water is reduced, indicating a shielding of the surface from the plasma heat flux by the vapour cloud in front.

  16. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  17. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chulwoong; Kim Young-Min; Son Seong Ho; Choi Hanshin; Kim Tae Bum; Kim Yong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail o...

  18. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide on electrodeposited tin-based surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Bianca Christina S.; Camayang, John Carl A.; Mopon, Marlon L.; del Rosario, Julie Anne D.

    2017-08-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to small organic molecular compounds provides a means of generating alternative fuel source while suppressing climate change. Suitable catalysts, however, are necessary to optimize its reaction kinetics towards more valuable products. Consequently, in this study, electrodeposited Sn electrodes have been developed as catalysts for CO2 electroreduction. Deposition potential was varied to produce different Sn catalysts. SEM showed varying morphologies and increasing amount as the applied potential becomes more negative. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry showed that the activity and stability of the catalysts towards CO2 reduction depend on the morphology and presence of tin oxides. These results provide a better understanding on the performance of electrodeposited Sn-based surfaces as catalysts for CO2 reduction.

  19. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Tin-based "super-POSS" building blocks in epoxy nanocomposites with highly improved oxidation resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Rodzen, Krzysztof; Ribot, F.; Perchacz, Magdalena; Trchová, Miroslava; Steinhart, Miloš; Starovoytova, Larisa; Šlouf, Miroslav; Strachota, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 16 (2014), s. 3498-3515 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposite * POSS * stannoxane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2014

  1. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  2. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  3. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Elgot, Calvin C

    1982-01-01

    Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi­ nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena­ as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...

  4. Effects of voids on thermal-mechanical reliability of lead-free solder joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benabou Lahouari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of electronic packages has become a major issue, particularly in systems used in electrical or hybrid cars where severe operating conditions must be met. Many studies have shown that solder interconnects are critical elements since many failure mechanisms originate from their typical response under thermal cycles. In this study, effects of voids in solder interconnects on the electronic assembly lifetime are estimated based on finite element simulations.

  5. Photovoltaic Rudorffites: Lead-Free Silver Bismuth Halides Alternative to Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevych, Ivan; Kazaoui, Said; Ito, Eisuke; Urano, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Koji; Tomiyasu, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Hideo; Kondo, Michio; Aramaki, Shinji

    2017-10-09

    Hybrid CPbX 3 (C: Cs, CH 3 NH 3 ; X: Br, I) perovskites possess excellent photovoltaic properties but are highly toxic, which hinders their practical application. Unfortunately, all Pb-free alternatives based on Sn and Ge are extremely unstable. Although stable and non-toxic C 2 ABX 6 double perovskites based on alternating corner-shared AX 6 and BX 6 octahedra (A=Ag, Cu; B=Bi, Sb) are possible, they have indirect and wide band gaps of over 2 eV. However, is it necessary to keep the corner-shared perovskite structure to retain good photovoltaic properties? Here, we demonstrate another family of photovoltaic halides based on edge-shared AX 6 and BX 6 octahedra with the general formula A a B b X x (x=a+3 b) such as Ag 3 BiI 6 , Ag 2 BiI 5 , AgBiI 4 , AgBi 2 I 7 . As perovskites were named after their prototype oxide CaTiO 3 discovered by Lev Perovski, we propose to name these new ABX halides as rudorffites after Walter Rüdorff, who discovered their prototype oxide NaVO 2 . We studied structural and optoelectronic properties of several highly stable and promising Ag-Bi-I photovoltaic rudorffites that feature direct band gaps in the range of 1.79-1.83 eV and demonstrated a proof-of-concept FTO/c-m-TiO 2 /Ag 3 BiI 6 /PTAA/Au (FTO: fluorine-doped tin oxide, PTAA: poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine], c: compact, m: mesoporous) solar cell with photoconversion efficiency of 4.3 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Elevated gamma-rays shielding property in lead-free bismuth tungstate by nanofabricating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Ping; Sun, Nan; Zhao, Yang; Shi, Rui; Zhou, Yuan-Lin; Zheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Radiation shielding materials have attracted much attention across academia and industry because of the increasing of nuclear activities. To achieve the materials with low toxicity but good protective capability is one of the most significant goals for personal protective articles. Here, bismuth tungstate nanostructures are controllably fabricated by a versatile hydrothermal treatment under various temperatures. The crystals structure and morphology of products are detailedly characterized with X-ray diffraction, electron microscope and specific surface area. It is noteworthy that desired Bi2WO6 nanosheets treated with 190 °C show the higher specific surface area (19.5 m2g-1) than that of the other two products. Importantly, it has a close attenuating property to lead based counterpart for low energy gamma-rays. Due to the less toxicity, Bi2WO6 nanosheets are more suitable than lead based materials to fabricate personal protective articles for shielding low energy radiations and have great application prospect as well as market potential.

  7. Phase transition characteristics and associated piezoelectricity of potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyu; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Yang, Hui

    2015-08-14

    To achieve high piezoelectric activity and a wide sintering temperature range, the ceramic system concerning (1 - x)(K(0.48)Na(0.52))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3)-x[Bi(0.5)(Na(0.7)Ag(0.3))(0.5)](0.90) Zn(0.10)ZrO(3) was designed, and the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can drive a high d(33). Phase transition characteristics as well as their effects on the electrical properties were investigated systematically. The R-T coexistence phase boundary (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) can be driven via modification with BNAZZ, and has been confirmed by XRD and temperature-dependent dielectric constants as well as Raman analysis, and the ceramics possess enhanced piezoelectric properties (d(33) ∼ 425 pC N(-1) and k(p) ∼ 0.43) and a high unipolar strain (∼0.3%). In addition, a wide sintering temperature range of 1050-1080 °C can warrant a large d(33) of 400-430 pC N(-1), which can benefit practical applications. As a result, the addition of BNAZZ is an effective method to improve the electrical properties (piezoelectricity and strain) and sintering behavior of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics.

  8. Microstructurally Adaptive Constitutive Relations and Reliability Assessment Protocols for Lead Free Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-05

    under bump metallurgy and solder joint geometry on Sn grain morphology in Pb free solder joints were examined. SnAgCu solder joints were examined for...free solder interconnects”, Sci. Technol. Weld . Join. 13, 732 (2008). [3.25] Terashima, S., Takahama, K., Nozaki, M., and Tanaka, M. Recrystallization

  9. Thermomechanical Cycling Investigation of Cu and Niti Reinforced Lead-Free Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    hold fractured bones together during the healing process. The SMA plates have proven to perform well. The shape memory effect places the bones in...taking this a step further and developing robot prosthetic devices using SMA technology [27]. Other uses of SMA’s include hydraulic connections...glasses frames, bra underwires, fire safety valves , etc. [18]. In each case the attributes of the different alloys must be weighed to determine proper

  10. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (1) Lead handling / exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (2) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (3) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; (4) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  11. Phase structure and piezoelectric properties of Li-modified NKLN lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sin-Woong; Lee, Sung-Chan; Kim, Min-Soo; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, In-Sung; Song, Jae-Sung [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Through the low-temperature sintering method, a sintered body with excellent characteristics was produced in an eco-friendly niobate-based piezoelectric ceramic, whose application was low in expectation due to poor sinterability. Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was added in excess to (Na{sub 0.49}K{sub 0.45}Li{sub 0.06})NbO{sub 3}, and ceramics were manufactured using a commercial sintering method. Then, the sinterability and the piezoelectric properties of the specimens containing varying amounts of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were investigated. The microstructure demonstrated the typical abnormal grain growth tendencies with the addition of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and this was explained through changes in the critical driving force in the interface reaction-controlled nucleation and growth theory. When the specimen had been sintered at 1000 .deg. C for 4 hours in air after the addition of 1.5 mol% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, the sintered body showed outstanding characteristics with a piezoelectric coefficient of 180 pC/N, an electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.32, and a dielectric constant of 975. These results showed that eco-friendly niobate-based ceramics, whose use in applications was expected to be difficult in spite of their excellent properties, could be used to produce piezoelectric materials with outstanding properties through a commercial low-temperature sintering method using additives.

  12. Corrosion Behaviour of Sn-based Lead-Free Solders in Acidic Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordarina, J.; Mohd, H. Z.; Ahmad, A. M.; Muhammad, F. M. N.

    2018-03-01

    The corrosion properties of Sn-9(5Al-Zn), Sn-Cu and SAC305 were studied via potentiodynamic polarization method in an acidic solution of 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Sn-9(5Al-Zn) produced different polarization profile compared with Sn-Cu and SAC305. The morphological analysis showed that small, deep grooves shaped of corrosion product formed on top of Sn-9(5Al-Zn) solder while two distinctive structures of closely packed and loosely packed corrosion product formed on top of Sn-Cu and SAC305 solder alloys. Phase analysis revealed the formations of various corrosion products such as SnO and SnO2 mainly dominant on surface of solder alloys after potentiodynamic polarization in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl).

  13. Limitations of Cs3Bi2I9 as lead-free photovoltaic absorber materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Biplab; Wu, Bo; Mulmudi, Hemant Kumar; Guet, Claude; Weber, Klaus; Sum, Tze Chien; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Mathews, Nripan

    2018-01-17

    Lead (Pb) halide perovskites have attracted tremendous attention in recent years due to their rich optoelectronic properties, which have resulted in more than 22% power conversion efficient photovoltaics. Nevertheless, Pb-metal toxicity remains a huge hurdle for extensive applications of these compounds. Thus, alternative compounds with similar optoelectronic properties need to be developed. Bismuth possesses similar electronic structure as that of lead with the presence of ns2 electrons that exhibit rich structural variety as well as interesting optical and electronic properties. Herein, we critically assess Cs3Bi2I9 as a candidate for thin-film solar cell absorber. Despite a reasonable optical bandgap (~2eV) and absorption coefficient, the power conversion efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 mesoscopic solar cells was found to be severely lacking, limited by poor photocurrent density. The efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 solar cell can be slightly improved by changing the stoichiometry of the precursor solutions. We have investigated the possible reasons behind the poor performance of Cs3Bi2I9 by transient absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Comparison between thin-films and single crystals highlights the presence of intrinsic defects in thin-films which act as nonradiative recombination centers.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of the Sn-Co lead-free solder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Libin; Andersson, Cristina; Liu, Johan

    2004-09-01

    The Sn-Co-Cu eutectic alloy can be a less expensive alternative for the Sn-Ag-Cu alloy. In order to find the eutectic solder composition of the Sn-Co-Cu system, the Sn-Co binary system has been thoroughly assessed with the calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) method. The liquid phase, the FCC and HCP Co-rich solid solution, and the BCT Sn-rich solid solution have been described by the Redlich-Kister model. The Hillert-Jarl-Inden model has been used to describe the magnetic contributions to Gibbs energy in FCC and HCP. The CoSn2, CoSn, Co3Sn2_β, and Co3Sn2_α phases have been treated as stoichiometric phases. A series of thermodynamic parameters have been obtained. The calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic properties are in good agreement with the experimental data. The obtained thermodynamic data was used to extrapolate the ternary Sn-Co-Cu phase diagram. The composition of the Sn-rich eutectic point of the Sn-Co-Cu system was found to be 224°C, 0.4% Co, and 0.7% Cu.

