WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected study areas

  1. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  2. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  3. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Romali, Noor Suraya; Osmi, Siti Fatimah Che; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu

    2013-01-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person −1 day −1 . Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  5. Automated selection of areas of interest in dynamic studies and camera-cinematograpy of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, F.; Adam, W.E.; Kampmann, H.; Meyer, G.; Weller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in heart investigations using the first transit principle and the steady-state procedure for radionuclide scanning. Progress in the first transit principle relies on automated selection of areas of interest. A procedure has been developed which automatically performs the evaluation of the areas corresponding to the right heart, the lungs, and the left heart. A different procedure has been built up for dynamic lung studies with Xe-133 (Radiospirometry), which principally can be applied to any other organ investigation. R-wave time averaged procedures of the heart in steady state can be performed in direct or indirect manner. A direct procedure is described that leads eventually to a cinematographic presentation of the heart kinetics on the computer display. The analysis yields an exact outline of heart ventricles and auricles as prerequisite for determination of ejection fractions and clinically relevant data of the heart function

  6. Sero-epidemiological study on Maedi-Visna in selected areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovine Progressive Pneumonia- OPP) in exotic sheep breed in selected areas of Ethiopia. ELISA and Hematoxylin & Eosin (HE) staining techniques were employed to examine the serum and tissue samples respectively. ELISA test of serum ...

  7. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  8. On year Study of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Selected Area of Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    Monthly ambient air and surface soil samples were taken for analysis in the outskirts of Madrid in an open urban area from November 1998 to October 1999. Thirty-one congeners were selected according to their abundance in environmental samples. A comparison of the data so produced with concentration levels obtained in urban centre samples and compiled data was performed. Temperatures higher than 10 degree centigree resulted in increasing ambient air levis and a peak concentration was also observed when wind velocity ranged between 2.5 and 3.5 m.s''-1. (Author) 27 refs.

  9. One Year Study of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Selected Area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano CastaNo, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Monthly ambient air and surface soil samples were taken for analysis in the outskirts of Madrid in an open urban area from November 1998 to October 1999. Thirty-one congeners were selected according to their abundance in environmental samples. A comparison of the data so produced with concentration levels obtained in urban centre samples and compiled data was performed. Temperatures higher than 10 degree centigree resulted in increasing ambient air levels and a peak concentration was also observed when wind velocity ranged between 2.5 and 3.5 m.s 1 . (Author) 27 refs

  10. Study on the path selection of sustainable development in the mountainous area of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Malin; Zhou, Zhujun; Zhang, Huizhi; Chen, Ci; Chen, Junhong; Zhou, Zhongren

    2018-02-01

    The mountainous area of Beijing is the broad region with weak economic features, ecologically fragile and special ecological functions. The ecological conditions, sustainability and regional economic development are intercorrelated in the region. It is arduous to enhance the regional competitive advantage and improve the economic development level through the environmental protection and ecological conservation. This study elaborates the relationship between ecology and economic development from the perspectives of ecology, productivity and life style in mountainous areas of Beijing. Then this paper discusses how to increase sustainable development of mountain areas from several aspects, including key regional developments, industrial development, and ecological compensation mechanism, considering the strategic goals of accelerating economic transformation, coordinating urban and rural development, and promoting new-type urbanization.

  11. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The 228 Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for 226 Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested the

  12. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioproteccion e Dosimetria- IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro- RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The {sup 228} Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for {sup 226} Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested

  13. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...... ducks were evaluated. Information was collected from the farmers through a questionnaire. All the farmers of Sundargonj Upazila used mixed feed compund, but in Netrokona only 14% of farmers fed mixed feed to their ducks. The rest was either paddy or wheat alone or a mixture of both. Deshi (local) ducks...... were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...

  14. Sero-epidemiological study on Maedi-Visna in select- ed areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey in other areas is also required to have broad picture of the disease in the ... one of the most important diseases of respiratory system of sheep in the cen- .... observed were greatly enlarged weighing up to 4.5kg (two-three folds the nor-.

  15. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  16. Areas of Hospitality Management and Stakeholders in Recruitment and Selection Multiple Case Study: Estanplaza, Travel in and Transamérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Sbarai Santos Alves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the relationships between recruitment and selection and its stakeholders, considering the areas of hospitality and its characteristics as influential factors to recruit and select new employees. The research approach was qualitative methodologies for the study of multiple cases, which contributed to the form of empirical research. For this investigation were selected by three chains together features that enabled a comparative analysis of the study, which were used for data collection, three sources of evidence: interviews, direct observations and documentation. The selected networks, Estanplaza Hotels, Hotels Transamerica and Travel Inn Hotels The overall goal was to understand the processes used in recruitment and selection set features the fields of hospitality. From this issue were established specific objectives: to observe the dynamics of recruitment and selection of chains; analyze the content related to the fields of hospitality in the tools used in the process of recruitment and selection, and meet stakeholders in this area. The research was conducted through interviews with managers of lodging facilities and with stakeholders in the area of recruitment and selection, based on a semistructured interview guide. Through this research, we found that some features of the fields of hospitality are considered in the process of recruitment and selection. Chains surveyed, however, point out that it is necessary to use tools and processes that enable this type of analysis.

  17. Aerosol size characteristics in selected working areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the work done to study the aerosol activity size distributions and their respirable fractions in some selected areas of the Juelich Nuclear Research Center. Anderson cascade impactors were used to find the aerodynamic size ranges of the airborne particles for subsequent analysis of activity associated with each size group. The aerosols were found to follow in general log-normal distributions in the hot cells with values of AMAD between 5 and 10 μm. Measurements in the AVR containment and decontamination laboratory in Uranit GmbH showed deviations from log-normal distribution. In the waste press area the distribution is sometimes log-normal and sometimes not, depending upon the origin of waste. The values of AMAD are in the range of 2 to 4 μm in these areas. The respirable fractions were calculated using ACGIH definition for respirable dust to be < 25% in hot cells and < 60% in other areas. Pulmonary depositions according to ICRP model were < 10% and < 15% respectively. (orig./HP)

  18. MULTIPLE SELECTIONS OF ALTERNATIVES UNDER CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN AREA OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Furková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is given over to a multicriteria evaluation approach to the issue of international comparison of research and development indicators. The policy activities in R&D (Research & Development area are significant parts of many national programs of many EU member states. There are several reasons for governments to take active role in stimulation investment in R&D. R&D are generally considered to be the main engine of long-run economic growth. Also The European Commission pays more attention to R&D activities and provides more and more resources to these activities through Community Framework Programs. We decided to exploit multi-attribute decision-making to evaluate R&D indicators of European countries. As multi-attribute decision-making method Topsis method was applied. Topis method has provided us complete ranking of the countries taking into account indicators such as patent applications, total intramural R&D expenditure, human resources in science and technology, employment in knowledge-intensive activities and business enterprise R&D expenditure. Having these results in a hand; we proceed to making multiple selections of countries under constraints. Our main goal was to suggest an optimization model for resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement, i.e. to find an optimal selection of several alternatives given a set of constraints. To make a decision concerning proper countries selection we employed optimization model inspired by Promethee V, which enables us to take into account the results of previous empirical part and, at the same time, to take into account defined constraints. Formulated binary linear programming model could be useful support decision making tool in the process of resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement.

  19. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  20. Physical oceanographic characteristics influencing the dispersion of dissolved tracers released at the sea floor in selected deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Moore, D.E.

    1981-02-01

    Scenarios which follow the development in space and time of the concentration field of a dissolved tracer released at the sea floor are presented for a Pacific and two Atlantic study areas. The scenarios are closely tied to available data by means of simple analytical models and proceed in stages from short time and space scales in the immediate vicinity of a release point to those scales characteristic of ocean basins. The concepts of internal mixing time and residence time in the benthic mixed layer, useful for developing an intuitive feeling for the behavior of a tracer in this feature, are introduced and discussed. We also introduce the concept of domain of occupation, which is useful in drawing distinctions between mixing and stirring in the ocean. From this study it is apparent that reliable estimation of mixing will require careful consideration of the dynamics of the eddy fields in the ocean. Another area in which more information is urgently needed is in the relation of deep isopycnal structure and bottom topography to local near-bottom circulation

  1. Preliminary geological study in kabupaten Pamekasan area to support the selection of candidate site of nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Lilik Subiantoro; Kurnia Setiawan Widana

    2014-01-01

    The area around the southern coast Pamekasan is one of the candidates for the alternatives location of nuclear desalination plant site. In 1949 around Sampang Madura ever tectonic earthquake measuring 5 on the Richter scale with its epicenter on land. Tectonic earthquake with epicenter on land is likely related to the presence of active faults on the Madura island. Location prospective nuclear desalination plant site should be away or free of active faults. The study aimed to obtain geological information and find out the characteristics of tectonics including active fault to support site studies of nuclear desalination plant on the island of Madura. The method used is the geological mapping scale, 1 : 50,000. Lithology in the area along the south coast district Pamekasan is alluvium Holocene age and conglomerate units of Pleistocene age. There were no indications of active faults in the region. Candidates site at this location is less attractive in terms of geotechnical foundation as can be ascertained bedrock will be found sufficient in that building construction will require expensive. (author)

  2. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations from data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment and other U.S. Geological Survey water-quality programs were analyzed to (1) assess water quality, (2) determine natural and human factors affecting water quality, and (3) compute stream loads for the surface-water resources in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Stream temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration and percent saturation, and dissolved-solids, suspended-sediment, and nutrient concentration data collected at 41 stream-water quality monitoring stations through water year 1998 were used in this assessment. Water-quality standards applicable to the stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentration data for the stations investigated in this study generally were met, although there were some exceedences. In a few samples from the White River, the Black River, and the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam, the pH in reaches designated as a domestic drinking water source was higher than the State of Arizona standard. More than half of the samples from the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and almost all of the samples from the stations on the Central Arizona Project Canal?two of the three most important surface-water sources used for drinking water in the Central Arizona Basins study area?exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for dissolved solids. Two reach-specific standards for nutrients established by the State of Arizona were exceeded many times: (1) the annual mean concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded during several years at stations on the main stems of the Salt and Verde Rivers, and (2) the annual mean concentration of total nitrogen was exceeded during several years at the Salt River near Roosevelt and at the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam. Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were related to

  3. The Impact of Promotion Activities on Touristic Area Selection: A Case Study of Japanese Tourists Visiting Cappadocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pars Şahbaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of promotion activities on destination selection and to determine the level of the impact of promotion activities on Japanese tourists visiting Cappadocia region. The target population of the study is all Japanese tourists visiting Nevsehir province of Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of tourists visiting the city center and some districts of Nevsehir. After getting the required permissions, the questionnaires were distributed to Japanese tourists while they were staying at the hotels in Cappadocia. The software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study indicate that the Japanese tourists visiting Cappadocia were influenced at a certain level from the promotion activities. As a result, it was determined that the promotion activities have a significant impact on destinations. It was also determined that as the importance given to the promotion activities increase, both the familiarity of the destinations and the tourist arrivals could increase.

  4. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  5. Selection of priority areas for tsetse control in Africa; A decision tool using GIS in Didessa Valley, Ethiopia, as a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkelens, A.M.; Dwinger, R.H.; Bedane, B.; Slingenbergh, J.H.W.; Wint, W.

    2000-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is one of the main constraints to livestock production, particularly in the sub-humid and the semi-arid zones in Africa. To study the impact of the disease and the people economically affected by the disease GIS has proven to be a valuable decision tool to prioritise intervention areas and to select control or eradication methods. In this study a GIS and remote sensing based model have been used in the Didessa Valley and southwestern Ethiopia to study valley specific relationships of all factors (host, vector, disease, human population/activity) with geography, environment and farming systems to answer the following questions: Where does trypanosomosis have a negative effect on (agricultural) development? In which areas will control measures have the highest impact/economical benefit? These findings have been extrapolated to set priority areas for tsetse control for Ethiopia as a whole, using a multi-criterion evaluation technique and a Boolean disease data-set to create signatures (training sets) to predict the probability of agricultural suitability and disease suitability based on a set of environmental predictors. Data sets have been validated through ground-truthing using a random data-set for the specified window of Southwestern Ethiopia. A logical expression has been used to combine the factors (vector distribution, agricultural suitability, climatically disease suitability, control area suitability) to select the priority areas for tsetse control. Areas permanently infested by malaria, one of the life-threatening human diseases in Africa, have been considered as not suitable for intervention, The result, a Boolean representation of the priority areas for southwestern Ethiopia can be prioritised further by the decision maker (government, donor, specialist) using criteria such as cost/benefit, administrative organisation and control method. The unique altitude related dynamic tsetse situation in Ethiopia, makes wider extrapolation using the

  6. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  7. Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in selected areas in the Basin and Range Province, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.; Kiloh, K.D.; Horton, R.C.

    1977-10-01

    Six uranium areas in Nevada were examined in a reconnaissance fashion to determine their favorability for uranium deposits. The favorable areas are: Virgin Valley, Humboldt County; northern Reese River Valley, Lander County; East Walker River, Lyon County; and Coaldale, Esmeralda County. Areas judged to be unfavorable are: Carol ''R'' prospect, Garfield Hills, Mineral County; and Meadow Valley (Panaca), Lincoln County. In the Virgin Valley area, the Canyon Rhyolite Formation contains as much as 27 ppM U 3 O 8 and is an excellent source rock. Uranium deposits in the underlying Virgin Valley Formation are small, but larger deposits may exist. The northern portion of the Reese River Valley contains several small uranium deposits but none of mineable grade or size. Rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and larger deposits may lie beneath these potential source rocks. The East Walker River area may be part of a larger uranium province. Intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and low-grade supergene deposits were found. Large areas of potential source rocks and host rocks, and two small uranium deposits, were found in the Coaldale area. Many rhyolite plugs were also found. The Carol ''R'' prospect is an isolated uranium occurrence in Tertiary lacustrine rocks. Uranium deposits in Meadow Valley are in the Panaca Formation, a Pliocene lacustrine formation of varied lithology. The uranium deposits are small and low grade. It is unlikely that large-grade deposits will be found in this area

  8. Integration of species and ecosystem monitoring for selecting priority areas for biodiversity conservation: Case studies from the Palearctic of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Romanov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At the start of the third millennium, new opportunities have arisen in biogeographical research, namely in the generalisation, visualisation and cross-spectrum analysis of biological and geographical information and in the compilation of biogeographical maps and innovative models for regions that differ in the availability of distribution data. These tasks include long-term monitoring of plants and animals which are in danger of extinction, geographical analysis of biodiversity distribution and development of effective wildlife conservation strategies for specific regions. The studies of the Department of Biogeography of Moscow University on geography and biodiversity conservation are based on long-term field expeditions. The examples of the Asian Subarctic Mountains, the steppes of Central Kazakhstan and the urbanised north-west of Russia are used to illustrate Russian approaches to the use of biogeographical monitoring for the identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation. The species populations of the higher plants and vertebrates listed in the Red Books have been considered as the basic units of biodiversity.

  9. Study to determine the nature and extent of ozone and ozone precursor transport in selected areas of California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.T.; Musarra, S.; Smith, T.B.; Lurmann, F.W.

    1992-04-01

    The project was designed to assess the contribution of transported pollutants to violations of the state ozone standard within the air basins covered by the report using existing data and advanced data analysis techniques. The objectives of the project were to determine the characteristics of ozone and ozone precursor transport within the California air basins covered by the report and to identify whether the contribution of transported pollutants to ozone violations in each downwind area was inconsequential, significant, or overwhelming, relative to locally-emitted pollutants. The precursor pollutants of interest were nitrogen oxides and reactive organic gases. The project evaluated transport to the following areas: The Broader Sacramento Area and the Upper Sacramento Valley; The North Central Coast Air Basin; The Southeast Desert Air Basin (SEDAB); and the Imperial County portion of the SEDAB

  10. An integrated remote sensing and GIS approach for monitoring areas affected by selective logging: A case study in northern Mato Grosso, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina; Beuchle, René; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Arai, Egidio; Simonetti, Dario; Achard, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    Forest cover disturbances due to processes such as logging and forest fires are a widespread issue especially in the tropics, and have heavily affected forest biomass and functioning in the Brazilian Amazon in the past decades. Satellite remote sensing has played a key role for assessing logging activities in this region; however, there are still remaining challenges regarding the quantification and monitoring of these processes affecting forested lands. In this study, we propose a new method for monitoring areas affected by selective logging in one of the hotspots of Mato Grosso state in the Brazilian Amazon, based on a combination of object-based and pixel-based classification approaches applied on remote sensing data. Logging intensity and changes over time are assessed within grid cells of 300 m × 300 m spatial resolution. Our method encompassed three main steps: (1) mapping forest/non-forest areas through an object-based classification approach applied to a temporal series of Landsat images during the period 2000-2015, (2) mapping yearly logging activities from soil fraction images on the same Landsat data series, and (3) integrating information from previous steps within a regular grid-cell of 300 m × 300 m in order to monitor disturbance intensities over this 15-years period. The overall accuracy of the baseline forest/non-forest mask (year 2000) and of the undisturbed vs disturbed forest (for selected years) were 93% and 84% respectively. Our results indicate that annual forest disturbance rates, mainly due to logging activities, were higher than annual deforestation rates during the whole period of study. The deforested areas correspond to circa 25% of the areas affected by forest disturbances. Deforestation rates were highest from 2001 to 2005 and then decreased considerably after 2006. In contrast, the annual forest disturbance rates show high temporal variability with a slow decrease over the 15-year period, resulting in a significant increase of the

  11. An integrated remote sensing and GIS approach for monitoring areas affected by selective logging: A case study in northern Mato Grosso, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina; Beuchle, René; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Arai, Egidio; Simonetti, Dario; Achard, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    Forest cover disturbances due to processes such as logging and forest fires are a widespread issue especially in the tropics, and have heavily affected forest biomass and functioning in the Brazilian Amazon in the past decades. Satellite remote sensing has played a key role for assessing logging activities in this region; however, there are still remaining challenges regarding the quantification and monitoring of these processes affecting forested lands. In this study, we propose a new method for monitoring areas affected by selective logging in one of the hotspots of Mato Grosso state in the Brazilian Amazon, based on a combination of object-based and pixel-based classification approaches applied on remote sensing data. Logging intensity and changes over time are assessed within grid cells of 300 m × 300 m spatial resolution. Our method encompassed three main steps: (1) mapping forest/non-forest areas through an object-based classification approach applied to a temporal series of Landsat images during the period 2000-2015, (2) mapping yearly logging activities from soil fraction images on the same Landsat data series, and (3) integrating information from previous steps within a regular grid-cell of 300 m × 300 m in order to monitor disturbance intensities over this 15-years period. The overall accuracy of the baseline forest/non-forest mask (year 2000) and of the undisturbed vs disturbed forest (for selected years) were 93% and 84% respectively. Our results indicate that annual forest disturbance rates, mainly due to logging activities, were higher than annual deforestation rates during the whole period of study. The deforested areas correspond to circa 25% of the areas affected by forest disturbances. Deforestation rates were highest from 2001 to 2005 and then decreased considerably after 2006. In contrast, the annual forest disturbance rates show high temporal variability with a slow decrease over the 15-year period, resulting in a significant increase

  12. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei Tutu, A.

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not

  13. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  15. Proposal for Land Consolidation Project Solutions for Selected Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik-Len, Justyna; Strek, Zanna

    2017-12-01

    One of the economic tools for supporting agricultural policy are the activities implemented under the Rural Development Program (RDP). By encouraging agricultural activities and creating equal opportunities for development of farms, among others in areas with unfavourable environmental conditions characterized by low productivity of soils exposed to degradation, decision makers can contribute to improving the spatial structure of rural areas. In Poland, one of the major concerns are agricultural problem areas (regions). In view of this situation, the aim of this article was to characterize the problem areas in question and propose land consolidation project solutions for selected fragments of those areas. This paper presents the results of a review of literature and an analysis of geodetic and cartographic data regarding the problem areas. The process of land consolidation, which is one of the technical and legal instruments supporting the development of rural areas, was characterized. The study allowed the present authors to establish criteria for selecting agricultural problem areas for land consolidation. To develop a proposal for rational management of the problem areas, key general criteria (location, topography, soil quality and usefulness) and specific criteria were defined and assigned weights. A conception of alternative development of the agricultural problem areas was created as part of a land consolidation project. The results were used to create a methodology for the development of agricultural problem areas to be employed during land consolidation in rural areas. Every agricultural space includes areas with unfavourable environmental and soil conditions determined by natural or anthropogenic factors. Development of agricultural problem areas through land consolidation should take into account the specific functions assigned to these areas in land use plans, as well as to comply with legal regulations.

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  17. Pilot Study of Generation and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes in Selected Household in Rural Areas in the South-Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelczyk Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot study of the composition of wastes was carried out in 15 rural family households engaged in agricultural activity. In the study group the average resident of rural areas generates about 166 kg of municipal wastes annually. The conducted studies showed that the composition of municipal wastes coming from rural households changes seasonally. During the periods of summer and autumn, the quantity of bio-wastes increased distinctly. The average mass of wastes transferred to the companies engaged in the collection of wastes in the analyzed rural households is almost 50 kg · M–1. year–1. The studies showed that over 80% of organic wastes (kitchen and garden is utilized in the place where they are generated. In the studies, organic wastes were collected selectively (in separate bags, which undoubtedly had infiuence on their humidity (70–90%. Laboratory analysis of these wastes showed that the ratio C:N in it was from 7 to 19, whereas pH lay within the limits from 5.8 to 6.9 indicating its very good properties for the composting process. Therefore composting of organic waste from rural household should be recommended as the best way for its disposal and the weight reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills. Comparison of the analyzed variants showed that some waste other than kitchen and garden does not leave the holding (it is re-used or burned in home hearths.

  18. Selection of industrial robots using the Polygons area method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Honarmande Azimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection of robots from the several proposed alternatives is a very important and tedious task. Decision makers are not limited to one method and several methods have been proposed for solving this problem. This study presents Polygons Area Method (PAM as a multi attribute decision making method for robot selection problem. In this method, the maximum polygons area obtained from the attributes of an alternative robot on the radar chart is introduced as a decision-making criterion. The results of this method are compared with other typical multiple attribute decision-making methods (SAW, WPM, TOPSIS, and VIKOR by giving two examples. To find similarity in ranking given by different methods, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients are obtained for different pairs of MADM methods. It was observed that the introduced method is in good agreement with other well-known MADM methods in the robot selection problem.

  19. Selection method of terrain matching area for TERCOM algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qieqie; Zhao, Long

    2017-10-01

    The performance of terrain aided navigation is closely related to the selection of terrain matching area. The different matching algorithms have different adaptability to terrain. This paper mainly studies the adaptability to terrain of TERCOM algorithm, analyze the relation between terrain feature and terrain characteristic parameters by qualitative and quantitative methods, and then research the relation between matching probability and terrain characteristic parameters by the Monte Carlo method. After that, we propose a selection method of terrain matching area for TERCOM algorithm, and verify the method correctness with real terrain data by simulation experiment. Experimental results show that the matching area obtained by the method in this paper has the good navigation performance and the matching probability of TERCOM algorithm is great than 90%

  20. Predicting artificailly drained areas by means of selective model ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Beucher, Amélie; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    . The approaches employed include decision trees, discriminant analysis, regression models, neural networks and support vector machines amongst others. Several models are trained with each method, using variously the original soil covariates and principal components of the covariates. With a large ensemble...... out since the mid-19th century, and it has been estimated that half of the cultivated area is artificially drained (Olesen, 2009). A number of machine learning approaches can be used to predict artificially drained areas in geographic space. However, instead of choosing the most accurate model....... The study aims firstly to train a large number of models to predict the extent of artificially drained areas using various machine learning approaches. Secondly, the study will develop a method for selecting the models, which give a good prediction of artificially drained areas, when used in conjunction...

  1. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  2. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

      The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper appl...

  3. X-ray diffraction studies of selective area grown InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on multi-facet GaN ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, S.M.; Bonanno, P.L.; Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Wunderer, T.; Brueckner, P.; Neubert, B.; Scholz, F. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, Ulm (Germany); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The structural properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW) were studied using synchrotron based high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). MQW structures were grown on the top and sidewall facets of triangular and trapezoidal shaped GaN ridges by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in the regime of selective area growth (SAG). Period and strain variations as a function of oxide mask width were determined for both the sidewall and the top facet growth. Oxide mask widths ranged between 2 and 20 {mu}m with openings between adjacent masks of 4 and 6 {mu}m. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction curves revealed a sidewall/vertical growth rate ratio of {proportional_to}0.3 through a comparison of the top to sidewall facet MQW periods. Masks orientated along the left angle 11-20 right angle crystallographic direction showed stronger growth enhancement along with large global strain for MQW growth on the top (0001) plane. Interpreting our results within the framework of vapour phase diffusion revealed that inter-facet migration of group-III species needs to be taken into account. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. COST AND TIME ESTIMATES DURING THE SUPPLIER SELECTION OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR LEGAL AREA: A CASE STUDY COMPARING TRADITIONAL AND AGILE PROJECT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, G. L. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering a direct correlation between projects requirements details levels and their performance, this paper aims to evaluate whether the adoption of more extensive and detailed cost, time and scope estimation processes based on both practices, traditional and agile, and executed concurrently with the supplier selection stage, could guarantee greater accuracy in these estimates, thus increasing project success rates. Based on a case study for the information system project implementation into the legal area of a large Brazilian company, five suppliers had their proposals analyzed and compared in terms of the costs and deadlines involved, as well as the project management processes used in theirs estimates. From the obtained results, it was possible to observe that not all companies follow, at least during the prospecting phase, their service proposals described management processes, according to the theory. Another important finding was that the proposals involving, at least partially, agile approach concepts, were more likely to justify their estimates. These proposals still presented lower values, whenever compared to those less adherents to the theoretical concepts, as those based on traditional concepts.

  5. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in selected areas of NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Sajjad, M.I.; Sheikh, M.R.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical composition of ground water in selected area of NWFP (Pakistan) was investigated. Water samples were collected from existing open well, tube wells, springs and the river Indus. Important physico-chemical parameter like temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were measured in situ. All the collected samples were analysed for their dissolved chemical constituents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO/sub 3/, NO/sub 3, SO/sub 4///0 in the laboratory. Different standard technique likes atomic absorption spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, ion selective electrodes and titrimetry were used for sample analyses. Data was used to study the recent trends of ground water chemistry in these areas. Chemical quality of groundwater was evaluated to determine its suitability for drinking purposes by comparing with WHO standards. It was found that groundwater in these areas meets the norms of good quality drinking water except in very few locations. Different compositional types of water were also identified. It was observed that Ca is the dominant cation at most of the locations which is balanced by HCO/sub 3/ giving rise to calcium bicarbonate type groundwater. At few locations groundwater of sodium sodium bicarbonate or mixed type was also encountered. (author)

  6. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  7. Wide area monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental sampling can be used to complement the safeguarding of nuclear material, especially in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Routine monitoring of nuclear installations has provided valuable information about the fate of key signature materials within different environmental settings. The approach collates information regarding the generation of individual radiochemical signatures within different nuclear processes, the potential for release of these signatures to the environment and, the chemical form and mobility of the signatures in environmental media along which the material could migrate. Meteorological, geological and hydrological information is used to determine where to sample, what to sample, and how often to sample to provide the greatest likelihood for detection. Multiple strategies can be used to implement wide area monitoring for safeguards purposes. The most complex, and expensive of these, involves establishing extensive networks of fixed location sampling sites. The sites would be operated continuously, and would be instrumented with automated sampling, analysis, and communication equipment to relay information regarding potential anomalies to control centers in near-real time. Alternative strategies can be used to supplement fixed location monitoring equipment, especially in regions that cannot support (financially or logistically) the fixed stations. Through combinations of these various strategies, using a variety of environmental media to monitor a region, we believe that a competent network, one with a quantifiable probability for detecting undeclared nuclear activities, can be designed. While this approach cannot and should not replace other inspection and monitoring activities, it can potentially contribute valuable information to an international safeguards system. (author)

  8. PIEDRA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Steven M.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Pedra Wilderness Study Area, located approximately 30 mi northeast of Durango, Colorado, was evaluated for its mineral-resource potential. Geochemical and geophysical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in this area. This conclusion is supported by the findings of the earlier study and is suggested by the absence of significant mining activity in the area.

  9. Selection of City Distribution Locations in Urbanized Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, L.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Wiegmans, B.; Luo, Z.; Yin, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to apply a preference method for selecting optimal city distribution reloading locations in urbanized areas. The focus in the optimization is on trucks entering the urbanized area where the truck can choose between at least two locations with similar distances determined by a

  10. Prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in an iodine-deficient area: non-selected patient population admitted for CT studies with iodine-containing contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saam, T.; Hess, T.; Kasperk, C.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Duex, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected group of patients admitted for contrast enhanced CT studies blood samples were tested for the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Material and methods: TSH blood levels were obtained in 548 consecutive patients who were scheduled for contrast-enhanced (Iopromide; 300 mg iodine/ml) CT scanning. In case of TSH levels registered (sodium perchlorate) was commenced before scanning. In case of TSH levels < 0.1 mU/l, CT scanning was not performed but further evaluation of the thyroid function was initiated. Results: TSH blood levels ranged from 0.4 to 7.5 mU/l in 512 patients, and 36 patients (6.6%) had TSH blood levels < 0.4 mU/l and 9 patients blood levels < 0.1 mU/l, with 32 of those patients (5.8%) having regular T3 and T4 blood levels consistent with latent hyperthyroidism. In 4 patients (0.8%), T3 or T4 blood levels were increased consistent with manifest hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: in South Germany, the prevalence of latent or manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected patient group is high. Therefore TSH blood levels should be obtained prior to contrast-enhanced CT studies. (orig.)

  11. Establishing geochemical background levels of selected trace elements in areas having geochemical anomalies: The case study of the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Croudace, Ian W.; Ausili, Antonella; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The determination of background concentration values (BGVs) in areas, characterised by the presence of natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic impact, appears essential for a correct pollution assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a reliable method for determination of local BGVs. The case of the Orbetello lagoon, a geologically complex area characterized by Tertiary volcanism, is illustrated. The vertical concentration profiles of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied in four sediment cores. Local BGVs were determined considering exclusively samples not affected by anthropogenic influence, recognized by means of multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb). Results showed BGVs well-comparable with mean crustal or shale values for most of the considered elements except for Hg (0.87 mg/kg d.w.) and As (16.87 mg/kg d.w.), due to mineralization present in the catchment basin draining into the lagoon. - Highlights: • Pollution assessment in areas with geochemical anomalies needs local reference values. • A new method for the determination of background values (BGV) was established. • Geochemical data from unpolluted samples of sediment cores were used. • Statistics and geochronology were applied to recognize unpolluted sediments. • Anthropogenically influenced samples were not considered for BGV determination. - A method including multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating is proposed for determining local background values for trace elements using analytical data form sediment cores

  12. PUREX source Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the PUREX Plant Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE)Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  13. Occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco and potential risk of toxic optic neuropathy: A cross-sectional study among beedi rollers in selected rural areas of coastal Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soujanya Kaup

    Full Text Available Beedi also known as poor man's cigarette is manufactured in almost all major states of India. Beedi workers are exposed to various health risks. There is an increased risk of systemic absorption of tobacco through skin and mucous membrane. The optic nerve is susceptible to damage from several toxic substances including tobacco. This group of disorders is known as toxic optic neuropathy (TON. The association of TON with occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco in beedi rollers has not been explored.Among the beedi rollers in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India: to assess the magnitude of potential TON utilizing colour vision and contrast sensitivity as screening tools and to identify the demographic, biological and occupational factors associated with potential TON.A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April-Sept 2016 in Mangaluru and Bantwal talukas, of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka. Beedi rollers from twelve villages (six from each taluka were included. In each of the selected villages, the investigators identified beedi collection centres and all the eligible beedi rollers were included in the study till the required number of beedi rollers for that village was achieved. Participants were screened at the study site for visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity and those with abnormal colour and contrast sensitivity in the presence of good visual acuity were considered to have potential TON.A total of 377 beedi rollers were approached; of which 365 consented to take part in the study (response rate: 96.81%. Women constituted the majority of the participants (n = 338, 92.6%. Based on the screening criteria, the prevalence of potential TON was 17.5% (n = 64, 95% CI: 13.5-21.9. On multiple logistic regression analysis, duration of beedi rolling (Adj OR: 1.061; 95% CI 1.015-1.109, p = 0.009, advancing age (Adj OR: 1.096; 95% CI 1.058-1.136, p<0.001 and presence of

  14. Selection criteria for forested natural areas in New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Marie-Louise Smith; David T. Funk

    1994-01-01

    The selection of forested natural areas for research and educational purposes is discussed. Five factors are important: sufficient size; representation of typical communities and sites; documented disturbance histories; acceptable current condition in terms of age, tree size, and successional stage; and administrative feasibility.

  15. Use of alcohol and drugs by employees in selected business areas in Norway: a study using oral fluid testing and questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol or drug use and associated hangover may reduce workplace safety and productivity and also cause sickness absence. The aims of this study were to examine (i) the use of alcohol and drugs, and (ii) reduced efficiency at work and absence due to such use among employees. Forty-four companies were invited; half of them agreed to participate. Employees filled in a questionnaire and provided a sample of oral fluid, which was analysed for alcohol, 12 psychoactive medicinal drugs and 6 illicit drugs. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Two thousand four hundred thirty-seven employees in eight business areas agreed to participate (92 % of those invited). By combining questionnaires and oral fluid testing, we found that 5.2 % had used psychoactive medication during the last couple of days, 1.4 % had used illicit drugs, 17.0 % had used alcohol during the last 24 h but only one person (0.04 %) was positive for alcohol in oral fluid. About 25 % reported reduced efficiency at work, and 5 % reported absence from work due to alcohol use during the past 12 months. The use of illicit drugs and binge drinking resulting in reduced efficiency and absence was most common among restaurant and bar workers and more common among men than women, whereas use of psychoactive medication was most common among healthcare, transportation and storage workers. Impairment at work due to alcohol or drugs was rare, whereas reduced efficiency due to drinking was reported by a fairly large proportion. There were marked differences between some business areas, and across gender.