  15. Phase structure and piezoelectric properties of Li-modified NKLN lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sin-Woong; Lee, Sung-Chan; Kim, Min-Soo; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, In-Sung; Song, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Through the low-temperature sintering method, a sintered body with excellent characteristics was produced in an eco-friendly niobate-based piezoelectric ceramic, whose application was low in expectation due to poor sinterability. Li 2 CO 3 was added in excess to (Na 0.49 K 0.45 Li 0.06 )NbO 3 , and ceramics were manufactured using a commercial sintering method. Then, the sinterability and the piezoelectric properties of the specimens containing varying amounts of Li 2 CO 3 were investigated. The microstructure demonstrated the typical abnormal grain growth tendencies with the addition of Li 2 CO 3 , and this was explained through changes in the critical driving force in the interface reaction-controlled nucleation and growth theory. When the specimen had been sintered at 1000 .deg. C for 4 hours in air after the addition of 1.5 mol% Li 2 CO 3 , the sintered body showed outstanding characteristics with a piezoelectric coefficient of 180 pC/N, an electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.32, and a dielectric constant of 975. These results showed that eco-friendly niobate-based ceramics, whose use in applications was expected to be difficult in spite of their excellent properties, could be used to produce piezoelectric materials with outstanding properties through a commercial low-temperature sintering method using additives.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of the liquid Bi-Cu-Sn lead-free solder alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyto M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The electromotive force measurement method was employed to determine the thermodynamic properties of liquid Bi-Cu-Sn alloys using solid electrolyte galvanic cells as shown below: Kanthal+Re, Bi-Cu-Sn, SnO2 | Yttria Stabilized Zirconia | air, Pt, Po2=0.2:1 atm Measurements were carried out for three cross-sections with constant Bi/Cu ratio equal to: 1/3, 1 and 3 and for various tin content varying every 10%, resulting in a total of 26 different alloy compositions. The temperature of the measurements varied within the range from 973 to 1325 K. A linear dependence of the e.m.f. on temperature was observed for all alloy compositions and the appropriate line equations were derived. Tin activities were calculated as function of composition and temperature. Results were presented in tables and figures.

  17. Au-Ge based Candidate Alloys for High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure and microhard......Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure...... was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The distribution of phases played a relatively more crucial role in determining the ductility of the bulk solder alloy. In the present work it was found that among the low melting point metals, the addition of Sb to the Au-Ge eutectic would...

  18. Microstructure-Evolution and Reliability Assessment Tool for Lead-Free Component Insertion in Army Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    millions of transistors on a silicon chip in addition to many discrete components such as resistors , inductors and capacitors. All these different... resistors [36]. They have defined an Ag3Sn phase growth parameter, S, and have observed that when subjected to periodic thermal loading, the phase growth...moiré interferometry. The process involves moving the whole interferometer parallel to the specimen grating in small increments, using a piezo

  19. Hot-Dip Coating of Lead-free Aluminum on Steel Substrates with Ultrasonic Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hot-dip coating has been practically employed in manufacturing zinc alloy coated steel sheets. However, it is difficult to coat aluminum alloy on a bulky steel substrate without sufficient preheating, because a rapidly solidified layer containing gas babbles is formed on a substrate surface. A variety of iron-aluminides are also formed at the interface of a steel and aluminum hot-dip coating system, which is the main difficulty in joining of steel with aluminum. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to a steel substrate during hot-dip coating of aluminum alloy to control a rapidly solidified layer and a brittle reaction layer. Hot dipping of columnar steel substrates into molten aluminum alloy (Al-2.7 mass fraction Si-4.6 mass fraction Sn) was carried out through the use of a Langevin oscillator with resonant frequency of 19.5 kHz. The application of ultrasonic vibration is quite effective to control a rapidly solidified layer and a surface oxide layer from a substrate surface by the sonocapillary effect based on a cavitation phenomenon, so that the intimate contact is achieved at the beginning of hot-dip coating. The application of ultrasonic vibration to hot-dipping is effective to control a reaction layer with less than 5μm in thickness. An impact test exhibits that the good adhesive strength is approved in hot-dipped aluminum coatings with a thin reaction layer of approximately 5μm.

  20. Corrosion Reliability of Lead-free Solder Systems Used in Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Feng; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Medgyes, Balint

    2017-01-01

    humidity/temperature cycling tests on soldered surface insulation resistance (SIR) comb pattern. Complimentary microstructural and phase analysis of solder alloys has been carried out using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods...

  1. Lead-Free KNbO3:xZnO Composite Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiang; Li, Zhuoyun; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-11-09

    It is a tough issue to develop dense and water resistant KNbO 3 ceramics due to high evaporation and hygroscopicity of K 2 O. Here, KNbO 3 :xZnO composite ceramics were used to successfully solve this problem, where ZnO particles were randomly distributed into a KNbO 3 matrix. The addition of ZnO hardly affects the phase structure of KNbO 3 , and moreover, the enhancement of electrical properties, thermal stability, and aging characteristics was observed in KNbO 3 :xZnO composite ceramics. The composites possessed the maximum d 33 of 120 ± 5 pC/N, which is superior to that of pure KNbO 3 (d 33 = 80 pC/N). More importantly, a strong water resistance and an aging-free characteristic were observed in KNbO 3 :0.4ZnO. This is the first time for KNbO 3 ceramics to simultaneously improve electrical properties and resolve the water-absorbing properties. We believe that these composite ceramics are promising for practical applications.

  2. High Bismuth Alloys as Lead-Free Alternatives for Interconnects in High-Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Sandeep

    Predominant high melting point solders for high-temperature electronics (operating temperatures from 200 to 250°C) are Pb-based which are being banned from usage due to their toxic nature. In this study, high bismuth alloy compositions (Bi-14Cu-8Sn, Bi-20Sb-10Cu, Bi-15Sb-10Cu and Bi-10Sb-10Cu) were designed, cast, and characterized to understand their potential as replacements. The desirable aspect of Bi is its high melting temperature, which is 271°C. Alloying elements Sn, Sb and Cu were added to improve some of its properties such as thermal conductivity, plasticity, and reactivity with Cu and Ni surface. Metallographic sectioning and microstructure analysis were performed on the bulk alloys to compare the evolution of phases predicted from equilibrium phase diagrams. Reflow processes were developed to make die-attach samples out of the proposed alloys and die-shear testing was carried out to characterize mechanical integrity of the joint. Thermal shock between -55°C to 200°C and high temperature storage at 200°C were performed on the assembled die-attach samples to study microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of the reflowed alloys under accelerated testing conditions. In addition, heat dissipation capabilities, using flash diffusivity, were measured on the bulk alloys and also on the die-attach assembly. Finally, tensile testing was performed on the dogbone specimens to identify the potential for plastic deformation and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was used to study the grain orientations on the fracture surfaces and their influence on the crack propagation. Bi-14Cu-8Sn has formed BiNi by on the die backside metallization and the reaction with Cu was poor. This has resulted in weaker substrate side interface. It was observed that Bi-Sb alloys have strong reactivity with Ni (forming Bi3Ni, BiNi and NiSb intermetallic phases), and with Cu (forming Cu2Sb, Cu4Sb). Spallation was observed in NiSb interfacial intermetallic layer and the reflow process was optimized to minimize spallation. Die-attach joints made out of Bi-15Sb-10Cu alloy, with the improved reflow process, have shown an average shear strength of 24 MPa with low standard deviation, which is comparable to that of commercially available high Pb solders. Bi-15Sb-10Cu alloy has shown limited plastic deformation in room temperature testing. The fracture propagated through the (111) cleavage planes of rhombohedral crystal structure of the Bi(Sb) matrix. The same alloy has shown up to 7% plastic strain under tension when tested at 175°C. The cleavage planes, which were oriented at higher angles to the tensile axis, contributed to plasticity in the high temperature test. The thermal conductivity of all the alloys was higher than that of pure Bi. Cu2Sb precipitates form high conductive paths in a matrix that has relatively lower conductivity, thereby enhancing thermal conductivity of the Bi alloys. By creating high volume fraction of precipitates in a die-attach joint microstructure, it was feasible to further increase the thermal conductivity of this joint to 24 W/m˙K, which is three times higher than that of pure Bi (8 W/m˙K). Delamination along the die side interfacial NiSb layer was the most commonly observed failure mode in thermal shock tests. The die-attach samples made with Bi-15Sb-10Cu, however, retained the original shear strength even after thermal shock and high temperature storage. The microstructures of these samples revealed formation of Bi3Ni on the die side interface that prevented it from being delaminated. Bi-15Sb-10Cu alloy has so far shown the most promising performance as a die-attach material for high temperature applications (operated over 200°C).

  3. Design of Lead-Free Inorganic Halide Perovskites for Solar Cells via Cation-Transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Yang, Ji-Hui; Fu, Yuhao; Yang, Dongwen; Xu, Qiaoling; Yu, Liping; Wei, Su-Huai; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-02-22

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites with the prototype material of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 have recently attracted intense interest as low-cost and high-performance photovoltaic absorbers. Despite the high power conversion efficiency exceeding 20% achieved by their solar cells, two key issues-the poor device stabilities associated with their intrinsic material instability and the toxicity due to water-soluble Pb 2+ -need to be resolved before large-scale commercialization. Here, we address these issues by exploiting the strategy of cation-transmutation to design stable inorganic Pb-free halide perovskites for solar cells. The idea is to convert two divalent Pb 2+ ions into one monovalent M + and one trivalent M 3+ ions, forming a rich class of quaternary halides in double-perovskite structure. We find through first-principles calculations this class of materials have good phase stability against decomposition and wide-range tunable optoelectronic properties. With photovoltaic-functionality-directed materials screening, we identify 11 optimal materials with intrinsic thermodynamic stability, suitable band gaps, small carrier effective masses, and low excitons binding energies as promising candidates to replace Pb-based photovoltaic absorbers in perovskite solar cells. The chemical trends of phase stabilities and electronic properties are also established for this class of materials, offering useful guidance for the development of perovskite solar cells fabricated with them.

  4. Lead-free, bronze-based surface layers for wear resistance in axial piston hydraulic pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetterick, Gregory Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of lead have provided sufficient motivation to develop substitute materials for the surface layer on a thrust bearing type component known as a valve plate in axial piston hydraulic pumps that consists of 10% tin, 10% lead, and remainder cooper (in wt. %). A recently developed replacement material, a Cu-10Sn-3Bi (wt.%) P/M bronze, was found to be unsuitable as valve plate surface layer, requiring the development of a new alloy. A comparison of the Cu-1-Sn-10Pb and Cu-10Sn-3Bi powder metal valve plates showed that the differences in wear behavior between the two alloys arose due to the soft phase bismuth in the alloy that is known to cause both solid and liquid metal embrittlement of copper alloys.

  5. Magnetoelectric Interactions in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichurin, Mirza; Petrov, Vladimir; Zakharov, Anatoly; Kovalenko, Denis; Yang, Su Chul; Maurya, Deepam; Bedekar, Vishwas; Priya, Shashank

    2011-04-06

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites that simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have recently gained significant attention as evident by the increasing number of publications. These research activities are direct results of the fact that multiferroic magnetoelectrics offer significant technological promise for multiple devices. Appropriate choice of phases with co-firing capability, magnetostriction and piezoelectric coefficient, such as Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT, has resulted in fabrication of prototype components that promise transition. In this manuscript, we report the properties of Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT composites in terms of ME voltage coefficients as a function of frequency and magnetic DC bias. In order to overcome the problem of toxicity of lead, we have conducted experiments with Pb-free piezoelectric compositions. Results are presented on the magnetoelectric performance of Ni-NKN, Ni-NBTBT and NZFO-NKN, NZFO-NBTBT systems illustrating their importance as an environmentally friendly alternative.

  6. Magnetoelectric Interactions in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoelectric (ME composites that simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have recently gained significant attention as evident by the increasing number of publications. These research activities are direct results of the fact that multiferroic magnetoelectrics offer significant technological promise for multiple devices. Appropriate choice of phases with co-firing capability, magnetostriction and piezoelectric coefficient, such as Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT, has resulted in fabrication of prototype components that promise transition. In this manuscript, we report the properties of Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT composites in terms of ME voltage coefficients as a function of frequency and magnetic DC bias. In order to overcome the problem of toxicity of lead, we have conducted experiments with Pb-free piezoelectric compositions. Results are presented on the magnetoelectric performance of Ni-NKN, Ni-NBTBT and NZFO-NKN, NZFO-NBTBT systems illustrating their importance as an environmentally friendly alternative.

  7. Investigation of wall-slip effect on lead-free solder paste and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the study, three different plate materials were utilised namely; stainless steel plate, aluminium grooved ..... the stainless steel plate and the highest adhesion is to the glass plate. The author also ... Part B 20(4): 416–423. Riedlin M H A 1998 ...

  8. Lead-free Perovskite Materials (NH4 )3 Sb2 Ix Br9-x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chuantian; Ding, Liming

    2017-06-01

    A family of perovskite light absorbers (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I x Br 9-x (0≤x≤9) was prepared. These materials show good solubility in ethanol, a low-cost, hypotoxic, and environmentally friendly solvent. The light absorption of (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I x Br 9-x films can be tuned by adjusting I and Br content. The absorption onset for (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I x Br 9-x films changes from 558 nm to 453 nm as x changes from 9 to 0. (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I 9 single crystals were prepared, exhibiting a hole mobility of 4.8 cm 2  V -1  s -1 and an electron mobility of 12.3 cm 2  V -1  s -1 . (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I 9 solar cells gave an open-circuit voltage of 1.03 V and a power conversion efficiency of 0.51 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ga2O3 doping and vacancy effect in KNN—LT lead-free piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi; Xing, Jie; Jiang, Laiming; Zhu, Jianguo; Wu, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Ga2O3 was doped into 0.95(K0.48Na0.52)NbO3—0.05LiTaO3 (KNN—LT) ceramics and its influences on the sintering behavior, phase structure and electrical properties of ceramics were studied. Firstly, SEM observation exhibits that more and more glass phase appears in ceramics with the gradual addition of Ga2O3, which determines the continuous decrease in sintering temperatures. And the addition of Ga2O3 is also found to increase the orthorhombic—tetragonal transition temperature ( T O—T) of system to a higher level. Secondly, both the density and the coercive field ( E C) of ceramics increase firstly and then decrease with increasing the Ga2O3 content, and the KNN—LT— xGa sample at x = 0.004 shows a pinched P— E hysteresis loop. Finally, the impedance characteristics of KNN—LT— xGa ceramics were investigated at different temperatures, revealing a typical vacancy related conduction mechanism. This work demonstrates that Ga2O3 is a good sintering aid for KNN-based ceramics, and the vacancy plays an important role in the sintering and electrical behaviors of ceramics.

  10. Direct-Indirect Nature of the Bandgap in Lead-Free Perovskite Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuhai

    2017-06-23

    With record efficiencies achieved in lead halide perovskite-based photovoltaics, urgency has shifted toward finding alternative materials that are stable and less toxic. Bismuth-based perovskite materials are currently one of the most promising candidates among those alternatives. However, the band structures of these materials, including the nature of the bandgaps, remain elusive due to extremely low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and scattering issues in their thin-film form. Here, we reveal the specific nature of the material\\'s electronic transitions by realizing monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) of hexagonal-phase Cs3Bi2X9 perovskites, which afford well-resolved PL features. Interestingly, the PL profile exhibits a dual-spectral feature at room temperature with comparable intensities, based on which we propose an exciton recombination process involving both indirect and direct transitions simultaneously-an observation further supported by temperature-dependent and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our findings provide experimental and theoretical insights into the nature of the bandgaps in bismuth halide materials-essential information for assessing their viability in solar cells and optoelectronics.

  11. Ferroelectric and octahedral tilt twin disorder and the lead-free piezoelectric, sodium potassium niobate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiemer, Jason; Withers, Ray L.; Liu, Yun; Yi, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Using electron diffraction, trends in the local structural behaviour of the K x Na 1−x NbO 3 (KNN x) ‘solid solution’ system are investigated and interpreted using an order/disorder based theoretical framework. At room temperature, electron diffraction shows a single plane of transverse polarised, diffuse intensity perpendicular to [0 1 0] p ⁎ (p for parent sub-structure) across the entire phase diagram, indicative of ferroelectric disorder along the [0 1 0] p direction co-existing with long range ferroelectric order along the orthogonal [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p directions. An additional characteristic pattern of diffuse scattering is also observed, involving rods of diffuse intensity running along the [1 0 0] p * and [0 0 1] p * directions of the perovskite sub-structure and indicative of octahedral tilt disorder about the [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p axes co-existing with long range ordered octahedral tilting around the [0 1 0] p direction. A possible crystal chemical explanation for the existence of this latter octahedral tilt disorder is explored through bond valence sum calculations. The possible influence of both types of disorder on the previously refined, room temperature space group/s and average crystal structure/s is examined. - Graphical abstract: [−3,0.−1]p zone axis EDP of K 0.46 Na 0.54 NbO 3 indexed according to both the relevant Pcm21 space groups (no subscripts) and the parent perovskite subcell (denoted by a subscript p). Highlights: ► Characterises ferroelectric and octahedral tilt disorder in the KNN solid solution. ► Discusses the possible driving forces for this disorder. ► Discusses the implications of this disorder for physical properties. ► Discusses the effects of this disorder on powder diffraction data.

  12. Beta-Tin Grain Formation in Aluminum-Modified Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    The limited number of independent β-Sn grain orientations that typically form during solidification of Sn-based solders and the resulting large β-Sn grain size have major effects on overall solder performance and reliability. This study analyzes whether additions of Al to Sn-Cu and Sn-Cu-Ag alloys can be used to change the grain size, morphology, and twinning structures of atomized (as-solidified) and re-melted (reflowed) β-Sn dendrites as determined using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction for as-solidified and reflow cycled (20-250°C, 1-5 cycles) Sn-Cu-Al and Sn-Ag-Cu-Al drip atomized spheres (260 μm diameter). The resulting microstructures were compared to as-solidified and reflow cycled Sn-Ag-Cu spheres (450 μm diameter) as well as as-solidified Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag microstructures from the literature. Previous literature observations reporting reductions in undercooling and β-Sn grain size with Al micro-alloying additions could not be correlated to the presence of the Cu9Al4 phase or Al solute. The as-solidified spheres displayed no change in β-Sn dendrite structure or grain size when compared to non-Al-modified alloys, and the reflow cycled spheres produced high undercoolings (22-64°C), indicating a lack of potent nucleation sites. The current findings highlighted the role of Ag in the formation of the interlaced twinning structure and demonstrated that with deliberate compositional choices, formation of the alloy's β-Sn grain structure (cyclical twinning versus interlaced twinning) could be influenced, in both the as-solidified and reflow cycled states, though still not producing the fine-grain sizes and multiple orientations desired for improved thermomechanical properties.

  13. Dual strain mechanisms in a lead-free morphotropic phase boundary ferroelectric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Julian; Simons, Hugh; Alikin, Denis O

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical properties such as d33 and strain are significantly enhanced at morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) between two or more different crystal structures. Many actuators, sensors and MEMS devices are therefore systems with MPBs, usually between polar phases in lead (Pb)-based ferroe......Electromechanical properties such as d33 and strain are significantly enhanced at morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) between two or more different crystal structures. Many actuators, sensors and MEMS devices are therefore systems with MPBs, usually between polar phases in lead (Pb......)-based ferroelectric ceramics. In the search for Pb-free alternatives, systems with MPBs between polar and non-polar phases have recently been theorized as having great promise. While such an MPB was identified in rare-earth (RE) modified bismuth ferrite (BFO) thin films, synthesis challenges have prevented its...... realization in ceramics. Overcoming these, we demonstrate a comparable electromechanical response to Pb-based materials at the polar-to-non-polar MPB in Sm modified BFO. This arises from 'dual' strain mechanisms: ferroelectric/ferroelastic switching and a previously unreported electric-field induced...

  14. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  15. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  16. Officer Selection (la Selection des officiers)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The theme of this workshop, officer selection, is an issue of central importance to the military forces of all countries, since it determines which individuals, with what characteristics, will...

  17. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  18. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  19. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    for initiation. Most of the research on project selection is normative, suggesting new methods, but available empirical studies indicate that many methods are seldom used in practice. This paper addresses the issue by providing increased understanding of IT project selection practice, thereby facilitating...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project......-selection methods, and these findings point to new areas for developing new methodological support for IT project selection....

  20. Restaurant Selection in Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to investigate the selection process used by consumers when choosing a restaurant to dine. This study examined literature on consumer behaviour, restaurant selection, and decision-making, underpinning the contention that service quality is linked to the consumer’s selection of a restaurant. It supports the utility theories that consumers buy bundles of attributes that simultaneously combined represent a certain level of service quality at a certain p...

  1. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  2. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Selective surfaces have wavelength dependent emissivity/absorption. These surfaces can be designed to reflect solar radiation, while maximizing infrared emittance,...

  3. Recruiter Selection Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halstead, John B

    2006-01-01

    .... The research uses a combination of statistical learning, feature selection methods, and multivariate statistics to determine the better prediction function approximation with features obtained...