  16. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Sub-micron resolution selected area electron channeling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, J; Mansour, H; Gey, N; Crimp, M A; Chalal, S; Maloufi, N

    2015-02-01

    Collection of selected area channeling patterns (SACPs) on a high resolution FEG-SEM is essential to carry out quantitative electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) studies, as it facilitates accurate determination of the crystal plane normal with respect to the incident beam direction and thus allows control the electron channeling conditions. Unfortunately commercial SACP modes developed in the past were limited in spatial resolution and are often no longer offered. In this contribution we present a novel approach for collecting high resolution SACPs (HR-SACPs) developed on a Gemini column. This HR-SACP technique combines the first demonstrated sub-micron spatial resolution with high angular accuracy of about 0.1°, at a convenient working distance of 10mm. This innovative approach integrates the use of aperture alignment coils to rock the beam with a digitally calibrated beam shift procedure to ensure the rocking beam is maintained on a point of interest. Moreover a new methodology to accurately measure SACP spatial resolution is proposed. While column considerations limit the rocking angle to 4°, this range is adequate to index the HR-SACP in conjunction with the pattern simulated from the approximate orientation deduced by EBSD. This new technique facilitates Accurate ECCI (A-ECCI) studies from very fine grained and/or highly strained materials. It offers also new insights for developing HR-SACP modes on new generation high-resolution electron columns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part I. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Aliundance Index. *Cronc:eptUal location of Area Support Centers ( ASCUS ) for the Proposed Action and Alternatives 1-6. Conceptual location of Area Support...oF ARA 6R. ,L I>1_S Sd O - NC .NAME AG E AEBES S,, tu n:ps a ’ .!-X Cllustrs and E7TN Snake ’ . , F sh Surr.ngs _____ 1, rn-% ; I 1: C ’C .csert I...Natural predation may or may not be a significant factor in the decline of this species, depending on age class involved (FR 45; 163). PROPOSED ACTION

  19. Selected-area diffraction and spectroscopy in LEEM and PEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of spherical and chromatic aberration of the objective lens, as well as chromatic dispersion of magnetic prism arrays, on the ability to perform selected area Low Energy Electron Diffraction, as well as (Angle Resolved) Photo Electron Spectroscopy experiments in today's advanced cathode lens microscopy instruments. -- Highlights: ► Aberrations of the cathode lens affect SA diffraction and spectroscopy experiments in LEEM/PEEM. ► In LEEM the problem can be overcome by inserting the SA aperture in the illuminating path. ► In PEEM for selected areas smaller than 2–4 μm aberration correction becomes a necessity. ► Chromatic dispersion in the magnetic prism array commonly can be neglected in most cases.

  20. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part II. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Draft Environmental Impact Statement-MX Draft-December 80 Deployment Alea Selection-Environmental...recreation, a weekend at the lake, the opportunity to be alone with yourself and your family, the clean air to see the next mountain and the freedom to...traffic volumes and projected traffic volumes during the peak construction year. In mountain passes, where capacity is severely reduced by steep grades

  1. Merit exponents and control area diagrams in materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Johan; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Merit exponents are introduced to generalise the merit indices commonly used in materials selection. → The merit exponents can rank materials in general design situations. → To allow identification of the active merit exponent(s), control area diagrams are used. → Principles for generating the control area diagrams are presented. -- Abstract: Merit indices play a fundamental role in materials selection, since they enable ranking of materials. However, the conventional formulation of merit indices is associated with severe limitations. They are dependent on the explicit solution of the variables in the equations for the constraints from the design criteria. Furthermore, it is not always easy to determine which the controlling merit index is. To enable the ranking of materials in more general design cases, merit exponents are introduced as generalisations of the merit indices. Procedures are presented for how to compute the merit exponents numerically without having to solve equations algebraically. Merit exponents (and indices) are only valid in a certain range of property values. To simplify the identification of the controlling merit exponent, it is suggested that so called control area diagrams are used. These diagrams consist of a number of domains, each showing the active constraints and the controlling merit exponent. It is shown that the merit exponents play a crucial role when the control area diagram (CAD) is set up. The principles in the paper are developed for mechanically loaded components and are illustrated for engineering beams with two or three geometric variables.

  2. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system’s map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°, Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6° and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  3. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  4. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees

  5. First experience with Remote Sensing methods and selected sensors in the monitoring of mining areas - a case study of the Belchatow open cast mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Jaroslaw

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents satellite imagery from active SENTINEL-1A and passive SENTINEL-2A/2B sensors for their application in the monitoring of mining areas focused on detecting land changes. Multispectral scenes of SENTINEL-2A/2B have allowed for detecting changes in land-cover near the region of interest (ROI), i.e. the Szczercow dumping site in the Belchatow open cast lignite mine, central Poland, Europe. Scenes from SENTINEL-1A/1B satellite have also been used in the research. Processing of the SLC signal enabled creating a return intensity map in VV polarization. The obtained SAR scene was reclassified and shows a strong return signal from the dumping site and the open pit. This fact may be used in detection and monitoring of changes occurring within the analysed engineering objects.

  6. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  7. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  8. Differences in Parental Involvement Typologies among Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y Parents: A Study of Select Bay Area Region of Houston Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Elizabeth Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences existed among generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y) regarding the levels of parental involvement within each of these generations. Also examined were additional factors such as the parents. socioeconomic status, educational level, marital status, and ethnicity. The…

  9. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products—A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13–19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  10. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  11. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

  12. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas

  13. Radon gas exposure levels in some selected areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    During a summer season of 2003, the atmospheric concentrations of radon gas were measured indoor every one-hour for twenty-four hour measurements in some selected areas, using Pylon-AB4. Two hundreds and forty samples were monitored to determine the concentration of radon gas at each location using high-efficiency Lucas type continuous passive cell. The average values of radon gas concentration were taken in three time intervals 6.00:18.00, 18.00:6.00 and whole day. The average values of indoor radon gas of two locations using three time intervals were 4.82±0.63, 9±0.71 and 6.9±0.33 and 9.6±0.23, 11.82±0.42 and 9.37±0.7 Bq/m /h. respectively. The exposure levels were within the ICRP and EPA recommendations

  14. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  15. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  16. Sources of transportation expertise by selected technical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has assigned components of its Waste Transportation Program to three of the DOE Operations offices. The DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) is responsible for the transportation operations design, development, acquisition, testing, implementation, and program management, including the equipment, facilities, and services of the transportation system. Within ORO, the OCRWM transportation component is assigned to the Transportation Operations Project Office (TOPO). The specific activities involved in the ORO/TOPO include procurement, operational testing, inspection, logistics, interfaces, maintenance, management and improvements, and system operation. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) has developed (and will maintain and enhance) a data base of sources of transportation expertise in selected technical areas for ORO. The data base includes individuals and organizations who have indicated that they have capabilities and interest in assisting ORO in the design, development, implementation, and management of the OCRWM transportation system. This assistance might be in the form of consulting or subcontract work and/or participation in peer review panels, technical evaluation committees, workshops, advisory groups, etc. This initial project was completed in the four month period of January 30, 1987 through May 31, 1987

  17. Hydrogeologic study of Cafam area. Melgar (Tolima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel M, Carlos E; Perez C, Rosalbina

    1989-06-01

    The hydrogeologic study covers an area of 50 km 2 with the objectives of to determine the possibility of use of the underground waters and to locate places to carry out exploratory perforations in lands of Cafam, equally the elaboration of a hydrogeologic map of the region; for the effect it was carried out cartography geologic scale 1:10.000, inventory and sampling of water point, geoelectric prospecting and some permeability tests. In the area the exploitation of underground water is incipient, alone there are 20 points of water, of which none produce more than 1L/seg. The water has in general good physical chemistry quality for the human consumption. Geologically was recognized the groups Guadalupe and Gualanday, also some quaternary deposits; the previous ones were subdivided in 11 geological units for its composition and morphology, which are framed structurally in the E flank of the synclinal of Carmen de Apicala and displaced by traverse faults with address E-W and N-W. From the point of hydrogeologic view the units were grouped in 8 aquifer systems, of which four are considered of hydrogeologic importance for the area; the sector with better possibilities to capture these aquifer systems is the W of the area (in the terraces area) that extends to the Sumapaz River. For the Cafam sector a place was selected to build an exploratory well of 200 mts. of depth that would capture an aquifer of low transmissivity, corresponding to the Unit T3

  18. Area selection for a geological repository of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanxin; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Zhao Honggang; Xu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    China started research on HLW disposal in 1985 and 6 areas, including Northwest, Southwest, East China, South China, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang area, are selected. The results show that the Northwest area has obvious comprehensive advantages, which can be considered as the first area for site selection, while site characterization and comparison research in the area should be continued. (authors)

  19. Selection and Interview Forms for Nomination Area Committees. Appendix A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    The selection and interview forms for use in selecting students for the Georgia Governor's Honors Program are provided. These forms are: Science Interview Summary Sheet; Interview Form for Candidates in Music; State College Musicality Test; Mathematics Interview Sheet; Criteria for Selection of Students for Mathematics, 1972; Visual Arts…

  20. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Craig

    2009-01-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within the survey area can be used to overlay the survey data on a base map or image. The flight survey lines were flown in an east-west orientation perpendicular to the deposition patterns for both sites. This technique provides better spatial resolution when contouring the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected every second over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man

  1. Semiworks source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Semi-Works Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) . Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations WD and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations. This approach is described and justified in The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Package. This strategy provides new concepts for: accelerating decision-malting by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives (DQOs); and undertaking expedited response actions (ERAS) and/or interim remedial measures (IRMs), as appropriate, to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment, or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants

  2. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in selected areas of the brain in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Agata; Galińska, Beata; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kubas, Bozena; Dzienis, Wojciech; Konarzewska, Beata; Poplawska, Regina; Tomczak, Anna A; Czernikiewicz, Andrzej; Walecki, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    NAA, marker of neurons integrity and viability, is one of the most important brain metabolites visible in 1H MRS. In most studies of schizophrenia, the decrease of NAA level was observed in the temporal, frontal lobes and in the thalamus. This finding was observed more often among chronic patients, what suggests the influence of disease duration or the effect of neuroleptic treatment. The aim of the present study was the comparison of NAA levels in brain of schizophrenic patients taking typical and atypical neuroleptics. We analyzed the NAA levels in selected brain areas in 58 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls. 10 patients were treated with typical neuroleptics, 10 patients with clozapine, 17 received olanzapine and 21 - risperidone. 1H MRS was performed on a 1,5 MR scanner with PRESS sequence. Voxels of 2x2x2 cm were localized in the left frontal, left temporal lobe and left thalamus. There were no differences in NAA levels between patients on typical and atypical medications analyzed together and separately (olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone groups). We also did not find any differences between patients taking selected atypical neuroleptics and controls. The NAA level in the thalamus in the group of patients receiving typical antipsychotics was the lowest among all groups and differed significantly from healthy controls. The results of our study suggest that atypical neuroleptics may have favorable effect on NAA concentration in brain of schizophrenic patients. Decrease in NAA level in patients taking typical medication may be caused by the progression of the disease or by the direct action of these drugs.

  3. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, R.H.J.; Sharma, A.; Jiao, Y.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a

  4. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  5. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  6. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  7. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Dinkins

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m, while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%. Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m. Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available

  8. Ground water in selected areas in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.; Harris, A.B.

    1973-01-01

    GROUNDWATER FEATURES OF SIX LOWLAND AREAS IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON--KLAMATH MARSH AREA, AND SPRAGUE RIVER, SWAN LAKE, YONNA, POE, AND LANGELL VALLEYS--ARE DESCRIBED. RUGGED MOUNTAINS AND RIDGES SURROUND AND SEPARATE THESE LOWLANDS WHERE FLOORS RANGE IN ALTITUDE FROM 4,100 FEET IN POE VALLEY TO 4,600 FEET NORTH OF KLAMATH MARSH. THE SIX AREAS EXTEND OVER A NORTH-SOUTH DISTANCE OF 70 MILES, AN EAST-WEST DISTANCE OF 40 MILES, AND INCLUDE AN AREA OF APPROXIMATELY 600 SQUARE MILES. THE AREA IS SEMIARID AND RECEIVED ABOUT 14 TO 18 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION A YEAR. EXTINCT VOLCANOES AND THEIR EXTRUSIONS CHARACTERIZE THE AREA. MOST WELLS TAP PERMEABLE BASALT OR CINDERY RUBBLE BENEATH THE LACUSTRINE BEDS. THE DEPTHS OF WELLS RANGE FROM LESS THAN 50 TO NEARLY 2,000 FEET--MOST ARE BETWEEN 100 AND 1,000 FEET DEEP. FLOWING WELLS OCCUR IN ALL AREAS EXCEPT SWAN LAKE VALLEY. THE MOST EXTENSIVE AREA OF FLOWING WELLS IS IN THE SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY, WHERE ABOUT 25 WELLS, SOME FLOWING MORE THAN 2,000 GPM, SUPPLY WATER FOR IRRIGATION. WATER LEVELS IN WELLS FLUCTUATE SEASONALLY FROM 1 TO 4 FEET. GROUNDWATER IN THE BASIN IS OF EXCELLENT QUALITY FOR DRINKING, IRRIGATION, AND MOST INDUSTRIAL USES.

  9. Decoding facial expressions based on face-selective and motion-sensitive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Liu, Baolin; Xu, Junhai; Zhang, Gaoyan; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan; Wang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Humans can easily recognize others' facial expressions. Among the brain substrates that enable this ability, considerable attention has been paid to face-selective areas; in contrast, whether motion-sensitive areas, which clearly exhibit sensitivity to facial movements, are involved in facial expression recognition remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore facial expression decoding in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas. In a block design experiment, participants viewed facial expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise) in images, videos, and eyes-obscured videos. Due to the use of multiple stimulus types, the impacts of facial motion and eye-related information on facial expression decoding were also examined. It was found that motion-sensitive areas showed significant responses to emotional expressions and that dynamic expressions could be successfully decoded in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas. Compared with static stimuli, dynamic expressions elicited consistently higher neural responses and decoding performance in all regions. A significant decrease in both activation and decoding accuracy due to the absence of eye-related information was also observed. Overall, the findings showed that emotional expressions are represented in motion-sensitive areas in addition to conventional face-selective areas, suggesting that motion-sensitive regions may also effectively contribute to facial expression recognition. The results also suggested that facial motion and eye-related information played important roles by carrying considerable expression information that could facilitate facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3113-3125, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MULTI-FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR SELECTING LUNAR EXPLORATION SOFT LANDING AREA AND THE BEST CRUISE ROUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the right soft landing area and planning a reasonable cruise route are the basic tasks of lunar exploration. In this paper, the Von Karman crater in the Antarctic Aitken basin on the back of the moon is used as the study area, and multi-factor analysis is used to evaluate the landing area and cruise route of lunar exploration. The evaluation system mainly includes the factors such as the density of craters, the impact area of craters, the formation of the whole area and the formation of some areas, such as the vertical structure, rock properties and the content of (FeO + TiO2, which can reflect the significance of scientific exploration factor. And the evaluation of scientific exploration is carried out on the basis of safety and feasibility. On the basis of multi-factor superposition analysis, three landing zones A, B and C are selected, and the appropriate cruising route is analyzed through scientific research factors. This study provides a scientific basis for the lunar probe landing and cruise route planning, and it provides technical support for the subsequent lunar exploration.

  11. Multi-Factor Analysis for Selecting Lunar Exploration Soft Landing Area and the best Cruise Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, N.; Li, J.; Meng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Liu, W.

    2018-04-01

    Selecting the right soft landing area and planning a reasonable cruise route are the basic tasks of lunar exploration. In this paper, the Von Karman crater in the Antarctic Aitken basin on the back of the moon is used as the study area, and multi-factor analysis is used to evaluate the landing area and cruise route of lunar exploration. The evaluation system mainly includes the factors such as the density of craters, the impact area of craters, the formation of the whole area and the formation of some areas, such as the vertical structure, rock properties and the content of (FeO + TiO2), which can reflect the significance of scientific exploration factor. And the evaluation of scientific exploration is carried out on the basis of safety and feasibility. On the basis of multi-factor superposition analysis, three landing zones A, B and C are selected, and the appropriate cruising route is analyzed through scientific research factors. This study provides a scientific basis for the lunar probe landing and cruise route planning, and it provides technical support for the subsequent lunar exploration.

  12. Habitat selection by female northern pintails wintering in the Grassland Ecological Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Gilmer, David S.; Jarvis, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    To determine relative importance of habitats available in the Grassland Ecological Area (GEA) to wintering female northern pintails, Anas acuta, we studied habitat use relative to availability (i.e., habitat selection) in the GEA during September through March, 1991-94 for 196 Hatch-Year (HY) and 221 After-Hatch-Year (AHY) female pintails that were radio tagged during August-early October in the GEA (n = 239), other San Joaquin Valley areas (n = 132), or other Central Valley areas (n = 46). Habitat availability and use varied among seasons and years, but pintails always selected shallow and, except on hunting days, open habitats. Swamp timothy, Heleochloa schoenoides, marsh was the most available, used, and selected habitat. Watergrass, Echinochloa crusgalli, marsh in the GEA was used less than available at night in contrast to previous studies in other SJV areas. Preferred late-winter habitats were apparently lacking in the GEA, at least relative to in the Sacramento Valley and Delta where most pintails moved to in December each year. Impacts on pintails of the increasing practice of managing marshes for increased emergent vegetation to attract other species should be monitored. Shallow, open habitats that produce seeds and invertebrates available to pintails in late winter would help maintain pintail abundance in the GEA.

  13. Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, James J.

    Tornadoes and extreme winds cause heavy loss of life and property damage throughout the United States. Most buildings offer significant protection from this danger, and building administrators should know the areas where this protection is available. This booklet presents a review of three schools, all of which were struck by tornadoes on April 3,…

  14. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  15. Supply Selection and Supply Chain Maturity - important areas of the quality production assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Koblen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper pays attention to selected information focused on the key requirements and criteria used in both the conventional supplier selection and sustainable supplier selection processes. The authors introduce the supply chain maturity levels, which, together with the supplier selection and assessment issue, is the essential area for the assurance of the high quality, safety and dependability of the products.

  16. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the selected area of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakia is country which has a difficult geological structure. This fact is reflected on values of natural radionuclide concentrations. A chosen area includes various types rocks which have diverse values of radioactive concentrations. Consequently these values were shown by maps which present localities with values of a radioactivity. This research was a first step which will be used like a base for a valorization and assessment of the potential radiation exposure of residents of SR where we can suppose health damage. (authors)

  17. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony D; Thellesen, Peder V; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed) to the least selected (Winter Crops) which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  18. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Heldbjerg

    Full Text Available The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed to the least selected (Winter Crops which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  19. Radon in dwellings in selected areas of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, J.S.; Duffy, J.T.; Mackin, G.A.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents and interprets the results of surveys of domestic radon concentrations carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland between 1989 and 1992. Data from low-density monitoring surveys in counties Mayo, Galway (including the Aran Island of Inis Mor) and Clare and in north Kerry, in addition to more detailed surveys in Moycullen and Salthill in Co. Galway and south Cork city are presented. The highest seasonally-corrected radon level found in any of the 1755 dwellings surveyed was 2399 Bq/m 3 . This is twelve times the national Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 , and corresponds to an annual radiation dose to occupants of the house of 60 mSv, three times the maximum dose which radiation workers are allowed to receive under internationally-accepted standards. Statistical evaluation of the data has allowed classification of 10 km grid square areas on the basis of the predicted proportion of houses in each grid square with radon levels in excess of the national Reference Level, 200 Bq/m 3 . The most affected areas occur in counties Mayo and Galway, and to a lesser extent in south-east Cork city. In county Galway six grid squares are predicted to have more than 20% of houses with radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m 3 . In the most affected grid square 30% of houses are predicted to have radon concentrations in excess of this level. It is important that householders in these areas be strongly encouraged to have the radon levels in their houses measured in order to identify the individual houses in which remedial measures are required. The risk associated with longterm exposure to radon has been calculated using the latest risk factor recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For average residents exposed to indoor radon concentrations of 200 Bq/m 3 the estimated lifetime risk of premature death from lung cancer, due to radon, is about 2%. This risk is a significant addition to the prevailing lifetime

  20. (Case Study: Ghara dagh (Arasbaran Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Vossoughi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Tourism is more than an economic activity and as a world and social phenomenon has certain complexities which are the result of displacement of people from different cultures and their communicationse and interactions in peace time. In this regard, understanding cultural differences is an essential factor in developing a successful tourism industry. This study aimed to examine cross-cultural differences in tourism and the ways the local community encounters with them. This was a qualitative study. Research participants included twelve persons from local people in Ghara dagh (Arasbaran Area who were selected by purposeful sampling. This study indicated that determinants of tourist– local community contact, the role of culture in tourism, types of intercultural encounters, the cultural differences between tourists and local community, the cultural differences problems of tourist–local community contact, the impact of cultural differences on the local community and the style of encounter of local community with the tourists' cultural differences are seven main themes related to cross-cultural differences in tourism and 26 sideshows were infulencial factors on main issues.

  1. An observational study of road safety around selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the ...

  2. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  3. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  4. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  5. transmission of amoebiasis at some selected areas of kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Amoebiasis is a protozoan infection caused by. Entamoeba histolytica and causes amoebic colitus and ... contacts, the primary mode of transmission is through faecal contamination of drinking water and foods. (Ravdin ... the cysts and subsequently contaminated food. (Cheesbrough, 1998). This study was carried out on.

  6. Investigating food environments in selected areas of Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available of planning and the structures are made of plastics, zinc material and hardboards. The second study was conducted in Pretoria Gardens, an old, formal, low to medium-income suburb situated in north-central Tshwane. The physical barriers impeding access...

  7. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  8. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Koenig-Robert

    Full Text Available Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging, a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  9. Eco-virological survey of Aedes mosquito larvae in selected dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, A; Aidil Azahary, A R; Malinda, M; Zurainee, M N; Rozilawati, H; Wan Najdah, W M A; Lee, H L

    2014-12-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVESI: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in the Aedes vectors is now a well-documented phenomenon reported from many parts of the endemic areas in the world, which played an important role in initiating and maintaining the outbreak in human populations. This study investigated the factors affecting breeding habitats and the relationship with transovarial dengue virus in larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Larval surveillance was conducted in dengue outbreak areas in Malaysia from 2008 until 2009. Sampling was carried out based on habitat type, water condition (substrate type), canopy coverage, temperature and pH at breeding habitats. RT-PCR was performed to detect presence of transovarial dengue virus in larvae collected in the study areas. A total of 789 breeding habitats were identified during this study and the majority of these breeding sites were plastic containers (57.46%). Aedes albopictus dominated most of the water condition surveyed, while Ae. aegypti indicated preference toward habitats with clear water. Aedes aegypti was selective in selecting ovipositional sites compared to Ae. albopictus where shaded areas were shown to be the most preferred. From a total of 363 mosquito larvae pools, 23 (6.3%) pools were positive for dengue virus where 18 of them were from Ae. albopictus and five were from Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae pools. This study indicated the presence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the field. This study also showed that combination of water conditions, canopy coverage, temperature and pH of breeding habitats were the factors affecting the larval population. The study suggested that larval survey programme could serve as a tool not only to monitor the local dengue vector distribution but also to provide objective information for taking appropriate action by the community against dengue vectors.

  10. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  11. Effective Connectivity from Early Visual Cortex to Posterior Occipitotemporal Face Areas Supports Face Selectivity and Predicts Developmental Prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Michael; Garrido, Lucia; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J; Duchaine, Bradley C; Furl, Nicholas

    2016-03-30

    Face processing is mediated by interactions between functional areas in the occipital and temporal lobe, and the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior temporal lobe play key roles in the recognition of facial identity. Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a lifelong face recognition impairment, have been shown to have structural and functional neuronal alterations in these areas. The present study investigated how face selectivity is generated in participants with normal face processing, and how functional abnormalities associated with DP, arise as a function of network connectivity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling, we examined effective connectivity in normal participants by assessing network models that include early visual cortex (EVC) and face-selective areas and then investigated the integrity of this connectivity in participants with DP. Results showed that a feedforward architecture from EVC to the occipital face area, EVC to FFA, and EVC to posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) best explained how face selectivity arises in both controls and participants with DP. In this architecture, the DP group showed reduced connection strengths on feedforward connections carrying face information from EVC to FFA and EVC to pSTS. These altered network dynamics in DP contribute to the diminished face selectivity in the posterior occipitotemporal areas affected in DP. These findings suggest a novel view on the relevance of feedforward projection from EVC to posterior occipitotemporal face areas in generating cortical face selectivity and differences in face recognition ability. Areas of the human brain showing enhanced activation to faces compared to other objects or places have been extensively studied. However, the factors leading to this face selectively have remained mostly unknown. We show that effective connectivity from early visual cortex to posterior occipitotemporal face areas gives rise to face

  12. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  13. Decentralized Hierarchical Controller Design for Selective Damping of Inter Area Oscillations Using PMU Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Hashmani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the decentralized hierarchical PSS (Power System Stabilizer controller design to achieve a better damping of specific inter-area oscillations. The two-level decentralized hierarchical structure consists of two PSS controllers. The first level controller is a local PSS controller for each generator to damp local mode in the area where controller is located. This controller uses only local signals as input signals. The local signal comes from the generator at which the controller is located. The secondary level controller is a multivariable decentralized global PSS controller to damp inter-area modes. This controller uses selected suitable wide area PMU (Phasor Measurement Units signals as inputs. The PMU or global signals are taken from network locations where the oscillations are well observable. The global controller uses only those global input signals in which the assigned single inter-area mode is most observable and is located at a generator that is most effective in controlling the assigned mode. The global controller works mainly in a frequency band given by the natural frequency of the assigned mode. The effectiveness of the resulting hierarchical controller is demonstrated through simulation studies conducted on a test power system.

  14. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict Wilderness Study Areas (WSA's), within the state of New Mexico, identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as having...

  15. DETERMINATION OF DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION LEVEL FROM SELECTED AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pervez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic contaminants arising from both stationary (power plants, industries and residential heating and mobile sources (road traffic can harm ambient air quality in urban areas. Depending upon their physical state, these pollutants are classified as liquid and vapor phases and are subsequently transported to the Earth’s surface through dry and wet deposition. After the deposition of these pollutants onto the surface of earth various health effects caused by these pollutants occurred like cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. In this study four different locations/sites were selected from the Rawalpindi city depending upon the population, traffic rush and industries to examine the noise level, concentration of carbon dioxide and heavy metals. Air sampler was used for the collection of air sample to analyze the heavy metal concentration, Quest electronic sound meter for measuring sound level and SIBATA for CO2 measurement. The study findings revealed that noise level was higher at all selected locations as described by WHO limit (70 dB being highest at Industrial area due to heavy machinery and lowest at green area. Concentration of all four heavy metals were high as compared with the prescribed limits. CO2 level reaches up to 300 ppm because of coal consumption during the winter season. The threshold values of all these selected parameters well above the prescribed limits defined by the authorities so to combat with this situation we should move towards more energy efficient fuels, proper maintenance of vehicles and machineries, traffic management and installation of noise barriers in industries as well as installation of catalytic convertors in vehicles to stop further air pollution.

  16. Selection of areas for testing in the Eleana formation: Paleozoic geology of western Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J

    1984-07-01

    The Paleozoic geology of NTS is reviewed to select an area for underground nuclear testing in shale. Constraints on possible areas, dictated by test program requirements and economics, are areas with topographic slope less than 5/sup 0/, depths to working point less than 3000 ft., and working points above the water table. The rock formation selected is Unit J (argillite) of the Mississippian age Eleana Formation. Within NTS, Western Yucca Flat is selected as the best area to meet the requirements. Details of the Paleozoic structure of western Yucca Flat are presented. The interpretation is based on published maps, cross-sections, and reports as well as borehole, refraction seismic, and gravity data. In terms of subsurface structure and areas where Eleana Formation Unit J occurs at depths between 500 ft to 3000 ft, four possible testing areas are identified. The areas are designated here as A, B, C and the Gravity High. Available data on the water table (static water level) is reviewed for western Yucca Flat area. Depth to the water table increases from 500 to 600 ft in Area A to 1500 ft or more in the Gravity High area. Review of the water table data rules out area A and B for testing in argillite above the water table. Area C is relatively unexplored and water conditions are unknown there. Thus, the Gravity High is selected as the most promising area for selecting testing sites. There is a dolomite thrust sheet of unknown thickness overlying the argillite in the Gravity High area. An exploration program is proposed to better characterize this structure. Finally, recommendations are made for procedures to follow for eventual site characterization of a testing site in argillite. 22 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  17. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  18. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  19. Regional hydrogeological study in the Tono area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhisa; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Tsubota, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    Regional hydrogeological studies have been carried out since fiscal 1992 to determine the regional groundwater flow in the Tono area of Japan. The following items have been investigated: 1) Understanding the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment in the Tono area. 2) Constructing conceptual models of the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry. 3) Developing appropriate techniques to investigate the geological structure, groundwater flow and groundwater chemistry of the deep geological environment. This report presents the results of the last six years of the study in the Tono area. (author)

  20. Region-specificity of GABAA receptor mediated effects on orientation and direction selectivity in cat visual cortical area 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirmann, Kay-Uwe; Pernberg, Joachim; Eysel, Ulf T

    2009-01-01

    The role of GABAergic inhibition in orientation and direction selectivity has been investigated with the GABA(A)-Blocker bicuculline in the cat visual cortex, and results indicated a region specific difference of functional contributions of GABAergic inhibition in areas 17 and 18. In area 17 inhibition appeared mainly involved in sculpturing orientation and direction tuning, while in area 18 inhibition seemed more closely associated with temporal receptive field properties. However, different types of stimuli were used to test areas 17 and 18 and further studies performed in area 17 suggested an important influence of the stimulus type (single light bars vs. moving gratings) on the evoked responses (transient vs. sustained) and inhibitory mechanisms (GABA(A) vs. GABA(B)) which in turn might be more decisive for the specific results than the cortical region. To insert the missing link in this chain of arguments it was necessary to study GABAergic inhibition in area 18 with moving light bars, which has not been done so far. Therefore, in the present study we investigated area 18 cells responding to oriented moving light bars with extracellular recordings and reversible microiontophoretic blockade of GABAergig inhibition with bicuculline methiodide. The majority of neurons was characterized by a pronounced orientation specificity and variable degrees of direction selectivity. GABA(A)ergic inhibition significantly influenced preferred orientation and preferred direction in area 18. During the action of bicuculline orientation tuning width increased and orientation and direction selectivity indices decreased. Our results obtained in area 18 with moving bar stimuli, although in the proportion of affected cells similar to those described in area 17, quantitatively matched the findings for direction and orientation specificity obtained with moving gratings in area 18. Accordingly, stimulus type is not decisive in area 18 and the GABA(A) dependent, inhibitory intracortical

  1. Preliminary area selection considerations for radioactive waste repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.L.; Steinborn, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    This guide describes an approach to selection of areas of bedded salt which contain potentially suitable sites for the storage of radioactive waste. To evaluate a site selected by a license applicant, it is necessary to understand the technical site characteristics which should be considered in the preliminary phase of site selection. These site characteristics are presented here in checklist form, and each item is accompanied by a discussion which explains its significance. These qualitative considerations are used first to select an area of interest within a broad geologic or geomorphic region. Once an area has been selected, more quantitative information must be acquired to determine whether the proposed site meets the resultations for storage of nuclear waste

  2. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  3. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  4. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  6. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  7. Comparing the performance of circulating cathodic antigen and Kato-Katz techniques in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas with low prevalence in selected counties of Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoyo, Collins; Simiyu, Elses; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles

    2018-04-11

    Kato-Katz technique has been the mainstay test in Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in endemic areas. However, recent studies have documented its poor sensitivity in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection especially in areas with lower rates of transmission. It's the primary diagnostic tool in monitoring impact of the Kenya national school based deworming program on infection transmission, but there is need to consider a more sensitive technique as the prevalence reduces. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test. We used two cross-sectional surveys conducted pre- and post- mass drug administration (MDA) using praziquantel in a representative random sample of children from 18 schools across 11 counties. A total of 1944 children were randomly sampled for the study. Stool and urine samples were tested for S. mansoni infection using Kato-Katz and POC-CCA methods, respectively. S. mansoni prevalence using each technique was calculated and 95% confidence intervals obtained using binomial regression model. Specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Sn) were determined using 2 × 2 contingency tables and compared using the McNemar's chi-square test. A total of 1899 and 1878 children were surveyed at pre- and post-treatment respectively. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 26.5 and 21.4% during pre- and post-treatment respectively using POC-CCA test, and 4.9 and 1.5% for pre- and post-treatment respectively using Kato-Katz technique. Taking POC-CCA as the gold standard, Kato-Katz was found to have significantly lower sensitivity both at pre- and post-treatment, Sn = 12.5% and Sn = 5.2% respectively, McNemar test χ 2 m  = 782.0, p < 0.001. In overall, the results showed a slight/poor agreement between the two methods, kappa index (k

  8. Reference Guide for Teaching Selected Duty Areas from Business, Marketing and Management Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John H.

    This reference guide was designed to assist business, marketing, and management educators in locating textbook/instructional materials for use in teaching duty areas and task lists for grades 11-14. Duty areas and task lists are matched with selected textbook/instructional publications for the secretarial, general office clerk, and information…

  9. Enhancement of collective immunity in Tokyo metropolitan area by selective vaccination against an emerging influenza pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya M Saito

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a preventive measure against influenza that does not require placing restrictions on social activities. However, since the stockpile of vaccine that can be prepared before the arrival of an emerging pandemic strain is generally quite limited, one has to select priority target groups to which the first stockpile is distributed. In this paper, we study a simulation-based priority target selection method with the goal of enhancing the collective immunity of the whole population. To model the region in which the disease spreads, we consider an urban area composed of suburbs and central areas connected by a single commuter train line. Human activity is modelled following an agent-based approach. The degree to which collective immunity is enhanced is judged by the attack rate in unvaccinated people. The simulation results show that if students and office workers are given exclusive priority in the first three months, the attack rate can be reduced from [Formula: see text] in the baseline case down to 1-2%. In contrast, random vaccination only slightly reduces the attack rate. It should be noted that giving preference to active social groups does not mean sacrificing those at high risk, which corresponds to the elderly in our simulation model. Compared with the random administration of vaccine to all social groups, this design successfully reduces the attack rate across all age groups.

  10. Selection of Possible Candidate Area for Nuclear Power Plant in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Afifah Basri; Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to simulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  11. Selection of possible candidate area for nuclear energy facility in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Afifah Basri; Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to stimulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  12. Viticulture – Challenge for Tourism Development (Znojmo Case Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article, which deals with the issue whether the viticulture can be the challenge for tourism development, is based on research conducted in Znojmo case study area (the Czech Republic. It starts with general introduction of wine tourism concept based on the selected results of the previous scientific researches. The second part of the article brings description of the methods and brief characterisation of case study area. The third part pays attention to the analyses of the selected statistical data showing importance of viticulture for the case study area. The main fourth part is focused on selected activities which are connected with projects developing wine tourism (especially vineyards and vine festivals, where cooperation of different actors is necessary and continues by analysing of the potential of more intensive development of wine tourism on example of the important actor in case study area – wine producer Znovín Znojmo. The conducted research shows strong local embededness and association of company with the tourism industry. The article concludes with general recommendations, which emphasize the importance of effective partnership of the different actors by successful development of wine tourism.

  13. Belledune area health study : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  14. Belledune area health study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  15. Idaho Batholith Study Area Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer isostatic gravity grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  16. Idaho Batholith Study Area Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer gravity anomaly grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the...

  17. Idaho Batholith Study Area Density Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer terrace-density grid for the Idaho batholith study area. Number of columns is 331 and number of rows is 285. The order of the data is from the lower...

  18. Social determinants of health in selected slum areas in Jordan: challenges and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Musa T

    2016-01-01

    The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Integrated GIS-Based Site Selection of Hillside Development for Future Growth of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a challenging issue for developing countries, like Malaysia. Penang Island is one of the states of Malaysia selected as a study area where limited flat land exists. As a result, this would create urban environmental problems, such as unstable slopes and landslides due to uneven topography. The purpose of this study was to develop land suitability model for hillside development. Hence, this research aims land suitability analysis modelling for hillside development by using integrated GIS (Geographic Information System based MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making approach. The hill land portion of Penang Island was selected for hillside site development using GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process as a MCDM method for sustainable hillside development. This study found that 15% of land was highly suitable, 27% moderately suitable, 41% less suitable, and 17% not suitable. Therefore, this research can be consistently used by the concerned authorities for sustainable hillside urban planning and development. This approach can be used as a policy tool in decision making of urban planning and development.