  4. Asbestos: selected cancers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    ...: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Asbestos...

  5. Tin-based anode materials with well-designed architectures for next-generation lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lehao; Xie, Fan; Lyu, Jing; Zhao, Tingkai; Li, Tiehu; Choi, Bong Gill

    2016-07-01

    Tin (Sn) has long been considered to be a promising replacement anode material for graphite in next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), because of its attractive comprehensive advantages of high gravimetric/volumetric capacities, environmental benignity, low cost, high safety, etc. However, Sn-based anodes suffer from severe capacity fading resulting mainly from their large volume expansions/contractions during lithiation/delithiation and subsequent pulverization, coalescence, delamination from current collectors, and poor Li+/electron transport. To circumvent these issues, a number of extraordinary architectures from nanostructures to anchored, layered/sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures have been exquisitely constructed to enhance the cycling performance. To cater for the rapid development of Sn-based anodes, we summarize the advances made in structural design principles, fabrication methods, morphological features and battery performance with focus on material structures. In addition, we identify the associated challenges and problems presented by recently-developed anodes and offer suggestions and perspectives for facilitating their practical implementations in next-generation LIBs.

  6. Behavior of tin-based "super-POSS" incorporated in different bonding situations in hybrid epoxy resins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Rodzen, Krzysztof; Ribot, F.; Trchová, Miroslava; Steinhart, Miloš; Starovoytova, Larisa; Pavlova, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 13 (2014), s. 4266-4287 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposite * hybrid * stannoxane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.800, year: 2014

  7. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  8. Sexual selection in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is an important factor that drives evolution, in which fitness is increased, not by increasing survival or viability, but by acquiring more or better mates. Sexual selection favours traits that increase the ability of an individual to obtain more matings than other individuals

  9. Selection and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgobba, T.; Landon, L.B.; Marciacq, J.B.; Groen, E.L.; Tikhonov, N.; Torchia, F.

    2018-01-01

    Selection and training represent two means of ensuring flight crew members are qualified and prepared to perform safely and effectively in space. The first part of the chapter looks at astronaut selection beginning with the evolutionary changes in the US and Russian programs. A discussion of the

  10. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  11. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  12. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  13. Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Diamond, Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of phenotypic selection document directional selection in many natural populations. What factors reduce total directional selection and the cumulative evolutionary responses to selection? We combine two data sets for phenotypic selection, representing more than 4,600 distinct estimates of selection from 143 studies, to evaluate the potential roles of fitness trade-offs, indirect (correlated) selection, temporally varying selection, and stabilizing selection for reducing net directional selection and cumulative responses to selection. We detected little evidence that trade-offs among different fitness components reduced total directional selection in most study systems. Comparisons of selection gradients and selection differentials suggest that correlated selection frequently reduced total selection on size but not on other types of traits. The direction of selection on a trait often changes over time in many temporally replicated studies, but these fluctuations have limited impact in reducing cumulative directional selection in most study systems. Analyses of quadratic selection gradients indicated stabilizing selection on body size in at least some studies but provided little evidence that stabilizing selection is more common than disruptive selection for most traits or study systems. Our analyses provide little evidence that fitness trade-offs, correlated selection, or stabilizing selection strongly constrains the directional selection reported for most quantitative traits.

  14. Simulation of selected genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, P F

    2000-02-01

    Algorithms for generating genealogies with selection conditional on the sample configuration of n genes in one-locus, two-allele haploid and diploid models are presented. Enhanced integro-recursions using the ancestral selection graph, introduced by S. M. Krone and C. Neuhauser (1997, Theor. Popul. Biol. 51, 210-237), which is the non-neutral analogue of the coalescent, enables accessible simulation of the embedded genealogy. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme based on that of R. C. Griffiths and S. Tavaré (1996, Math. Comput. Modelling 23, 141-158), is adopted to consider the estimation of ancestral times under selection. Simulations show that selection alters the expected depth of the conditional ancestral trees, depending on a mutation-selection balance. As a consequence, branch lengths are shown to be an ineffective criterion for detecting the presence of selection. Several examples are given which quantify the effects of selection on the conditional expected time to the most recent common ancestor. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  16. Relaxor behavior in lead-free Ba(Ti1−xScx/2Nbx/2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bensemma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid solutions of (1−xBaTiO3-xBaSc1/2Nb1/2O3 (BT-BSN with x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125 were prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction technique. The effects of the Ba(Sc1/2Nb1/2O3 addition on the phase composition, dielectric properties, as well as polarization-electric field (P-E loops of the BT-BSN solid solution were investigated. The room-temperature X-ray diffraction analyses of all the ceramics revealed a perovskite phase after sintering at 1350 °C with a composition-dependent symmetry. Temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity and losses have been explored: ceramics of compositions x ≤ 0.075 showed normal ferroelectric behavior, while ceramics with x ≥ 0.1 were of relaxor type. The degree of diffuseness and the relaxor effect increase while the transition temperature (TC or Tm decreases when both scandium and niobium are introduced in the BaTiO3 lattice. Ceramics of composition x = 0.125 exhibited interesting relaxor characteristics at 10 kHz: ΔTm = 20 K, ɛr = 12,000, and Tm = 140 K. In addition, modeled using Vogel–Fülcher relation, this same composition showed the fitting parameters: Ea = 0.0503 eV, f0 = 1.129 × 1014 Hz and TVF = 166.85 K.

  17. Enhanced output performance of a lead-free nanocomposite generator using BaTiO3 nanoparticles and nanowires filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeon; Yun, Jong Hyuk; Wang, Hee Seung; Wang, Ji Eun; Park, Hyeonbin; Park, Kwi-Il; Kim, Do Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Flexible nanocomposite generators based on piezoelectric nanoparticles (NPs)-polymeric matrix have been attracted attention as the energy harvesting device converted the electricity from the mechanical deformations. To enhance the piezo-potential difference introduced inside the piezoelectric nanocomposite, one-dimensional nanostructures such as CNTs, copper nanorods, and Ag nanowires (NWs) should be used inevitably as a dispersing agent for achieving well-distributed piezoelectric nanoparticles in an elastomer. These non-piezoelectric additives showed versatile roles; however, their toxicity to living organism has been an obstacle to realize the bio-eco-friendly flexible energy harvesters. Replacing them with piezoelectric NWs with non-toxic can be a challengeable approach to achieve not only the original purposes of additives but also the improvement of output performance. Here, we synthesized well-crystallized BaTiO3 spherical and acicular NPs via a simple hydrothermal reaction and the two-step hydrothermal reactions, respectively and produced piezoelectric nanocomposite made of piezoelectric BaTiO3 NPs and NWs without toxic dispersion enhancers. Output performance of the fabricated flexible energy harvesters with varying the composition of NPs and NWs were investigated by the well-optimized measurement system during the periodical bending and unbending. A nanocomposite-based energy harvester with 4:1 wt ratio generated the maximum open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of 60 V and 1.1 μA, respectively.

  18. Behavior of Sn-0.7Cu-xZn lead free solder on physical properties and micro structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Erwin

    2017-09-01

    The issues to substitute Tin-Lead Solders is concerning the health and environmental hazards that is caused by lead, and also legislative actions around the world regarding lead toxicity, which has prompted the research community to attempt to replace solder alloys for the traditional Sn-Pb alloys lead which has been used by industrial worker throughout history because it is easily extracted and refined at a relatively low energy cost and also has a range of useful properties. Traditional industry lead has been used in soldering materials for electronic applications because it has low melting point and a soft, malleable nature, when combined with tin at the eutectic composition which causes the alloy to flow easily in the liquid state and solidifies over a very small range of temperature. One of the potential candidate to replace tin-lead solder is Sn-Cu-Zn eutectic alloy as it has a lower melting temperature. Consequently, it is of interest to determine what reactions can occur in ternary systems derived from the Sn-Cu-Zn eutectic. One such system is Sn-0.7Cu-xZn. The specimen was elaborated on physical properties. The chemical content was analyzed by using Shimadzu XRD and melting point was analyzed by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter ( DSC ). The results has shown that the highest addition of Zinc content (15%Zn) will decrease the melting temperatur to 189°C compared to Sn-Pb at 183°C Increasing the amount of Zn on Sn0.7Cu-xZn alloys will decrease Cu3Sn intermetallic coumpound.

  19. Chlorine-Incorporation-Induced Formation of the Layered Phase for Antimony-Based Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangyuan; Yang, Dongwen; Jiang, Youyu; Liu, Tiefeng; Zhao, Xingang; Ming, Yue; Luo, Bangwu; Qin, Fei; Fan, Jiacheng; Han, Hongwei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhou, Yinhua

    2018-01-24

    The environmental toxicity of Pb in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells remains an issue, which has triggered intense research on seeking alternative Pb-free perovskites for solar applications. Halide perovskites based on group-VA cations of Bi 3+ and Sb 3+ with the same lone-pair ns 2 state as Pb 2+ are promising candidates. Herein, through a joint experimental and theoretical study, we demonstrate that Cl-incorporated methylammonium Sb halide perovskites (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Sb 2 Cl X I 9-X show promise as efficient solar absorbers for Pb-free perovskite solar cells. Inclusion of methylammonium chloride into the precursor solutions suppresses the formation of the undesired zero-dimensional dimer phase and leads to the successful synthesis of high-quality perovskite films composed of the two-dimensional layered phase favored for photovoltaics. Solar cells based on the as-obtained (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Sb 2 Cl X I 9-X films reach a record-high power conversion efficiency over 2%. This finding offers a new perspective for the development of nontoxic and low-cost Sb-based perovskite solar cells.

  20. Design of lead-free candidate alloys for high-temperature soldering based on the Au–Sn system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2010-01-01

    of the Au–Sn binary system were explored in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of these promising Au–Sn based ternary alloys were investigated. For this purpose, the candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature, 150°C for up to 1week...

  1. Bandgap Engineering of Lead-Free Double Perovskite Cs2 AgBiBr6 through Trivalent Metal Alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke-Zhao; Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaoming; Yan, Yanfa; Mitzi, David B

    2017-07-03

    The double perovskite family, A 2 M I M III X 6 , is a promising route to overcome the lead toxicity issue confronting the current photovoltaic (PV) standout, CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 . Given the generally large indirect band gap within most known double perovskites, band-gap engineering provides an important approach for targeting outstanding PV performance within this family. Using Cs 2 AgBiBr 6 as host, band-gap engineering through alloying of In III /Sb III has been demonstrated in the current work. Cs 2 Ag(Bi 1-x M x )Br 6 (M=In, Sb) accommodates up to 75 % In III with increased band gap, and up to 37.5 % Sb III with reduced band gap; that is, enabling ca. 0.41 eV band gap modulation through introduction of the two metals, with smallest value of 1.86 eV for Cs 2 Ag(Bi 0.625 Sb 0.375 )Br 6 . Band structure calculations indicate that opposite band gap shift directions associated with Sb/In substitution arise from different atomic configurations for these atoms. Associated photoluminescence and environmental stability of the three-metal systems are also assessed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Bandgap engineering of lead-free double perovskite Cs_2AgBiBr_6 through trivalent metal alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ke-zhao; Mitzi, David B.; Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaoming; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-01-01

    The double perovskite family, A_2M"IM"I"I"IX_6, is a promising route to overcome the lead toxicity issue confronting the current photovoltaic (PV) standout, CH_3NH_3PbI_3. Given the generally large indirect band gap within most known double perovskites, band-gap engineering provides an important approach for targeting outstanding PV performance within this family. Using Cs_2AgBiBr_6 as host, band-gap engineering through alloying of In"I"I"I/Sb"I"I"I has been demonstrated in the current work. Cs_2Ag(Bi_1_-_xM_x)Br_6 (M=In, Sb) accommodates up to 75 % In"I"I"I with increased band gap, and up to 37.5 % Sb"I"I"I with reduced band gap; that is, enabling ca. 0.41 eV band gap modulation through introduction of the two metals, with smallest value of 1.86 eV for Cs_2Ag(Bi_0_._6_2_5Sb_0_._3_7_5)Br_6. Band structure calculations indicate that opposite band gap shift directions associated with Sb/In substitution arise from different atomic configurations for these atoms. Associated photoluminescence and environmental stability of the three-metal systems are also assessed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Prognostication of Residual Life and Latent Damage Assessment in Lead-free Electronics Under Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Requirements for system availability for ultra-high reliability electronic systems such as airborne and space electronic systems are driving the need for advanced...

  4. Fabrication of indigenous lead-free low cost bilayer radiation protective apron and dosimetric analysis for effective shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protective aprons play a key role in the radiation protection of personnel in radiology departments. They are worn in examination rooms during radiological examinations and their specific function is to provide shielding against secondary radiation. Practically, they are used for a variety of diagnostic imaging procedures including angiography, fluoroscopy, mobiles and theatre, and are designed to shield approximately 75% of radiosensitive red bone marrow. For many years, the protective aprons play a key role in the radiation protection of personnel in imaging departments was made of lead. However, lead garments must be treated as hazardous waste for disposal and are heavy, causing back strain and other orthopedic problems for those who must wear them for long periods of time. They are worn in examination rooms during radiological examinations and their specific function is to provide shielding against secondary radiation. Originally, protective aprons consisted of lead-impregnated vinyl or rubber with a shielding equivalent given in millimetres of lead. The main purpose of this study was to fabricate light weight low cost non lead based bilayered radiation protective aprons

  5. Evaluating print performance of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder pastes used in electronics assembly process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S.; Bauer, R.; Hübner, F.; Ekere, N. N.

    2011-01-01

    Solder paste is the most widely used interconnection material in the electronic assembly process for attaching electronic components/devices directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards, using stencil printing process. This paper evaluates the performance of three different commercially available Sn-Ag-Cu solder pastes formulated with different particle size distributions (PSD), metal content and alloy composition. A series of stencil printing tests were carried out using a specially designed stencil of 75 μm thickness and apertures of 300×300 μm2 dimension and 500 μm pitch sizes. Solder paste printing behaviors were found related to attributes such as slumping and surface tension and printing performance was correlated with metal content and PSD. The results of the study should benefit paste manufacturers and SMT assemblers to improve their products and practices.

  6. The effect of micro alloying on the microstructure evolution of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werden, Jesse

    The microelectronics industry is required to obtain alternative Pb-free soldering materials due to legal, environmental, and technological factors. As a joining material, solder provides an electrical and mechanical support in electronic assemblies and therefore, the properties of the solder are crucial to the durability and reliability of the solder joint and the function of the electronic device. One major concern with new Pb-free alternatives is that the microstructure is prone to microstructural coarsening over time which leads to inconsistent properties over the device's lifetime. Power aging the solder is a common method of stabilizing the microstructure for Pb-based alloys, however, it is unclear if this will be an appropriate solution to the microstructural coarsening of Pb-free solders. The goal of this work is to develop a better understanding of the coarsening process in new solder alloys and to suggest methods of stabilizing the solder microstructure. Microalloying is one potential solution to the microstructural coarsening problem. This experiment consists of a microstructural coarsening study of SAC305 in which each sample has been alloyed with one of three different solutes, directionally solidified at 100microm/s, and then aged at three different temperatures over a total period of 20 days. There are several important conclusions from this experiment. First, the coarsening kinetics of the intermetallics in the ternary eutectic follow the Ostwald ripening model where r3 in proprotional to t for each alloying constituent. Second, the activation energy for coarsening was found to be 68.1+/-10.3 kJ/mol for the SAC305 samples, Zn had the most significant increase in the activation energy increasing it to 88.8+/-34.9 kJ/mol for the SAC+Zn samples, Mn also increased the activation energy to 83.2+/-20.8 kJ/mol for the SAC+Mn samples, and Sb decreased the activation energy to 48.0+/-3.59 kJ/mol for the SAC+Sb samples. Finally, it was found that the coarsening kinetics of SAC305, SAC+Zn, SAC+Mn, and SAC+Sb are all much slower than Pb-Sn alloys, therefore, power aging the solder will not be a viable method of stabilizing the microstructure. However, adding small amounts of Zn or Mn may be useful to maintain the original microstructure so that power aging is not required.

  7. Fabrication of high-power piezoelectric transformers using lead-free ceramics for application in electronic ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Ling; Chen, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Cheng-Che; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2013-02-01

    CuO is doped into (Na(0.5)K(0.5))NbO(3) (NKN) ceramics to improve the piezoelectric properties and thus obtain a piezoelectric transformer (PT) with high output power. In X-ray diffraction patterns, the diffraction angles of the CuO-doped NKN ceramics shift to lower values because of an expansion of the lattice volume, thus inducing oxygen vacancies and enhancing the mechanical quality factor. A homogeneous microstructure is obtained when NKN is subjected to CuO doping, leading to improved electrical properties. PTs with different electrode areas are fabricated using the CuO-doped NKN ceramics. Considering the efficiency, voltage gain, and temperature rise of PTs at a load resistance of 1 kΩ, PTs with an electrode with an inner diameter of 15 mm are combined with the circuit design for driving a 13-W T5 fluorescent lamp. A temperature rise of 6°C and a total efficiency of 82.4% (PT and circuit) are obtained using the present PTs.

  8. Lattice dynamics and dielectric spectroscopy of BZT and NBT lead-free perovskite relaxors - comparison with lead-based relaxors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Savinov, Maxim; Kamba, Stanislav; Hlinka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2015), 320-332 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * polar phonons * polar nanoregions * dielectric spectroscopy * off-centred ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.858, year: 2015

  9. Mechanical properties and microstructure of model lead-free joints for electronics made with use of nanopowders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Jiří; Buršíková, V.; Pešina, Z.; Sopoušek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, SI (2012), s390-s392 ISSN 0009-2770. [Local Mechanical Properties 2011. Olomouc, 09.11.2011-11.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/09/0700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : solder * silver nanopowdwer * nanoindentation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2012

  10. Phase diagram prediction and particle characterisation of Sn-Ag nano alloy for low melting point lead-free solders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sopoušek, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Zemanová, Adéla; Buršík, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 419-425 ISSN 1450-5339 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/09/0700 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : tin * silver * nanoparticle Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2012

  11. Reduction of scatter radiation during transradial percutaneous coronary angiography: a randomized trial using a lead-free radiation shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Luigi; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Nocetti, Luca; Costi, Tiziana; Monopoli, Daniel; Rossi, Rosario; Sgura, Fabio; Modena, Maria Grazia; Sangiorgi, Giuseppe M

    2012-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure is a growing problem due to the increasing number and complexity of interventional procedures performed. Radial artery access has reduced the number of complications at the price of longer procedure duration. Radpad® scatter protection is a sterile, disposable bismuth-barium radiation shield drape that should be able to decrease the dose of operator radiation during diagnostic and interventional procedures. Such radiation shield has never been tested in a randomized study in humans. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography by radial approach were randomized 1:1 to Radpad use versus no radiation shield protection. The sterile shield was placed around the area of right radial artery sheath insertion and extended medially to the patient trunk. All diagnostic procedures were performed by the same operator to reduce variability in radiation absorption. Radiation exposure was measured blindly using thermoluminescence dosimeters positioned at the operator's chest, left eye, left wrist, and thyroid. Despite similar fluoroscopy time (3.52 ± 2.71 min vs. 3.46 ± 2.77 min, P = 0.898) and total examination dose (50.5 ± 30.7 vs. 45.8 ± 18.0 Gycm(2), P = 0.231), the mean total radiation exposure to the operator was significantly lower when Radpad was utilized (282.8 ± 32.55 μSv vs. 367.8 ± 105.4 μSv, P Radpad utilization at all body locations ranging from 13 to 34% reduction. This first-in-men randomized trial demonstrates that Radpad significantly reduces occupational radiation exposure during coronary angiography performed through right radial artery access. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Direct Printing of 1-D and 2-D Electronically Conductive Structures by Molten Lead-Free Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsun Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of appropriate experimental parameters on the thermophysical properties of molten micro droplets, Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder balls with an average droplet diameter of 50 μm were prepared. The inkjet printing parameters of the molten micro droplets, such as the dot spacing, stage velocity and sample temperature, were optimized in the 1D and 2D printing of metallic microstructures. The impact and mergence of molten micro droplets were observed with a high-speed digital camera. The line width of each sample was then calculated using a formula over a temperature range of 30 to 70 °C. The results showed that a metallic line with a width of 55 μm can be successfully printed with dot spacing (50 μm and the stage velocity (50 mm∙s−1 at the substrate temperature of 30 °C. The experimental results revealed that the height (from 0.63 to 0.58 and solidification contact angle (from 72° to 56° of the metallic micro droplets decreased as the temperature of the sample increased from 30 to 70 °C. High-speed digital camera (HSDC observations showed that the quality of the 3D micro patterns improved significantly when the droplets were deposited at 70 °C.

  13. Terminal Performance of Lead Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    acceleration can be calculated. The change in kinetic energy can also be computed. In the video, temporary and permanent cavities are also visible. In this...notable that the video method above also allows the energy deposited as a funtion of penetration depth to be computed, when velocity is expressed...deposit as a function of penetration depth. The approach in this study employs the energy lost by the bullet in the first 15 cm of penetration , E15

  14. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed......Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Findings – Our research suggests that generally held assumption that endorsers being selected and thoroughly vetted by a creative agency may not be universally valid. A normative model to illustrate the continuum of the selection process in practise is suggested and the two polar case studies (Swiss brand...