  20. Effects of basal area on survival and growth of longleaf pine when practicing selection silviculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, F.; Loewenstein, E.F.; Brockway, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Uneven-aged (UEA) management systems can achieve multiple-use objectives, however, use of UEA techniques to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are still open to question, because of the species’ intolerance of competition. It was our aim to examine the influence of different levels (9.2, 13.8 and 18.4 m2 ha-1) of residual basal area (RBA) on longleaf pine seedling survival and growth following three growing seasons. Area of study: This study was conducted at the Escambia Experimental Forest, located on the Southern Coastal Plain of Alabama, in the southeastern United States. Material and Methods: Selection silviculture was implemented with the Proportional-Basal Area (Pro-B) method. Prescribed burning was conducted before seed dispersal and in the second year after germination. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured under the canopy in the study plots. Survival and growth of longleaf pine seedlings were observed for three growing seasons. Main results: An inverse relationship was found between the number of germinants and RBA, but the mortality of germinants and planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. At age three, an inverse relationship was observed between root-collar diameter (RCD) growth of the germinants and RBA, but RCD growth of planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. Most of the study plots contained more than the projected number of seedlings needed to sustain the target diameter structure. Research highlights: Long-term continuous monitoring of seedling development and recruitment into canopy is required to determine the efficacy of UEA management. However, current data suggest that UEA methods may be a viable alternative to the use of even-aged (EA) methods in longleaf ecosystems.

  1. Effects of basal area on survival and growth of longleaf pine when practicing selection silviculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, F.; Loewenstein, E.F.; Brockway, D.G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Uneven-aged (UEA) management systems can achieve multiple-use objectives, however, use of UEA techniques to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are still open to question, because of the species’ intolerance of competition. It was our aim to examine the influence of different levels (9.2, 13.8 and 18.4 m2 ha-1) of residual basal area (RBA) on longleaf pine seedling survival and growth following three growing seasons. Area of study: This study was conducted at the Escambia Experimental Forest, located on the Southern Coastal Plain of Alabama, in the southeastern United States. Material and Methods: Selection silviculture was implemented with the Proportional-Basal Area (Pro-B) method. Prescribed burning was conducted before seed dispersal and in the second year after germination. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured under the canopy in the study plots. Survival and growth of longleaf pine seedlings were observed for three growing seasons. Main results: An inverse relationship was found between the number of germinants and RBA, but the mortality of germinants and planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. At age three, an inverse relationship was observed between root-collar diameter (RCD) growth of the germinants and RBA, but RCD growth of planted seedlings was not affected by RBA. Most of the study plots contained more than the projected number of seedlings needed to sustain the target diameter structure. Research highlights: Long-term continuous monitoring of seedling development and recruitment into canopy is required to determine the efficacy of UEA management. However, current data suggest that UEA methods may be a viable alternative to the use of even-aged (EA) methods in longleaf ecosystems.

  2. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana

    1997-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of 137 Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57 t h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of 137 Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of 137 Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author)

  3. B Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington state is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 100 Areas (Figure 1--1). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford KLSite on the National Priorities List (NPL), included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AIMS) for the B Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource which contain reactor fuel processing and waste management Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  4. [A study of infant mortality rate in Korean rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y H

    1981-10-31

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to identify the level of birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas. The objectives of this study were to collect available information on birth and infant death in the KHDI demonstration areas, and estimate actual levels of birth and infant mortality in these areas. Within these areas, events of birth and death are continuously recorded by the field health workers, such as the Family Folder, maternal health service card, and the infant-child health service card. Study areas included all the KHDI demonstration areas (Hongchon, Okgu, Gunee). However, 2 myons in the Okgu area were excluded from the study areas since there was no community health practitioner assigned there. The data were collected by 24 community health practitioners and 80 community health aides in the 3 demonstration areas, according to the survey format. These health workers examined and searched existing records. After filling out the survey questionnaires, these health workers made contact with village health workers, "Li" chiefs, mother's club chiefs, or Saemaul leaders at the village level in order that they might gather additional information on possible items which were omitted. Afterwards, health workers made home visits to selected households which were known to have had births or deaths during the 1 year period between January-December 1979. A review of the activities of the health workers during this study indicated that professional survey workers were needed. In addition, 8 surveyors were employed and trained by KHDI to strengthen field survey efforts; they were dispatched to Hongchon and Okgu for 17 days. A total number of 3302 live births and 120 infant deaths were recorded during 1979. All data collected were tabulated by manual counting in the KHDI office. Infant mortality was estimated to be 36.34/1000 births in the demonstration areas during 1979 (rate in Hongchon Gun was 34.5, 31.0 in Okgu Gun, and 46.2 in Gunee Gun). (author's)

  5. Selection of strategic replacement areas for CBM exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyi Shao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the increase in proved reserves and production of coalbed methane (CBM in China depends mainly on several CBM bases in the southern Qinshui Basin and in the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin. Therefore, it is urgent to find new batches of exploration and development strategic replacement areas. For this purpose, we investigated the resources, reservoir properties, preservation conditions, and development conditions of CBM in China, and put forward eight general factors and four critical factors that can be used in establishing selection criteria of strategic replacement areas for affecting the CBM exploration and development in China. The eight general factors are resource abundance, coalbed thickness, gas content, original permeability, burial depth, hydrogeological conditions, coalbed depositional environment, and landforms, and the four critical factors include genetic type, stability type, later reservoir reformation, and damage degree of coal structure. Comparison shows that the low-rank coal area in the northwestern area, the northeastern medium-low rank coal area, and the southwestern medium-high rank and structurally-complex coal area are the major replacement areas for CBM following the northern area of China. Key factors affecting CBM enrichment in each of the three key areas, respectively, are: a genetic type and stability of coal seams, b genetic type and reconstruction of the reservoir by volcanic intrusion, and c stability of coal seams and damage degree of coal structure. Based on these factors, a system for selection and evaluation of strategic replacement areas for CBM development was established. Fifteen blocks in the above three areas were evaluated by using multi-layered fuzzy mathematics, selecting eight favorable areas and seven relatively favorable areas that contain 1.8 trillion m3 of predicted CBM geological resources. The eight favorable areas include the Wucaiwan-Dajing coal exploration area in the Zhundong

  6. Composition of Anopheles Species Collected from Selected Malarious Areas of Afghanistan and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hoosh-Deghati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malarious areas in Iran are close to Afghanistan and Pakistan that urge the researchers to extend their knowledge on malaria epidemiology to the neighboring countries as well. Vectorial capacity differs at species or even at population level, the first essential step is accurate identification of vectors. This study aimed to identify Anopheles species composition in selected malarious areas of Afghanistan and Iran, providing further applied data for other research in two countries.Methods: Adults Anopheles spp. were collected from four provinces in Afghanistan (Badakhshan, Herat, Kunduz, Nangarhar by pyrethrum spray catch, hand collection methods through WHO/EMRO coordination and from Chaba­har County in Iran by pyrethrum spray catch method. Identification was performed using reliable identification key.Results: Totally, 800 female Anopheles mosquitos, 400 from each country were identified at species level. Anophe­les composition in Afghanistan was An. superpictus, An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus. Most prevalent species in Ba­dakhshan and Kunduz were An. superpictus, whereas An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus were respectively found in Nangarhar and Heart. Anopheles species in Chabahar County of Iran were An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis, An. culicifa­cies and An. sergentii. The most prevalent species was An. stephensi.Conclusion: Current study provides a basis for future research such as detection of Plasmodium infection in col­lected samples which is on process by the authors, also for effective implementation of evidence-based malaria vec­tor intervention strategies.

  7. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervuurt, René H J; Sharma, Akhil; Jiao, Yuqing; Kessels, Wilhelmus Erwin M M; Bol, Ageeth A

    2016-10-07

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a reference. The results show that polyimide has excellent selectivity towards the Pt deposition, after 1000 ALD cycles less than a monolayer of Pt is deposited on the polyimide surface. The polyimide film could easily be removed after ALD using a hydrogen plasma, due to a combination of weakening of the polyimide resist during Pt ALD and the catalytic activity of Pt traces on the polyimide surface. Compared to PMMA for AS-ALD of Pt, polyimide has better temperature stability. This resulted in an improved uniformity of the Pt deposits and superior definition of the Pt patterns. In addition, due to the absence of reflow contamination using polyimide the nucleation phase during Pt ALD is drastically shortened. Pt patterns down to 3.5 μm were created with polyimide, a factor of ten smaller than what is possible using PMMA, at the typical Pt ALD processing temperature of 300 °C. Initial experiments indicate that after further optimization of the polyimide process Pt features down to 100 nm should be possible, which makes AS-ALD of Pt using photosensitive polyimide a promising candidate for patterning at the nanoscale.

  8. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  9. T Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the T Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  10. Z Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is or into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the insults of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Z Plant Aggregate Area located m the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RIIFS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposed (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  11. U Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the U Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  12. Portfolio Manager Selection – A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Within a delegated portfolio management setting, this paper presents a case study of how the manager selection process can be operationalized in practice. Investors have to pursue a thorough screening of potential portfolio managers in order to discover their quality, and this paper discusses how...

  13. Sexual selection studies: A NESCent catalyst meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roughgarden, J.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Akcay, E.; Hinde, C.A.; Hoquet, T.; O'Connor, C.; Prokop, Z.M.; Prum, R.O.; Shafir, S.; Snow, S.S.; Taylor, D.; Cleve, Van J.; Weisberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    A catalyst meeting on sexual selection studies was held in July 2013 at the facilities of the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) in Durham, NC. This article by a subcommittee of the participants foregrounds some of the topics discussed at the meeting. Topics mentioned here include the

  14. Sedimentation studies at MUDA catchment area, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Juhari Yusuf; Wan Abdul Aziz; Juhari Latiff

    2000-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile in the selected area of Muda dam catchment area, Kedah is presented. The objective of the study was to establish a base line data of the input sedimentation with regards to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and Muda reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed by using nuclear gauges i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment ranges from gravel to clay sizes. In the reservoir and downstream of the river, most of the samples studied consisting of fine sediment i.e silt and clay sizes (<63,um). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consist of fine to coarse sand. Sediment density profiles in the reservoir showed little changes, whereas bed sediment profiles in the river cross-sectional areas exhibit some changes. The results also showed that thickness of bedload sediment were different from one location to another, in which the thickness may achieve up to 0.75 metre in some areas. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising of dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and deposited sediment in the reservoir. Basic information derived from this study may provide as one of the important inputs for the MADA reservoir management authority in monitoring, supervising y and identifying rate and source of sediment in the catchment area

  15. Assessment and selection of geomorphosites and trails in the Miage Glacier area (Western Italian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Irene; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pelfini, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Glacial environments are considered geomorphosites because they exhibit all of the features that characterise sites of geomorphological interest. The Miage Glacier, in particular, is the most important debris-covered glacier of the Italian Alps, and it has been extensively studied since the 18th century because of its scientific features. In this area, the geomorphological and geological attributes are evaluated at 11 sites that have been individuated along the three main touristic trails, which allow an exploration of the surroundings of the glacial tongue and its two main lobes. Using a methodology previously tested in a fluvial environment, single sites and trails are quantitatively assessed to determine the most suitable trail for educational purposes. Hazards that could potentially affect the trails are considered in terms of both risk education and final selection of the most suitable trails for the various possible user groups. The richness of scientific data in this area should increase its importance as a geomorphosite by increasing the educational value of the Miage Glacier and the Veny Valley.

  16. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  18. Body-selective areas in the visual cortex are less active in children than in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Paddy D.; de Gelder, Beatrice; Crabbe, Frances; Grosbras, Marie-Helene

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to read other people's non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas.

  19. Hydrogeologic study of Cafam area. Melgar (Tolima); Estudio hidrogeologico del area Cafam - Melgar (Tolima)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel M, Carlos E; Perez C, Rosalbina

    1989-06-01

    The hydrogeologic study covers an area of 50 km{sup 2} with the objectives of to determine the possibility of use of the underground waters and to locate places to carry out exploratory perforations in lands of Cafam, equally the elaboration of a hydrogeologic map of the region; for the effect it was carried out cartography geologic scale 1:10.000, inventory and sampling of water point, geoelectric prospecting and some permeability tests. In the area the exploitation of underground water is incipient, alone there are 20 points of water, of which none produce more than 1L/seg. The water has in general good physical chemistry quality for the human consumption. Geologically was recognized the groups Guadalupe and Gualanday, also some quaternary deposits; the previous ones were subdivided in 11 geological units for its composition and morphology, which are framed structurally in the E flank of the synclinal of Carmen de Apicala and displaced by traverse faults with address E-W and N-W. From the point of hydrogeologic view the units were grouped in 8 aquifer systems, of which four are considered of hydrogeologic importance for the area; the sector with better possibilities to capture these aquifer systems is the W of the area (in the terraces area) that extends to the Sumapaz River. For the Cafam sector a place was selected to build an exploratory well of 200 mts. of depth that would capture an aquifer of low transmissivity, corresponding to the Unit T3.

  20. Automated training site selection for large-area remote-sensing image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Thomas M.; Franklin, Steven E.

    1993-11-01

    A computer program is presented to select training sites automatically from remotely sensed digital imagery. The basic ideas are to guide the image analyst through the process of selecting typical and representative areas for large-area image classifications by minimizing bias, and to provide an initial list of potential classes for which training sites are required to develop a classification scheme or to verify classification accuracy. Reducing subjectivity in training site selection is achieved by using a purely statistical selection of homogeneous sites which then can be compared to field knowledge, aerial photography, or other remote-sensing imagery and ancillary data to arrive at a final selection of sites to be used to train the classification decision rules. The selection of the homogeneous sites uses simple tests based on the coefficient of variance, the F-statistic, and the Student's i-statistic. Comparisons of site means are conducted with a linear growing list of previously located homogeneous pixels. The program supports a common pixel-interleaved digital image format and has been tested on aerial and satellite optical imagery. The program is coded efficiently in the C programming language and was developed under AIX-Unix on an IBM RISC 6000 24-bit color workstation.

  1. Environmental risk factors and health outcomes in selected communities of the Niger delta area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, Godson; Sridhar, Mynepalli K C; Bamgboye, Elijah A

    2009-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of various health outcomes associated with exposure to environmental risk factors including industrial pollution in selected communities of Nigeria's oil-rich Niger delta area (NDA). The study involved both laboratory experiments and community health surveys using questionnaires and hospital records. A total of 14 air samples, 16 grab soil samples and 18 surface water samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using standard methods. A 77-item questionnaire was administered on randomly selected 349 subjects. A five-year record was collected from health facilities located in the two communities. The laboratory results indicated that the median PAH level at Eleme as compared to Ahoada East was higher than the guideline limit 50 ng/l for surface waters. The mean TSP level at Eleme was higher than the level at Ahoada East and the guideline limit 100 microg/m3. The median PAH level at Eleme was higher than the level at Ahoada East and the guideline limit problem (p = 0.044). At Ahoada East commonly consumed aquatic food was highly significantly associated with painful body outgrowth (p fuel types was also highly significantly associated with child deformities (p < 0.0001). Hospital records showed high proportions of respiratory disorder among males (3.85%) and females (4.39%) at Eleme as compared to the proportion of respiratory disorder among males (3.68%) and females (4.18%) at Ahoada East. The study shows that industrial communities such as Eleme, which are exposed to higher levels of air pollution, are more predisposed to respiratory morbidities, skin disorders and other related health risks.

  2. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  3. Environment studies in the Olkiluoto area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A.T.K.; Kaapu, J.; Lehtonen, K.; Mattila, J.; Raeisaenen, R.; Turkki, H.; Sauvonsaari, J.

    2003-04-01

    In the report, different aspects of environmental status of the Olkiluoto area, an island with the near-sea in the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea, are described by five topical papers. Regarding animal-life, Olkiluoto represents a typical seashore area of southwestern Finland dominated by rocky hills and commercial forests. In the literature and interview study of local hunters, locally dominant mammal and bird species are identified. No threatened or endangered mammals species were found on the island, and only few bird species in Olkiluoto have a high conservation value. The sea area off Olkiluoto is rather shallow and the water mixing conditions are favourable. The quality and biological production of the water are affected by the general state of the Bothian Sea, the loading brought by the Eurajoki and Lapinjoki Rivers and local wastewaters. Also the cooling waters from the local nuclear power plant impact the sea environment. The bottom vegetation varies from an algae-dominant to a vascular-plantdominant community. Amount of benthic fauna and its species composition has varied considerably, due to both variations of the quality of the bottom and eutrophication. The Eurajoki River represents the second largest river system in southwestern Finland. At its upper reaches, the river is classified as clean and suitable for recreational use. Intermittently, additional waters rich in nutrients flow into the river from ditches and tributaries. Diffuse pollution and the wastewaters of riverside municipalities and industry affect on the water of the lower course, where it is only mildly contaminated, hygienically fairly good and satisfactory for recreational use. The benthic fauna of the river is composed of oligochaetes, clams, leeches and larvae. The fish reserve is versatile in places due to stocking. The Eurajoensalmi Strait, the inlet of the river, is a transitional zone between the river and further sea environments. In the offshore area facing Olkiluoto, there

  4. Selective-area vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalacu, Dan; Kam, Alicia; Guy Austing, D; Wu Xiaohua; Lapointe, Jean; Aers, Geof C; Poole, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between the conventional non-selective vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires and a novel selective-area growth process where the Au-seeded InP nanowires grow exclusively in the openings of a SiO 2 mask on an InP substrate. This new process allows the precise positioning and diameter control of the nanowires required for future advanced device fabrication. The growth temperature range is found to be extended for the selective-area growth technique due to removal of the competition between material incorporation at the Au/nanowire interface and the substrate. A model describing the growth mechanism is presented which successfully accounts for the nanoparticle size-dependent and time-dependent growth rate. The dominant indium collection process is found to be the scattering of the group III source material from the SiO 2 mask and subsequent capture by the nanowire, a process that had previously been ignored for selective-area growth by chemical beam epitaxy.

  5. Selective-area vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalacu, Dan; Kam, Alicia; Guy Austing, D; Wu Xiaohua; Lapointe, Jean; Aers, Geof C; Poole, Philip J, E-mail: dan.dalacu@nrc-cnrc.gc.c [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2009-09-30

    A comparison is made between the conventional non-selective vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires and a novel selective-area growth process where the Au-seeded InP nanowires grow exclusively in the openings of a SiO{sub 2} mask on an InP substrate. This new process allows the precise positioning and diameter control of the nanowires required for future advanced device fabrication. The growth temperature range is found to be extended for the selective-area growth technique due to removal of the competition between material incorporation at the Au/nanowire interface and the substrate. A model describing the growth mechanism is presented which successfully accounts for the nanoparticle size-dependent and time-dependent growth rate. The dominant indium collection process is found to be the scattering of the group III source material from the SiO{sub 2} mask and subsequent capture by the nanowire, a process that had previously been ignored for selective-area growth by chemical beam epitaxy.

  6. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  7. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. Chapter 4. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter). Volume 1. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    and proposed Class I areas of White Mountain, Pecos, Wheeler Peak, Salt Creek, and Capulin Mountain, New Mexico were reflected in higher ratings...of - (N. Mex.) Salt Creek Harding None Within 100 mi of - (N. Mex.) Capulin Mountains Lea 14-TSP, 11-SO ,None Within 100 mi of - (N. Mex.) Il-NO , 1...CO, 1#-HC Sat Creek Quay 3-TSP, 1-SO , 1-NO ,None Within 100 ml of Near city of Tucumcari (N. Mex.) I-CO, f’-HC x None Capulin Mountains Roosevelt 5

  8. Vs30 mapping at selected sites within the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Grace; Armah, Thomas K.; Amponsah, Paulina

    2018-06-01

    A large part of Accra is underlain by a complex distribution of shallow soft soils. Within seismically active zones, these soils hold the most potential to significantly amplify seismic waves and cause severe damage, especially to structures sited on soils lacking sufficient stiffness. This paper presents preliminary site classification for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana (GAMA), using experimental data from two-dimensional (2-D) Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) technique. The dispersive characteristics of fundamental mode Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers (approx. up to 30 m depth) by estimating the 1D (depth) and 2D (depth and surface location) shear wave velocities at 5 selected sites. The average shear wave velocity for 30 m depth (Vs30), which is critical in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m, was estimated and used for the preliminary site classification of the GAM area, as per NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program). Based on the Vs30 values obtained in the study, two common site types C, and D corresponding to shallow (>6 m Lower velocity profiles are inferred for the residual soils (sandy to silty clays), derived from the Accraian Formation that lies mainly within Accra central. Stiffer soil sites lie to the north of Accra, and to the west near Nyanyano. The seismic response characteristics over the residual soils in the GAMA have become apparent using the MASW technique. An extensive site effect map and a more robust probabilistic seismic hazard analysis can now be efficiently built for the metropolis, by considering the site classes and design parameters obtained from this study.

  9. Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback is studied experimentally. Different dynamics are observed when different lateral modes are selected. When the feedback mirror is aligned perfectly and high-order modes are selected, in most....... When the feedback mirror is aligned non-perfectly, pulse-package oscillation is observed, for the first time to our knowledge, in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback....... of the cases, the output of the laser shows a periodic oscillation corresponding to a single roundtrip external-cavity loop, but the dynamic behavior disappears in some case; when the zero-order lateral-mode is selected, periodic oscillation corresponding to a double roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed...

  10. Selective Mobile Communication within a Coverage Area Bounded by Radiating Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Behairy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often desirable to control mobile phone services in areas where complete silence is either expected or mandatory, including schools, places of worship, hospitals, and prisons. In contrast to conventional techniques, such as jammers or Faraday cages, we present a novel technique to selectively control mobile phone services within a desired area. Our solution enables the area’s keeper to allow mobile phones on a whitelist to freely use mobile services without disruption while denying services to all other mobile phones that are within the boundaries of the desired area to be controlled. Our solution uses a base station controller to identify all mobile devices located within the area to be controlled, while an antenna is placed inside the area to attract all mobile devices in the area to connect to the base station controller. In previous work, we proposed a system that uses directional antennas for the attraction technique. In this work, we show that replacement of the directional antennas with a leaky feeder antenna enables more accurate control of mobile phone services in and around the area to be controlled. Simulations and experiments of the leaky feeder technique confirm its precise control of mobile phone services within the desired areas.

  11. Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals in Seawater and Sediment at Klang Coastal Area Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Aziatul Aini Hamzan; Farah Fardiana Mohamad Zaini; Mohd Ismail Ibrahim; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Sediments are capable of transporting loads of adsorbed nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals, and other toxins. In this study, the samples of sediment were collected from four sampling points (Kapar, Sungai Puloh, Sementa and North Port) using sediment core sampler. The cores then was sub-sampled by slicing into 1 cm slices and dried at 60 degree Celsius until mass become constant and the weight recorded. The samples were pulverized and sieved through 220 μm stainless steel sieves. Each sub-sample digested using aqua regia acids. For seawater, the samples were evaporated using the hotplate at 60 degree Celsius. The concentration of heavy metals was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The highest concentration of copper, zinc, iron and lead was observed from seawater samples obtained from Sementa while highest concentration of cadmium was found from Kapar samples). Most of the bottom seawater gives high concentration of the heavy metal compare to the surface. For sediment, the overall concentration of heavy metal in each layer was fluctuated. From the analysis, there is a significant correlation for overall selected heavy metals and the samples (seawater and sediment) that study in this area. (author)

  12. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and selected wildlife species at selected livestock/wildlife interface areas of the Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndengu, Masimba; Matope, Gift; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Tivapasi, Musavengana; Scacchia, Massimo; Bonfini, Barbara; Pfukenyi, Davis Mubika

    2017-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors for Brucella species infection in cattle and some wildlife species in communities living at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in south eastern Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface: porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted); non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing); and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control). Sera were collected from cattle aged≥2years representing both female and intact male animals. Sera were also collected from selected wild ungulates from Mabalauta (porous interface) and Chipinda (non-interface) areas of the Gonarezhou National Park. Samples were screened for Brucellaantibodies using the Rose Bengal plate test and confirmed by the complement fixation test. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression modelling. In cattle, brucellosis seroprevalence from all areas was 16.7% (169/1011; 95% CI: 14.5-19.2%). The porous interface recorded a significantly (p=0.03) higher seroprevalence (19.5%; 95% CI: 16.1-23.4%) compared to the non-interface area (13.0%; 95% CI: 9.2-19.9%).The odds of Brucellaseropositivity increased progressively with parity of animals and were also three times higher (OR=3.0, 2.0wildlife and livestock. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) can be stated as follows: (1) Define a small number (approx. 3) of blanket design concepts that should be the focus of the blanket R and D program. A design concept is defined by the selection of all materials (e.g., breeder, coolant, structure and multiplier) and other major characteristics that significantly influence the R and D requirements. (2) Identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts. (3) Provide the technical input necessary to develop a blanket R and D program plan. Guidelines for prioritizing the R and D requirements include: (a) critical feasibility issues for the leading blanket concepts will receive the highest priority, and (b) for equally important feasibility issues, higher R and D priority will be given to those that require minimum cost and short time

  14. Deposition of heavy metals from dust fallout in selected areas of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Slančo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an evaluation of the deposition of selected heavy metals in the form of a detailed analysis of the dust fallout. The loaded areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava with the mining and mineral processing industry of siderite ore and magnesite, the area of Krompachy with the copper metal works, the municipal and industrial environs of Košice and relatively clean area of the National Park of Slovak Paradise were monitored and compared. The results have shown significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative effect on the monitored areas. The values of heavy metals content in the dust fallout of the loaded areas exceeded by order the values detected in the Slovak Paradise. As to the mining areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava, the highest content of heavy metals was recorded in the case of Mn and As. The metallurgical area of Krompachy is mostly loaded by Cu, Pb, As and Cd..

  15. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  16. Selective area deposition of diamond films on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Jirásek, Vít; Vanko, G.; Vallo, M.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 12 (2014), 2574-2580 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16549P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : circular high electron mobility transistors * diamond films * GaN substrates * microwave chemical vapor deposition * selective area deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  17. Selected area growth integrated wavelength converter based on PD-EAM optical logic gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Bin; Zhou Daibing; Zhang Can; Liang Song; Lu Dan; Zhao Lingjuan; Wang Wei; Qiu Jifang; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    A selected area growth wavelength converter based on a PD-EAM optical logic gate for WDM application is presented, integrating an EML transmitter and a SOA-PD receiver. The design, fabrication, and DC characters were analyzed. A 2 Gb/s NRZ signal based on the C-band wavelength converted to 1555 nm with the highest extinction ratio of 7 dB was achieved and wavelength converted eye diagrams with eyes opened were presented. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Residual strain in the Nb-H system measured by selected area diffraction (SAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulhoes, I.A.M.; Akune, K.; Pinatti, Dyonisio G.

    1981-07-01

    Various specimens of Nb were annealed in vacuum of 10 -3 torr for four hours at 1770 0 K. These speciments were doped with hydrogen up to 1000 ppm by weight and then were analyzed selected area diffraction. The line resolution of the electron channelling pattern was meassured for the specimens with different hydrogen content. These measurements, combined with the measurement of density, permitted one to estimate the residual strain caused by hydrogen. (Author) [pt

  19. Spiders (Araneae of selected sinkholes of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present faunistic data about spiders in selected sinkholes of northern part of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area. Time of collection was established in the following terms: 24 March 2010 – 22 September 2010. We collected altogether 5742 adult specimens which were determined to 59 species of 14 families. We found two very rare spiders (critically endangered Porrhomma errans and endangered Walckenaeria monoceros and several interesting, rarely collected bioindicator species (Alopecosa trabalis, Mecopisthes silus, Zelotes longipes. From the bioindicative evaluation point of view, 44% of found species belong to species with connection to natural habitats, 37% belong to species preferring semi-natural habitats, and 19% belong to species of disturbed habitats. From the relictness point of view, majority of species was of the expansive category (53%, 40% of class II relicts, and only 7% of class I relicts. Sink holes did not increase total biodiversity of agricultural land too much because of their relative small size.

  20. Performance Improvements of Selective Emitters by Laser Openings on Large-Area Multicrystalline Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Shih Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the laser opening technique used to form a selective emitter (SE structure on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si. This technique can be used in the large-area (156 × 156 mm2 solar cells. SE process of this investigation was performed using 3 samples SE1–SE3. Laser fluences can vary in range of 2–5 J/cm2. The optimal conversion efficiency of 15.95% is obtained with the SE3 (2 J/cm2 fluence after laser opening with optimization of heavy and light dopant, which yields a gain of 0.48%abs compared with that of a reference cell (without fluence. In addition, this optimal SE3 cell displays improved characteristics compared with other cells with a higher average value of external quantum efficiency (EQEavg = 68.6% and a lower average value of power loss (Ploss = 2.33 mW/cm2. For the fabrication of solar cells, the laser opening process comprises fewer steps than traditional photolithography does. Furthermore, the laser opening process decreases consumption of chemical materials; therefore, the laser opening process decreases both time and cost. Therefore, SE process is simple, cheap, and suitable for commercialization. Moreover, the prominent features of the process render it effective means to promote overall performance in the photovoltaic industry.

  1. Determinants of child malnutrition during the 1999 economic crisis in selected poor areas of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosono, Saptawati; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah; Lukito, Widjaja

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence at the national level that suggests the 1999 Indonesian economic crisis impact was very heterogeneous both between urban and rural areas and across regions. A cross sectional study of the nutritional status of children and its determinants was performed in urban poor areas of Jakarta, and rural areas of Banggai in Central Sulawesi, and Alor-Rote in East Nusa Tenggara. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to obtain 1078 households with under-five children in the urban poor area of Jakarta, and 262 and 631 households with under-five children each for the rural areas of Banggai and Alor-Rote, respectively. Data collection for both studies was performed from January 1999 to June 2001. The study shows that wasting affected more children in the urban poor areas of Jakarta than in the other study areas. On the other hand, stunting and anemia were significantly more severe among children 6-59 months of age in the rural area of Alor-Rote compared to the other study areas. The high prevalence of infectious diseases was significantly related to the higher prevalence of wasting in the study areas of Jakarta and Banggai, and also significantly related to the higher prevalence of stunting and anemia in the study area of Alor-Rote. To avert this kind of health impact of a economic downturn, there is a need to improve the nutritional and health status of under-five children and their mothers through the existing health care system, provide basic health services and improve the capacity of health staff across Indonesia as part of the decentralization process.

  2. Body-Selective Areas in the Visual Cortex are less active in Children than in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy D Ross

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals.Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6-11 and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA, fusiform body area (FBA, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS, the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age.Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life.

  3. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J Christopher; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-10-16

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177-1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670-674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm(2) on the right and 50 mm(2) on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region.

  4. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  5. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  6. Thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štejfa, Vojtěch; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav; Červinka, Ctirad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (−)-trans-Pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, and limonene were studied. • New thermodynamic data were measured and calculated. • Many of thermodynamic data are reported for the first time. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes, (−)-trans-pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, (+)-limonene, and (−)-limonene, is presented in this work. The vapor pressure measurements were performed using the static method over the environmentally important temperature range (238 to 308) K. Liquid heat capacities were measured by Tian–Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval (258 to 355) K. The phase behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from T = 183 K. The thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state were calculated by combining statistical thermodynamic and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculated ideal-gas heat capacities and experimental data for vapor pressures and condensed phase heat capacities were treated simultaneously to obtain a consistent thermodynamic description

  7. Sensitivity, selectivity and stability of tin oxide nanostructures on large area arrays of microhotplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Cavicchi, Richard; Semancik, Steve; DeVoe, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity, stability and selectivity of nanoparticle engineered tin oxide (SnO2) are reported, for microhotplate chemical sensing applications. 16 Å of metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, copper and silver were selectively evaporated onto each column of the microhotplate array. Following evaporation, the microhotplates were heated to 500 °C and SnO2 was deposited on top of the microhotplates using a self-aligned chemical vapour deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed control of SnO2 nanostructures in the range of 20-121 nm. Gas sensing in seven different hydrocarbons revealed that metal nanoparticles that helped in producing faster nucleation of SnO2 resulted in smaller grain size and higher sensitivity. Sensitivity as a function of concentration and grain size is addressed for tin oxide nanostructures. Smaller grain sizes resulted in higher sensitivity of tin oxide nanostructures. Temperature programmed sensing of the devices yielded shape differences in the response between air and methanol, illustrating selectivity. Spiderweb plots were used to monitor the materials programmed selectivity. The shape differences between different gases in spiderweb plots illustrate materials selectivity as a powerful mapping approach for monitoring selectivity in various gases. Continuous monitoring in 80 ppm methanol yielded stable sensor response for more than 200 h. This comprehensive study illustrates the use of a nanoparticle engineering approach for sensitive, selective and stable gas sensing applications.

  8. Gene selection heuristic algorithm for nutrigenomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valour, D; Hue, I; Grimard, B; Valour, B

    2013-07-15

    Large datasets from -omics studies need to be deeply investigated. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method (LEM method) for the search of transcriptome and metabolome connections. The heuristic algorithm here described extends the classical canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to a high number of variables (without regularization) and combines well-conditioning and fast-computing in "R." Reduced CCA models are summarized in PageRank matrices, the product of which gives a stochastic matrix that resumes the self-avoiding walk covered by the algorithm. Then, a homogeneous Markov process applied to this stochastic matrix converges the probabilities of interconnection between genes, providing a selection of disjointed subsets of genes. This is an alternative to regularized generalized CCA for the determination of blocks within the structure matrix. Each gene subset is thus linked to the whole metabolic or clinical dataset that represents the biological phenotype of interest. Moreover, this selection process reaches the aim of biologists who often need small sets of genes for further validation or extended phenotyping. The algorithm is shown to work efficiently on three published datasets, resulting in meaningfully broadened gene networks.

  9. Critical analysis of the integration of residual municipal solid waste incineration and selective collection in two Italian tourist areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Masi, Salvatore; Montanaro, Comasia

    2014-06-01

    Municipal solid waste management is not only a contemporary problem, but also an issue at world level. In detail, the tourist areas are more difficult to be managed. The dynamics of municipal solid waste production in tourist areas is affected by the addition of a significant amount of population equivalent during a few months. Consequences are seen in terms of the amount of municipal solid waste to be managed, but also on the quality of selective collection. In this article two case studies are analyzed in order to point out some strategies useful for a correct management of this problem, also taking into account the interactions with the sector of waste-to-energy. The case studies concern a tourist area in the north of Italy and another area in the south. Peak production is clearly visible during the year. Selective collection variations demonstrate that the tourists' behavior is not adequate to get the same results as with the resident population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)

  11. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  12. Selective insulin resistance in homeostatic and cognitive control brain areas in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Geochronological studies on some rocks and minerals from selected areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J N [Department of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India). Atomic Minerals Div.

    1979-01-01

    Ages obtained at the Atomic Minerals Division laboratory, Hyderabad on a number of rock and mineAal samples are presented. Rb-Sr mineral ages from Pungurthy (Tamil Nadu), Sarguja (Madhya Pradesh), Hazaribagh (Bihar) and whole rock isochron age of the granitic bodies surrounding the Kolar schist belt are reported. Discordant U-Pb ages obtained on the uraninites from Kulu (H.P.) and its interpretation in terms of episodic loss has been discussed. Further facilities that are being set up for undertaking other isotopic analysis work for various geoscientific investigations are outtined.

  14. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  15. The Importance of a Proper Selection Area to be Biopsied in Nodular Leukoplakia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular leukoplakia is a non-homogeneous type of oral leukoplakia presenting a white surface with verrucous, nodular, ulcerated or erythematous features with a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared to the homogeneous type. Common sites of involvement include lip commissures, buccal mucosa and soft palate. It is often associated with epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma and requires detailed microscopic assessment and regular follow-up. The importance of a proper selection of the area to be biopsied and the close teamwork between a dentist and oral pathologist is the basis of providing an accurate final diagnosis.

  16. Optimal selection of LQR parameter using AIS for LFC in a multi-area power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdillah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to optimize the parameter of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR using artificial immune system (AIS via clonal selection. The parameters of LQR utilized in this paper are the weighting matrices Q and R. The optimal LQR control for load frequency control (LFC is installed on each area as a decentralized control scheme. The aim of this control design is to improve the dynamic performance of LFC automatically when unexpected load change occurred on power system network. The change of load demands 0.01 p.u used as a disturbance is applied to LFC in Area 1. The proposed method guarantees the stability of the overall closed-loop system. The simulation result shows that the proposed method can reduce the overshoot of the system and compress the time response to steady-state which is better compared to trial error method (TEM and without optimal LQR control.

  17. Assessing the applicability of Pb-210 dating technique in selected mangrove areas in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta Maria, E.J.; Lim, A.B.U.; Ebreo, C.M.H.; Ramirez, J.D.; Castro, K.M.I.; Garcia, M.C.C.; Navarette, I.A.; Salmo, S.G. III

    2015-01-01

    The Pb-210 dating technique has been widely used in many areas as a tool for historical reconstruction of pollution, eutrophication and the many impacts of man on the environment. In the Philippines, the technique has been used in bays (Manila Bay, Sorsogon Bay), in a sound, in a lagoon, in a lake and in a dam. To assess the technique’s applicability in a different environmental setting, sediment cores were collected from mangrove areas in Subic and Pangasinan for Pb-210 analysis. Initial Pb-210 results from these two mangrove areas reveals that Pb-210 is a promising tool for such a new setting. Using the Pb-210 profiles of the sediment cores indicated that Pangasinan mangrove area has a much lower sedimentation rate compared to the Subic mangrove area. The difference in the sediment rates of the two areas could be due to the existing topographic, geographic, hydrodynamic and environment conditions of the area. The age-control information provided by the Pb-210 data could be correlated with other existing data (Chemical and elemental data) for retrospective assessment of the study areas. (author)

  18. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  19. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  20. Demonstrating the utility of boron based precursor molecules for selective area deposition in a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.K.; Onellion, M.; Lee, S.; Bowben, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) can be used to selectively deposit material from a gaseous precursor compound. Ultrasmall (less than a 100 nm across) spatial dimensions for selective area deposition may be achieved by this means. In this paper the authors outline a scheme foreselecting and designing main group cluster compounds and organometallics for this type of selective area deposition using nido-decaborane(14) as an example

  1. A decision support system for selecting IT audit areas using a capital budgeting approach / Dewald Philip Pieters

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Dewald Philip

    2015-01-01

    Internal audit departments strive to control risk within an organization. To do this they choose specific audit areas to include in an audit plan. In order to select areas, they usually focus on those areas with the highest risk. Even though high risk areas are considered, there are various other restrictions such as resource constraints (in terms of funds, manpower and hours) that must also be considered. In some cases, management might also have special requirements. Traditionally this area...

  2. Appendix P: analysis of geological and geophysical data in selected areas of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.E.; Damuth, J.E.; Jacobi, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    During 1979 we initiated a comprehensive assessment of existing marine geological and geophysical data for the northwest Pacific (PAC 1; 20 0 to 50 0 N; 145 0 to 180 0 E). The purpose of these studies is to locate, if possible, several 1 0 x 1 0 (latitude x longitude) areas which may qualify as candidate waste-disposal sites. Some of these 1 0 x 1 0 sites will then be surveyed in detail on future cruises. We have examined all 3.5 and 12 kHz echogram data through the PAC 1 area contained in the Lamont-Doherty, Scripps, and Univ. of Hawaii echogram libraries. These data comprise the vast majority of data that exist for the northwest Pacific. Using these data we were able to classify and map the distribution of various types of microtopography and acoustic reflectivity (echo character) throughout the PAC 1 area. These studies revealed (1) the nature of stratification in the upper 25 to 100 m of the sea floor; (2) nature of the microtopography of the sea floor and areal distribution of basement outcrops; (3) locations of areas affected by bottom currents and mass-wasting process. We have also compiled and evaluated all D.S.D.P. drilling information and L-DGO piston core, bottom camera, heat-flow, sonobuoy, and low frequency seismic-reflection data for the PAC 1 area. We are continuing to compile additional acoustic and station data from other sources including US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.C., DMA. Our studies in the PAC 1 area to date have enabled us to locate at least 10 1 0 x 1 0 areas which appear to be potentially suitable sites for further waste disposal studies. Three of these potential sites will be surveyed in detail on an upcoming VEMA cruise in spring 1980. Remaining areas will be surveyed during future cruises

  3. Area Handbook Series: Colombia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    represented 12 percent of total exports in 1986; the Colombian For- eign Trade Institute (Instituto Colombiano de Comercio Exterior - Incomex) reported...Proexpo) and-the Colombian Petroleum Enterprise ( Empresa Colombiana de Petr6leos--Ecopetrol). Investment in Carbocol grew rapidly in its first decade, of...the Depart- mental and-Municipal Sanitary Works ( Empresa de Obras Sanitar- ias Departamentales y Municipales) and in rural areas by the National

  4. Environmental studies in the Timmins area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsillie, D; McGovern, P C

    1973-01-01

    In 1970 the Phytotoxicology Section of the Air Management Branch initiated a pre-pollution background survey of the environmental situation in the Timmins area where Texas Gulf Sulphur was expected to construct an electrolytic zinc refinery near Hoyle (12 miles northeast of Timmins). In April 1972, the refinery began production, and during the 1972 growing season this new plant operated at a rate of 70 to 90% of the theoretical capacity. The refinery is located adjacent to the ore concentrator which has been operative since November 1966. During 1970, 1971, and 1972, Phytotoxicology personnel conducted an extensive program of environmental analysis and evaluation in the area. The information gathered to date indicates that within a 20 mile radius of the refinery, the condition of the vegetation (trees, shrubs, and ground flora) is similar to that existing in the control areas (number of species, number of plants, growth rate, crown condition etc.) which are located 50 miles from Hoyle. The lead peroxide candle survey showed that only background levels of sulfur dioxide were present in the ambient air both before and after the initiation of operations at the refinery. No SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation has been observed in the Hoyle area. Chemical analysis of the vegetation, soil, and water samples collected at twelve established plots in 1971 shows elevated levels of metals in the soil immediately to the east and northeast of Hoyle. These same metals were elevated also in the vegetation collected at plots 1 and 2, close to the plant. Further work is planned to determine the source of this contamination. 13 tables.

  5. Phase analysis of nano-phase materials using selected area electron diffraction in the TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labar, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    In analogy to X-ray power diffraction (XRD), we are developing a method to help phase identification when examining a large number of grains simultaneously by electron diffraction. Although XRD is well established, it can not be used for small quantities of materials (volumes below 1 mm 3 ). Examining a usual TEM sample with thickness of 100 nm and using a selected area of 1 mm in diameter, the selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED) carries information about several thousands of grains from a material with an average grain size of about 10 nm. The accuracy of XRD can not be attained by electron diffraction (ED). However, simultaneous visual observation of the nanostructure is an additional benefit of TEM (beside the small amount of needed material). The first step of the development project was the development of a computer program ('ProcessDiffraction') that processes digital versions of SAED patterns and presents them in an XRD-like form (intensity vs. scattering vector). In the present version (V2.0.3) phase identification is carried out by comparing the measured distribution to 'Markers', i.e. data of known phases. XRD data cards are used if the detailed structure of a phase is not known. Kinematic electron diffraction intensities are calculated for phases with known atomic positions (Author)

  6. Selective area growth of GaN rod structures by MOVPE: Dependence on growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shunfeng; Fuendling, Soenke; Wang, Xue; Erenburg, Milena; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Wei, Jiandong; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bergbauer, Werner [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany); Strassburg, Martin [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstr. 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Selective area growth of GaN nanorods by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is highly demanding for novel applications in nano-optoelectronic and nanophotonics. Recently, we report the successful selective area growth of GaN nanorods in a continuous-flow mode. In this work, as examples, we show the morphology dependence of GaN rods with {mu}m or sub-{mu}m in diameters on growth conditions. Firstly, we found that the nitridation time is critical for the growth, with an optimum from 90 to 180 seconds. This leads to more homogeneous N-polar GaN rods growth. A higher temperature during GaN rod growth tends to increase the aspect ratio of the GaN rods. This is due to the enhanced surface diffusion of growth species. The V/III ratio is also an important parameter for the GaN rod growth. Its increase causes reduction of the aspect ratio of GaN rods, which could be explained by the relatively lower growth rate on (000-1) N-polar top surface than it on {l_brace}1-100{r_brace} m-planes by supplying more NH{sub 3} (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hyung-Joon; Stewart, Lawrence; Yeh, Ting-Wei; Dapkus, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    InP nanowires are a unique material phase because this normally zincblende material forms in the wurtzite crystal structure below a critical diameter owing to the contribution of sidewalls to the total formation energy. This may allow control of the carrier transport and optical properties of InP nanowires for applications such as nano scale transistors, lasers and detectors. In this work, we describe the fabrication of InP nanowire arrays by selective area growth using MOCVD in the diameter range where the wurtzite structure is formed. The spatial growth rate in selective area growth is modeled by a diffusion model for the precursors. The proposed model achieves an average error of 9%. Electron microscopy shows that the grown InP nanowires are in the wurtzite crystal phase with many stacking faults. The threshold diameter of the crystal phase transition of InP nanowires is larger than the thermodynamic estimation. In order to explain this tendency, we propose a surface kinetics model based on a 2 x 2 reconstruction. This model can explain the increased tendency for wurtzite nanowire formation on InP (111)A substrates and the preferred growth direction of binary III-V compound semiconductor nanowires. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štejfa, Vojtěch; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav; Červinka, Ctirad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (−)-Borneol, (−)-camphor, (±)-camphene, and (+)-fenchone were studied. • New thermodynamic data were measured and calculated. • Most of thermodynamic data are reported for the first time. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes, (−)-borneol, (−)-camphor, (±)-camphene, and (+)-fenchone is presented in this work. The vapor pressure measurements were performed using the static method over the environmentally important temperature range from (238 to 308) K. Heat capacities of condensed phases were measured by Tian–Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval from (258 to 355) K. The phase behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from subambient temperatures up to the fusion temperatures. The thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state were calculated by combining statistical thermodynamic and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculated ideal-gas heat capacities and experimental data for vapor pressures and condensed phase heat capacities were treated simultaneously to obtain a consistent thermodynamic description

  9. Selected Areas in Cryptography - SAC 2013 : 20th International Conference, Burnaby BC, Canada, August 14-16, 2013 : Revised Selected Papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Lauter, K.; Lisonek, P.

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2013, held in Burnaby, Canada, in August 2013. The 26 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 98 submissions. They are organized in topical sections

  10. Determination of the radon Concentration in underground water in selected areas in and around Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu, Seth Adjei

    2012-06-01

    Radon (Rn-222) is a radioactive noble gas of natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and different types of water: surface, borehole, well and spring. It is worth to carry out surveys for the radon in water for radiation protection as well as for geological considerations. The research presenters here was carried out in selected towns in and around Kumasi for the determination of radon concentration in groundwater. The major towns from which samples were taken are , Mowire, Kronum, Aburaso, Medoma, Kenyase, Buokrom, Bomfa, Ayeduase, Kotei, Tikrom. All the samples are used for domestic purposes such as cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. Waters from boreholes and wells in the selected towns were sampled and the radon concentration level measured. The Roll’s method was used for the radon concentration analysis on all the 100 samples. The results shows that, the minimum radon concentration in groundwater was 13015.934 Bq/m3 and it was found at Bomfa, and the highest was found to be 964628.480 Bq/m3, recorded at Mowire. It is believed that this variation of levels is mainly due to the difference in rock type, soil type and geology of the area as well as the depth of the water samples. This information can be used to estimate the possible health hazards from radon in the selected towns in the future from environmental point of view. The data would promote public awareness related to risk of radon exposure. (au)

  11. Spatial attention enhances the selective integration of activity from area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Nicolas Y; Herrington, Todd M; Cook, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    Distinguishing which of the many proposed neural mechanisms of spatial attention actually underlies behavioral improvements in visually guided tasks has been difficult. One attractive hypothesis is that attention allows downstream neural circuits to selectively integrate responses from the most informative sensory neurons. This would allow behavioral performance to be based on the highest-quality signals available in visual cortex. We examined this hypothesis by asking how spatial attention affects both the stimulus sensitivity of middle temporal (MT) neurons and their corresponding correlation with behavior. Analyzing a data set pooled from two experiments involving four monkeys, we found that spatial attention did not appreciably affect either the stimulus sensitivity of the neurons or the correlation between their activity and behavior. However, for those sessions in which there was a robust behavioral effect of attention, focusing attention inside the neuron's receptive field significantly increased the correlation between these two metrics, an indication of selective integration. These results suggest that, similar to mechanisms proposed for the neural basis of perceptual learning, the behavioral benefits of focusing spatial attention are attributable to selective integration of neural activity from visual cortical areas by their downstream targets.

  12. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  13. Radioactivity, radiological risk and metal pollution assessment in marine sediments from Calabrian selected areas, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Messina, M.; Faggio, G.; Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Belmusto, G.

    2018-02-01

    The two most significant categories of physical and chemical pollutants in sediments (radionuclides and metals) were investigated in this article, in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine sediments from eight different selected sites of the Calabria region, south of Italy. In particular samples were analyzed to determine natural and anthropic radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the investigated area. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The obtained results show that, for radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium), the specific activity ranges from ( 14 ± 1) Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) to ( 54 ± 9) Bq/kg d.w.; for thorium, from ( 12 ± 1) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 83 ± 8) Bq/kg d.w.; for potassium, from ( 470 ± 20) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 1000 ± 70) Bq/kg d.w. and for cesium it is lower than the minimum detectable activity value. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) outdoor and the external hazard index ( H_ex) were calculated to evaluate any possible radiological risk, mainly due to the use of marine sediments for the beach nourishment. The results show low levels of radioactivity, thus discarding any significant radiological risk. Some metals (As, Cd, Cr tot, Hg, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe), that could be released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources, were investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements and compared with the limits set by the Italian Legislation, to assess any possible contamination. Experimental results show that they are much lower than the contamination threshold value, thus excluding their presence as pollutants. The degree of sediment contaminations were quantified using enrichment factor ( EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) for

  14. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel.

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2

  15. Numerical climate modeling and verification of selected areas for heat waves of Pakistan using ensemble prediction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amna, S; Samreen, N; Khalid, B; Shamim, A

    2013-01-01

    Depending upon the topography, there is an extreme variation in the temperature of Pakistan. Heat waves are the Weather-related events, having significant impact on the humans, including all socioeconomic activities and health issues as well which changes according to the climatic conditions of the area. The forecasting climate is of prime importance for being aware of future climatic changes, in order to mitigate them. The study used the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) for the purpose of modeling seasonal weather hind-cast of three selected areas i.e., Islamabad, Jhelum and Muzaffarabad. This research was purposely carried out in order to suggest the most suitable climate model for Pakistan. Real time and simulated data of five General Circulation Models i.e., ECMWF, ERA-40, MPI, Meteo France and UKMO for selected areas was acquired from Pakistan Meteorological Department. Data incorporated constituted the statistical temperature records of 32 years for the months of June, July and August. This study was based on EPS to calculate probabilistic forecasts produced by single ensembles. Verification was done out to assess the quality of the forecast t by using standard probabilistic measures of Brier Score, Brier Skill Score, Cross Validation and Relative Operating Characteristic curve. The results showed ECMWF the most suitable model for Islamabad and Jhelum; and Meteo France for Muzaffarabad. Other models have significant results by omitting particular initial conditions.

  16. A comparison of small-area estimation techniques to estimate selected stand attributes using LiDAR-derived auxiliary variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Vicente J. Monleon; Hailemariam. Temesgen

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges often faced in forestry is the estimation of forest attributes for smaller areas of interest within a larger population. Small-area estimation (SAE) is a set of techniques well suited to estimation of forest attributes for small areas in which the existing sample size is small and auxiliary information is available. Selected SAE methods were...

  17. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  18. Case studies of selected Project "Flash" events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Nicolaides

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a consequence of the prevailing meteorological situation, the intensity and duration of precipitation, geomorphology, human activities over a geographical region and other factors. Floods result in damage and destruction of infrastructure and private property and, in some cases, in fatalities. Flash floods are sudden and quite localized in extend, characterized by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short period of time and are distinguished from other floods by their degree of severity. The broader knowledge concerning flash floods is useful for the better understanding of the underlying thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms, as well as the associated physical processes. The wider understanding of flashfloods can form part of an integrated system for short and very short forecasting of these events. In the present study, the synoptic, dynamic and thermodynamic conditions during the development of a baroclinic depression which affected the area of Cyprus on 6 November 2005 are studied. The depression was associated with extreme weather phenomena, such as thunderstorms, a water spout and high precipitation accumulations. The results indicate the importance of the dynamic parameters in the system's development and the thermodynamic analysis has shown the convective potential of the atmosphere.

  19. Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index from LiDAR Height Percentile Metrics and Comparison with MODIS Product in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Area in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter to describe the capacity of forests to intercept light and thus affects the microclimate and photosynthetic capacity of canopies. In general, tropical forests have a higher leaf area index and it is a challenge to estimate LAI in a forest with a very dense canopy. In this study, it is assumed that the traditional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived fractional vegetation cover (fCover has weak relationship with leaf area index in a dense forest. We propose a partial least squares (PLS regression model using the height percentile metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data to estimate the LAI of a dense forest. Ground inventory and airborne LiDAR data collected in a selectively logged tropical forest area in Eastern Amazonia are used to map LAI from the plot level to the landscape scale. The results indicate that the fCover, derived from the first return or the last return, has no significant correlations with the ground-based LAI. The PLS model evaluated by the leave-one-out validation shows that the estimated LAI is significantly correlated with the ground-based LAI with an R2 of 0.58 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.13. A data comparison indicates that the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS LAI underestimates the landscape-level LAI by about 22%. The MODIS quality control data show that in the selected tile, the cloud state is not the primary factor affecting the MODIS LAI performance; rather, the LAI from the main radiative transfer (RT algorithm contributes much to the underestimation of the LAI in the tropical forest. In addition, the results show that the LiDAR-based LAI has a better response to the logging activities than the MODIS-based LAI, and that the leaf area reduction caused by logging is about 13%. In contrast, the MODIS-based LAI exhibits no apparent spatial correlation with the LiDAR-based LAI. It is suggested that the main algorithm of MODIS should be

  20. Radiological Conditions in Selected Areas of Southern Iraq with Residues of Depleted Uranium. Report by an International Group of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This publication describes the methods, assumptions and parameters used by the IAEA during the assessment of the post-conflict radiological conditions of the environment and populations in relation to the residues of depleted uranium munitions from 2003 that exist at four selected areas in southern Iraq. The studies conducted by the IAEA used the results of measurements provided by UNEP from the 2006-2007 environmental monitoring campaigns performed by the Iraqi Ministry for the Environment. It presents the data used, the results of the assessment, and the findings and conclusions in connection therewith.

  1. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  2. Escompte Pre-modelling Studies In The Marseille Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleux, F.; Rosset, R.

    On June and July 2001, the campaign ESCOMPTE took place in the Marseille area in southern of France, with the aim of generating a detailed 3-D data base for the study of dynamics and chemistry of high pollution events so as to validate and improve air quality models. Previous to this field experiment, a pre-modelling exercise has been performed to document the dynamic interactions between sea and land breezes and orographics flows over this complex topographical area. This study was carried out using a nesting procedure at local and regional scales using the MESO-NH model (jointly developed by Laboratoire d'Aérologie and Meteofrance at Toulouse). Tracers emitted at various locations in the Marseille and Etang de Berre areas were first fol- lowed, then in a second step, full chemistry simulations have been run for two selected periods on June and July 1999, quite similar to the meteorological situations met dur- ing the IOP2a and the IOP4 in the 2001 campaign. The performance of the model has been assessed by comparing measured data with simulated data for meteorological pa- rameters and ozone. The general ability of the model to correctly simulate these two situations allows to further study ozone plume developments in more details. In par- ticular, these studies bear upon the relative roles of O3 transport versus O3 chemical production, as a function of distance within the plume to anthropogenic emissions and biogenic emissions, together with ozone daily variations and peak values observed at rural sites.

  3. GaAs Solar Cells on V-Grooved Silicon via Selective Area Growth: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vaisman, Michelle [Yale University; Li, Qiang [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Lau, Kei May [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    2017-08-31

    Interest in integrating III-Vs onto Si has recently resurged as a promising pathway towards high-efficiency, low-cost tandem photovoltaics. Here, we present a single junction GaAs solar cell grown monolithically on polished Si (001) substrates using V-grooves, selective area growth, and aspect ratio trapping to mitigate defect formation without the use of expensive, thick graded buffers. The GaAs is free of antiphase domains and maintains a relatively low TDD of 4x107 cm-2, despite the lack of a graded buffer. This 6.25 percent-efficient demonstration solar cell shows promise for further improvements to III-V/Si tandems to enable cost-competitive photovoltaics.

  4. Fabrication of 32Gb/s Electroabsorption Modulated Distributed Feedback Lasers by Selective Area Growth Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dai-Bing; Wang Hui-Tao; Zhang Rui-Kang; Wang Bao-Jun; Bian Jing; An Xin; Lu Dan; Zhao Ling-Juan; Zhu Hong-Liang; Ji Chen; Wang Wei

    2015-01-01

    A 32 Gb/s monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulated laser is fabricated by selective area growth technology. The threshold current of the device is below 13 mA. The output power exceeds 10 mW at 0 V bias when the injection current of the distributed feedback laser is 100 mA at 25°C. The side mode suppression ratio is over 50 dB. A 32Gb/s eye diagram is measured with a 3.5V pp nonreturn-to-zero pseudorandom modulation signal at −2.3 V bias. A clearly opening eyediagram with a dynamic extinction ratio of 8.01 dB is obtained. (paper)

  5. Selective Area Sublimation: A Simple Top-down Route for GaN-Based Nanowire Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilano, B; Vézian, S; Brault, J; Alloing, B; Massies, J

    2016-03-09

    Post-growth in situ partial SiNx masking of GaN-based epitaxial layers grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor is used to get GaN selective area sublimation (SAS) by high temperature annealing. Using this top-down approach, nanowires (NWs) with nanometer scale diameter are obtained from GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well epitaxial structures. After GaN regrowth on InxGa1-xN/GaN NWs resulting from SAS, InxGa1-xN quantum disks (QDisks) with nanometer sizes in the three dimensions are formed. Low temperature microphotoluminescence experiments demonstrate QDisk multilines photon emission around 3 eV with individual line widths of 1-2 meV.

  6. Faint H-alpha emission objects near the equatorial selected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, T.H.; Jordan, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    An objective-prism survey of fields centered on the 24 Kapteyn Selected Areas along the celestial equator has resulted in the detection of 120 faint H-alpha emission-line objects. Diffuse objects and stars having molecular bands in their spectra are not included. Only 18 of these stars were identified in previous lists of emission-line objects. Identifications were found for an additional three stars. Images of these objects appear to be stellar on direct plates. The magnitude range for these stars is V = 10.1-19.00. Positions and V magnitudes of these objects are provided, as are identifications of objects which have been reported in other lists. Frequency distributions of the apparent magnitudes and Galactic latitudes of these emission-line objects are discussed, and finding charts are provided. 14 refs

  7. A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main

  8. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on the question of whether inter- and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while subjects were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to

  9. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  10. Geological Consideration for the Site Selection of Radioactive Waste at the PPTN Serpong Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    2002-01-01

    Geological consideration is a main aspect in the exploration or selection of site for radioactive waste repository, because, really that repository site must be surrounded by geological system (geosphere). The objective of the site selection is to obtain a site which geologically capable to prevent the escape of waste pollution from repository to biosphere. Beside that the site must be free from geological processes which harmfull to longterm stability of the site. Descriptive analysis method was applied in this research and combined with evaluation by scoring methods. From the analysis result could be identified that PPTN Serpong morphologically consist of undulatory plains (elevation 80-100 m above msl), the lithology are alluvial deposits. Quarternary tuffs, pumiceous tuffs, clayey tuffs. sandy tuffs and limestone. The geological structure was supposed a horst and graben which buried more than 15 m since Pleistocene. Hydrological condition are moderately run-off, and the distance to the river is about 160 m. The depth of groundwater is 8.3 m, with parallel drainage system. Geological resources found in the site are land and groundwater. The most potential of geological hazard is supposed a rock mass movement. By the land evaluation could be concluded that PPTN Serpong area have moderate suitability for NSD site. (author)

  11. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the calculations it was determined that the designed average boiler output in the group of buildings subject to analysis is 15.7 kW, whereas the mean rated output capacity of boilers installed therein is 25.4 kW. On average, the output capacity of the installed boilers exceeds the use requirements for the buildings by 60%. To calculate the energy efficiency of boilers, the mean annual boiler output capacity use coefficient was determined. For boilers selected on the basis of standard calculations, the mean coefficient is 0.47. For boilers currently in use it is 0.31, less than the above figure. The above calculations show that if boilers were correctly selected in compliance to the building needs, then the average estimated seasonal efficiency of 65% would be feasible. However, in the current state the achievable efficiency is approx. 55%.

  12. Selective-area growth and controlled substrate coupling of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Brian M.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Kehao; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R.; Piasecki, Aleksander F.; Labella, Michael, III; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2017-06-01

    Developing a means for true bottom-up, selective-area growth of two-dimensional (2D) materials on device-ready substrates will enable synthesis in regions only where they are needed. Here, we demonstrate seed-free, site-specific nucleation of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with precise control over lateral growth by utilizing an ultra-thin polymeric surface functionalization capable of precluding nucleation and growth. This polymer functional layer (PFL) is derived from conventional photoresists and lithographic processing, and is compatible with multiple growth techniques, precursors (metal organics, solid-source) and TMDs. Additionally, we demonstrate that the substrate can play a major role in TMD transport properties. With proper TMD/substrate decoupling, top-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated with selectively-grown monolayer MoS2 channels are competitive with current reported MoS2 FETs. The work presented here demonstrates that substrate surface engineering is key to realizing precisely located and geometrically-defined 2D layers via unseeded chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  13. Characteristics of selected elements of the air quality management system in urban areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Kobus, Dominik; Chlebowska Styś, Anna; Zathey, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Most of Europeans living in cities are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants in excess of the thresholds given in the WHO guidelines and EU legislation. Due to this fact, for the urban air quality systems, the mechanisms of proper information and warning of the inhabitants as well as legal, economic and spatial planning instruments should be improved. The analysis of Polish air quality management system and its' selected components (exemplary measures, information-spreading methods, spatial planning instruments) in four selected Polish cities (Wroclaw, Warsaw, Poznan and Cracow) indicated the need to develop effective solutions, among others, in terms of: emission requirements for combustion of fuels of power of up to 1 MW; admission of high emission fuels on the market; legal and coordination issues at the level of implementation of the area development policy and coordination of activities covering issues within the scope of the structure of planning documents including mainly: ambient air protection programs, spatial developments plans in communes and voivodeships, low emission economy plans, plans of sustainable development of public transport, plans of providing heat, electric power and gas fuels to communes, acts of regional parliaments, introducing limitations based on the Environmental Protection Act and strategies of voivodeship.

  14. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Monolithic mode locked DBR laser with multiple-bandgap MQW structure realized by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Bouayad-Amine, J.; Feeser, T.; Haisch, H.; Kuehn, E.; Lach, E.; Satzke, K.; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Telecom, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of novel monolithically integrated multiple-segment pulse laser sources in InGaAsP MQW technology is reported. The MQW layers for all functional sections of these devices, the modulator, the active (gain) and the passive waveguide, as well as the Bragg section were grown in a single selective area growth (SAG) step by LP-MOVPE on SiO{sub 2} patterned 2 inch InP substrates. Due to a properly selected pattern geometry 3 different bandgap regions with smooth interfaces are thereby formed along the laser cavity. The more than 4 mm long DBR lasers which exhibit a threshold current as low as 30 mA were mode locked by an intra-cavity electroabsorption modulator applying a sinusoidal voltage at around 10 GHz. In this way an optical pulse train with pulse widths < 13 ps (measured with a streak camera) and high extinction ratio was generated. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 close to the Fourier limit is obtained. This device is very attractive for signal generation in 40 Gb/s OTDM transmission systems at 1.55 {micro}m wavelength.

  16. A selection study on oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... fruit types that have spread all over the world have been selected through the simple selection method (Özbek, ... Turkey to become a gene centre and a spreading area for various fruit types, while it also helped fruit forms ...... A short guide to. Vista Series ICP-AES operation. Version 1.0, Varian Int. AG, Zug.

  17. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Mining of stibnite (antimony sulfide), tungsten, gold, silver, and mercury near the town of Stibnite in central Idaho has left a legacy of trace element contamination in local streams. Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data from a network of five streamflow-gaging stations were used to estimate trace-element and suspended-sediment loads and flow-weighted concentrations in the Stibnite mining area between 2012 and 2014. Measured concentrations of arsenic exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at each streamflow-gaging station, except for Meadow Creek (site 2), which was selected to represent background conditions in the study area. Measured concentrations of antimony exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at sites 3, 4, and 5.

  18. 100 Areas soil washing tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    The complex nature of cost analysis and systems work demands a level of effort to ensure that decisions made support the best interests of all parties. This tradeoff study will act as a formal decision analysis method for the evaluation of many variables. The documentation of the decision rationale and system design is essential for successful planning and implementation of any system. The Hanford Site offers unique problems for economic analysis of remediation alternatives. The variations in the size of sites, geographic locations, and possible cleanup scenarios all add to the complexity of the tradeoff analysis. A thorough examination of all alternatives must be held to a level of detail appropriate to current regulatory and budgetary considerations. This study will compare the economics of two specific alternatives for remediation of soils at the Hanford Site. Remove and dispose is compared to remove, treat, and dispose. The treatment analyzed in this study is volume reduction through soil washing

  19. Applying the Ecosystem Approach to Select Priority Areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Yungas, Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a method to select forest restoration priority areas consistently with the key principles of the Ecosystem Approach (EA) and the Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) framework. The methodology is based on the principles shared by the two approaches: acting at ecosystem scale, involving stakeholders, and evaluating alternatives. It proposes the involvement of social actors which have a stake in forest management through multicriteria analysis sessions aimed at identifying the most suitable forest restoration intervention. The method was applied to a study area in the native forests of Northern Argentina (the Yungas). Stakeholders were asked to identify alternative restoration actions, i.e. potential areas implementing FLR. Ten alternative fincas—estates derived from the Spanish land tenure system—differing in relation to ownership, management, land use, land tenure, and size were evaluated. Twenty criteria were selected and classified into four groups: biophysical, social, economic and political. Finca Ledesma was the closest to the economic, social, environmental and political goals, according to the values and views of the actors involved in the decision. This study represented the first attempt to apply EA principles to forest restoration at landscape scale in the Yungas region. The benefits obtained by the application of the method were twofold: on one hand, researchers and local actors were forced to conceive the Yungas as a complex net of rights rather than as a sum of personal interests. On the other hand, the participatory multicriteria approach provided a structured process for collective decision-making in an area where it has never been implemented.

  20. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  1. Area Handbook Series. India: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Parties. New York: Facts on File, 1983. Dua , Bhagwan D. "A Study in Executive-Judicial Conflict," Asian Survey, 23, No. 4, April 1983, 463-83. Dutt...September 1977, 1-12. Sagar , Imroze. "Indo-Soviet Interest," Naval War College Re- view, 34, No. 1, January-February 1981, 13-33. Sharma, Gautam. "Defence

  2. Area Handbook Series: Indonesia: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    carry a selendang, a long stretch of cloth draped over the shoulder, which on less formal occasions was used to carry babies or objects. Urban...vols.) (The Asia Society.) New York: Scribner’s, 1988. 419 Indonesia: A Country Study Foss, Christopher F. (ed.). Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 1991-92

  3. Selective Area Modification of Silicon Surface Wettability by Pulsed UV Laser Irradiation in Liquid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Neng; Moumanis, Khalid; Dubowski, Jan J

    2015-11-09

    The wettability of silicon (Si) is one of the important parameters in the technology of surface functionalization of this material and fabrication of biosensing devices. We report on a protocol of using KrF and ArF lasers irradiating Si (001) samples immersed in a liquid environment with low number of pulses and operating at moderately low pulse fluences to induce Si wettability modification. Wafers immersed for up to 4 hr in a 0.01% H2O2/H2O solution did not show measurable change in their initial contact angle (CA) ~75°. However, the 500-pulse KrF and ArF lasers irradiation of such wafers in a microchamber filled with 0.01% H2O2/H2O solution at 250 and 65 mJ/cm(2), respectively, has decreased the CA to near 15°, indicating the formation of a superhydrophilic surface. The formation of OH-terminated Si (001), with no measurable change of the wafer's surface morphology, has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. The selective area irradiated samples were then immersed in a biotin-conjugated fluorescein-stained nanospheres solution for 2 hr, resulting in a successful immobilization of the nanospheres in the non-irradiated area. This illustrates the potential of the method for selective area biofunctionalization and fabrication of advanced Si-based biosensing architectures. We also describe a similar protocol of irradiation of wafers immersed in methanol (CH3OH) using ArF laser operating at pulse fluence of 65 mJ/cm(2) and in situ formation of a strongly hydrophobic surface of Si (001) with the CA of 103°. The XPS results indicate ArF laser induced formation of Si-(OCH3)x compounds responsible for the observed hydrophobicity. However, no such compounds were found by XPS on the Si surface irradiated by KrF laser in methanol, demonstrating the inability of the KrF laser to photodissociate methanol and create -OCH3 radicals.