  15. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Selective information sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. F. Fraser-Mackenzie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the amount and valence of information selected during single item evaluation. One hundred and thirty-five participants evaluated a cell phone by reading hypothetical customers reports. Some participants were first asked to provide a preliminary rating based on a picture of the phone and some technical specifications. The participants who were given the customer reports only after they made a preliminary rating exhibited valence bias in their selection of customers reports. In contrast, the participants that did not make an initial rating sought subsequent information in a more balanced, albeit still selective, manner. The preliminary raters used the least amount of information in their final decision, resulting in faster decision times. The study appears to support the notion that selective exposure is utilized in order to develop cognitive coherence.

  17. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  18. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  19. Selection in artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study envisages the analysis of the specific aspects of the selection process in artistic gymnastics, focusing particularly onthe selection of Romania’s recent years. In our opinion, the shift to a cone of darkness of the artistic gymnastics, an extremelypopular sport in our country 20 years ago, is also based on and the orientation of children to other fields – unfortunately manyof them outside sports and physical activities in general. In the present study, we shall present the stages of the artisticgymnastics, as its importance in the subsequent performances has been proven a long time ago. The plethora of qualities andskills which are necessary to select a child for gymnastics and those that this sport develops when performed as a spare timeactivity. The case studied in this endeavour is the one of the main centers for gymnast recruitment in Romania; the attentionpaid by the trainers to the selection for this sport makes the data regarding the number of children involved to increase oncemore. This is a satisfactory fact as it is a well-known fact that a wide range primary selection sets a serious basis for thesecondary selection, and the third, respectively, envisaging the future performance and concurrently ensures the involvementof more children in a physical activity that will prepare them, both physically and mentally for a healthy life.

  20. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  1. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  2. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  3. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  4. Antecedent Selection for Sluicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Pranav; Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sluicing is an elliptical process where the majority of a question can go unpronounced as long as there is a salient antecedent in previous discourse. This paper considers the task of antecedent selection: finding the correct antecedent for a given case of sluicing. We argue that both syntactic...... and discourse relationships are important in antecedent selection, and we construct linguistically sophisticated features that describe the relevant relationships. We also define features that describe the relation of the content of the antecedent and the sluice type. We develop a linear model which achieves...... accuracy of 72.4%, a substantial improvement over a strong manually constructed baseline. Feature analysis confirms that both syntactic and discourse features are important in antecedent selection....

  5. Selective retina therapy (SRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Birngruber, R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Luebeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced. (orig.)

  6. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  7. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  8. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  9. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  10. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  11. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  12. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  13. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  14. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  15. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  16. Selective Mutism: Phenomenological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary Ann; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Carlson, John; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    To explore factors related to selective mutism (SM), a survey of persons (N=153, including 135 children) with SM was undertaken. Three theoretical assumptions are supported: (1) variant talking behaviors prior to identification of SM; (2) link between SM and social anxiety; (3) potential link between temperament and SM. (EMK)

  17. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  18. Selecting Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djang, Philipp A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Approach for the selection of personal computers that combines the capabilities of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Integer Goal Programing. An example of how decision makers can use this approach to determine what kind of personal computers and how many of each type to purchase is given. (nine…

  19. Monitoring selected arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Chris Stanton; David J. Horn; Foster F. Purrington; John W. Peacock; Eric H. Metzler

    2003-01-01

    Arthropod populations were sampled in four study areas in southern Ohio in 1995 to document patterns of arthropod diversity and establish a baseline dataset for long-term monitoring in mixed-oak forests. Pitfall, Malaise, and blacklight traps were operated in 12 treatment units from May through September. Several insect groups were selected for detailed study due to...

  20. Selecting a silvicultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a name creates a problem. The name of a silvicultural system usually refers to the way a stand is cut to get regeneration-"single tree selection"-for example. Trouble is, the name suggests that the regeneration cut will be the first treatment applied to the stand. Not so. We are now mostly making "intermediate" cuts in our Lake States...

  1. Selecting and evoking innovators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...

  2. Selecting the Right Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  3. Logic and Natural selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  5. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  6. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  7. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  8. Uruguay; 2011 Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation—Selected Issues paper focuses on estimating potential output and the output gap and spillovers from agriculture in the case of Uruguay. It introduces additional economic information and theory to estimate potential output, shedding some light on the discussion of current monetary and fiscal policies. The objective is to take advantage of economic data to disentangle the most recent economic performance by introducing multivariate techniques. The paper also pr...

  9. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  10. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  11. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  12. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  13. Automatic LOD selection

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method to automatically generate transition distances for LOD, improving image stability and performance is presented. Three different methods were tested all measuring the change between two level of details using the spatial frequency. The methods were implemented as an optional pre-processing step in order to determine the transition distances from multiple view directions. During run-time both view direction based selection and the furthest distance for each direction was ...

  14. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  15. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  16. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  17. Selection, Training and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    most Neck training, Altitudetehamber, PBG, Gas nixtures, Trampoline , important in flying. In years to come we will have a Statoergometer, Raling...superagile world, are mentioned neck, more if X-tra head worn equipment is used put below. a lot of stress to this system. In addition stress will 6-6 be...acceleration Pilot selection criteria like body-type, heart-cerebral forces, mainly head to foot (Gz). The heart itself is distance, vagal and sympathetic nerve

  18. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  19. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  20. Decommissioning strategy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of their useful life nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned. The strategy selection on how to decommission a facility is a highly important decision at the very beginning of decommissioning planning. Basically, a facility may be subject to (a) immediate dismantling; (b) deferred dismantling after a period of ''safe enclosure'' or (c) entombment where a facility is turned into a near surface disposal facility. The first two strategies are normally applied. The third one may be accepted in countries without significant nuclear activities and hence without disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A large number of factors has to be taken into account when a decision on the decommissioning strategy is being made. Many of the factors cannot be quantified. They may be qualitative or subject to public opinion which may change with time. At present, a trend can be observed towards immediate dismantling of nuclear facilities, mainly because it is associated with less uncertainty, less local impact, a better public acceptance, and the availability of operational expertise and know how. A detailed evaluation of the various factors relevant to strategy selection and a few examples showing the situation regarding decommissioning strategy in a number of selected countries are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  1. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined [fr

  2. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  3. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  4. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  5. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  6. Fungicide selective for basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, L V; Walton, G S; Miller, P M

    1966-07-15

    Concentrations of 2,3-dihydro-5-carboxanilido-6-methyl-1,4-oxathiin lower than 8 parts per million prevented mycelial growth of a number of Basidiomycetes. By contrast, mycelial growth of various other fungi-Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Deuteromycetes-was 50 percent inhibited only by concentrations of 32 ppm or higher. Two exceptions to this pattern of selective fungitoxicity were found:an isolate of Rhizoctonia solani was not as sensitive as other Basidiomycetes, and the deuteromycete Verticillium alboatrum was inhibited by lower concentrations than affected other fungi in this group. Spore germination of two Basidiomycetes, Uromyces phaseoli and Ustilago nuda, was inhibited 95 percent or more at 10 ppm.

  7. Selective protection. Selektivschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    TC 2, ''Transmission and distribution of electrical energy'', held its meeting on selective protection on 16/17 March 1983 at Nuremberg. The main reason for the development of computerized protective systems is their ability to solve a wide range of tasks using only a few, high-integrated systems, i.e. on the software side instead of the hardware side. At the meeting, experts from industrial companies and public utilities reviewed the status and trends of protective systems engineering. Scientific studies and operating experience were presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 papers in this conference proceedings volume.

  8. Selected misdemeanors against monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Klimczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present selected aspects misdemeanors against monuments and the possibility of counteracting them.The author has used: the method of legal analysis  and literature study.  It was moved, among others issues in which cases occur misconduct, when and  what measures can be taken to prevent it. The aim of this paper is to present the matter directly. Attention  also was paid to the role The Provincial Monuments Conservator  and the Minister of Culture and National Heritage.

  9. Scope selection and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, F.

    2011-01-01

    OPG is preparing for a 4-unit refurbishment program at Darlington later in this decade. Key efforts underway include the selection of the right refurbishment scope that will allow Darlington to achieve top-decile performance post-refurbishment. For this to be possible, it is imperative that (1) plant/equipment condition be well understood, (2) post-refurbishment performance objectives be clearly defined, and (3) regulatory and other risks be carefully assessed and mitigated. Significant engineering, operations and maintenance support is required to complete this phase of the project cycle.

  10. Frequency selective bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowitt, M.S.; Fixsen, D.J.; Goldin, A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a concept for radiometry in the millimeter, the submillimeter, and the far-IR spectral regions, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB). This system uses a bolometer as a coupled element of a tuned quasi-optical interference filter in which the absorption, the transmission......-dimensional transmission-line model. Instruments based on FSB technology should have several advantages over current multiband bolometric radiometers including smaller and more compact cryogenic optics; reduced demands on cryostat size and weight, high coupling efficiency, minimum constraints on the geometry in the focal...

  11. Selected cerium phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Verkade, M.E.

    1974-09-01

    A compilation of cerium alloy phase equilibria data based on the most reliable information available is presented. The binary systems selected are those of cerium with each of the following twenty nine elements which might be commonly found in steels: Al, Sb, As, Bi, Ca, C, Cr, Co, Nb, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, N, O, P, Se, Si, Ag, S, Te, Sn, Ti, W, and Zn. A brief discussion, a summary of crystal lattice parameters where applicable, and a list of references is included for each element surveyed. (U.S.)