  4. Air quality lichen monitoring at three selected urban areas in the Southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators, on teritory of three different urban areas in the Southern Serbia (Leskovac, Vlasotince, Lebane are reported. The analysis of samples from 142 investigated points indicates presence of 53 lichens taxa. The aim of the study is to present the difference in air quality over a certain time interval. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity- IAP values, it has been found that there are different air pollution zones: „normal“ zone, „struggle“ zone and „lichen desert“ zone. The comparison of the results obtained in 2002 and 2013 in Vlasotince indicates the presence of „normal“ zone in 2002 but, in 2013, the „normal zone“ area was completely replaced with the „struggle“ zone. In Leskovac, unlike the previous studies, a slightly narrowing “lichen desert" zone is noticed. In Lebane, there is a presence of all lichen zones.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Jordan’s vulnerability increased significantly in February 1979, when Shia radicals overthrew Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran. The Iranian...give formal recognition to the PLO’s role. In an abrupt turn- about in policy, Egyptian foreign minister Ismail Fahmi respond- ed by declaring that Egypt... Fahmi , Ismail, 46 modern, 101-3, 110; government Faisal I (son of Hussein Ali Al Hashimi), spending for, 114; students studying 18, 20-23, as king of

  6. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  7. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the Philippines’ own claim to Sabah, the territory in northeastern Bor- neo that had become a Malaysian state in 1963. Marcos and the Road to Martial...north, was on the risc 50 Historical Setting In 1969 the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was or- ganized on Malaysian soil. The MNLF conducted an...particularly so where the 7enter was itself a full-scale 91 Philippines: A Country Study town, complete with restaurants, cinemas , banks, specialty

  8. Area Handbook Series. Albania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    inadequa prenal cue, tbe proportion of preature births increse •d from 7 to 11 perent between 197 amd early 1992. Hospits lacked es- sen"h mecidmund erp...were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of privately owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs also 151 Albania: A Country Study imported... entrepreneurs from the reta marketplace. At first, peasants began setting up road- side fruit and vegetables stands or carrying their produce to mar- kets in

  9. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    kid- napping of Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann from Argentina. Another kidnapping, in 1986, brought to Israel for prosecution the nuclear...penalty could be imposed for treason or for conviction for Nazi war crimes but, as of 1988, 331 Israel: A Country Study Eichmann was the only person to be...See land ownership Eichmann , Adolph, 331-32 extensive threat concept, 267-68 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 58 Ezekiel, 11 Eisenstadt, S. N., 83 Ezra, II

  10. Study on trace elements in gangue in Huainan mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, F.; Liu, Z.; Lin, B.; Li, W.; Lu, Z. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-08-15

    46 samples were gathered from coal seams and rocks of various lithological types. In these samples, trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IAP-MS)and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA). Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (KVASS), F by ion-selective electrode (IS) and major elements by chemical methods. Eleven trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Zn, F) were selected for study, and five of them, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, were above the background soil level (B.L.) of Huainan City, China and world averages. Respectively: Cd is 40 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Cu is about 2 and 1.5 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Ni is 8 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Sn is 3 and 2 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; and Hg is 3,602 and 1,381 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world. Their hazards caused to the environment of the mining area are explored primarily. It is thought that their hazards may be cumulative. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  12. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  13. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic diseases, lack of proper knowledge

  14. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  15. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  16. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and histopathological and hematobiochemical alterations in backyard chickens reared in an industrial area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indrajit; Mukhopadhayay, Sunit Kumar; Patra, Amlan Kumar; Pradhan, Saktipada

    2018-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of four heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co), and histopathological lesions in tissues of chickens reared in an industrial area of West Bengal, India. In particular, Mejhia Block was selected as a heavy metal-exposed area and Vatar Block (120 km away from industrially polluted areas) as a reference site. Samples were collected from the backyard chickens in these areas. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water, feedstuffs, tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and muscle), and droppings were greater (p  kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Heavy metal concentrations were greater in older chickens (> 1 year) than in young chickens (heavy metal exposure. Histological changes revealed necrotic lesions and tubulitis in the kidney, degeneration and necrosis in liver parenchyma, and periarteriolitis, peribronchiolitis, and presence of hemosiderin pigment in the lung of chickens in the exposed site. Results indicated that backyard chickens in heavy metal-exposed site may show pathological lesions in different tissues due to accumulation of heavy metals, and thus, the consumption of chicken meat from the industrially exposed site may pose a potential health risk to local residents of polluted sites.

  17. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu

    2010-05-01

    Urban systems play a vital role in social and economic development in all countries. Their environmental changes can be investigated on different spatial and temporal scales. Urban and peri-urban environment dynamics is of great interest for future planning and decision making as well as in frame of local and regional changes. Changes in urban land cover include changes in biotic diversity, actual and potential primary productivity, soil quality, runoff, and sedimentation rates, and cannot be well understood without the knowledge of land use change that drives them. The study focuses on the assessment of environmental features changes for Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data. Rational feature selection from the varieties of spectral channels in the optical wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum (VIS and NIR) is very important for effective analysis and information extraction of remote sensing data. Based on comprehensively analyses of the spectral characteristics of remote sensing data is possibly to derive environmental changes in urban areas. The information quantity contained in a band is an important parameter in evaluating the band. The deviation and entropy are often used to show information amount. Feature selection is one of the most important steps in recognition and classification of remote sensing images. Therefore, it is necessary to select features before classification. The optimal features are those that can be used to distinguish objects easily and correctly. Three factors—the information quantity of bands, the correlation between bands and the spectral characteristic (e.g. absorption specialty) of classified objects in test area Bucharest have been considered in our study. As, the spectral characteristic of an object is influenced by many factors, being difficult to define optimal feature parameters to distinguish all the objects in a whole area, a method of multi-level feature selection

  18. Potential Study of Water Extraction from Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is absorbed by the roots of a plant and transported subsequently as a liquid to all parts of the plant before being released into the atmosphere as transpiration. In this study, seven(7selected plant species collected from urban, rural and forested areas were studied and characterized. The water was collected using transparent plastic bag that being tied to the tree branches. Then, the vapouris water trapped inside the plastic bag and through the condensation process, it become water droplets. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH value, DO, turbidity, colour, magnesium, calcium, nitrate and chloride were analyzed. The analysis was compared to drinking water quality standard set by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Based on the results, it shows that banana leaf has a higher rate of water extraction compared to others. Thus, the plant can be categorised as a helpful guide for emergency use of water or as an alternative source to survival.

  19. Geological site selection studies in Precambrian crystalline rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.

    1988-01-01

    In general geological investigations made since 1977 the Finnish crystalline bedrock has been determined to be suitable for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. Regional investigations have been mainly based on already existing geological studies. Special attention has been paid on the international geological Finland as the Baltic Shield is stiff and stable and situated far outside the zones of volcanic and seismic activity. The present day crustal movements in Finland are related to landuplift process. Movements and possible faults in the bedrock follow fracture zones which devide the bedrock into mosaiclike blocks. As compared to small scale geological maps the bedrock blocks are often indicated as large granite rock formations which are less broken than the surrounding rocks, though the age of granite formations is at least 1500 millions of years. The large bedrock blocks (20-300 km 2 ) are divided to smaller units by different magnitudes of fractures and these smaller bedrock units (5-20 km 2 ) have been selected for further site selection investigations. At the first stage of investigations 327 suitable regional bedrock blocks have been identified on the basis of Landsat-1 winter and summer mosaics of Finland. After two years of investigations 134 investigation areas were selected inside 61 bedrock blocks and classified to four priority classes, the three first of which were redommended for further investigations. Geological criteries used in classification indicated clear differences between the classes one and three, however all classified areas are situated in large rather homogenous bedrock blocks and more exact three dimensional suitability errors may not be observed until deep bore holes have been made

  20. Research for Preseismic Phenomena on the Underground Water Level and Temperature in Selected Areas of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Asteriadis, G.

    1997-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the tectonic activity require the contribution of a variety of methods, geological, seismic, geodetic, satellite etc., being currently available in our days. On the other hand, the risk evaluation in areas of high seismicity, like this one of the South Balkan Peninsula, is of vital importance. To this purpose an interdisciplinary following up of the tectonic activity in the area may provide the best provision to the administration for an effective confrontation and intervention for the elimination of the possible disastrous effects in human life cost, financial and social cost of the communities, to which may result a strong earthquake. Among the various methods of indirect monitoring of the tectonic activity in an area, which in addition is of a low cost, is that of the following up of the underground water level and temperature changes in the area of interest. This method is based on the fact that tectonic activity is expected to result to tectonic stresses producing alterations to the local water table which in its turn is expected is expected to be observed as variation of the underground water level and temperature. The method of the following up of the underground water and temperature changes has been applied, among others by the Department of Geodesy and Surveying of the University of Thessaloniki in two areas of high seismicity in Greece: (a) The seismic zone of the lake Volvi in North Greece (40.5 deg N and 23.5 deg E) for ten years (1983-1992) and (b) the area of South Thessaly (39.2 deg N and 21 deg E) for three years (1994-1996). The statistical analysis of the observations, shows that the low frequency constituent (Sa,Ssa,Mf,Mm) of the earth tides and the barometric pressure have a small influence on the water level measurements. The shallow underground water network of South Thessaly is more sensitive to the non tectonic factors than the network of Volvi. Tentative correlation of the underground wat! er and temperature

  1. Selecting ground-motion models developed for induced seismicity in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Douglas, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a case study of the ranking and weighting of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for seismic hazard assessment of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). The study region is Cooper Basin (Australia), where a hot-fractured-rock project was established in 2002. We test the applicability of 36 GMPEs based on stochastic simulations previously proposed for use at EGSs. Each GMPE has a set of corresponding model parameters describing stress drop, regional and local (near-surface) attenuation. To select suitable GMPEs for Cooper Basin from the full set, we applied two methods. In the first, seismograms recorded on the local monitoring network were spectrally analysed to determine characteristic stress and attenuation parameters. In a second approach, residual analysis using the log-likelihood (LLH) method was used to directly compare recorded and predicted short-period response spectral accelerations. The resulting ranking was consistent with the models selected based on spectral analysis, with the advantage that a transparent weighting approach was available using the LLH method. Region-specific estimates of variability were computed, with significantly lower values observed compared to previous studies of small earthquakes. This was consistent with the limited range of stress drops and attenuation observed from the spectral analysis.

  2. Growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of GaN columns by selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Hartmann, Jana; Mandl, Martin; Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Strassburg, Martin; Waag, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional GaN columns recently have attracted a lot of attention as the potential basis for core-shell light emitting diodes for future solid state lighting. In this study, the fundamental insights into growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of N-polar GaN columns during selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned SiOx/sapphire templates are systematically investigated using various pitch of apertures, growth time, and silane flow. Species impingement fluxes on the top surface of columns Jtop and on their sidewall Jsw, as well as, the diffusion flux from the substrate Jsub contribute to the growth of the GaN columns. The vertical and lateral growth rates devoted by Jtop, Jsw and Jsub are estimated quantitatively. The diffusion length of species on the SiOx mask surface λsub as well as on the sidewall surfaces of the 3D columns λsw are determined. The influences of silane on the growth kinetics are discussed. A growth model is developed for this selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy processing.

  3. ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY IN SELECTED AREAS OF A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT WITH THE USE OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL AIR SAMPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Konieczny

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the air quality in selected production facilities specified as the so-called "high-risk zones". Air samples were analyzed using either the sedimentation or the impaction methods. The impaction method showed the applicability of the air sampler in in-situ measurements. An increase in the numbers of aerobic bacteria was observed in most air sample collection sites as the duration of the production time increased. At the three successive dates, it amounted to 163 cfu/m3, 205 cfu/m3, and 324 cfu/m3, respectively. Such dependence was not observed by the of sedimentation method. It was stated that the impaction technique is better to precisely determine numbers of bacteria, yeast, and molds in the air of poultry processing areas. Analyses showed a high level of microbial air contamination in the examined production areas in relation to the guidelines applied in the assessment of indoor air contamination. Based on the recorded results, it was recommended to undertake immediate corrective actions, consisting in the replacement of filters in the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, as well as to provide comprehensive training for the employees working in the selected facilities.

  4. The use of environmental isotopes on groundwater hydrology in the selected areas in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buapeng, S.

    1990-11-01

    A detailed environmental isotope investigation (using 0-18, H-2, H-3, C-14 and C-13 isotopes) has been carried out in a multi-layer aquifer system of the Chao-Phraya basin in Thailand. The main emphasis of the applied field research has been placed on the delineation of genesis of water and on studying the regional replenishment and flow characteristics of the groundwater in the lower Chao-Phraya basin (Bangkok Metropolitan Area). The results of isotope data gathered have been evaluated along with hydrochemical and basic hydrogeological data, to provide quantitative information on the replenishment characteristics of the groundwater and on the cause and processes involved in the increase of salinity being observed in the groundwater system of the Bangkok area. The report provides all the isotopic results and other relevant data together with interpretation and evaluation of the results. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  6. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra), radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and potassium-40 ( 40 K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H in ), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  7. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  8. Selection of hybrid vehicle for green environment using multi-attributive border approximation area comparison method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumar Biswas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobility sector including all kinds of transportation systems are facing global challenges in re-spect of green environmental issues. There has been a paradigm shift in the concept of design and manufacturing of automotive vehicles keeping in mind the scarcity of fossil fuel and the impact of emission on environment due to burning of it. The addition of hybrid and electric vehicles in pas-senger car segment has got significant momentum to address the global challenges. This research investigates the performance of a group of hybrid vehicles from customers’ perspective. Among the different brands that are available in the hybrid vehicle market, smart customers have given pri-ority to vehicle cost, mileage, tail pipe emission, comfortness and high tank size volume for long drive. Considering these attributes, selection strategy for hybrid vehicles has been developed using entropy based multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method. This research highlights the best hybrid vehicle which reduces air pollution in cities with other significant environmental benefits, reduces dependence on foreign energy imports and minimizes the annual fuel cost.

  9. Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading.

  10. Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Yao, Maoqing; Chi, Chunyung; Huang, Ningfeng; Lin, Chenxi; Li, Ruijuan; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-06-13

    Vertically aligned, catalyst-free semiconducting nanowires hold great potential for photovoltaic applications, in which achieving scalable synthesis and optimized optical absorption simultaneously is critical. Here, we report combining nanosphere lithography (NSL) and selected area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (SA-MOCVD) for the first time for scalable synthesis of vertically aligned gallium arsenide nanowire arrays, and surprisingly, we show that such nanowire arrays with patterning defects due to NSL can be as good as highly ordered nanowire arrays in terms of optical absorption and reflection. Wafer-scale patterning for nanowire synthesis was done using a polystyrene nanosphere template as a mask. Nanowires grown from substrates patterned by NSL show similar structural features to those patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL). Reflection of photons from the NSL-patterned nanowire array was used as a measure of the effect of defects present in the structure. Experimentally, we show that GaAs nanowires as short as 130 nm show reflection of <10% over the visible range of the solar spectrum. Our results indicate that a highly ordered nanowire structure is not necessary: despite the "defects" present in NSL-patterned nanowire arrays, their optical performance is similar to "defect-free" structures patterned by more costly, time-consuming EBL methods. Our scalable approach for synthesis of vertical semiconducting nanowires can have application in high-throughput and low-cost optoelectronic devices, including solar cells.

  11. Brief communication "Fast-track earthquake risk assessment for selected urban areas in Turkey"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kepekci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is presented as a contribution to earthquake disaster mitigation studies for selected cities in Turkey. The risk evaluations must be based on earthquake hazard analysis and city information. To estimate the ground motion level, data for earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 4.5 and an epicenter location within a 100-km radius of each city were used for the period from 1900 to 2006, as recorded at the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for each city was carried out using Poisson probabilistic approaches. Ground motion level was estimated as the probability of a given degree of acceleration with a 10% exceedence rate during a 50-year time period for each city. The risk level of each city was evaluated using the number of houses, the per-capita income of city residents, population, and ground motion levels. The maximum risk level obtained for the cities was taken as a reference value for relative risk assessment, and other risk values were estimated relative to the maximum risk level. When the selected cities were classified according to their relative risk levels, the five most risky cities were found to be, in descending order of risk, Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, and Kocaeli.

  12. Prevalence of leptospiral DNA among wild rodents from a selected area in Beguk Dam Labis, Segamat, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, I; Rahmat, M S; Hayarti, K B; Paramasvaran, S; Azizah, M R; Imran, F; Normaznah, Y

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease. The differential diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult due to the varied and often "flu like" symptoms which may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis. Leptospira is the aetiological agent of leptospirosis, a bacterial zoonosis with worldwide distribution. There are over 230 known serovars in the genus Leptospira. The true prevalence of leptospirosis in Malaysia is unknown or underestimated. Our goal was to determine the prevalence for Leptospira infection in rodents in a selected area in Beguk Dam Labis, Segamat, Johor. A study was carried out on 69 serum samples of trapped wild rodents. DNA was extracted from the sera using Leptospira PCR kit (Shanghai ZJ Bio-Tech Co., Ltd). Of 69 rodent serum samples tested by PCR, 9 (13%) showed positive results. In this study we found that (13%) of wild rodents caught in Beguk Dam Labis were infected by Leptospira.

  13. Application of radioimmunoassay methods for malaria detection in two selected endemic areas in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, N.P.; Natera, E.S.; Pasay, C.J.; Tiu, W.U.

    1995-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used with the synthetic peptide, (NANP)3 in detecting anti-sporozoite antibody (against Plasmodium falcifarum) in serum of persons residing in two (2) endimic areas in the Philippines. entomological surveys for sporozoite detection in mosquito vectors utilizing monoclonal antibodies (2A10 for P. falciparum and 2F2 for P. vivax) were likewise conducted in the same areas where serological surveys were performed. These two areas are located on separate islands, with varying malaria transmission seasons and levels of endemicity. Initial findings showed positive response to the CSP antigen (NANP)3 in detecting anti - P. falciparum antibodies in sera. Infection with sporozoites of P. falciparum and P. vivax in mosquito vectors were detected using monoclonal antibodies 2A10 and 2F2 respectively. The latter procedure was shown to be more sensitive than dissection of mosquito salivary glands. Initial study shows a heightened level of anti-(NANP)3 antibodies in both populations prior to the generally accepted peak of malaria season indicating that RIA with CSP antigen and specific MAbs can be a useful epidemiological tool for understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission as well as in monitoring control programmes based on reducing manvector contact. (author) 15 refs.,12 tabs

  14. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Jarosław; Łopacka, Magdalena; John, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  15. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  16. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  17. Selected studies in HTGR reprocessing development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-03-01

    Recent work at ORNL on hot cell studies, off-gas cleanup, and waste handling is reviewed. The work includes small-scale burning tests with irradiated fuels to study fission product release, development of the KALC process for the removal of 85 Kr from a CO 2 stream, preliminary work on a nonfluidized bed burner, solvent extraction studies including computer modeling, characterization of reprocessing wastes, and initiation of a development program for the fixation of 14 C as CaCO 3

  18. Study renewable energy - sugarcane ethanol. Traditional areas. Final report; Estudo energias renovaveis - etanol de cana. Areas tradicionais. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the mapping of areas with potential for ethanol production in traditional areas of the Brazil. In the traditional areas, with clear emphasis in the Northeast region of Brazil, was selected ten areas in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. In the Southeast region two areas, between the Norte Fluminense, Southern of the Espirito Santo and eastern of the Minas Gerais.

  19. Integrated analysis of present and future responses of precipitation over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The assessment of future precipitation variations prevailing in an area is essential for the research regarding climate and climate change. The current paper focuses on 3 selected areas in Greece that present different climatic characteristics due to their location and aims to assess and compare the future variation of annual and seasonal precipitation. Future precipitation data from the ENSEMBLES anthropogenic climate-change (ACC) global simulations and the Climate version of the Local Model (CLM) were obtained and analyzed. The climate simulations were performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under the A1B and B1 scenarios. Mann-Kendall test was applied to investigate possible trends. Spatial distribution of precipitation was performed using a combination of dynamic and statistical downscaling techniques and Kriging method within ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for both scenarios, reference periods and study areas, precipitation is expected to be critically decreased. Additionally, Mann-Kendall test application showed a strong downward trend for every study area. Furthermore, the decrease in precipitation for the Ardas River basin characterized by the continental climate will be tempered, while in the Sperchios River basin it will be smoother due to the influence of some minor climatic variations in the basins' springs in the highlands where milder conditions occur. Precipitation decrease in the Geropotamos River basin which is characterized by Mediterranean climate will be more vigorous. B1 scenario appeared more optimistic for the Ardas and Sperchios River basins, while in the Geropotamos River basin, both applied scenarios brought similar results, in terms of future precipitation response.

  20. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  1. Selection as a learning experience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F; Engbers, Rik; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Fluit, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Research on selection for medical school does not explore selection as a learning experience, despite growing attention for the learning effects of assessment in general. Insight in the learning effects allows us to take advantage of selection as an inclusive part of medical students' learning process to become competent professionals. The aims of this study at Radboud University Medical Center, the Netherlands, were 1) to determine whether students have learning experiences in the selection process, and, if so, what experiences; and 2) to understand what students need in order to utilize the learning effects of the selection process at the start of the formal curriculum. We used focus groups to interview 30 students admitted in 2016 about their learning experiences in the selection process. Thematic analysis was used to explore the outcomes of the interviews and to define relevant themes. In the selection process, students learned about the curriculum, themselves, their relation to others, and the profession they had been selected to enter, although this was not explicitly perceived as learning. Students needed a connection between selection and the curriculum as well as feedback to be able to really use their learning experiences for their further development. Medical school selection qualifies as a learning experience, and students as well as medical schools can take advantage of this. We recommend a careful design of the selection procedure, integrating relevant selection learning experiences into the formal curriculum, providing feedback and explicitly approaching the selection and the formal curriculum as interconnected contributors to students' development.

  2. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  3. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Selected Boreholes in Ohaozara and Ivo Council Areas of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omaka, O.N.; Offor, I.F.; Igwe, D. O.; Ugochukwu, E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater quality in study areas was evaluated by measuring the physicochemical parameters including selected ions in water samples collected from 12 boreholes in Akaeze, Okposi and Uburu towns of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in April, 2013 and analysed using standard methods. Results obtained showed that, except for AS/sup 5+/ content, all other parameters investigated fall within WHO standards for potable water. Regression analysis showed that conductivity, SO/sub 4/ /sup 2-/ and As/sup 5+/ levels are important variables in predicting the TDS values of the samples while NO/sub 3/ /sup -/, Cl/sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 3-/ and TDS are important in predicting the As/sup 5+/ content of the water samples. One-way ANOVA at P < 0.05 showed Fcal (1.862) > Ftab (0.619), implying a significant difference between the parameters for all locations. (author)

  4. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Fabrication of GaAs nanowire devices with self-aligning W-gate electrodes using selective-area MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooike, N.; Motohisa, J.; Fukui, T.

    2004-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel self-aligning process for fabricating the tungsten (W) gate electrode of GaAs nanowire FETs by using selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) where SiO 2 /W composite films are used to mask the substrates. First, to study the growth process and its dependence on mask materials, GaAs wire structures were grown on masked substrates partially covered with a single W layer or SiO 2 /W composite films. We found that lateral growth over the masked regions could be suppressed when a wire along the [110] direction and a SiO 2 /W composite mask were used. Using this composite mask, we fabricated GaAs narrow channel FETs using W as a Schottky gate electrode, and we were able to observe FET characteristics at room temperature

  6. Case studies on selected natural food antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Mendiola, J. A.; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, a broad description of several case studies related to common antioxidants found in food-related products is presented. In this regard, special attention is put on the novel advanced environmentally-friendly extraction methods nowadays employed to extract and purify those potent antioxidants from natural matrices. A brief description of these extraction processes is provided together with some of the instrumentation needed. Besides, the studies carried out so f...

  7. Genetic structure and genetic diversity of Swietenia macrophylla in areas subjected to selective logging in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá, Raúl Ernesto; Cruz, Silvia De la; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that selective logging has a negative effect by altering the genetic parameters of tropical tree species was evaluated. The genetic diversity and genetic structure between adult trees (N = 47) and saplings (N = 50) of Swietenia macrophylla were contrasted within an area subjected to selective logging in the Mayan zone. Although differences in the number of alleles and in their frequencies were detected between both groups, the observed and expected heterozygosity and the coeffi...

  8. Stream Sediment Geochemical Survey of Selected Element In Catchment Area Of Saguling Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Eka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saguling Lake is one of the largest lakes in West Java Province that accommodates domestic and non-domestic wastes via the Citarum River as its main water source. This study aims to determine the geochemical background concentration (Cbg in water catchment area of Saguling Lake. The knowledge of the Cbg of heavy metals is essential for defining pollution, identifying the source of contamination, and for establishing reliable environmental quality criteria for sediments. The value of Cbg will be used for assessment of the sediment quality in Saguling Lake. Assessment of sediment quality is very important to determine the actual condition of water in the lake and as the basis for management of waters environment in the future. The search was taken at 22 sampling points in the unpolluted water catchment area. Samples were collected and analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. Each sample was digested in agua regia and analyzed by ICP-EOS. Results showed Cbg which are: Cd 0.34 ± 0.10 mg/kg, Cr 110.57 ± 28.61 mg/kg, Cu 49.93 ± 9.28 mg/kg, and Pb 18.62 ± 9.83 mg/kg. Based on the assessment result, it is concluded that the sediment quality in Saguling Lake is categorized as polluted by Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb metals.

  9. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  10. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  11. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  13. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) ... for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards ... Canada can learn from Uganda's gender budgeting experience.

  14. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  15. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mkama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of this research study was to determine FMDV infection status among buffalo and cattle herds in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas. The sampled areas included Mikumi, Mkomazi and Ruaha national parks, where a total of 330 buffalo and bovine sera samples were collected. Laboratory analysis of the samples was done through the NSP ELISA technique using the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS Kit for detection of antibodies directed against 3ABC non-structural proteins and confirming natural infections. Results showed that 76.3% of tested sera samples were positive for FMDV. However, serotyping of NSP ELISA seroreactors with LPBE is yet to be done. This information is important for further epidemiological studies towards developing effective FMD control strategies.

  16. Expertise Effects in Face-Selective Areas are Robust to Clutter and Diverted Attention, but not to Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Van Gulick, Ana E; Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Ross, David A; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Expertise effects for nonface objects in face-selective brain areas may reflect stable aspects of neuronal selectivity that determine how observers perceive objects. However, bottom-up (e.g., clutter from irrelevant objects) and top-down manipulations (e.g., attentional selection) can influence activity, affecting the link between category selectivity and individual performance. We test the prediction that individual differences expressed as neural expertise effects for cars in face-selective areas are sufficiently stable to survive clutter and manipulations of attention. Additionally, behavioral work and work using event related potentials suggest that expertise effects may not survive competition; we investigate this using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects varying in expertise with cars made 1-back decisions about cars, faces, and objects in displays containing one or 2 objects, with only one category attended. Univariate analyses suggest car expertise effects are robust to clutter, dampened by reducing attention to cars, but nonetheless more robust to manipulations of attention than competition. While univariate expertise effects are severely abolished by competition between cars and faces, multivariate analyses reveal new information related to car expertise. These results demonstrate that signals in face-selective areas predict expertise effects for nonface objects in a variety of conditions, although individual differences may be expressed in different dependent measures depending on task and instructions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in selected rocks from Hetaunda area, Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallova, G.

    2010-01-01

    The specific activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K were measured in rock samples from the Hetaunda area, central Nepal, by using gamma spectrometry. The specific activities were found to be in the range of 17 - 95 Bq.kg -1 for 238 U, 24 - 260 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th and 32 - 541 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. From these data absorbed dose rates in air and annual effective doses were calculated and compared with respective data from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) compilation. The results from our study open the door to the safe applicability of most of the investigated materials as a cheep building material. (author)

  18. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  19. Regional climate models' performance in representing precipitation and temperature over selected Mediterranean areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22° (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean region. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the observed data fields (E-OBS data set, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best-performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of four RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the 21st century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, in some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and advice for researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more generally, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean region.

  20. Occurrence Prospect of HDR and Target Site Selection Study in Southeastern of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Gan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource is one of the most important clean energy in future. Site selection a HDR resource is a fundamental work to explore the HDR resources. This paper compiled all the HDR development projects domestic and abroad, and summarized the location of HDR geothermal geological index. After comparing the geological background of HDR in the southeast coastal area of China, Yangjiang Xinzhou in Guangdong province, Leizhou Peninsula area, Lingshui in Hainan province and Huangshadong in Guangzhou were selected from some key potential target area along the southeast coast of China. Deep geothermal field model of the study area is established based on the comprehensive analysis of the target area of deep geothermal geological background and deep thermal anomalies. This paper also compared the hot dry rock resources target locations, and proposed suggestions for the priority exploration target area and exploration scheme.

  1. Selection of water treatment processes special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. The restoration of contaminated aquifers is to be undertaken in Phase II of the UMTRA Project. To begin implementation of Phase II, DOE requested that groundwater restoration methods and technologies be investigated by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). and that the results of the TAC investigations be documented in special study reports. Many active and passive methods are available to clean up contaminated groundwater. Passive groundwater treatment includes natural flushing, geochemical barriers, and gradient manipulation by stream diversion or slurry walls. Active groundwater.cleanup techniques include gradient manipulation by well extraction or injection. in-situ biological or chemical reclamation, and extraction and treatment. Although some or all of the methods listed above may play a role in the groundwater cleanup phase of the UMTRA Project, the extraction and treatment (pump and treat) option is the only restoration alternative discussed in this report. Hence, all sections of this report relate either directly or indirectly to the technical discipline of process engineering

  2. Directional selection in temporally replicated studies is remarkably consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2012-02-01

    Temporal variation in selection is a fundamental determinant of evolutionary outcomes. A recent paper presented a synthetic analysis of temporal variation in selection in natural populations. The authors concluded that there is substantial variation in the strength and direction of selection over time, but acknowledged that sampling error would result in estimates of selection that were more variable than the true values. We reanalyze their dataset using techniques that account for the necessary effect of sampling error to inflate apparent levels of variation and show that directional selection is remarkably constant over time, both in magnitude and direction. Thus we cannot claim that the available data support the existence of substantial temporal heterogeneity in selection. Nonetheless, we conject that temporal variation in selection could be important, but that there are good reasons why it may not appear in the available data. These new analyses highlight the importance of applying techniques that estimate parameters of the distribution of selection, rather than parameters of the distribution of estimated selection (which will reflect both sampling error and "real" variation in selection); indeed, despite availability of methods for the former, focus on the latter has been common in synthetic reviews of the aspects of selection in nature, and can lead to serious misinterpretations. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Understanding the effects of different social data on selecting priority conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Azadeh; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Brown, Greg; Hockings, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Conservation success is contingent on assessing social and environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially explicit social values and land-use preferences collected using a public participation geographic information system and biological data. We used Zonation to integrate the social data with the biological data in a series of spatial-prioritization scenarios to determine the effect of the different types of social data on spatial prioritization compared with biological data alone. The type of social data (i.e., conservation opportunities or constraints) significantly affected spatial prioritization outcomes. The integration of social values and land-use preferences under different scenarios was highly variable and generated spatial prioritizations 1.2-51% different from those based on biological data alone. The inclusion of conservation-compatible values and preferences added relatively few new areas to conservation priorities, whereas including noncompatible economic values and development preferences as costs significantly changed conservation priority areas (48.2% and 47.4%, respectively). Based on our results, a multifaceted conservation prioritization approach that combines spatially explicit social data with biological data can help conservation planners identify the type of social data to collect for more effective and feasible conservation actions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  5. Selection of test and reference areas for the Indian Deepsea Environment Experiment (INDEX)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.

    50 3 50 cm and Okean grabs with camera and a sampling area of 0.25m2were used at 12–13 locations,for collecting nodule and sediment samples (Figure 1). Nod-ule abundance was estimated by dividing the weight of nodules in the sampler by its area...,and number of peaks (. 10 m) between the digitized points (Table 2).Results Nodule Distribution in Different AreasArea T1. Of the 13 sampled locations,nodule abundance at two locations was nil,and rangedbetwen 0.25 and 7.42 kg/m 2in the remaining 11 locations...

  6. Marketing strategy and product performance: a study of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing strategy and product performance: a study of selected firms in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... This paper therefore recommends that business organisations should accord necessary ...

  7. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  8. An optimization approach to selecting research natural areas in National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Lucy E. Tyrrell; Robert G. Haight

    1999-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has a long-established program to identify areas in national forests for designation as protected Research Natural Areas (RNAs). One of the goals is to protect high quality examples of regional ecosystems for the purposes of maintaining biological diversity, conducting nonmanipulative research and monitoring, and fostering education. When RNA...

  9. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena; Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

  10. Geological site selection studies for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, M.; Vuorela, P.; Kuivamaeki, A.

    1985-10-01

    In the work of selecting at the areas, heed has been taken of international geological recommendations, which have been adapted to local conditions prevailing in this country. At the present stage, the studies are largely based on the available information about the bedrock of Finland, as contained in, for example, geological maps, various geophysical maps covering the country as a whole and the maps of ore deposits and indications as well as of groundwater areas. The regional investigations of the structure of the Finnish bedrock has taken as its point of departure the study of satellite photos. These pictures best show the mosaiclike block structure of the Finnish bedrock, where the fracture zones surrounding the blocks are involved in the movements of the bedrock resulting mainly from land uplift. From the interpretation of satellite photos, attention has switched over to the interpretation of large-scale maps and stereoscopic aerial photographs. The investigation areas selected by the interpretation of aerial photos have also been studied tentatively on the ground to obtain a more accurate comparative estimation of the different localities. Of the areas chosen for study, the majority consist of granites, which best meet the geological site selection recommendations. The investigation areas have been classified into four categories according to how well they are suited to further study. One important criterion in the classification has been the amount of information obtainable from the bedrock. The areas included in the first category have well exposed and solid bedrock. The areas chosen for inclusion in the second category contain fewer outcrops and are not so easy to study with respect to the structure of the bedrock. The areas included in the third category are generally blanketed under surficial deposits with the result that obtaining reliable information about the bedrock calls for further investigation. The fourth category represents areas where features

  11. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Application effect of TEM sounding survey on prospecting and target area selection of sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianguo; Liang Shanming; Zhao Cuiping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding survey during recent years regional geological reconnaissance with drilling (1:250000), the application effect of TEM sounding survey during regional reconnaissance is summarized in this paper. It is suggested that the data of TEM sounding are useful in judging hydrodynamic conditions of groundwater and determining favorable areas for uranium ore-formation; TEM sounding in large areas may be proper for prospecting in gobi-desert areas and be beneficial for regional reconnaissance and target area selection, and may reduce the target area and provide basis for further drilling program. It is of popularized significance in the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits. (authors)

  14. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  15. SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO RAISE AWARENESS AND PROMOTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport

  16. Determination of selected toxic elements in leaves of White Hawthorn grown in a remote area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiner M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One important plant of the Rosaceae family which is commonly used as phytopharmaceutical in Europe and North America is Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna. The fruits, the leaves together with their extracts are applied in patients suffering mild cardiac disorders or nervosity. Since the leaves as well as the berries act as diuretics a sufficient micronutrient supply has to be guaranteed. On the other the quantities of toxic elements present in the plant parts should be at levels without harmful effects on human health. For this purpose Hawthorn leaves and flowers were collected in a remote area in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their elemental composition. The metals uptaken from the soil were supposed to be in a similar range, thus the impact of airborne contamination by heavy metal translocation could be studied. The elements investigated were Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn. After harvesting the samples were dried, homogenized, digested and then analysed by ICP-AES. The contents of all elements are in the μg/g range. In the samples of 2012 higher concentrations were found for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn, lower concentrations were registered for Ba, Pb, and Sr. The amounts of Cd and Cr were statistically insignificantly lower in 2012 than 2011.

  17. Modelling Distribution Function of Surface Ozone Concentration for Selected Suburban Areas in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Izwan Zariq Mokhtar; Nurul Adyani Ghazali; Muhammad Yazid Nasir; Norhazlina Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is known as an important secondary pollutant in the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to find the best fit distribution for calculating exceedance and return period of ozone based on suburban areas; Perak (AMS1) and Pulau Pinang (AMS2). Three distributions namely Gamma, Rayleigh and Laplace were used to fit 2 years ozone data (2010 and 2011). The parameters were estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) in order to plot probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF). Four performance indicators were used to find the best distribution namely, normalized absolute error (NAE), prediction accuracy (PA), coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best distribution to represent ozone concentration at both sites in 2010 and 2011 is Gamma distribution with the smallest error measure (NAE and RMSE) and the highest adequacy measure (PA and R 2 ). For the 2010 data, AMS1 was predicted to exceed 0.1 ppm for 2 days in 2011 with a return period of one occurrence. (author)

  18. Recruitment and quality academic staff selection: the case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources from which organizations decide to select personnel from are central to its ability to survive, adapt, and grow (Noe et al, 2004:171). The paper examines a case study of recruitment and selection of quality academic staff into Covenant University. The paper addresses the factors that could affect recruitment ...

  19. Economic evaluation of the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The economic impact of employing the highly ranked blankets in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) was evaluated in the context of both a tokamak and a tandem mirror power reactor (TMR). The economic evaluation criterion was determined to be the cost of electricity. The influencing factors that were considered are the direct cost of the blankets and related systems; the annual cost of blanket replacement; and the performance of the blanket, heat transfer, and energy conversion systems. The technical and cost bases for comparison were those of the STARFIRE and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study conceptual design power plants. The economic evaluation results indicated that the nitrate-salt-cooled blanket concept is an economically attractive concept for either reactor type. The water-cooled, solid breeder blanket is attractive for the tokamak and somewhat less attractive for the TMR. The helium-cooled, liquidlithium breeder blanket is the least economically desirable of higher ranked concepts. The remaining self-cooled liquid-metal and the helium-cooled blanket concepts represent moderately attractive concepts from an economic standpoint. These results are not in concert with those found in the other BCSS evaluation areas (engineering feasibility, safety, and research and development (R and D) requirements). The blankets faring well economically had generally lower cost components, lower pumping power requirements, and good power production capability. On the other hand, helium- and lithium-cooled systems were preferred from the standpoints of safety, engineering feasibility, and R and D requirements

  20. Radioecological studies in Goiania urban area: review; Estudos radioecologicos na area urbana de Goiania: revisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Studies on the behaviour and transport of {sup 137} Cs in urban areas, including, resuspension and deposition experiments, {sup 137} Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and small domestic animals that accidentally ingested contaminated soil, were performed in a house located at 57{sup t}h Street near the main focus of contamination. The resuspension of surface soil did not contribute much to the spreading of the radionuclide in Goiania, but can lead to the local contamination of vegetables, equipment, structures and other environmental surfaces. The mechanism also presented a seasonal effect. The soil is an important medium for the uptake of {sup 137} Cs by small domestic animals. The street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the dispersion of {sup 137} Cs in urban areas. After 10 years, the radionuclide activity concentration is restricted only to the initially impacted area an it is decreasing with time. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  1. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A.I.T.; Possingham, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of arme...... that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk.......The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed...... conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed...

  2. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  3. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, E; Tulloch, A I T; Possingham, H P; Strange, N; Wilson, K A

    2016-03-30

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of armed conflicts. We find that ignoring conflict risk will deliver the lowest return on investment. Opting to completely avoid conflict-prone areas offers limited improvements and could lead to species receiving no protection. Accounting for conflict by protecting additional areas to offset the impacts of armed conflicts would not only increase the return on investment (an effect that is enhanced when high-risk areas are excluded) but also increase upfront conservation costs. Our results also demonstrate that fine-scale estimations of conflict risk could enhance the cost-effectiveness of investments. We conclude that achieving biodiversity targets in volatile regions will require greater initial investment and benefit from fine-resolution estimates of conflict risk.

  4. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  5. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a BAL with lateral-mode selected external feedback experimentally by measuring the far-field profile, intensity noise spectrum and time series of the output beam. The mode-selection is achieved by adjusting a stripe mirror at the pseudo far-field plan...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge....

  6. New Inversion and Interpretation of Public-Domain Electromagnetic Survey Data from Selected Areas in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; Kass, A.; Saltus, R. W.; Minsley, B. J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Bloss, B. R.; Burns, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Public-domain airborne geophysical surveys (combined electromagnetics and magnetics), mostly collected for and released by the State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), are a unique and valuable resource for both geologic interpretation and geophysical methods development. A new joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the DGGS aims to add value to these data through the application of novel advanced inversion methods and through innovative and intuitive display of data: maps, profiles, voxel-based models, and displays of estimated inversion quality and confidence. Our goal is to make these data even more valuable for interpretation of geologic frameworks, geotechnical studies, and cryosphere studies, by producing robust estimates of subsurface resistivity that can be used by non-geophysicists. The available datasets, which are available in the public domain, include 39 frequency-domain electromagnetic datasets collected since 1993, and continue to grow with 5 more data releases pending in 2013. The majority of these datasets were flown for mineral resource purposes, with one survey designed for infrastructure analysis. In addition, several USGS datasets are included in this study. The USGS has recently developed new inversion methodologies for airborne EM data and have begun to apply these and other new techniques to the available datasets. These include a trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, laterally-constrained regularized inversions, and deterministic inversions which include calibration factors as a free parameter. Incorporation of the magnetic data as an additional constraining dataset has also improved the inversion results. Processing has been completed in several areas, including Fortymile and the Alaska Highway surveys, and continues in others such as the Styx River and Nome surveys. Utilizing these new techniques, we provide models beyond the apparent resistivity maps supplied by the original

  7. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  8. Lead levels in deciduous teeth of children from selected urban areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... Blood and urine levels are markers of recent ... The selected teeth were stored in plastic bags at _7° C. Before analysis remnants of roots (if ... varied from sample to sample, so that aqueous standards could not be used for ...

  9. Large-area selective CVD epitaxial growth of Ge on Si substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.; Nanver, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Selective epitaxial growth of crystalline Ge on Si in a standard ASM Epsilon 2000 CVD reactor is investigated for the fabrication of Ge p+n diodes. At the deposition temperature of 700?C, most of the lattice mismatch-defects are trapped within first 300nm of Ge growth and good quality single crystal

  10. Changes in spatiotemporal land use patterns in selected hydrogeomorphic areas of China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences exist in land use/cover pattern and its change between the P. R. China and the USA. In order to describe those differences, land use changes in representative regions were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Xiamen City, Changzhutan region and Liupan Mountains regions were selected to ...

  11. Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) Upper Yellowstone River, Montana: Environmental Assessment, FONSI, and Selected Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    slopes must be flatter than the angle of repose for the selected revetment material. For example, rock riprap normally needs to be placed on a slope...plan that responds effectively to physical, social , and legal changes. The need for future modifications to the SAMP will be evaluated periodically

  12. Self-organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm for Local Area LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a self organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm in order to minimize the mutual intercell interference among Home Node Bs (HeNBs), aiming to improve the system throughput performance compared to the existing frequency reuse one scheme. The proposed algorithm is useful...

  13. Propensity score matching for selection of local areas as controls for evaluation of effects of alcohol policies in case series and quasi case-control designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Campbell, R; Brennan, A; Mooney, J; Angus, C; Hickman, M

    2016-03-01

    Area-level public health interventions can be difficult to evaluate using natural experiments. We describe the use of propensity score matching (PSM) to select control local authority areas (LAU) to evaluate the public health impact of alcohol policies for (1) prospective evaluation of alcohol policies using area-level data, and (2) a novel two-stage quasi case-control design. Ecological. Alcohol-related indicator data (Local Alcohol Profiles for England, PHE Health Profiles and ONS data) were linked at LAU level. Six LAUs (Blackpool, Bradford, Bristol, Ipswich, Islington, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne) as sample intervention or case areas were matched to two control LAUs each using PSM. For the quasi case-control study a second stage was added aimed at obtaining maximum contrast in outcomes based on propensity scores. Matching was evaluated based on average standardized absolute mean differences (ASAM) and variable-specific P-values after matching. The six LAUs were matched to suitable control areas (with ASAM 0.05 indicating good matching) for a prospective evaluation study that sought areas that were similar at baseline in order to assess whether a change in intervention exposure led to a change in the outcome (alcohol related harm). PSM also generated appropriate matches for a quasi case-control study--whereby the contrast in health outcomes between cases and control areas needed to be optimized in order to assess retrospectively whether differences in intervention exposure were associated with the outcome. The use of PSM for area-level alcohol policy evaluation, but also for other public health interventions, will improve the value of these evaluations by objective and quantitative selection of the most appropriate control areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Guidance for Identifying, Selecting and Evaluating Open Literature Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance for Office of Pesticide Program staff will assist in their evaluation of open literature studies of pesticides. It also describes how we identify, select, and ensure that data we use in risk assessments is of sufficient scientific quality.

  15. Studies on the natural radiation levels around the Caspian sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured about 80 items from four areas of Mazandaran, randomly selected samples of food products, soil and water, around the shore of the Caspian sea area. The results showed that the natural radioactivity in beans and broad beans in some areas is much more than in others. The results were also compared with the levels of radiations from some materials from Brazil, which also contained high levels of radiations. Samples measured in this study showed higher levels of radiations than the American food products. (author). 12 refs, 8 tabs

  16. FERTILITY STATUS OF EUTRIC NITISOL AND FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION USING NUMASS IN THE SELECTED AREAS OF JIMMA ZONE, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Nigussie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient management decision support system (NuMaSS is a tool that diagnoses soil constraints and selects the appropriate management practices, based on agronomic, economic and environmental criteria, for location-specific conditions. However, its validation in different soil orders and agroecosystems should be tested. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the fertility status of Eutric Nitisol and suggests the application of NuMaSS as a diagnostic tool to recommend supplementary N and P fertilizers for maize across different agroecology zones. Accordingly, fifty soil samples were collected from five locations and analyzed for the major soil physical and chemical properties. The soil pH-H2O was below the critical level for all soil samples. Nitrogen, Cu and Zn were deficit in all soil samples. Deficiency of available phosphorous was also observed in 88% of the soil samples. High probabilities of nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency were also observed in the study areas using NuMaSS. Moreover, 24 kg/ha P and 73 kg/ha N for Dedo; 24kg/ha P and 82 kg/ha N for Agaro; 20 kg/ha P and 100 kg/ha N for Serbo; 27 kg/ha P and 94 kg/ha N for Dimtu; and 4.9kg/ha P and 97 kg/ha N for Asendabo were recommended for maize using NuMaSS.

  17. Environmental impact of industrial wastes on marine area, case study: Port Sudan coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalrahman, E. A. H.

    2004-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of the industrial wastes on marine environment in Port Sudan area. A very intensive study has been made to identify types of pollutions drained in seawater at study area of Red Sea coast. Samples were taken from three stations (1, 2 and 3) at study area and the following analysis were made: Temperature, salinity, hydrogen ion concentration, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient, oil and grease. The laboratory results revealed that wastes pollute the marine environment as the cooling water from studied industries which is drain into the seawater increases the degree of temperature approximately from 6 to 12 C degree above the allowed rate, the matter which was adverse effect on the environment and living marine creatures due to the sudden change of temperature degree. Also, it was found that the great amount of oil spills discharged into seawater due to many factors such as: cooling water, oil spills from ships and loading and discharging operations of crude oil ships. Accordingly these oils spills might have a deadly effect on living marine creatures, which have been mention in details through out this research. Hence, and to minimize this adverse effect of industrial wastes and others on the marine environment, may recommend to the following: Pretreatment to the industrial wastes should be taking before its draining into the Red Sea coastal area. Surveillance all ships into the port and observing loading and discharging operations as well as those ships in the regional waters and implementing the international maritime laws. Enlightenment the industrial administrators and manpower working with them about the severity which will definitely cause the marine environmental deterioration as a result of industrial wastes. To punish every one who violates the laws of environment protection. Thus, can be safeguarding the environment from pollutions and consequently develop the natural resources and proceed

  18. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  19. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it's true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  20. A study of sinkhole hazard at area of locked colliery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotyrba, A.

    2005-01-01

    Transformations of polish industry began the process of mine closures. Among various mines being in process of abandoning, there are a large number of collieries, which exploited coal since 17. century. The depth of mining openings ranged from some to hundreds meters. The height of primary mining openings ranged from 1 to 9 m. Mining operations have left in geological basement large number of cavities, which still create a hazard to the surface stability. Post mining deformations of the surface can take continuous and discontinuous forms. The last ones are the topic of paper. Although those deformations can take various forms, they are commonly called as sinkholes. In paper, the sinkholes hazard has been analyzed in a scale of selected one mine area, in regard to various parameters. The selected 'Siemianowice' mine is located in northern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A database containing full set of sinkholes, recorded within area of mine in a period of 50 years, has been tested in geomechanical and statistical approaches. (author)

  1. A study of sinkhole hazard at area of locked colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, A. [Central Mining Institute, Gwarkow (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    Transformations of polish industry began the process of mine closures. Among various mines being in process of abandoning, there are a large number of collieries, which exploited coal since 17. century. The depth of mining openings ranged from some to hundreds meters. The height of primary mining openings ranged from 1 to 9 m. Mining operations have left in geological basement large number of cavities, which still create a hazard to the surface stability. Post mining deformations of the surface can take continuous and discontinuous forms. The last ones are the topic of paper. Although those deformations can take various forms, they are commonly called as sinkholes. In paper, the sinkholes hazard has been analyzed in a scale of selected one mine area, in regard to various parameters. The selected 'Siemianowice' mine is located in northern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A database containing full set of sinkholes, recorded within area of mine in a period of 50 years, has been tested in geomechanical and statistical approaches. (author)

  2. Photon-induced formation of CdS nanocrystals in selected areas of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanassiou, Athanassia; Cingolani, Roberto; Tsiranidou, Elsa; Fotakis, Costas; Laera, Anna Maria; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate light-induced formation of semiconductor quantum dots in TOPAS registered polymer matrix with very high control of their size and their spatial localization. Irradiation with UV laser pulses of polymer films embedding Cd thiolate precursors results in the formation of cadmium sulfide nanocrystals well confined in the irradiation area, through a macroscopically nondestructive procedure for the host matrix. With increasing number of laser pulses, we accomplish the formation of nanoparticles with gradually increasing dimensions, resulting in the dynamic change of the spectra emitted by the formed nanocomposite areas. The findings are supported by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements

  3. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Ferenbaugh; P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; G. J. Gonzales; P. A. Jordan

    1999-09-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 137}Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans

  4. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, J.K.; Fresquez, P.R.; Ebinger, M.H.; Gonzales, G.J.; Jordan, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of 3 H, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans (0.072 mrem/y) were well below

  5. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in selected populations from two previously high malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmini Gunawardena

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD enzyme deficiency is known to offer protection against malaria and an increased selection of mutant genes in malaria endemic regions is expected. However, anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine can cause haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. We studied the extent of G6PD deficiency in selected persons attending Teaching Hospitals of Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, two previously high malaria endemic districts in Sri Lanka. A total of 2059 filter-paper blood spots collected between November 2013 and June 2014 were analysed for phenotypic G6PD deficiency using the modified WST-8/1-methoxy PMS method. Each assay was conducted with a set of controls and the colour development assessed visually as well as with a microplate reader at OD450-630nm. Overall, 142/1018 (13.95% and 83/1041 (7.97% were G6PD deficient in Anuradhapura and Kurunegala districts respectively. The G6PD prevalence was significantly greater in Anuradhapura when compared to Kurunegala (P0.05. Severe deficiency (<10% normal was seen among 28/1018 (2.75% in Anuradhapura (7 males; 21 females and 17/1041 (1.63% in Kurunegala (7 males; 10 females. Enzyme activity between 10-30% was observed among 114/1018 (11.20%; 28 males; 86 females in Anuradhapura while it was 66/1041 (6.34%; 18 males; 48 females in Kurunegala. Screening and educational programmes for G6PD deficiency are warranted in these high risk areas irrespective of gender for the prevention of disease states related to this condition.

  6. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  7. Composting of selected organic wastes from peri-urban areas of Harare, Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhindu, RL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of selected o e a se f pi d degradation, atmospheric pollution, soil health, soil bio- waste and rely on agriculture as a source of livelihood. Mhindu et al. International Journal Of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 2013, : http... is an important source of organic matter. Soil organic matter improves physico-chemical and biological properties and Composting as a waste management strategy has multiple benefits for peri-urban agriculture considering the scarcity of animal manures among small...

  8. Butt rot defect and potential hazard in lodgepole pine on selected California recreational areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1966-01-01

    Within the area sampled, potentially hazardous lodgepole pine were common on recreational sites. The incidence of decayed and mechanically weak trees was correlated with fire damage. Two-thirds of fire-scarred trees were decayed; one-third were rated potentially hazardous. Fire scars occurred roughly in proportion to level of plot recreational use.

  9. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  10. Speciation of heavy metals in paddy soils from selected areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... regarding their origin and distribution in soils. Five sampling ... elements that originate in the phosphate rock. ... these areas to improve rice productivity and control pests. ... acid digest were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry ..... paddy soil using X-ray fluorescence, absorption and diffraction.

  11. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  12. Research on the Value of AACSB Business Accreditation in Selected Areas: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The AACSB claims that its accreditation provides evidence of business school quality in a variety of areas. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing research on the value of AACSB accreditation on four key topics of importance to schools, prospective students, and employers: effect on obtaining quality students, students' job placement, faculty…

  13. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  14. An Evaluation of Selected Economic Areas according to Similarity of Supply and Demand Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappel Stanislav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro Area remains a well-known monetary union in the World. But the possibilities of creation of new monetary unions are discussed. It is spoken about NAFTA (Canada, Mexico and the United States or MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. The aim of this paper is to assess the similarity of demand and supply shocks in the countries of NAFTA and MERCOSUR, and to compare it with the countries of the Euro Area. For these aims, correlation and structural vector autoregression methods are used. Methods are based on Blanchard and Quah (1989 and Bayoumi and Eichengreen (1993. We confirm the existence of core states and periphery states in the Euro Area with some exceptions. If we compare supply and demand shocks, we find more similarity in the case of supply shocks in the countries of the Euro Area. According to the results, the countries of NAFTA are more appropriate for the creation of monetary union than the countries of MERCOSUR. The countries of NAFTA achieve high correlation coefficients of supply and demand shocks (except Mexico for supply shocks.

  15. Managing the Public Sector Research and Development Portfolio Selection Process: A Case Study of Quantitative Selection and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION by Jason A. Schwartz...PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...describing how public sector organizations can implement a research and development (R&D) portfolio optimization strategy to maximize the cost

  16. Latin America and Beyond: The Case for Comparative Area Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Hoffmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Area Studies (CAS emerges as a new approach in which scholars of Latin American Studies engage systematically with scholars working on other world regions. Adopting a focus on intra-, inter- and cross area comparisons, CAS builds on the traditional strengths of area studies. At the same time it enables scholars to have a stronger impact on overarching conceptual debates and it may provide new bridges between area studies scholars and the academic communities in the regions studied. However, a comparative area studies approach requires systematic cooperation among scholars of different world regions, and adequate organizational and institutional structures to support them. Resumen: Latinoamérica y más allá: El caso de los estudios regionales comparativos Los Estudios Regionales Comparativos (Comparative Area Studies – CAS surgen como un enfoque nuevo dentro del cual académicos de Estudios Latinoamericanos colaboran sistemáticamente con académicos que investigan sobre otras regiones del mundo. Tomando como punto de partida comparaciones intrarregionales, interregionales y transregionales, los ERC se basan en los puntos fuertes tradicionales de los estudios regionales. Al mismo tiempo, este enfoque permite a los académicos tener un impacto mayor en los debates conceptuales más amplios y puede tender nuevos puentes entre los académicos de estudios regionales y las comunidades académicas de las regiones estudiadas. Sin embargo, un enfoque de estudios regionales comparativos exige una cooperación sistemática entre académicos de distintas regiones del mundo y unas estructuras organizativas e institucionales adecuadas para apoyarles.

  17. The radiological study of areas gastricae in chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, D. I.; Jaun, W. K.; Lee, S. W.; Han, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    A chronic gastritis is common and clinically significant, but specific findings were rarely described in UGIS. And the authors attempted to clarify the area gastrica of the stomach related to the chronic gastritis. The authors reviewed 'Areae gastricae' micromucosal patterns of stomach, retrospectively with double contrast barium meal study in 16 cases, histologically proven cases of chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980. Here the commonest site of chronic gastritis is evident in 12 cases in pyloric gland area, and a sixe of area gastrica shows above 2.5mm in longest diameter with combinding morphology, regular to irregular, 3 to 1 and coarse barium accumulations of intervening sulci. The chronic gastritis could be suggested with this better technique of UGIS

  18. The radiological study of areas gastricae in chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, D. I.; Jaun, W. K.; Lee, S. W.; Han, C. Y. [Inje Medical College Paik Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    A chronic gastritis is common and clinically significant, but specific findings were rarely described in UGIS. And the authors attempted to clarify the area gastrica of the stomach related to the chronic gastritis. The authors reviewed 'Areae gastricae' micromucosal patterns of stomach, retrospectively with double contrast barium meal study in 16 cases, histologically proven cases of chronic gastritis by endoscopic biopsy from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980. Here the commonest site of chronic gastritis is evident in 12 cases in pyloric gland area, and a sixe of area gastrica shows above 2.5mm in longest diameter with combinding morphology, regular to irregular, 3 to 1 and coarse barium accumulations of intervening sulci. The chronic gastritis could be suggested with this better technique of UGIS.

  19. A sedimentation study in the Muda catchment area using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Roslan Mohd Ali; Juhari Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile was conducted in a selected area of the Muda Dam catchment area, Kedah. The objective of the study was to establish baseline data of the input sedimentation with regard to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified, namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and the Muda Reservoir. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment generally ranged from clay to gravel size. In the reservoir and downstream the river, most of the samples studied consisted of fine sediment Le, silt and clay (< 63 μm). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consisted of fine to coarse sand. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising the dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and the deposited sediment in the reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed using nuclear gauges, i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. The result also showed that the thickness of bed sediment varied from one location to another, whereby the thickness variation could reach up to 0.75 metre in some areas. This study could assist local authorities (AMDA) in identifying the rates and sources of accumulated sediment as well as quality and quantity of water in the study area in order to sustain distribution of good quality water to the farmers. (Author)

  20. Effect of gas flow on the selective area growth of gallium nitride via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Kasarla, K. R.; Korakakis, D.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of gas flow on the selective area growth (SAG) of gallium nitride (GaN) grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) has been investigated. In this study, the SAG of GaN was carried out on a silicon dioxide striped pattern along the GaN direction. SAG was initiated with the striped pattern oriented parallel and normal to the incoming gas flow in a horizontal reactor. The orientation of the pattern did not impact cross section of the structure after re-growth as both orientations resulted in similar trapezoidal structures bounded by the (0 0 0 1) and {1 1 2¯ n} facets ( n≈1.7-2.2). However, the growth rates were shown to depend on the orientation of the pattern as the normally oriented samples exhibited enhanced vertical and cross-sectional growth rates compared to the parallel oriented samples. All growths occurred under identical conditions and therefore the difference in growth rates must be attributed to a difference in mass transport of species.

  1. Emergency preparedness hazards assessment for selected 100 Area Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The emergency preparedness hazards assessment for Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI) facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of a hazards assessment is to identify the hazardous material at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. The hazards assessment is the technical basis for the facility emergency plans and procedures. There are many other buildings and past- practice burial grounds, trenches, cribs, etc., in the 100 Areas that may contain hazardous materials. Undisturbed buried waste sites that are not near the Columbia River are outside the scope of emergency preparedness hazards assessments because there is no mechanism for acute release to the air or ground water. The sites near the Columbia River are considered in a separate flood hazards assessment. This hazards assessment includes only the near-term soil remediation projects that involve intrusive activities

  2. Surface water and groundwater interaction in selected areas of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Latif, Z.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-08-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in Marala-Khanki Area of Punjab for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water (Chenab River) samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no significant contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Marala-Khanki Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of Tarbala lake are higher than those of main lake. Indus river meaning that there is significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Isotopic data of Indus river showed an increase at Tunsa as compared to Chashma in flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  3. Selected Problems Of Noninvasive Ooze Dredging In The Protected Areas Of Port Docks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the ooze dredging concepts in the protected areas of harbour docks. The proposed method and system for ooze dredging are dedicated to all types of seabed protection, but the main concern are the geotextile mattresses, not resistant to mechanical damages. Due to the large seabed areas covered with this type of protection the effective method of noninvasive ooze dredging should be based on the use of a technical vessel for underwater works. The result of the analysis is the concept of the method and system for ooze dredging including in particular the mechanism for the automatic holding of the suction-dredge head in the proper distance from the seabed protection surface - the leading wheel truck and buoyancy-ballast system.

  4. Valuation of Forest Resources in Watershed Areas: Selected Applications in Makiling Forest Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Herminia A.; Espiritu, Nena O.

    1999-01-01

    The valuation of resources found in the watershed area is important in assessing the impacts of changes in the watershed. While the change will have positive impacts which are short-term in nature, there are long-term environmental damages associated with economic benefits. This paper gives a rational judgment on the soundness of such changes through cost and benefit analysis. The watershed approach is utilized to capture the effects that are relevant in the analysis.

  5. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the ...

  6. Changes On the Housing Market of the Downtown Area in Selected Polish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rącka Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large Polish cities are currently dealing with an increasing significance of downtown areas, extending outside of the city centers (meaning the area directly surrounding the city square. The downtown alone seems to influence the fate of entire cities, facilitating their success or contributing to their failure. A good demographic, social and economic condition of a downtown, its positive image and the dynamic development of the part of the city perceived as the business and administration centre and a meeting place of residents and tourists, contribute to the image and potential of the whole city to a great extent. Changes in urban surroundings, the signs of which may be observed in spatial, aesthetic, architectural, urban-planning and socio-economic aspects, determine the functioning and condition of local real estate markets. Whether potential buyers consider the real estate attractive depends on the assessment of its significant features, of which transaction price is representative. The main research objective of the article is the identification, assessment and interpretation of differences in prices registered in the years 2009-2014 in downtown residential real estate markets. These considerations have been referred to analogical phenomena within the entire cities under examination. The detailed research objective is an attempt to explain the sources of individual reactions of the analyzed real estate markets in downtown areas. The cities under research include: Bydgoszcz, Kalisz, Toruń and Wrocław. The authors applied quantitative analysis (statistical, comparative to transaction data registered in local residential real estate markets.

  7. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal–organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiu-Liang [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Bin; Gan, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yang, Qingyuan [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhong, Chongli [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: jrli@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Exploitation of new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(eddb){sub 6}] (BUT-30, H{sub 2}eddb=4,4′-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3940.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (based on the N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes. - Graphical abstract: A new Zr(IV)-based MOF with high surface area has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which shows stepwise gas adsorption at low temperature and selective dye uptake from solution. - Highlights: • A new Zr-based MOF was synthesized and structurally characterized. • This MOF shows a higher surface area compared with its analogous UiO-67 and 68. • This MOF shows a rare stepwise adsorption towards light gases at low temperature. • This MOF performs selective uptakes towards cationic dyes over anionic ones. • Using triple-bond spacer is confirmed feasible in enhancing MOF surface areas.

  8. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  9. A Method for the Selection of Exploration Areas for Unconformity Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, DeVerle P.; Zaluski, Gerard; Marlatt, James

    2009-01-01

    The method we propose employs two analyses: (1) exploration simulation and risk valuation and (2) portfolio optimization. The first analysis, implemented by the investment worth system (IWS), uses Monte Carlo simulation to integrate a wide spectrum of uncertain and varied components to a relative frequency histogram for net present value of the exploration investment, which is converted to a risk-adjusted value (RAV). Iterative rerunning of the IWS enables the mapping of the relationship of RAV to magnitude of exploration expenditure, X. The second major analysis uses RAV vs. X maps to identify that subset (portfolio) of areas that maximizes the RAV of the firm's multiyear exploration budget. The IWS, which is demonstrated numerically, consists of six components based on the geologic description of a hypothetical basin and project area (PA) and a mix of hypothetical and actual conditions of an unidentified area. The geology is quantified and processed by Bayesian belief networks to produce the geology-based inputs required by the IWS. An exploration investment of $60 M produced a highly skewed distribution of net present value (NPV), having mean and median values of $4,160 M and $139 M, respectively. For hypothetical mining firm Minex, the RAV of the exploration investment of $60 M is only $110.7 M. An RAV that is less than 3% of mean NPV reflects the aversion by Minex to risk as well as the magnitude of risk implicit to the highly skewed NPV distribution and the probability of 0.45 for capital loss. Potential benefits of initiating exploration of a portfolio of areas, as contrasted with one area, include increased marginal productivity of exploration as well as reduced probability for nondiscovery. For an exogenously determined multiyear exploration budget, a conceptual framework for portfolio optimization is developed based on marginal RAV exploration products for candidate PAs. PORTFOLIO, a software developed to implement optimization, allocates exploration to

  10. Comparison between motorcyclist’ violation behavior and accidents in urban and rural area in Indonesia: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, N.; Widyanti, A.

    2017-12-01

    Some studies stated that the main factor related to the accident was driving behavior. This study aims to explore the differences between motorcyclist” behaviour and repetitive violation behaviour in two different area, urban and rural area in Indonesia. Respondents were selected based on convenience sampling method in Bandung as a representative of urban area and Kulon Progo as a representative of rural area. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire about driving behaviour, consists of 10 dimensions or 51 questions with Likert scales ranging from 1 (very often) to 6 (never). The results of this study shows that the motorcyclists’ behavior differ significantly between rural and urban area. Motorcyclists in the urban area (Bandung) are more committed to violations than in rural area (Kulon Progo). This result is not in line with previous studies in Australia and United States which stated that motorcyclists in rural area more frequently speeding than in urban area. Implications of the result are discussed.

  11. Mapping the organization of axis of motion selective features in human area MT using high-field fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at high magnetic fields has made it possible to investigate the columnar organization of the human brain in vivo with high degrees of accuracy and sensitivity. Until now, these results have been limited to the organization principles of early visual cortex (V1. While the middle temporal area (MT has been the first identified extra-striate visual area shown to exhibit a columnar organization in monkeys, evidence of MT's columnar response properties and topographic layout in humans has remained elusive. Research using various approaches suggests similar response properties as in monkeys but failed to provide direct evidence for direction or axis of motion selectivity in human area MT. By combining state of the art pulse sequence design, high spatial resolution in all three dimensions (0.8 mm isotropic, optimized coil design, ultrahigh field magnets (7 Tesla and novel high resolution cortical grid sampling analysis tools, we provide the first direct evidence for large-scale axis of motion selective feature organization in human area MT closely matching predictions from topographic columnar-level simulations.

  12. Use of complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants: feability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, P.; Carquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    EDF has undertaken a study in order to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of using complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants. This study lies on tests of VLSI components (Random Access Memories) under gamma rays irradiations, which aims are to evaluate the radiation dose that they can withstand and to develop a selection method. 125 rad/h and 16 rad/h tests results are given [fr

  13. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Harini; Mairota, Paola; Marangi, Carmela; Lucas, Richard; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Honrado, João Pradinho; Niphadkar, Madhura; Mücher, Caspar A.; Tomaselli, Valeria; Panitsa, Maria; Tarantino, Cristina; Manakos, Ioannis; Blonda, Palma

    2015-05-01

    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO) data and techniques offer the opportunity to detect such changes. Yet association with field information and expert interpretation by ecologists is required to interpret, qualify and link these changes to human pressure. There is thus an urgent need to harmonize the technical background of experts in the field of EO data analysis with the terminology of ecologists, protected area management authorities and policy makers in order to provide meaningful, context-specific value-added EO products. This paper builds on the DPSIR framework, providing a terminology to relate the concepts of state, pressures, and drivers with the application of EO analysis. The type of pressure can be inferred through the detection of changes in state (i.e. changes in land cover and/or habitat type and/or condition). Four broad categories of changes in state are identified, i.e. land cover/habitat conversion, land cover/habitat modification, habitat fragmentation and changes in landscape connectivity, and changes in plant community structure. These categories of change in state can be mapped through EO analyses, with the goal of using expert judgement to relate changes in state to causal direct anthropogenic pressures. Drawing on expert knowledge, a set of protected areas located in diverse socio-ecological contexts and subject to a variety of pressures are analysed to (a) link the four categories of changes in state of land cover/habitats to the drivers (anthropogenic pressure), as relevant to specific target land cover and habitat classes; (b) identify (for pressure mapping) the most appropriate spatial and temporal EO data sources as well as interpretations from ecologists and field data

  14. Consumer preferences for selection of solar home system in urban areas, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences can lay foundation for determining key product attributes essential for the success of a product in the market, enabling the manufacturers optimally allocate resources towards imparting these critical attributes. However identification of consumer preferences especially for new products is a challenging task. This research investigated the consumer preference factors for solar home systems in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan); applying MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) approach, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) survey and analysis method is used for prioritization of the factors and comparison of decision alternatives. Fourteen factors grouped into five categories are selected. It has been found that the manufacturers have to emphasize on performance and functional attributes of these systems at this stage, the cost factors are comparatively lower in importance. Make and warranty, Environmental and Physical features are also lesser important to the early adopters. (author)

  15. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Faust, R.A.; Brewster, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  16. Status of selected ion flow tube MS: accomplishments and challenges in breath analysis and other areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    This article reflects our observations of recent accomplishments made using selected ion flow tube MS (SIFT-MS). Only brief descriptions are given of SIFT-MS as an analytical method and of the recent extensions to the underpinning analytical ion chemistry required to realize more robust analyses. The challenge of breath analysis is given special attention because, when achieved, it renders analysis of other air media relatively straightforward. Brief overviews are given of recent SIFT-MS breath analyses by leading research groups, noting the desirability of detection and quantification of single volatile biomarkers rather than reliance on statistical analyses, if breath analysis is to be accepted into clinical practice. A 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' analysis of SIFT-MS is made, which should help to increase its utility for trace gas analysis.

  17. Appraisal of venomous metals in selected crops and vegetables from industrial areas of the Punjab Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the inadequate water sources, usually sewerage water and industrial effluents are being use for irrigation of the agricultural land around the industrial areas in Pakistan wherein crops and vegetables are cultivated. As untreated effluents contain heavy elements, toxic metals and organic pollutants that may find its way through food chain to general public and may cause health hazards. It is, therefore, mandatory to assess the toxic metals in such crops and vegetables. In this regard, samples of corn, millet, cabbage, spinach and potato were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of the Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. The food samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentration values of Arsenic (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g) and Cobalt (0.85 ± 0.01 μg/g) were found in cabbage whereas Manganese (91.6 ± 0.2 μg/g), Antimony (0.15 ± 0.03 μg/g) and Selenium (1.1 ± 0.1 μg/g) were observed in spinach and Chromium (9.63 ± 1.3 μg/g) was found in millet crop. The observed concentrations of all the toxic and heavy metals in crops and vegetables are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  18. Radiological environmental study in area to future anthropogenic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinnan, T.; MIller, C.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the existent relationship is identified between the data radioecologics and the geological formations to the north area Holguin with the objective to study the possible incidence that this can have in the rate environmental dose in the event of transformations anthropogenic the place

  19. Area Studies and Special Collections: Shared Challenges, Shared Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lisa R.; Whittaker, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Special collections and area studies librarians face similar challenges in the changing academic library environment, including the need to articulate the value of these specialized collections and to mainstream processes and practices into larger discovery, teaching, learning, and research efforts. For some institutions, these similarities have…

  20. Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the external background radiation in Offa industrial area of Kwara State is hereby reported. An in-situ measurement using two Digilert radiation monitors at five different stations were carried out. A mean exposure rate of 0.0132mR/hr, which represents 20% elevation from the standard background radiation, was ...