  12. Broadband network selection issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Selecting the best network for a given cable or telephone company provider is not as obvious as it appears. The cost and performance trades between Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC), Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line networks lead to very different choices based on the existing plant and the expected interactive subscriber usage model. This paper presents some of the issues and trades that drive network selection. The majority of the Interactive Television trials currently underway or planned are based on HFC networks. As a throw away market trial or a short term strategic incursion into a cable market, HFC may make sense. In the long run, if interactive services see high demand, HFC costs per node and an ever shrinking neighborhood node size to service large numbers of subscribers make FTTC appear attractive. For example, thirty-three 64-QAM modulators are required to fill the 550 MHz to 750 MHz spectrum with compressed video streams in 6 MHz channels. This large amount of hardware at each node drives not only initial build-out costs, but operations and maintenance costs as well. FTTC, with its potential for digitally switching large amounts of bandwidth to an given home, offers the potential to grow with the interactive subscriber base with less downstream cost. Integrated telephony on these networks is an issue that appears to be an afterthought for most of the networks being selected at the present time. The major players seem to be videocentric and include telephony as a simple add-on later. This may be a reasonable view point for the telephone companies that plan to leave their existing phone networks untouched. However, a phone company planning a network upgrade or a cable company jumping into the telephony business needs to carefully weigh the cost and performance issues of the various network choices. Each network type provides varying capability in both upstream and downstream bandwidth for voice channels. The noise characteristics

  13. Selective immunosuppression by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.; Joel, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    The historical aspects of selective irradiation of lymphocytes are reviewed as well as the problems concerned with dosimetry and the radiosensitivity of circulating blood elements other than lymphocytes. The possibilities of perturbations in steady-state lymphocytopoiesis which might be triggered by products of radiation-induced cell death are presented; however, the parameters investigated thus far, such as the degree of lymphocytopenia, thoracic duct lymphocyte output, and cell-cycle times of thoracic duct lymphocytes, have failed to reveal any such perturbations. Studies in adrenalectomized calves have failed to confirm the notion that lymphocytopenia after extracorporeal irradiation of blood and lymph might primarily be accounted for by stress-induced corticosteroid hormonal activity. Of the various techniques, only local-graft irradiation and extracorporeal irradiation of blood (ECIB) have found clinical application. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a need for additional, well-controlled clinical trials, especially concerning the role of ECIB as an adjunct to standard immunosuppressive therapy. The experimental results with extracorporeal irradiation of lymph have also established the potential of this technique for clinical application. There is an urgent need for studying the influence of irradiation on various subpopulations of lymphocytes with regard to their functional capabilities and in particular with regard to their reproductive potential. Possible influence of selective blood irradiation on circulating stem cells in blood needs to be evaluated

  14. Selection of new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2003-01-01

    The selected new constraints should be consistent with the scale of concern i.e. be expressed roughly as fractions or multiples of the average annual background. They should take into account risk considerations and include the values of the currents limits, constraints and other action levels. The recommendation is to select four leading values for the new constraints: 500 mSv ( single event or in a decade) as a maximum value, 0.01 mSv/year as a minimum value; and two intermediate values: 20 mSv/year and 0.3 mSv/year. This new set of dose constraints, representing basic minimum standards of protection for the individuals taking into account the specificity of the exposure situations are thus coherent with the current values which can be found in ICRP Publications. A few warning need however to be noticed: There is no more multi sources limit set by ICRP. The coherence between the proposed value of dose constraint (20 mSv/year) and the current occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/year is valid only if the workers are exposed to one single source. When there is more than one source, it will be necessary to apportion. The value of 1000 mSv lifetimes used for relocation can be expressed into annual dose, which gives approximately 10 mSv/year and is coherent with the proposed dose constraint. (N.C.)

  15. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  16. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  17. Selection of maintenance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, B; Rombos, P [Wardrop (W.L.) and Associates Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Selection of maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Rombos, P.

    1995-10-01

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Selected bibliography of agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majisu, L.; Labelle, R.

    1982-01-01

    A successor to a preliminary bibliography by Teemba, L. and containing some of the same references. References (1953-1982) were selected from the 3000 reprints in the agroforestry collection in the ICRAF library, and from approximately 1500 monographs, reports etc. They are grouped in 7 main sections: Agroforestry general, including subsections on agroforestry in arid and semi-arid lands, in lowlands - humid tropics, and in highlands; Agroforestry land-use systems, including concepts from agriculture and forestry land-use systems, and agroforestry systems (cropping with trees, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); Plants and plant management, including multipurpose trees and shrubs; Physical and ecological aspects, (desertification and deforestation, agricultural meteorology, soils and soil management); social and economic aspects, including rural development and human ecology; Training and education; and Information sources and management. A list of information centres relevant to agroforestry is given, and there are subject, species and geographical indexes. 437 references

  20. Skateboard deck materials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoyu; Coote, Tasha; Aiolos; Charlie

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the ideal material for a skateboard deck under 200 in price, minimizing the weight. The material must have a fracture toughness of 5 MPa/m2, have a minimum lifetime of 10, 000 cycles and must not experience brittle fracture. Both single material and hybrid solutions were explored. When further selecting to minimize weight, woods were found to be the best material. Titanium alloy-wood composites were explored to determine the optimal percentage composition of each material.A sandwich panel hybrid of 50% titanium alloy and 50% wood (Ti-Wood) was found to be the optimum material, performing better than the currently used plywood.

  1. Antidepressant-selective gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Podolsky, Dina; Greenman, Danielle; Madraswala, Rehman

    2013-01-01

    To describe what we believe is the first reported case of synergistic gynecomastia during treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders when sertraline was added to a stable medication regimen including duloxetine, rosuvastatin, and amlodipine. A 67-year-old male with major depression, dysthymia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia presented with new-onset gynecomastia and breast tenderness. Mammography revealed bilateral gynecomastia (fibroglandular tissue posterior to the nipples bilaterally) without suspicious mass, calcification, or other abnormalities. These new symptoms developed after sertraline was added to his stable medication regimen (duloxetine, alprazolam, rosuvastatin, metoprolol, amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, metformin, and sitagliptin). These symptoms were dose-dependent, with gynecomastia and breast tenderness more severe as sertraline was titrated from 25 mg/day to 50 mg/day and then to 75 mg/day. When sertraline was discontinued, gynecomastia and breast tenderness rapidly resolved. Mammoplasia and gynecomastia are associated with altered dopamine neurotransmission and/or perturbations in sexual hormones. These adverse effects may be medication induced. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine), rosuvastatin, and amlodipine have been reported to cause these adverse effects. This case was unique, since the patient had been on both sertraline and duloxetine previously as independent psychotropics without the development of gynecomastia. In the context of an additive drug adverse effect, the probability of sertraline as the precipitant drug was determined by both the Naranjo probability scale and the Horn drug interaction probability scale as probable. Gynecomastia is associated with antidepressants and other medications but is rarely addressed. Gynecomastia may be antidepressant selective or may be the result of

  2. Selective Impairment of Auditory Selective Attention under Concurrent Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that…

  3. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  4. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  5. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  6. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  7. Index Selection in Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choenni, R.S.; Blanken, Henk; Chang, S.C.

    Intending to develop a tool which aims to support the physical design of relational databases can not be done without considering the problem of index selection. Generally the problem is split into a primary and secondary index selection problem and the selection is done per table. Whereas much

  8. Materials selection in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M.F.; Cebon, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape. (orig.)

  9. Materials selection in mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby , M.; Cebon , D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape.

  10. Nitrate and bicarbonate selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores

  11. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  12. Selective laser trabeculoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ming Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT provided a new choice for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP in eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG and ocular hypertension (OHT. SLT was demonstrated equally as effective as topical medical therapy and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT to lower IOP. It is a potentially repeatable procedure because of the lack of coagulation damage to the trabecular meshwork (TM and also effect in patients with previously failed ALT. SLT can be used to treat patients with OAG, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, OHT, juvenile glaucoma, pseudophakic and aphakic glaucoma. Furthermore, SLT can be considered as a primary treatment option in patients who cannot tolerate or are noncompliant with medications, while not interfering with the success of future surgery. Its safety profiles include mild and transient inflammation, ocular pain and a small risk of moderate IOP elevations after the procedure. SLT is a safe and effective means of IOP reduction in eyes with OAG and OHT.

  13. Stirling Engine Configuration Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Egas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike internal combustion engines, Stirling engines can be designed to work with many drive mechanisms based on the three primary configurations, alpha, beta and gamma. Hundreds of different combinations of configuration and mechanical drives have been proposed. Few succeed beyond prototypes. A reason for poor success is the use of inappropriate configuration and drive mechanisms, which leads to low power to weight ratio and reduced economic viability. The large number of options, the lack of an objective comparison method, and the absence of a selection criteria force designers to make random choices. In this article, the pressure—volume diagrams and compression ratios of machines of equal dimensions, using the main (alpha, beta and gamma crank based configurations as well as rhombic drive and Ross yoke mechanisms, are obtained. The existence of a direct relation between the optimum compression ratio and the temperature ratio is derived from the ideal Stirling cycle, and the usability of an empirical low temperature difference compression ratio equation for high temperature difference applications is tested using experimental data. It is shown that each machine has a different compression ratio, making it more or less suitable for a specific application, depending on the temperature difference reachable.

  14. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  15. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  16. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  17. Opportunity structures for selective exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Shehata, Adam; Strömbäck, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The transition from low-choice to high-choice media environments has raised new concerns about selective exposure. In this context, two types of selective media exposure are relevant. One is selectivity based on political ideological preferences, the other selectivity based on political...... interest. Evidence for both has been found primarily in an American context, while there is less research on European countries. This is problematic, as the opportunity structures for different forms of selectivity vary across media environments. Against this background, the purpose of this study...

  18. Selective structural source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    In the field of acoustic source reconstruction, the inverse Patch Transfer Function (iPTF) has been recently proposed and has shown satisfactory results whatever the shape of the vibrating surface and whatever the acoustic environment. These two interesting features are due to the virtual acoustic volume concept underlying the iPTF methods. The aim of the present article is to show how this concept of virtual subsystem can be used in structures to reconstruct the applied force distribution. Some virtual boundary conditions can be applied on a part of the structure, called virtual testing structure, to identify the force distribution applied in that zone regardless of the presence of other sources outside the zone under consideration. In the present article, the applicability of the method is only demonstrated on planar structures. However, the final example show how the method can be applied to a complex shape planar structure with point welded stiffeners even in the tested zone. In that case, if the virtual testing structure includes the stiffeners the identified force distribution only exhibits the positions of external applied forces. If the virtual testing structure does not include the stiffeners, the identified force distribution permits to localize the forces due to the coupling between the structure and the stiffeners through the welded points as well as the ones due to the external forces. This is why this approach is considered here as a selective structural source identification method. It is demonstrated that this approach clearly falls in the same framework as the Force Analysis Technique, the Virtual Fields Method or the 2D spatial Fourier transform. Even if this approach has a lot in common with these latters, it has some interesting particularities like its low sensitivity to measurement noise.

  19. Selective noble gases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecka, S.; Jancik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.; Kubik, I.; Sevecka, S.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: 88 Kr(67; 22) Bq/m 3 ; 85m Kr(17; 7) Bq/m 3 ; 135m Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m 3 ; 138 Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m 3 . (J.K.)

  20. Selective noble gases monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecka, S; Jancik, O; Kapisovsky, V; Kubik, I; Sevecka, S [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, a.s., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: {sup 88}Kr(67; 22) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 85m}Kr(17; 7) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 135m}Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 138}Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m{sup 3}. (J.K.).

  1. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of

  2. Detecting selection needs comparative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive selection at the molecular level is usually indicated by an increase in the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) in comparative data. However, Plotkin et al. 1 describe a new method for detecting positive selection based on a single nucleotide sequence. We show here...... that this method is particularly sensitive to assumptions regarding the underlying mutational processes and does not provide a reliable way to identify positive selection....

  3. Recruitment and selection of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Čermochová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part includes concepts that are important for understanding of issues of the process of recruitment and selection of employees. The practical part is divided into three chapters. The first chapter briefly describes the company xxx. Next two chapters deal with the process of recruitment and selection of employees in the company. The ...