  1. 78 FR 20796 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ..., DC 20554, and may also be purchased from the Commission's copy contractor, BCPI, Inc., Portals II... submission. Third, the Bureau permits incumbent LECs that are price cap carriers to submit exchange-level... study area boundary data should notify the Commission in writing of their intention to do so by filing a...

  2. Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania: A Study of Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003 Tanzania established 16 pilot Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), with the aim of enhancing conservation and poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization of natural resources. This study examines the opportunities and challenges of this policy initiative with reference to the proposed WMAs. Data were ...

  3. Termites of the Savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, P

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the termite fauna of the Savanna Ecosystem Project study area at the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, with an illustrated key for identification of species. Twenty-one species of fifteen genera and two families are recorded, and notes...

  4. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E.; Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  5. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  6. Study on agroforestry practices in Abak Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the various agroforestry practices in Abak Local Government Area (LGA) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires, physical observations and oral interview were used to collect data from agroforestry farmers (respondents) in the four clans (Abak, Otoro, Midim and ...

  7. Asian Studies/Global Studies: Transcending Area Studies and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The post–World War II growth of area studies, and Asian studies in particular, posed a serious challenge to the mainstream social sciences. Yet the epistemic and institutional foundations of area studies were never well articulated or justified, and the post–Cold War years brought a pervasive sense of crisis to its intellectual mission and justification. In particular, the author focuses on the tensions, if not contradictions, between social science disciplines and area studies. In advocating a more integrated human science, which depends more on mobile networks of scholars than on fixed fields of discipline-bound professors, the author suggests global studies as a fitting field of inquiry in the age of globalization.

  8. Selected elements and organic chemicals in streambed sediment in the Salem area, Oregon, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.

    2002-09-13

    Analysis of streambed sediments in the Salem, Oregon, area showed anomalously large concentrations of some elements and organic chemicals, indicating contamination from anthropogenic and/or geologic sources. The streambed sediment sample from Clark Creek, an urban basin, had large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hyrdocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines, cadmium, lead, and zinc. The sample from the East Fork of Pringle Creek, which is a mostly urban basin, had the highest concentrations of DDD, DDE, and DDT compounds. Aldrin was detected in streambed sediment at only one site, the East Fork of Pringle Creek. Ten of the 14 sites sampled had exceedances of the sediment quality guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), and 8 sites had exceedances of guidelines from the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) Program.

  9. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  10. Methodology for Selection of Economic Performance Factors in the Area of Information and Communication Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hornungová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents one part of the research work of the author that is focused on the business performance. The aim of this paper is to find and introduce economic factors of corporate performance system that are important part of the performance, because can help to organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals. The aim also included the determination of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs. The first step for the evaluation of performance is the projective access. This approach is meant, that the performance in terms of the future development of the company it is possible to conclude on the basis of, and ongoing activities. In relation to this idea are as fundamental the economic indicators of the performance scale. To find these factors were used the theoretical information from the area of KPIs and data from primary research. This data were tested through mathematical-statistical analysis, in this case, directly on the basis of factor analysis.

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Dongelmans, Marie-louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frédéric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, François; Barik, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  13. Plutonium concentrations and Pu/Am ratios in small vertebrates from NAEG Intensive Study Areas of NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Radioecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated areas of NTS began in spring 1972 and have continued to date. Species conposition, relative abundance, and other pertinent ecological data have been presented in previous reports. In addition, data analysis of Pu and Am concentrations in selected rodent and lizard species has been presented for all NAEG Intensive Study Areas. This report provides further analysis of Pu concentration in small vertebrates of Areas 5 and 11, NTS

  14. S Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document is prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of S Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and the results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. This report describes the REDOX facility and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them

  15. Z plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of the development of a Aggregate Area Management Study of Z Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical description and operational history of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted in support of this report

  16. Optimization Techniques for Design Problems in Selected Areas in WSNs: A Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Alfa, Attahiru

    2017-08-01

    This paper is intended to serve as an overview of, and mostly a tutorial to illustrate, the optimization techniques used in several different key design aspects that have been considered in the literature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It targets the researchers who are new to the mathematical optimization tool, and wish to apply it to WSN design problems. We hence divide the paper into two main parts. One part is dedicated to introduce optimization theory and an overview on some of its techniques that could be helpful in design problem in WSNs. In the second part, we present a number of design aspects that we came across in the WSN literature in which mathematical optimization methods have been used in the design. For each design aspect, a key paper is selected, and for each we explain the formulation techniques and the solution methods implemented. We also provide in-depth analyses and assessments of the problem formulations, the corresponding solution techniques and experimental procedures in some of these papers. The analyses and assessments, which are provided in the form of comments, are meant to reflect the points that we believe should be taken into account when using optimization as a tool for design purposes.

  17. Evaluation of the concentrations and distribution of carbonyl compounds in selected areas of a Brazilian bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Ochs, Soraya; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the determination of 30 carbonyl compounds (CCs) in three areas (bus boarding platform, passenger circulation area, and a pastry shop) of the Presidente João Goulart Bus Terminal, located at Niterói City, RJ, Brazil, and in an open area 700 m distant from the terminal. Samples were collected using SEP-PAK cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, during May to July 2012. The hydrazones formed were analyzed using rapid resolution liquid chromatography with UV detection. The studied locations showed distinct profiles of distribution of CC. The circulation area, which is influenced by different pollution sources, presented an intermediate profile between that of the pastry shop and boarding platform. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant CC, but acetaldehyde predominated in the pastry shop once it is a by-product of baking yeast fermentation. Samples taken in the pastry shop and circulation area showed significant concentrations of hexanaldehyde and nonanaldehyde emitted during cooking. The pastry shop showed the largest level of total CC among the studied areas followed by the circulation area, the boarding platform, and the open area.

  18. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (Łęczna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (Łuszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas. The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in Łuszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in Łuszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek. Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in Łuszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and

  19. Supporting research in area studies a guide for academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Pitman, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Supporting Research in Area Studies: A Guide for Academic Libraries focuses on the study of other countries or regions of the world, crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in the humanities and social sciences. The book provides a comprehensive guide for academic libraries supporting communities of researchers, exploring the specialist requirements of these researchers in information resources, resource discovery tools, information skills, and the challenges of working with materials in multiple languages. The book makes the case that adapting systems and procedures to meet these needs will help academic libraries be better placed to support their institutions' international agenda. Early chapters cover the academic landscape, its history, area studies, librarianship, and acquisitions. Subsequent chapters discuss collections management, digital products, and the digital humanities, and their role in academic projects, with final sections exploring information skills and the various disciplinary skills t...

  20. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  1. Determination of different contaminants in selective drinking water samples collected from Peshawar valley area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah; Khan, M.; Khattak, T.N.; Sattar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the pollutants carried through sewage, industrial effluents, fertilizers, pesticides; heavy metals and various pathogenic bacteria are directly related to human/animal diseases. Samples of drinking water were collected from different locations, in the Peshawar area. Cadmium, lead and copper levels in these samples were determined by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). The data indicated wide variation in the concentration of these heavy metals. Variation in results is discussed on the basis of some possible sources of contamination. The concentration of cadmium and lead in all the samples was higher compared to the values given in the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Copper was below the detection limit in majority of the samples. The values of Cd, Pb and Cu were in the range of 0.023-2.75, 0.025-1.88 and 0-0.67 mg/1 respectively. Various physical quality indices (ph, electrical conductivity and total solids) and pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and total coliforms) were also determined in water samples. Most of the drinking waters was found contaminated with higher levels of Cd and Pb and pathogenic bacteria and hence, considered unfit for drinking purposes. (author)

  2. Experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru; Qian Hang; Huang Xin; Yu Li; Su Jiancang; Ding Zhenjie; Ding Yongzhong; Yu Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    In the experiment of gas laser pumped by electron beam, large area uniform electron beam is important to generate high efficiency laser output. The experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam with SPG-200 pulsed power generator is introduced. SPG-200 is an all-solid-state components pulsed power generator based on SOS, and its open voltage is more than 350 kV. The cathode have the area of 24 mm x 294 mm, and the anode-cathode(A-C)gap spacing is adjustable from 0 to 49 mm. The electron beam of cathode emission is transported to the laser chamber through the diode pressure foil, which sepa-rates the vacuum chamber from the laser chamber. Velvet and graphite cathodes are studied, each generates large area electron beam. The diode parameters are presented, and the uniformity of e-beam is diagnosed. The experimental results show that the diode voltage of the graphite cathode is 240-280 kV, and the diode current is 0.7-1.8 kA. The diode voltage of the velvet cathode is 200-250 kV, and the diode current is 1.5-1.7 kA. The uniformity of the velvet cathode emission is better than that of the graphite cathode. (authors)

  3. Preliminary Cultural Resource Survey and Geomorphological Assessment of Selected Areas in Navigation Pool 16, Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    and French defensive earthworks of the Battle of Yorktown. Amistad Paleoecology Study, 1964-66. I. co-directed this in- terdisiTplinary study, funded by...299 pp. 1965 (co-author, with John P. Nunley and Lathel F. Duffield) Ex- I cavations at Amistad Reservoir, 1962 Season. Miscellaneous Paper of the

  4. Environmental study for radionuclides at Kurun-Uro area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, S.M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This work is aimed to study the environmental distribution of the terrestrial radionuclides and the resultant dose at Nuba mountains ( Kurun-Uro area ). This area has a high background natural radioactivity. More over it contains a rockphosphate zone lying between J. Kurun and J. Uro. Field scanning of gamma ray measurements on BGS- ISL Scintillomter was carried. At the same time different environment samples ( rock, soil, air, water and food ) were collected. These samples were treated then investigated on gamma spectrometry technique to determine radionuclides activity concentrations. X-ray fluorescent technique was used for the determination of P 2 O 5 and other elements. For phosphate determination as P 2 O 5 % the Bennelt Reed chemical method was used. From gamma counts and nuclides activity concentrations in soil samples the external exposure rate and the external Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) were estimated. While the internal exposure rate and the internal (AEDE) were estimated from nuclides concentrations in air, water and food. The external (AEDE) were found to be 3.2 mSv at Kurun and 4.15 mSv at Uro. Over J. Kurun it is 20 mSv and 32 mSv over J. Uro. The internal AEDE were found to be 8.5 mSv and 12.9 mSv at Kurun and Uro respectively. The total AEDE is 11.7 mSv for Kurun area and 17 mSv for Uro. the AEDE at this area is seven times higher than the normal areas. The average P 2 O 5 % in the rock samples results using (XRF) and wet chemical method is 25% and 19% for Kurun and Uro respectively, so this area is very promising for fertilizer production, but special care must be taken for radiation impact on the environment. (author).41 refs.,

  5. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  6. In-Situ Patterning: Selective Area Deposition and Etching. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 158

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-21

    microelectronics fabriL ...on. Chemical vapor deposition of metals using carbonyls as film precursors has been studied carefully in recent years. For...temperature range that can be studied. For example, it would be difficult to pinpoint a deviation from the Arrhenius law at high temperature as being the...pressure range, the increase of I as a function of p seems to follow a logarithmic law . As a matter of fact, by changing the pressure by two orders of

  7. Optimizing malarial epidemiological studies in areas of low transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim

    2005-01-01

    risk factor in this area was the location of houses relative to confirmed vector breeding sites. At the peak of the transmission season, the results pointed in the same direction, irrespective of the diagnostic method used. However, the importance of distance from the breeding site......Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency...... and significance of epidemiological studies. In an area of Sri Lanka with known risk factors for malaria, two cross-sectional surveys were done at the start and at the peak of transmission season. Microscopy was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The major...

  8. Narrative Skills in Children with Selective Mutism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Alison; Fung, Daniel; Manassis, Katharina; Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare and complex disorder associated with anxiety symptoms and speech-language deficits; however, the nature of these language deficits has not been studied systematically. A novel cross-disciplinary assessment protocol was used to assess anxiety and nonverbal cognitive, receptive language, and expressive narrative…

  9. Which Is More Consequential: Fields of Study or Institutional Selectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyi; Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    The persisting gender pay gap favoring men among college graduates is a puzzle given women's remarkable success in postsecondary education. This article examines income disparities among recent college graduates by intersecting gender and social class and evaluating the relative importance of fields of study and institutional selectivity.…

  10. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    This work presents a study of the deactivation behavior of Fe-Mo oxide catalyst during selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in a period of 5 days. The structural changes in the catalyst have been investigated in situ for the initial 10 h by Raman spectroscopy, and the structure after 5...

  11. Comparative Study Of Two Non-Selective Cyclooxygenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of the effects of two non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors ibuprofen and paracetamol on maternal and neonatal growth was conducted using 15 Sprague dawley rats, with mean body weight ranging between 165 and 179g. The rats were separated at random into three groups (A, B and C).

  12. Geoelectrical Study On The Area West Of Aswan Town, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, H. A. [حمزه احمد ابراهيم; Omran, A. A.; Selim, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A geoelectrical resistivity survey on the area west of Aswan has been conducted in order to investigate its prevailing hydrogeological and subsurface geological conditions. The study demonstrates the occurrence of a probably water-bearing bed of irregular thickness and variable depth. The change in resistivity values within the aquifer may reflect the variation in water quality and rock texture. The aquifer is mainly recharged across the dominant joint system and through fractures from the Ni...

  13. Analysis of Land Deformation on Slope Area using PS InSAR. Case Study: Malang Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiana, Dodi; Rizkinia, Mia; Arief, Rahmat; Rokhmatuloh; Ardiansyah; Setiadi, Bambang; Bayuaji, Luhur; Sri Sumantyo, Josaphat Tetuko

    2014-01-01

    The geographical position of Indonesia located between two continents and oceans is strategic, but at large risk of experiencing various disasters. Climate change and vulnerable location (surrounded by plates and geological faults in the Earth's crust) creates an earthquake-prone region and causes land/mudslides. In this paper, PS InSAR method (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) is implemented to Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data to study the potential damage caused by the earthquake or volcanic eruption in Malang vicinity. By comparing the amplitude images periodically, shifting soil can be determined using precise orbital information. The analysis showed a significant decrease of land deformation on slope area in Klojen district in Malang city, reached up to −7.128 mm/year

  14. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. IV. Research in radioactive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations.

  15. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.IV. Research in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations [pt

  16. Relationship between biomarker responses and contaminant concentration in selected tissues of flounder (Platichthys flesus from the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Podolska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in the Gulf of Gdańsk discussed the responses of selected enzymatic biomarkers to the contaminant gradient in fish and mussels. In the present study, flounder muscle and liver tissues were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, organochlorine pesticides (HCHs, HCB and DDTs, and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr. An attempt was made to identify the relationship between the measured enzymatic biomarker responses (cholinesterases, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase and contaminant concentrations in selected flounder tissues. The observed differences in enzymatic biomarker levels suggest that chronic exposure to low-concentration mixtures of contaminants may be occurring in the studied area. However, no conclusive evidence was found of a clear link between the biomarker responses and contaminant concentrations in flounder tissues.

  17. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic

  18. Genetic diversity of indigenous chickens from selected areas in Kenya using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoth Noah Okumu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, indigenous chickens were collected from eight different regions in Kenya and kept at InCIP-Egerton University. These were studied using eighteen microsatellite markers to determine genetic variation. Statistics related to genetic variation were estimated using GenALEx6. Mean percentage polymorphic loci (PPL was 96.71% and 4% genetic variance (p ≥ 0.003 was seen between the eight populations. MCW0123 marker had the highest genetic variance of 13% among populations (p ≥ 0.003 at 95% CI. Mean He ranged from 0.351 ± 0.031 (SIB to 0.434 ± 0.022 (BM with a grand mean He of 0.399 ± 0.011 across the populations using the microsatellite markers. Nei’s genetic distance ranged from 0.016 (SIB and WP to 0.126 (NR and SIB. DARwin6.501 analysis software was used to draw the population dendrogram and two major population clusters were observed, also seen with PCoA. This study found a lot of genetic variation and relatedness within and among populations. Based on the phylogenetic tree result, it is concluded that the clustering of the chicken populations in the present study is not based on geographical proximity. The microsatellite markers used in this study were suitable for the measurement of the genetic biodiversity and relationship of Kenyan chicken populations. These results can therefore serve as an initial step to plan the conservation of indigenous chickens in Kenya.

  19. Differences in Cu content in selected mushroom species growing in the same unpolluted areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Gąsecka, Monika; Rissmann, Iwona; Goliński, Piotr; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate copper (Cu) accumulation efficiency in whole-fruiting bodies of 18 edible and non-edible wild growing mushrooms collected from 27 places in the Wielkopolska Voivodeship. Mushrooms were collected each time from the same places to estimate the diversity in Cu accumulation between tested mushroom species within 3 consecutive years of study (2011-2013). The study results revealed various accumulation of Cu in the whole-tested mushroom fruiting bodies. The highest mean accumulation of Cu was observed in Macrolepiota procera (119.4 ± 20.0 mg kg(-1) dm), while the lowest was in Suillus luteus and Russula fellea fruiting bodies (16.1 ± 3.0 and 18.8 ± 4.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively). Significant differences in Cu accumulation between mushroom species collected in 2011 and in the two following years (2012 and 2013) were observed. The results indicated that sporadic consumption of these mushrooms was not related to excessive intake of Cu for the human body (no toxic influence on health).

  20. Focused feasibility study of engineered barriers for waste management units in the 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas consisting of the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) included the 200 Areas (as well as the 100, 300, and 1,100 Areas) of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiates the remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) process to characterize the nature and extent of contamination, assess risks to human health and the environment, and select remedial actions. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) was developed and signed by representatives from the EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and DOE in May 1989 to provide a framework to implement and integrate cleanup activities. The scope of the agreement covers CERCLA past-practice, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) past-practice, and RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities on the Hanford Site. The 1991 revision to the Tri-Party Agreement required that an aggregate area approach be implemented in the 200 Areas based on the Hanford Site Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) and established a milestone (M-27-00) to complete 10 Aggregate Area Management Study (AAMS) Reports in 1992

  1. The mechanisms of determiner selection and its relation to lexical selection : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hooge, Elisah; De Baene, W.; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The language production literature has given only little attention to the dynamics of closed class word selection, such as determiner selection, and its temporal relation to the selection of open class words. The goal of this paper was to investigate whether determiner selection follows serially

  2. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire M.; Mestrot, Adrien; Feldmann, Joerg; Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes

  3. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  4. Studies on characteristics of water sources around Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, T.R.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Abdul Khadar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic and detailed study of characteristics of ground water, Kali river water and rain water samples around Kaiga project area has been undertaken. The analysis of a large number of parameters revealed that the ground waters and Kali river water are of calcium-bicarbonate type as indicated by Romani's modified Hill Piper diagram. The ionic impurities in ground waters and Kali river water are well within the Indian Drinking Water Specifications. The results obtained would serve as base line data for future impact studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  5. Isotope study of groundwater in Beishan area, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the groundwater origin, evolution and circulation in the potential site of China's high-level waste repository are studied. The results indicate that both shallow groundwaters are and deep groundwaters in the site area are of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwaters are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwaters are originated from regional history period with lower temperature. Through the study we can also understand that the deep underground is a very low-permeability system where the groundwater flow-rates are very low. (author)

  6. Essay on Methods in Futures Studies and a Selective Bibliography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Futures studies is often conflated with science fiction or pop-futurism. Consequently there is a need for demarcation of what is futures studies and what is not. From the same reason the essay stresses the need for quality control to focus on futures research and its methods: Publications in futu...... programme are (only) partly reduced by applying Causal Layered Analysis as an internal quality control. The following selective bibliography is focussed on these methodological issues...

  7. Comparative analysis of tomato value chain competitiveness in selected areas of Malawi and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses tomato value chain performance in Malawi and Mozambique using data collected from a market study commissioned by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture as part of a regional research on conservation agriculture in maize-based farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. The results show that Malawi has a slightly higher competitive advantage in the production of tomato compared to Mozambique. Malawi’s relative competitiveness in tomato is mainly due to slightly higher productivity and the cost advantage in labor (low wages and irrigation costs. The paper proposes policy implications aimed at raising the productivity and trade competitiveness of tomato, as this will ensure the overall productivity of the maize-based smallholder farming systems in the two countries.

  8. Availability of Selected (Pollutant Elements and their Influence on Soil Composition in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zeiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in growing fruits and vegetables in private gardens is rising due to nowadays ecological awareness. Avoiding artificial fertilizers and plant protection products does not guarantee the absence of toxic substances, especially heavy metals in the soil and thus in the fruits harvested. Due to either geological bedrock weathering or environmental pollution, garden soils may be rich in certain potentially toxic elements. In the present study ten garden soils from central Croatia have been analysed by the BCR method for the contents and bioavailability of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. The total amounts of the elements are in the concentration range as reported for agricultural soils in different geographical regions. Only two soils of the capital Zagreb have higher concentrations of pollutant metals, such as chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese and zinc. Regarding nutrients, all soils have met the needs of common garden plants.

  9. Experimental and computational evaluation of area selectively immobilized horseradish peroxidase in a microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines; Thrane, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    experimentally and by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Ultimately, such a correlation would lead to faster development through computational pre-screening and optimized experimental design.In this proof-of-concept study, microreactors were prepared in a 2-step curing process of an off......-stoichiometric thiol-ene-epoxy (OSTE+) mixture employing both a thiol-ene (TEC) and a thiol-epoxy curing reaction. Subsequent surface functionalization of the remaining thiol groups on the reactor surface through stenciled photoinitiated TEC enabled the preparation of specific surface patterns in the reactor. Patterns...... as obtained from experimental determination. This good agreement between the obtained experimental and computational results confirmed the high potential of CFD models for predicting and optimizing the biocatalytic performance of such a reactor....

  10. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  11. Study on designing a complete pilot plant for processing sandstone ores in Palua-Parong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quang Thai; Tran Van Son; Tran The Dinh; Trinh Nguyen Quynh; Vu Khac Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Design work is the first step of the construction and operation of pilot plant. Thus, the project Study on designing a complete pilot plant for processing sandstone ores in Palua - Parong area was conducted to design a pilot plant for testing entire technological process to obtain yellowcake. Based on a literature review of uranium ore processing technology in the world, information of ore and previous research results of uranium ore in PaLua - PaRong area at the Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements, a suitable technological flowsheet for processing this ore has been selected. The size, location of the pilot plant and planed experiments has been selected during the implementation of this project, in which basic parameters, designed system of equipment, buildings, ect. were also calculated. (author)

  12. Isoprene emission inventory for the BOREAS southern study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Kempf, K.; Allwine, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was designed to measure trace gas fluxes, nutrient cycling, hydrologic budgets and other ecosystem features in order to establish relationships between ecosystem processes and various global climate change scenarios. During the 1994 BOREAS field study isoprene and terpene emissions have been measured at several sites in the Southern Study Area (SSA). Ambient measurements were also made to help establish the chemical importance of these biogenic species in boreal atmosphere. The data was used to test and improve algorithms for predicting emission rates as a function of species, environmental conditions and biomass dynamics and to provide an expanded database describing the relationship of volatile organic compounds emissions to ecosystem dynamics. The study also sought to provide the foundation for improved understanding of physical exchange processes, and define hydrocarbon reactivity in the boundary layer at high latitudes. Details of the biogenic emission rate measurements made in the SSA are also discussed, including the creation of an isoprene emission inventory for the area. The study has been helpful in eliminating major sources of uncertainty associated with estimates of carbon loss due to isoprene emission on the BOREAS SSA. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Modeling geomorphic changes in sedimentary rock areas. A case study in the Boso Peninsula area, Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanatani, Ikuo; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo; Sanga, Tomoji

    2011-01-01

    For the long-term safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, evaluation of the radionuclide migration toward the human environment associated with groundwater flow is an issue of utmost importance. Therefore, we are carrying out a program for developing methods for assessing long-term groundwater flow in regional scales. As a part of the above program, we constructed models depicting the influences of geomorphological evolution on long-term groundwater flow. This was done by reconstructing the processes of river deepening with historical simulation of the profiles of four rivers in the Boso Peninsula. This area was selected because the sedimentary rocks are widely distributed with uncomplicated topography and geological structure which enabled the acquisition of a large amount of relevant geological information. The study resulted in the sum of erosion during the past 125,000 years which is the equivalent of one glacial to interglacial cycle. Consequently, the profiles of four rivers during the last glacial age to the present were successfully reconstructed using similar parameters. Also it was found that, in this area, the profiles were sculpted in accordance with the uplifting rates with very little influence of initial topography owing to the relatively soft and easily dissected characteristics of the geological units. However, detailed investigation revealed that the effects of geomorphological evolution differ between the rivers emptying into the inner bay and the rivers emptying into the open sea. In the case of the former two rivers, the river-bed elevation hardly changed during the 125,000 years and shows an extensive concave profile including the marine area. In the latter case, the elevation changed within the range of 20-30 m during the period and a convex profile appears in the marine area where the present water depth is over 30 m. Additionally the estimates of total amount of erosion during 125,000 years in the former group were

  14. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  15. A survey of feline leukaemia virus infection of domestic cats from selected areas in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Muchaamba

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV p27 antigen and to determine risk factors and the haematological changes associated with infection in domestic cats in Zimbabwe. Sera were collected for detection of the p27 antigen, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, whilst whole blood was collected for haematology. FeLV p27 antigen was detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kit. Data on risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of the 100 cats tested, 41% (95% CI: 31.19% – 50.81% (41/100 were positive for the FeLV p27 antigen. Sex and health status of cats were not significantly (p > 0.05 associated with infection. Intact cats (OR = 9.73, those living in multicat housing (OR = 5.23 and cats that had access to outdoor life (OR = 35.5 were found to have higher odds of infection compared with neutered cats, those living in single-cat housing, and without access to outdoor life, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology revealed no specific changes. The results showed that FeLV infection was high in sampled cats, providing evidence of active infection. Thus, it would be prudent to introduce specific control measures for FeLV infection in Zimbabwe.

  16. Characterization of Tunga penetrans antigens in selected epidemic areas in Murang'a county in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamleck N Mwangi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tunga penetrans are fleas that cause tungiasis, a condition characterized by high transmission rate due to poor housing conditions, social neglect and inadequate health care in economically disadvantaged communities in developing countries. This study therefore aimed at characterizing jiggers antigens to identify immunodominant ones to help understand immunological behavior of the parasite that would otherwise be important in future control of the parasite. Samples were gravid fleas and blood samples from infested individuals in Kahuro and Murang'a East district in Murang'a County. Freeze and thaw was used to extract soluble proteins from the fleas. Ouchterlony Double immunodiffusion was used to assess antigen-antibody reactions between extracted soluble protein and the serum from immunized rats, Rattus norvegicus prior to analysis of human sera. These results were comparable to results of immunoelectrphoresis. Jigger protein isolates were analyzed in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis technique (SDS-PAGE, against Pharmacia standard protein markers. Further analysis of jigger antigens against pooled human sera from infested victims in Western blot revealed three immunodominant antigens. Using simple regression analysis molecular weights of the three immunodominant antigens were estimated as 51.795, 23.395 and 15.38 kDa respectively. These results are important since they would help understand immunological behavior of the parasites. This would help to create basis for designing and improving approaches against jiggers such as development of immune prophylaxis to complement social science approaches that is mainly concerned with maintenance of high standards of hygiene.

  17. Geologic nuclear waste repository site selection studies in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.H.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    During Phase I regional-level studies, a literature review was conducted to ascertain geologic characteristics pertinent to repository siting factors. On the basis of the regional screening results, four areas in southeastern Utah were selected as being suitable for more detailed study in Phase II: Elk Ridge and Gibson Dome, containing nearly horizontal bedded salt deposits; Salt Valley, containing a diapiric salt anticline; and Lisbon Valley, containing a non-diapiric salt anticline. During current Phase II area studies, the four study areas are being characterized in greater detail than in Phase I. Phase II will culminate in the identification of a potentially suitable location(s), if any, that will be recommended for study in still greater detail in a subsequent phase of work. 5 refs

  18. Prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in an iodine-deficient area: non-selected patient population admitted for CT studies with iodine-containing contrast agents; Praevalenz der latenten und manifesten Hyperthyreose in einem Jodmangelgebiet: Erhebung an einem nichtselektionierten Patientenkollektiv vor Durchfuehrung einer Computertomographie mit jodhaltigem Kontrastmittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saam, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Univ. of Washington, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Seattle, WA (United States); Hess, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); St.-Vincenz-Krankenhaus, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Limburg (Germany); Kasperk, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Endokrinologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, G.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Duex, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Nordwest-Krankenhaus, Radiologisches Zentralinstitut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the prevalence of latent and manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected group of patients admitted for contrast enhanced CT studies blood samples were tested for the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Material and methods: TSH blood levels were obtained in 548 consecutive patients who were scheduled for contrast-enhanced (Iopromide; 300 mg iodine/ml) CT scanning. In case of TSH levels < 0.4 mU/l, blood samples were also tested for triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) blood levels, and treatment with Irenat {sup registered} (sodium perchlorate) was commenced before scanning. In case of TSH levels < 0.1 mU/l, CT scanning was not performed but further evaluation of the thyroid function was initiated. Results: TSH blood levels ranged from 0.4 to 7.5 mU/l in 512 patients, and 36 patients (6.6%) had TSH blood levels < 0.4 mU/l and 9 patients blood levels < 0.1 mU/l, with 32 of those patients (5.8%) having regular T3 and T4 blood levels consistent with latent hyperthyroidism. In 4 patients (0.8%), T3 or T4 blood levels were increased consistent with manifest hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: in South Germany, the prevalence of latent or manifest hyperthyroidism in a non-selected patient group is high. Therefore TSH blood levels should be obtained prior to contrast-enhanced CT studies. (orig.)

  19. Processes in arithmetic strategy selection: A fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eTaillan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This neuroimaging (fMRI study investigated neural correlates of strategy selection. Young adults performed an arithmetic task in two different conditions. In both conditions, participants had to provide estimates of two-digit multiplication problems like 54 x 78. In the choice condition, participants had to select the better of two available rounding strategies, rounding-up strategy (RU (i.e., doing 60x80 = 4,800 or rounding-down strategy (RD (i.e., doing 50x70=3,500 to estimate product of 54x78. In the no-choice condition, participants did not have to select strategy on each problem but were told which strategy to use; they executed RU and RD strategies each on a series of problems. Participants also had a control task (i.e., providing correct products of multiplication problems like 40x50. Brain activations and performance were analyzed as a function of these conditions. Participants were able to frequently choose the better strategy in the choice condition; they were also slower when they executed the difficult RU than the easier RD. Neuroimaging data showed greater brain activations in right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and angular gyrus (ANG, when selecting (relative to executing the better strategy on each problem. Moreover, RU was associated with more parietal cortex activation than RD. These results suggest an important role of fronto-parietal network in strategy selection and have important implications for our further understanding and modelling cognitive processes underlying strategy selection.

  20. Processes in arithmetic strategy selection: a fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillan, Julien; Ardiale, Eléonore; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Félician, Olivier; Lemaire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) study investigated neural correlates of strategy selection. Young adults performed an arithmetic task in two different conditions. In both conditions, participants had to provide estimates of two-digit multiplication problems like 54 × 78. In the choice condition, participants had to select the better of two available rounding strategies, rounding-up (RU) strategy (i.e., doing 60 × 80 = 4,800) or rounding-down (RD) strategy (i.e., doing 50 × 70 = 3,500 to estimate product of 54 × 78). In the no-choice condition, participants did not have to select strategy on each problem but were told which strategy to use; they executed RU and RD strategies each on a series of problems. Participants also had a control task (i.e., providing correct products of multiplication problems like 40 × 50). Brain activations and performance were analyzed as a function of these conditions. Participants were able to frequently choose the better strategy in the choice condition; they were also slower when they executed the difficult RU than the easier RD. Neuroimaging data showed greater brain activations in right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and angular gyrus (ANG), when selecting (relative to executing) the better strategy on each problem. Moreover, RU was associated with more parietal cortex activation than RD. These results suggest an important role of fronto-parietal network in strategy selection and have important implications for our further understanding and modeling cognitive processes underlying strategy selection.

  1. Choosing a Surgeon: An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Selection of a Gender Affirmation Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettner, Randi; Ettner, Frederic; White, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Selecting a healthcare provider is often a complicated process. Many factors appear to govern the decision as to how to select the provider in the patient-provider relationship. While the possibility of changing primary care physicians or specialists exists, decisions regarding surgeons are immutable once surgery has been performed. This study is an attempt to assess the importance attached to various factors involved in selecting a surgeon to perform gender affirmation surgery (GAS). It was hypothesized that owing to the intimate nature of the surgery, the expense typically involved, the emotional meaning attached to the surgery, and other variables, decisions regarding choice of surgeon for this procedure would involve factors other than those that inform more typical healthcare provider selection or surgeon selection for other plastic/reconstructive procedures. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to individuals who had undergone GAS and individuals who had undergone elective plastic surgery to assess decision-making. Results: The results generally confirm previous findings regarding how patients select providers. Conclusion: Choosing a surgeon to perform gender-affirming surgery is a challenging process, but patients are quite rational in their decision-making. Unlike prior studies, we did not find a preference for gender-concordant surgeons, even though the surgery involves the genital area. Providing strategies and resources for surgical selection can improve patient satisfaction.

  2. Historical Development of Skiing: Case Study in Durmitor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the history of skiing, while the main goal will be the historical development of skiing in the mountain Durmitor area in Montenegro. The study consists two goals. The first goal is the emergence of the first ski in the Montenegro and benefits that are brought. The second and the main goal is the occurrence and development of skiing and ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor. During the making of this study, the authors used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous authors’ experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. The main outcome of this study was showing of historical progress of ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor from early beginnings to the modern Olympic skiing. Skis and ski sport were early appeared in the region of Mount Durmitor. The mountain and the region around it, are very rich with slopes with Olympic diameter, with plenty of snowfall and long winters. However, lack of financial investment, channeling money to other centers, led to the fact that the skiing in this area is at a low level.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  4. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  5. Fingersomatotopy in area 3b: an fMRI-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosén Birgitta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary sensory cortex (S1 in the postcentral gyrus is comprised of four areas that each contain a body map, where the representation of the hand is located with the thumb most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly and the little finger most medially, posteriorly and superiorly. Previous studies on somatotopy using functional MRI have either used low field strength, have included a small number of subjects or failed to attribute activations to any area within S1. In the present study we included twenty subjects, who were investigated at 3 Tesla (T. We focused specifically on Brodmann area 3b, which neurons have discrete receptive fields with a potentially more clearcut somatotopic organisation. The spatial distribution for all fingers' peak activation was determined and group as well as individual analysis was performed. Results Activation maps from 18 subjects were of adequate quality; in 17 subjects activations were present for all fingers and these data were further analysed. In the group analysis the thumb was located most laterally, anteriorly and inferiorly with the other fingers sequentially positioned more medially, posteriorly and superiorly. At the individual level this somatotopic relationship was present for the thumb and little finger, with a higher variability for the fingers in between. The Euclidian distance between the first and fifth finger was 17.2 mm, between the first and second finger 10.6 mm and between the remaining fingers on average 6.3 mm. Conclusion Results from the group analysis, that is both the location of the fingers and the Euclidian distances, are well comparable to results from previous studies using a wide range of modalities. On the subject level the spatial localisation of the fingers showed a less stringent somatotopic order so that the location of a finger in a single subject cannot be predicted from the group result.

  6. Visual aesthetics study: Gibson Dome area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Visual Aesthetics study was performed as an initial assessment of concerns regarding impacts to visual resources that might be associated with the construction of a geologic nuclear waste repository and associated rail routes in the Gibson Dome location of southeastern Utah. Potential impacts to visual resources were evaluated by predicting visibility of the facility and railway routes using the US Forest Service (USFS) computer program, VIEWIT, and by applying the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Visual Resource Management (VRM) methodology. Five proposed facility sites in the Gibson Dome area and three proposed railway routes were evaluated for visual impact. 10 references, 19 figures, 5 tables

  7. A study on characteristic of selective membrane for strontium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hyun; Choi, Young Woo [Kwang-ju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, supported liquid membranes (SLMs) using crown ether were prepared in order to separate strontium ion selectively from a calcium contained solution However, at the higher than 3 N nitric acid concentration of a strip solution, stability of a SLM was declined remarkably owing to the hasty loss of carrier impregnated in supporter and, on account of this phenomena, facilitated transports were not accomplished. And DC18C6 as a neutral carrier affected remarkably the selectivity of strontium and the factor determining permeabilities of metal ions was as a role of DNNS. Consequently, in order to be a optimal SLM for the high permeability and the stable selectivity of strontium, concentration of DC18C6 and DNNS should be 0.1 M and 25 mM, respectively and, at this condition, the relative removal ratio of strontium to calcium was 93.3%. And the change of calcium concentration in the feed solution affected the permeability of strontium. In particular, when the ratio of strontium to calcium concentration in the feed solution was in the range of 1/5 - 1/50, strontium could be separated selectively at stable permeabilities. (author). 17 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  9. Nuclear power plant site selection: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugasi, Y.; Mehrez, A.; Sinuany-Stern, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Selecting the site for a nuclear power plant involves the evaluation of numerous criteria and the professional judgment of various experts. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission has been concerned with the problem of selecting a site for a nuclear power station. Previous studies have been performed by the commission to identify potential sites. There were initial screenings where potential sites were chosen according to various minimal criteria and international standards. Only sites that met all the criteria were chosen. A study was made to find the most preferred site among the potential sites that met all the criteria. Two mathematical approaches were used: Keeney's multiattribute utility function and Saaty's eigenvalue prioritization technique. Both models ranked the same site as the most desirable; however, the models differed in their ranking of the other sites

  10. Comparing interventions for selective mutism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Tannock, Rosemary

    2008-10-01

    To examine the outcome within 6 to 8 months of medical and nonmedical intervention for children with severe selective mutism (SM). Children with SM (n = 17) and their mothers, seen in a previous study, attended follow-up appointments with a clinician. Obtained by maternal report were: treatment received, current diagnosis (based on semi-structured interview), speech in various environments, and global improvement. An independent clinician also rated global functioning. The diagnosis of SM persisted in 16 children, but significant symptomatic improvement was evident in the sample. All children had received school consultations. Children who had been treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (n = 10) showed greater global improvement, improvement in functioning, and improvement in speech outside the family than children who were unmedicated (n = 7). No differences were evident for children receiving and not receiving additional nonmedical intervention. The findings suggest the potential benefit of SSRI treatment in severe SM, but randomized comparative treatment studies are indicated.

  11. Novel target configurations for selective ionization state studies in molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilcisin, K.J.; Feldman, U.; Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1990-03-01

    Details of experiments aimed at achieving low ionization state selectivity in molybdenum are presented. Targets are excited with a 10 J CO 2 laser and the resultant VUV spectrum (300--700 Angstrom) has been studied. Combinations of focal spot size, target depth, and target geometries are compared. Simple attenuation of energy is shown not to vary ionization stage composition significantly. Experiments conducted with grazing incidence targets result only in a hot plasma. Modular targets with cooling cylinders of various radii demonstrated good selectivity of the ionization states, but with low absolute signals. Finally, results from combinations of focal spot adjustment and radiative cooling illustrate increased control over desired plasma temperature and density for spectroscopic studies of molybdenum. 7 refs., 14 figs

  12. Response of lake chemistry to atmospheric deposition and climate in selected Class I wilderness areas in the western United States, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Air Resource Management, conducted a study to evaluate long-term trends in lake-water chemistry for 64 high-elevation lakes in selected Class I wilderness areas in Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming during 1993 to 2009. Understanding how and why lake chemistry is changing in mountain areas is essential for effectively managing and protecting high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. Trends in emissions, atmospheric deposition, and climate variables (air temperature and precipitation amount) were evaluated over a similar period of record. A main objective of the study was to determine if changes in atmospheric deposition of contaminants in the Rocky Mountain region have resulted in measurable changes in the chemistry of high-elevation lakes. A second objective was to investigate linkages between lake chemistry and air temperature and precipitation to improve understanding of the sensitivity of mountain lakes to climate variability.

  13. Hydrogeology and sources of water to select springs in Black Canyon, south of Hoover Dam, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Wilson, Jon W.; Beard, L. Sue

    2015-11-03

    Springs in Black Canyon of the Colorado River, directly south of Hoover Dam in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, are important hydrologic features that support a unique riparian ecosystem including habitat for endangered species. Rapid population growth in areas near and surrounding Black Canyon has caused concern among resource managers that such growth could affect the discharge from these springs. The U.S. Geological Survey studied the springs in Black Canyon between January 2008, and May 2014. The purposes of this study were to provide a baseline of discharge and hydrochemical data from selected springs in Black Canyon and to better understand the sources of water to the springs.

  14. Study of stress in nuclear area workers: silent enemy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear accidents occurred in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima were influenced by human factors. The objective of this paper is to study about the factors that influence the level of stress of the nuclear area workers. The paper is based on theoretical assumptions on occupational stress and its manifestations. The methodology used is based on questionnaires and interviews, obtained from Martins' work published in 2008 about the study of human factors focused on research reactor operators IEA-R1, of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). In that study were analyzed the accidents occurred by human failure. The results presented in this paper showed some improvements in the reactors operators' work, and health. Operational reliability and facilities safety also improved. (author)

  15. Study of stress in nuclear area workers: silent enemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP-SP), SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear accidents occurred in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima were influenced by human factors. The objective of this paper is to study about the factors that influence the level of stress of the nuclear area workers. The paper is based on theoretical assumptions on occupational stress and its manifestations. The methodology used is based on questionnaires and interviews, obtained from Martins' work published in 2008 about the study of human factors focused on research reactor operators IEA-R1, of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). In that study were analyzed the accidents occurred by human failure. The results presented in this paper showed some improvements in the reactors operators' work, and health. Operational reliability and facilities safety also improved. (author)

  16. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  17. Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  18. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, O T S; Saito, K; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island

  19. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection and Classification Methods for Gene Expression Data

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2013-05-01

    Microarray technology has enriched the study of gene expression in such a way that scientists are now able to measure the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single experiment. Microarray gene expression data gained great importance in recent years due to its role in disease diagnoses and prognoses which help to choose the appropriate treatment plan for patients. This technology has shifted a new era in molecular classification, interpreting gene expression data remains a difficult problem and an active research area due to their native nature of “high dimensional low sample size”. Such problems pose great challenges to existing classification methods. Thus, effective feature selection techniques are often needed in this case to aid to correctly classify different tumor types and consequently lead to a better understanding of genetic signatures as well as improve treatment strategies. This thesis aims on a comparative study of state-of-the-art feature selection methods, classification methods, and the combination of them, based on gene expression data. We compared the efficiency of three different classification methods including: support vector machines, k- nearest neighbor and random forest, and eight different feature selection methods, including: information gain, twoing rule, sum minority, max minority, gini index, sum of variances, t- statistics, and one-dimension support vector machine. Five-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the classification performance. Two publicly available gene expression data sets of glioma were used for this study. Different experiments have been applied to compare the performance of the classification methods with and without performing feature selection. Results revealed the important role of feature selection in classifying gene expression data. By performing feature selection, the classification accuracy can be significantly boosted by using a small number of genes. The relationship of features selected in

  20. Transformation of tourist landscapes in mountain areas: Case studies from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Chrenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of deregulated free market economy the post-socialist rural mountain areas are being unprecedently commodified. Landscapes of tourist consumption with specific behaviour patterns are produced and reproduced. The paper explores how landscapes are transformed due to massive investments into tourist infrastructure with questionable impacts on quality of life and environmental sustainability. Power relations and related production of space are analysed in three case studies in the selected mountain areas in Slovakia. First, the Oščadnica case study reflects on rural landscape rapidly transformed by massive ski resort development and deforestation. Second, the Tále golf course development case study describes commodification and gentrification processes in Central Slovakia. Third, the High Tatras case study explores how power structures push on the transformation of the oldest and most visited National Park in Slovakia.

  1. An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-05-09

    The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and

  2. [Entomologic study of loaiasis transmission in the Lekie area (Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanou, M; Pion, S D; Boussinesq, M

    2001-11-01

    A number of cases of Loa encephalopathy have been recorded after ivermectin treatment in the Lekie Division, an area of degraded forest located in central Cameroon. An entomological study was carried out in a village of this region between May 1999 and April 2000 to determine whether the high microfilarial loads of Loa found in the population, which can exceed 10,000 microfilariae per ml of blood, were related to high densities of vector populations. The Chrysops collected at 10 catching stations, using hand nets, by persons standing by a wood fire, were dissected to evaluate their level of infection with Loa. The vectorial densities were three-fold higher in the forest stations than in those located near the habitations (2307 and 725 bites per man per year, respectively). These values are lower than those reported from similar studies in Cameroon, Congo and Gabon. Measurement of Chrysops densities does not seem to be an appropriate tool to evaluate the level of endemicity of loiasis, and to delineate the areas where there is a risk of post-ivermectin Loa encephalopathies.

  3. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Mathias; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willen, Dag; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  4. A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, efforts at better understanding the physical properties of precursory ultra-low frequency pre-seismic electric signals (SES have been intensified. Experiments show that SES cannot be observed at all points of the Earth's surface but only at certain so-called sensitive sites. Moreover, a sensitive site is capable of collecting SES from only a restricted number of seismic areas (selectivity effect. Therefore the installation of a permanent station appropriate for SES collection should necessarily be preceded by a pilot study over a broad area and for a long duration. In short, a number of temporary stations are installed and, after the occurrence of several significant earthquakes (EQs from a given seismic area, the most appropriate (if any of these temporary stations, in the sense that they happen to collect SES, can be selected as permanent. Such a long experiment constitutes a serious disadvantage in identifying a site as SES sensitive. However, the SES sensitivity of a site should be related to the geoelectric structure of the area that hosts the site as well as the regional geoelectric structure between the station and the seismic focal area. Thus, knowledge of the local and regional geoelectric structure can dramatically reduce the time involved in identifying SES sites. In this paper the magnetotelluric method is used to investigate the conductivity structure of an area where a permanent SES station is in operation. Although general conclusions cannot be drawn, the area surrounding an SES site near Ioannina, Greece is characterized by: (1 major faults in the vicinity; (2 highly resistive structure flanked by abrupt conductivity contrasts associated with large-scale geologic contacts, and (3 local inhomogeneities in conductivity structure. The above results are consistent with the fact that electric field amplitudes from remotely-generated signals should be appreciably stronger at such sites when compared to neighboring

  5. The environmental factors to be considered in the site selection studies of the spent fuel final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, Timo

    1985-10-01

    The ojective of the work has been to elucidate environmental factors, which could have an influence on the selection of areas. The factors were identified and their significance evaluated by going through the present plan for the final disposal of spent fuel. Population density and transport conditions were the most important factors. Protected areas, groundwater reservoirs and restrictions presented in regional land-use plans were also noted. The potential areas have been identified by the Geological Survey of Finland. First 327 large bedrock blocks were identified. The extent of the block areas was between 100-200 km 2 . The environmental factors of these areas were mapped and the areas were classified. The study was based on maps, published regional plans and inventory of groundwater reservoirs. The Geological Survey of Finland selected 162 block areas for preliminary characterization and geological classification. 61 block areas were chosen for further geological studies. By interpretation of aerial photographs and field reconnaissance trip the Geological Survey identified 134 potential investigation areas. A large block area typically contained two possible investigation areas. The extent of these areas varied between 5-10 km 2 . The environmental factors of 134 possible investigation areas were studied in detail. Due to the classification made earlier, the areas were typically sparsely populated forest areas. In the detailed study the main emphasis was but on evaluation of population density, transport and inventory of land ownership. The land-ownership is important for practical reasons. Land-owner's permission is needed for the operations in the field. Areas were classified separately according to population density, transport and land-ownership. In classification the most suitable areas were uninhabited regions with few landowners and locating close (less than 10 km) to the railroad. Only a minority of the areas fell in this category with the requirement

  6. Surface science study of selective ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by the Ag(110) surface: Structural sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide (C 2 H 4 +1/2O 2 →C 2 H 4 O) over Ag is the simplest example of kinetically controlled, selective heterogeneous catalysis. We have studied the steady-state kinetics and selectivity of this reaction for the first time on a clean, well-characterized Ag(110) surface by using a special apparatus which allows rapid (approx.20 s) transfer between a high-pressure catalytic microreactor and an ultrahigh vacuum surface analysis (AES, XPS, LEED, TDS) chamber. The effects of temperature and reactant pressures upon the rate and selectivity are virtually identical on Ag(110) and supported, high surface area Ag catalysts. The absolute specific rate (per Ag surface atom) is, however, some 100-fold higher for Ag(110) than for high surface area catalysts. This is related to the well-known structural sensitivity of this reaction. It is postulated that a small percentage of (110) planes (or [110]-like sites) are responsible for most of the catalytic activity of high surface area catalysts. The high activity of the (110) plane is attributed to its high sticking probability for dissociative oxygen adsorption, since the rate of ethylene epoxidation is shown in a related work [Ref. 1: C. T. Campbell and M. T. Paffett, Surf. Sci. (in press)] to be proportional to the coverage of atomically adsorbed oxygen at constant temperature and ethylene pressure

  7. Studies of transuranic element ingestion by fistulated steers grazing Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Area 13 is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contaminated with transuranics. Cattle were grazed on the area to study the botanical and chemical composition of the forage, the digestibility of range plants as selected by range cattle, and the intake of plutonium and americium by grazing cattle. The digestibility of dry matter ranged from 34 to 44%. Cattle generally consumed over 2 kilograms per 100 kilograms body weight of dry matter daily, which resulted in a daily intake of 3600 to 11,100 pCi of plutonium-238, 85,000 to 400,000 pCi of plutonium-239, and 11,000 to 56,000 pCi of americium-241. The soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium. 21 references, 1 figure, 9 tables

  8. Fundamental study on interfacial area transport model (I) (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo

    2001-03-01

    Recently, improvement in the best-estimate (BE) code predictive capability is attempted by incorporating the interfacial area transport model (IATM) into a one-dimensional two-fluid model to represent gas-liquid two-phase flows in detail with less uncertainty in the flow predictions. Internationally, the nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) and Purdue University in the U.S.A. and CEA in France have promoted the renewal of their BE codes such as TRAC, RELAP5 and CATHARE, by introducing the IATM in cooperative manner. In Japan, JAERI is underway to develop a one-dimensional code based primarily on the IATM against the licensing procedures of next-generation nuclear reactors. The IATM has a possibility to correctly predict flow transient along flow path for such flows as developing flows, multi-dimensional flows, transitional flows, boiling flows, which are difficult to accurately predict by the two-fluid models employed in the current BE codes. The newly developed code with the IATM would dramatically improve the accuracy in the flow prediction. The model, however, is under development and needs great effort to overcome many difficulties with plenty of theoretical considerations based on much of data bases to be acquired further. This study attempts to measure interfacial area in air-water two-phase flows in a large-diameter tube to understand the characteristic of multi-dimensional flows that usually appear in large-diameter tube flows, and provide data bases, to contribute the development of the IATM. The results obtained by such institutes as Purdue University and CEA France were reviewed first. Clarified are the current status and problems of the IATM, basics and practical methods to measure the interfacial area using multi-sensor miniature local probes; metal needle electro-resistance probe and fiber-optic probe. It was found that the applicability of the IATM is limited mostly to a one-dimensional bubbly flow, and is far from satisfactory for multi

  9. Geotechnical parameters for three deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results of geotechnical measurements made on cores taken at the three deep ocean sites that have been studied in detail as part of the international programme assessing the feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste. The capabilities of existing sampling methods and the adequacy of the available data for providing the geotechnical parameters needed to evaluate the technical feasibility of deep ocean disposal are discussed. It is concluded that, while it has not been possible to obtain core samples of sufficient quality and depth to provide all the parameters needed for the assessment, no fundamental differences between the sediments at the study areas and those found on land or in shallow water have been identified. (author)

  10. Surgery resident selection and evaluation. A critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J C; Currie, M L; Wade, T P; Kaminski, D L

    1993-03-01

    This article reports a study of the process of selecting and evaluating general surgery residents. In personnel psychology terms, a job analysis of general surgery was conducted using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). The researchers collected 235 critical incidents through structured interviews with 10 general surgery faculty members and four senior residents. The researchers then directed the surgeons in a two-step process of sorting the incidents into categories and naming the categories. The final essential categories of behavior to define surgical competence were derived through discussion among the surgeons until a consensus was formed. Those categories are knowledge/self-education, clinical performance, diagnostic skills, surgical skills, communication skills, reliability, integrity, compassion, organization skills, motivation, emotional control, and personal appearance. These categories were then used to develop an interview evaluation form for selection purposes and a performance evaluation form to be used throughout residency training. Thus a continuum of evaluation was established. The categories and critical incidents were also used to structure the interview process, which has demonstrated increased interview validity and reliability in many other studies. A handbook for structuring the interviews faculty members conduct with applicants was written, and an interview training session was held with the faculty. The process of implementation of the structured selection interviews is being documented currently through qualitative research.

  11. Control of morphology and crystal purity of InP nanowires by variation of phosphine flux during selective area MOMBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelrich, A.; Dubrovskii, V. G.; Calahorra, Y.; Cohen, S.; Ritter, D.

    2015-02-01

    We present experimental results showing how the growth rate, morphology and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed InP nanowires (NWs) fabricated by selective area metal organic molecular beam epitaxy can be tuned by the growth parameters: temperature and phosphine flux. The InP NWs with 20-65 nm diameters are grown at temperatures of 420 and 480 °C with the PH3 flow varying from 1 to 9 sccm. The NW tapering is suppressed at a higher temperature, while pure wurtzite crystal structure is preferred at higher phosphine flows. Therefore, by combining high temperature and high phosphine flux, we are able to fabricate non-tapered and stacking fault-free InP NWs with the quality that other methods rarely achieve. We also develop a model for NW growth and crystal structure which explains fairly well the observed experimental tendencies.

  12. The regional metallogenesis and optimum selection of prospecting target for superlarge uranium deposit in metallogenic area of erguna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yi; Wang Zhengbang; Hou Huiqun; Zhou Dean; Qi Fucheng; Xiao Xiangping

    1995-06-01

    The study area, an activation zone of the median Massif in Xingmeng geosynclinal area, geologically underwent the multiple tectono-magmatic reworking of granitizations during Shinagan, Caledonia and Hercynian periods and of continental rift volcanism in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic era. It is an important potential area for uranium metallogenesis in volcanic basin in North China. The study identifies that four stages of uranium preconcentration and three phases of hydrothermal superimposed-reworking uranium metallogenesis occurred along with the regional geological elevation process. Studies on the U-Pb isotope and induced fission track of various kinds of basement rocks from the area indicate that the basement composed of crustal source remelting type Caledonian and Hercynian granites is favourable for uranium metallogenesis in volcanic basin, and that the late Jurassic intermediate-acid volcano-rock directly act as the source of uranium and that Cretaceous-Tertiary extension-rift basalt magmatic activation supply an important hydrothermal reworking condition for the uranium metallogenesis in volcanic basin. Based on comparative study on the metallogenetic conditions of typical large-scale volcanic uranium deposits at home and abroad, nine prospecting criteria are summarized, the polygenetic mixing hydrothermal uranium metallogenetic model for penetrable volcano-collapse basin is presented, and the main prospecting targets of uranium deposits are pointed out. (2 figs.)

  13. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  14. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  15. Exploring studies of representative areas in the middle and northern Norrland during 1979 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Henkel, H.; Scherman, S.; Tiren, S.

    1981-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Sweden has carried out an investigation of the bedrock of the districts of Gaevleborg and Kopparberg. A study of intrusive gabbros has been made in the north of Sweden. The investigation aims at a detailed knowledge of the structure of the bedrock in selected parts of Sweden and of the zones of fracture with reference to ground water flow. The study will result in a proposition of areas for further geological and hydrological investigations. A number of maps are presented. (G.B.)

  16. International Conflict Studies as a Research and Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Viktorovna Khudaykulova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes international conflict studies as a science and an educational discipline. The analysis of the subject field and professional terminology adopted in this area both in Russian and in English is provided. Formation of international conflict studies as a distinct field of study in the United States and Western Europe is described. The results of analysis of 10 leading foreign schools on international conflict studies are presented. The main factors that were taken into account in identifying the leading centers were the existence of a separate research (educational analysis units of international conflicts, the world's leading scientific journals on conflict resolution, as well as databases for the analysis of international conflicts. The role of professional associations, education consortia and international organizations (UNESCO in the study of international conflicts is described. An analysis of the leading think tanks on defense and national security (as rated by Philadelphia think tank ranking is also provided. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research methodology of international conflicts and the structure of educational programs at leading schools in the world in international relations. The author summarizes the recommendations of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA to create educational programs of this kind.

  17. Behavior-Dependent Activity and Synaptic Organization of Septo-hippocampal GABAergic Neurons Selectively Targeting the Hippocampal CA3 Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhilasha; Salib, Minas; Viney, Tim James; Dupret, David; Somogyi, Peter

    2017-12-20

    Rhythmic medial septal (MS) GABAergic input coordinates cortical theta oscillations. However, the rules of innervation of cortical cells and regions by diverse septal neurons are unknown. We report a specialized population of septal GABAergic neurons, the Teevra cells, selectively innervating the hippocampal CA3 area bypassing CA1, CA2, and the dentate gyrus. Parvalbumin-immunopositive Teevra cells show the highest rhythmicity among MS neurons and fire with short burst duration (median, 38 ms) preferentially at the trough of both CA1 theta and slow irregular oscillations, coincident with highest hippocampal excitability. Teevra cells synaptically target GABAergic axo-axonic and some CCK interneurons in restricted septo-temporal CA3 segments. The rhythmicity of their firing decreases from septal to temporal termination of individual axons. We hypothesize that Teevra neurons coordinate oscillatory activity across the septo-temporal axis, phasing the firing of specific CA3 interneurons, thereby contributing to the selection of pyramidal cell assemblies at the theta trough via disinhibition. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seattle wide-area information for travelers (SWIFT) : architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-19

    The SWIFT (Seattle Wide-area Information For Travelers) Field Operational Test was intended to evaluate the performance of a large-scale urban Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) deployment in the Seattle area. The unique features of the SWIF...

  19. Maternal common mental disorders and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in an urban slum area of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahad Mahmud; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor maternal mental health has a negative impact on child growth and development. The objective of the study was to find out the associated factors of maternal common mental disorders (CMD) in an urban slum area of Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from September to November 2013 among conveniently selected 264 mothers having under-five children at Kamrangirchar area of Dhaka. A structured questionnaire based on Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20)...

  20. U Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of U Plant. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation that was undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. U Plant refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separation facility constructed during World War II. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant constructed at the same time as 221-U as an adjunct to the original plutonium separation process but which, like 221-U, was converted for other missions. Waste sites are associated primarily with U Plant's 1952 through 1958 Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission and the U0 3 Plant's ongoing U0 3 mission. Waste sites include cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, a waste vault, and the lines and encasements that connect them. It also includes the U Pond and its feed ditches and an underground tank farm designed for high-level liquid wastes

  1. Physicochemical and radiological studies on some egyptian aquatic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, S.K.; Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Seifin, S.M.; Abou-zeid, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of estimating the radiological health and safety to the Egyptian population arises from the natural background involved with coastal areas, it is necessary to make a comprehensive study to investigate the natural radionuclides activities in this environmental ecology. The locations of such areas were chosen from those in which people spend some time (e.g. the Mediterranean and Red Sea beaches, Suez Canal in addition to the River Nile Ismailia Canal and Quaroun Lake). Water and soil samples were brought from these locations and subjected to intensive physical, chemical analysis and radiological investigations. The densities of the collected soil samples were found to fall in the region of clay densities (2.30 - 2.70 g/cm 3 ). The particle size distribution analysis, of these soil samples showed values ranging from 128 Μ m to 1303 Μ according to sample site. The collected samples are mainly silicates with variable amounts of the major cations; Ca + +, Mg + +, Na + , K + with some other trace elements. For the radiological investigations 238 U , 226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K activity concentrations were resolved by spectroscopy technique. The majority of samples examined in this work showed variable activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides with fairly low levels compared with literature values reported in other countries. The analysis and discussions of the obtained data are thoroughly performed with the use of equations to estimate the radiation doses

  2. A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Khan, E.U.; Qureshi, I.E.; Malik, F.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

  3. Knowledge and Attitude of Married Women in the Reproductive Age Group Regarding Emergency Contraception in Selected Rural Areas of Udupi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted pregnancy is still a major problem in the modern world despite the widely available contraception services. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of married women in the reproductive age group regarding emergency contraception in selected rural areas of Udupi district, India. Material and Methods: The study group comprised of 350 married women in the reproductive age group residing in rural areas of Udupi district, India. A structured questionnaire and an attitude scale were used to assess the knowledge and the attitude. Results: Majority, 69.1% of the married women belonged to Hindu religion, 46.9% had an educational qualification of 10th standard and below. About 13.1% of the married women had undergone abortion. Nearly 96.9% of the married women had heard about emergency contraceptives and only 2% of the married women had used emergency contraceptive pills. About 63.7% out of 339 married women had got information about emergency contraceptive pills from health personnel and about 77.7% from television. Majority 84% had poor knowledge on emergency contraception. About 99.7% had favourable attitude on the use of emergency contraceptives. There was a significant association between knowledge scores and selected variable like education, knowledge and the attitude scores had a correlation. Conclusion: The study identifies the knowledge and attitude of the rural married women regarding emergency contraception, hence to help them to plan future pregnancies and prevent any unwanted or unintended pregnancies.

  4. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  5. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Song, J.; Gao, M.H.; Zhu, D.; Lin, J.W.; Feng, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  6. Gulf Coast Salt Domes geologic Area Characterization Report, East Texas Study Area. Volume II. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The East Texas Area Characterization Report (ACR) is a compilation of data gathered during the Area Characterization phase of the Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage program in salt. The characterization of Gulf Coast Salt Domes as a potential site for storage of nuclear waste is an ongoing process. This report summarizes investigations covering an area of approximately 2590 km 2 (1000 mi 2 ). Data on Oakwood, Keechi, and Palestine Domes are given. Subsequent phases of the program will focus on smaller land areas and fewer specific salt domes, with progressively more detailed investigations, possibly culminating with a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data in this report are a result of drilling and sampling, geophysical and geologic field work, and intensive literature review. The ACR contains text discussing data usage, interpretations, results and conclusions based on available geologic and hydrologic data, and figures including diagrams showing data point locations, geologic and hydrologic maps, geologic cross sections, and other geologic and hydrologic information. An appendix contains raw data gathered during this phase of the project and used in the preparation of these reports

  7. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  8. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  9. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks

  10. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  11. Sex-selective abortion in Nepal: a qualitative study of health workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Harken, Tabetha; Puri, Mahesh; Darney, Philip D; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C; Henderson, Jillian T

    2011-01-01

    Sex-selective abortion is expressly prohibited in Nepal, but limited evidence suggests that it occurs nevertheless. Providers' perspectives on sex-selective abortion were examined as part of a larger study on legal abortion in the public sector in Nepal. In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers and administrators providing abortion services at four major hospitals (n = 35), two in the Kathmandu Valley and two in outlying rural areas. A grounded theory approach was used to code interview transcripts and to identify themes in the data. Most providers were aware of the ban on sex-selective abortion and, despite overall positive views of abortion legalization, saw sex selection as an increasing problem. Greater availability of abortion and ultrasonography, along with the high value placed on sons, were seen as contributing factors. Providers wanted to perform abortions for legal indications, but described challenges identifying sex-selection cases. Providers also believed that illegal sex-selective procedures contribute to serious abortion complications. Sex-selective abortion complicates the provision of legal abortion services. In addition to the difficulty of determining which patients are seeking abortion for sex selection, health workers are aware of the pressures women face to bear sons and know they may seek unsafe services elsewhere when unable to obtain abortions in public hospitals. Legislative, advocacy, and social efforts aimed at promoting gender equality and women's human rights are needed to reduce the cultural and economic pressures for sex-selective abortion, because providers alone cannot prevent the practice. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  13. Hydrogeological and isotopic studies for selected springs in Sinai Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, M S; Awad, M A; El-gamal, S A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo Egypt and Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Center for The Arab Countries, Dokki, 12311, Cairo (Egypt); Hammad, F A [Desert Research Centre, Materia, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This paper deals with the hydrogeology and isotopic composition of water samples collected from selected spring in sinai (e.g. Algudierate, Alqusiema, qidis and Isram) in order to identify their genesis, their interaction with the host rocks and mixing trend. Results of isotopic composition have indicated the similarity in the hydrogeologic situation of Ain qidis and Ain-al-gudierate, while Ain Isram has shown a marked difference in its stable isotope and this could be due to evaporation effect. The isotopic and hydrochemical constituents of the studied springs reflect eater of a meteoric origin with a possible contamination from surficial materials (evaporates) and deeper aquifers. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Natural analogue study on trace element migration in geological formation at Horonobe area, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ishii, Eiichi; Mizuno, Takashi; Honda, T.

    2010-01-01

    Usefulness of natural analog to study radionuclide transport models for deep geological repositories for high-level and long lived radioactive wastes is widely recognized. As the groundwater flow in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan is known to be stationary with neutral pH value and of reductive nature for a long-term, the authors began natural analog study by observing atomic distribution of such trace elements as rare earths, uranium, and thorium in carbonate nodules and veins of uranium minerals from several selected faults (Wakkanai F., Ketoi F., etc) in the area with the use of XED, XRF, and ICP-MS. The results give important information as to the maintainability of the rocks for trace elements and help to provide confidence in the safety assessment in the long term. (S. Ohno)

  15. STUDY REGARDING THE DESTABILIZATION OF STABLE EMULSIONS FROM SUPLAC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA VERONICA GHEŢIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions from the wells in the Suplac area create great difficulties in removing water due to their specifications. A complex study was conducted in order to eliminate water from emulsions using alkaline-surfactants. The choice of surfactant was made after the chromatographic SARA analysis of emulsions and the determination of their physical properties: density, viscosity, organic acidity. The samples were taken from two wells in the Suplac area. In the case of samples from A well the variation of density is 907 - 955 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 928 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.680 to 0.995 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.049 to 0.328 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. For samples from B well the variation of density is 855 - 905 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 939 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.149 to 0.797 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.014 to 0.397 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. The justification for choosing R - DP surfactant like reagent was based on laboratory tests which showed a maximum efficiency at 80 °C (95.69 for B and 98.75 % for A.

  16. Computational study of variable area ejector rocket flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etele, Jason

    Access to space has always been a scientific priority for countries which can afford the prohibitive costs associated with launch. However, the large scale exploitation of space by the business community will require the cost of placing payloads into orbit be dramatically reduced for space to become a truly profitable commodity. To this end, this work focuses on a next generation propulsive technology called the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine in which rocket, ejector, ramjet, and scramjet cycles operate within the same engine environment. Using an in house numerical code solving the axisymmetric version of the Favre averaged Navier Stokes equations (including the Wilcox ko turbulence model with dilatational dissipation) a systematic study of various ejector designs within an RBCC engine is undertaken. It is shown that by using a central rocket placed along the axisymmetric axis in combination with an annular rocket placed along the outer wall of the ejector, one can obtain compression ratios of approximately 2.5 for the case where both the entrained air and rocket exhaust mass flows are equal. Further, it is shown that constricting the exit area, and the manner in which this constriction is performed, has a significant positive impact on the compression ratio. For a decrease in area of 25% a purely conical ejector can increase the compression ratio by an additional 23% compared to an equal length unconstricted ejector. The use of a more sharply angled conical section followed by a cylindrical section to maintain equivalent ejector lengths can further increase the compression ratio by 5--7% for a total increase of approximately 30%.

  17. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS, a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598–50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  18. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS), a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS) was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598-50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  19. fMRI-adaptation studies of viewpoint tuning in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Wiggett, Alison J; Downing, Paul E

    2010-03-01

    People are easily able to perceive the human body across different viewpoints, but the neural mechanisms underpinning this ability are currently unclear. In three experiments, we used functional MRI (fMRI) adaptation to study the view-invariance of representations in two cortical regions that have previously been shown to be sensitive to visual depictions of the human body--the extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA). The BOLD response to sequentially presented pairs of bodies was treated as an index of view invariance. Specifically, we compared trials in which the bodies in each image held identical poses (seen from different views) to trials containing different poses. EBA and FBA adapted to identical views of the same pose, and both showed a progressive rebound from adaptation as a function of the angular difference between views, up to approximately 30 degrees. However, these adaptation effects were eliminated when the body stimuli were followed by a pattern mask. Delaying the mask onset increased the response (but not the adaptation effect) in EBA, leaving FBA unaffected. We interpret these masking effects as evidence that view-dependent fMRI adaptation is driven by later waves of neuronal responses in the regions of interest. Finally, in a whole brain analysis, we identified an anterior region of the left inferior temporal sulcus (l-aITS) that responded linearly to stimulus rotation, but showed no selectivity for bodies. Our results show that body-selective cortical areas exhibit a similar degree of view-invariance as other object selective areas--such as the lateral occipitotemporal area (LO) and posterior fusiform gyrus (pFs).

  20. Calculation of the Carbon Footprint to Determine Sustainability Status: A Comparative Analysis of Some Selected Planned and Unplanned Areas of Dhaka Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S. M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Resource scarcity is considered to be one of the most serious issues plaguing Dhaka city. Because of the massive pressure of increasing population (15.931 million), a very unsustainable situation is waiting for this city in the upcoming future. It is inevitable to know how far this city is from being sustainable. This paper embodies the comparative analysis of the carbon footprint of four different areas in Dhaka city. It is considered as one of the most important key indicators of sustainability. It calculates the amount of biologically productive land in order to produce all the resources consumed by an individual or a particular community. This research has been conducted in both the planned and unplanned areas of this city. Among compound, component and direct method, component method was used to calculate the carbon footprint. Primary data were collected from door to door questionnaire survey. Total 371 samples were drawn from all the study areas at 95 % confidence level and 5% confidence interval. After finishing data analysis it was clear that the per capita carbon footprint of the selected study areas exceeds the per capita biocapacity of Dhaka city. And there exists a huge variation between the planned and unplanned areas of Old Dhaka and New Dhaka. Per capita carbon footprint of Gulshan & Jhigatola (part of New Dhaka) is higher than the per capita carbon footprint of Gandaria & Wari (part of Old Dhaka) that means resource stress is higher in Gulshan & Jhigatola in comparison with Gandaria & Wari because of the difference of daily consumption pattern. One of the most important findings of this study is that the per capita carbon footprint is the highest in Gulshan (1.2407 gha) among all the study areas and it is 85.56 times greater than the per capita biocapacity of Dhaka city (0.0145 gha) that means a single resident of this area needs 1.2407 gha land in order to support his/her demand on nature but only 0.0145 gha land (in an average) is available for