  4. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  5. From demand driven contractor selection towards value driven contractor selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, A.R.; Vries, de B.

    2009-01-01

    The procurement of a construction contractor should consider more aspects than only cost or price. Taking value and price into account to select the ‘best value for money’ bid results in adopting a structured multicriteria approach. An alternative contractor selection method is presented, which

  6. Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruth, J.P.; Mercelis, P.; Van Vaerenbergh, J.; van Vaerenbergh, J.; Froyen, L.; Rombouts, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper provides an overview of the different binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM), thus improving the understanding of these processes. Design/methodology/approach – A classification of SLS/SLM processes was developed, based on the

  7. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  8. Conditional control in visual selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Wieske; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Donk, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Attention and eye movements provide a window into the selective processing of visual information. Evidence suggests that selection is influenced by various factors and is not always under the strategic control of the observer. The aims of this tutorial review are to give a brief introduction to eye

  9. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  10. Exo selective enantioselective nitrone cycloadditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Ma, Zhihua; Jasperse, Craig P

    2004-01-28

    We have developed a novel method for accessing exo adducts with high enantioselectivity in nitrone cycloadditions to enoates. Pyrazolidinones proved to be effective achiral templates in the cycloadditions, providing exo adducts typically in >15:1 selectivity and 90-98% ee. The use of Lewis acids that form square planar complexes, such as copper triflate, was important for obtaining high exo selectivity.

  11. Selective Mutism in Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jennifer Joy

    2008-01-01

    Selective mutism is defined as "the consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other settings" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 as cited in Zelenko & Shaw, 2000). For many years, selective mutism was considered to be a very rare disorder amongst individuals, and little attention…

  12. Interviews with Selectively Mute Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…

  13. Advertising media selection and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Reach, frequency, and timing are key concepts in selecting TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, out-of-home, direct mail, Internet, and other media for advertising campaigns. We discuss these concepts and their role in media selection and media planning processes. We also describe media and audience

  14. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  15. Selective attention without a neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Bogadhi, Amarender R; Herman, James P; Bollimunta, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Selective attention refers to the ability to restrict neural processing and behavioral responses to a relevant subset of available stimuli, while simultaneously excluding other valid stimuli from consideration. In primates and other mammals, descriptions of this ability typically emphasize the neural processing that takes place in the cerebral neocortex. However, non-mammals such as birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, which completely lack a neocortex, also have the ability to selectively attend. In this article, we survey the behavioral evidence for selective attention in non-mammals, and review the midbrain and forebrain structures that are responsible. The ancestral forms of selective attention are presumably selective orienting behaviors, such as prey-catching and predator avoidance. These behaviors depend critically on a set of subcortical structures, including the optic tectum (OT), thalamus and striatum, that are highly conserved across vertebrate evolution. In contrast, the contributions of different pallial regions in the forebrain to selective attention have been subject to more substantial changes and reorganization. This evolutionary perspective makes plain that selective attention is not a function achieved de novo with the emergence of the neocortex, but instead is implemented by circuits accrued and modified over hundreds of millions of years, beginning well before the forebrain contained a neocortex. Determining how older subcortical circuits interact with the more recently evolved components in the neocortex will likely be crucial for understanding the complex properties of selective attention in primates and other mammals, and for identifying the etiology of attention disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  17. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  18. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  19. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  20. Sexual selection in marine plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte

    Copepods are among the most abundant metazoans on the planet and play an important role in the marine food web. Many aspects of their ecology have consequently been studied, including details of their reproductive biology and mating behaviour. Sexual selection, the part of evolution which selects...

  1. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric J.; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-18

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 gamma-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the 'selective signature' of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  2. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-12-01

    Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the"selective signature" of a gene. Selective signatures represent aprofile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example,glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.

  3. Selection for components of complex characteristics - indirect selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, H.

    1984-01-01

    A hierarchy of complexity exists in plant characteristics. The efficiency of indirect selection for a complex characteristic by a sub-trait depends on the heritability of the complex characteristic (hsub(c)), the heritability of the sub-trait (hsub(s)), and the genotypic correlation between sub-trait and complex characteristic (rsub(s.c)). In 1961 hsub(s)Xrsub(s.c)>hsub(c) was postulated, when indirect selection becomes more efficient than direct selection. Numerical examples for this relationship are given and a table for indirect selection for yield in wheat is elaborated. Efficiency ranking of sub-traits in indirect selection may change with climate, conditions of cultivation, the level of other sub-traits, the level of the complex characteristic already reached by breeding, and the breeding material. An example shows that regression analysis for different sub-traits on the same complex characteristic, and an estimation of the differences of the within - and the between - variety slopes, may help to select the more efficient sub-trait. In another example, where simultaneous selection was made for two polygenic characteristics, one directly and the other indirectly by two sub-traits, less than half the F 5 -lines had to be continued, when using the more efficient sub-trait. (author)

  4. Lines of Descent Under Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, Ellen; Wakolbinger, Anton

    2017-11-01

    We review recent progress on ancestral processes related to mutation-selection models, both in the deterministic and the stochastic setting. We mainly rely on two concepts, namely, the killed ancestral selection graph and the pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph. The killed ancestral selection graph gives a representation of the type of a random individual from a stationary population, based upon the individual's potential ancestry back until the mutations that define the individual's type. The pruned lookdown ancestral selection graph allows one to trace the ancestry of individuals from a stationary distribution back into the distant past, thus leading to the stationary distribution of ancestral types. We illustrate the results by applying them to a prototype model for the error threshold phenomenon.

  5. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  6. Benchmarking Variable Selection in QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Martin; Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott; Carlsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Variable selection is important in QSAR modeling since it can improve model performance and transparency, as well as reduce the computational cost of model fitting and predictions. Which variable selection methods that perform well in QSAR settings is largely unknown. To address this question we, in a total of 1728 benchmarking experiments, rigorously investigated how eight variable selection methods affect the predictive performance and transparency of random forest models fitted to seven QSAR datasets covering different endpoints, descriptors sets, types of response variables, and number of chemical compounds. The results show that univariate variable selection methods are suboptimal and that the number of variables in the benchmarked datasets can be reduced with about 60 % without significant loss in model performance when using multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS and forward selection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlum Çöpür

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Some authors suggest that selective mutism should be considered as a variant of social phobia or a disorder in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Recent studies indicate that pharmacological treatments may be effective in the treatment of selective mutism. In this article, four cases who were treated with citalopram and escitalopram are presented. The results indicate that the drugs were well tolerated, and the level of social and verbal interactions improved significantly. These findings have shown that citalopram and escitalopram can be considered in medication of selective mutism; nevertheless, it is essential that research be done with more cases than previous ones, in order to prove their accuracy

  8. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance: Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Romeijn, J.W.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  9. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance : Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, Denny; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  10. A checkerboard selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liu, E-mail: optyang@zju.edu.cn [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Electrical, Computer, and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Mo, Lei; Chen, Tuo [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Forsberg, Erik [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Sailing [Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Electromagnetic Engineering, JORCEP, Roy Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    A selective absorber with excellent spectral selectivity is proposed and analyzed. The absorber is based on a germanium (Ge) checkerboard on top of a tantalum (Ta) substrate. At wavelengths shorter than the 1.2 μm cutoff, a very high absorption is achieved due to strong cavity resonances in the Ge nanosquares, and their interactions with adjacent nanocavities and the bottom Ta substrate. At longer wavelengths, absorption is greatly suppressed due to destructive interference between the transparent checkerboard layer and the highly reflective Ta substrate. To better describe the superior selectivity of our configuration, a new figure of merit (FOM) is introduced. We observe a FOM value of 0.88 compared to 0.69 for its planar counterpart. We also conduct a thermal analysis to verify the excellent selectivity of our absorber. A high temperature can be achieved and maintained, promising good potential for applications in solar thermophotovoltaic systems.

  11. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  12. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  13. Sexual selection protects against extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Alyson J; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Kitson, James J N; Spurgin, Lewis G; Morrison, Catriona A; Godwin, Joanne L; Dickinson, Matthew E; Martin, Oliver Y; Emerson, Brent C; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew J G

    2015-06-25

    Reproduction through sex carries substantial costs, mainly because only half of sexual adults produce offspring. It has been theorized that these costs could be countered if sex allows sexual selection to clear the universal fitness constraint of mutation load. Under sexual selection, competition between (usually) males and mate choice by (usually) females create important intraspecific filters for reproductive success, so that only a subset of males gains paternity. If reproductive success under sexual selection is dependent on individual condition, which is contingent to mutation load, then sexually selected filtering through 'genic capture' could offset the costs of sex because it provides genetic benefits to populations. Here we test this theory experimentally by comparing whether populations with histories of strong versus weak sexual selection purge mutation load and resist extinction differently. After evolving replicate populations of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum for 6 to 7 years under conditions that differed solely in the strengths of sexual selection, we revealed mutation load using inbreeding. Lineages from populations that had previously experienced strong sexual selection were resilient to extinction and maintained fitness under inbreeding, with some families continuing to survive after 20 generations of sib × sib mating. By contrast, lineages derived from populations that experienced weak or non-existent sexual selection showed rapid fitness declines under inbreeding, and all were extinct after generation 10. Multiple mutations across the genome with individually small effects can be difficult to clear, yet sum to a significant fitness load; our findings reveal that sexual selection reduces this load, improving population viability in the face of genetic stress.

  14. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  15. Natural selection. VII. History and interpretation of kin selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2013-06-01

    Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Molecular Signatures of Natural Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    provide important functional information. This review provides a nonmathematical description of the issues involved in detecting selection from DNA sequences and SNP data and is intended for readers who are not familiar with population genetic theory. Particular attention is placed on issues relating......There is an increasing interest in detecting genes, or genomic regions, that have been targeted by natural selection. The interest stems from a basic desire to learn more about evolutionary processes in humans and other organisms, and from the realization that inferences regarding selection may...

  17. Pedagogical basement of sport selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaev A.K.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of relevance, goals, objectives psychological selection of sports heroes. The analysis of the literature reveals the stages of the selection of fighters, revealed three interdependent parts of the selection of athletes as part of the wrestling coach. Established that the content and focus of initial training for wrestling must meet age, stage of training, the level of preparedness practitioners. So it is proved that the intellectual sphere of athletes is mediocre and the average level of development.

  18. Selecting practice management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, R; Ciotti, V

    1997-01-01

    Despite enormous advances in information systems, the process by which most medical practices select them has remained virtually unchanged for decades: the request for proposal (RFP). Unfortunately, vendors have learned ways to minimize the value of RFP checklists to where purchasers now learn little about the system functionality. The authors describe a selection methodology that replaces the RFP with scored demos, reviews of vendor user manuals and mathematically structured reference checking. In a recent selection process at a major medical center, these techniques yielded greater user buy-in and favorable contract terms as well.

  19. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  20. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moyer, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites...