WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected southern states

  1. Experience with the selection method in pine stands in the southern United States, with implications for future application

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    The selection method applied in shade-intolerant pine stands in the southern United States has been shown to be an effective method of uneven-aged silviculture, but it is becoming less frequently practiced for a variety of reasons. Economically, the high value of standing timber puts fully stocked uneven-aged pine stands at risk of liquidation if the timberland is sold...

  2. Valuing setting-based recreation for selected visitors to national forests in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavita Sardana; John C. Bergstrom; J. M.  Bowker

    2016-01-01

    In this study we estimate selected visitors’ demand and value for recreational trips to settings such as developed vs. undeveloped sites in U.S. national forests in the Southern United States using the travel cost method. The setting-based approach allows for valuation of multi-activity trips to particular settings. The results from an adjusted Poisson lognormal...

  3. Valuing setting-based recreation for selected visitors to national forests in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kavita; Bergstrom, John C; Bowker, J M

    2016-12-01

    In this study we estimate selected visitors' demand and value for recreational trips to settings such as developed vs. undeveloped sites in U.S. national forests in the Southern United States using the travel cost method. The setting-based approach allows for valuation of multi-activity trips to particular settings. The results from an adjusted Poisson lognormal estimator corrected for truncation and endogenous stratification reveal that economic value per trip estimates are higher for wilderness compared to day-use developed settings, overnight-use developed settings, and general forest areas. Estimates of these economic values are important to resource managers because their management decisions and actions typically control recreational settings. For example, managers control developed campground capacity in a national forest, but typically not the number of campers below the capacity constraint and the number and types of activities visitors engage in during a multi-activity trip to a developed campground (within limits since some activities such as discharging a firearm are not permitted in a developed campground). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Southern states' routing agency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  5. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  6. Results of Analyses of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil, Its Degradation Products, and Other Selected Pesticides at 22 Surface-Water Sites in Five Southern States, 2003-04

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scribner, Elisabeth A; Orlando, James L; Battaglin, William A; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Meyer, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    ... in the Southern States. Water-quality samples were collected during the peanut-growing season (June-September) in 2OO3. During the peanut growing season in 2004, samples were collected after large storms...

  7. Sexty Southerners: Sexting Content and Behaviors among Selected Southern Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Marshall, S. Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Sexting is defined as sending/posting/sharing sexually explicit messages or nude/semi-nude images via electronic communication. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and determine relationships of sexting behavioral intentions, sexting behaviors, and sexting content among selected Southern undergraduate students. Methods: Survey…

  8. Lessons learned by southern states in designating alternative routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southem region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations. Under DOT regulations (49 CFR 177.826), carriers of highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (which include spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste) must use preferred routes selected to reduce time in transit. Such preferred routes consist of (1) an interstate system highway with use of an interstate system bypass or beltway around cities when available, and (2) alternate routes selected by a ''state routing agency.''

  9. Selective Migration among Southern Blacks: A Reinterpretation of Lee (1951).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, JosePh L.

    1979-01-01

    Explanations of differences in IQs of Northern and Southern Blacks focus on selective migration (hereditarians) or environmental causes such as education, discrimination and cultural deprivation. In this paper the environmentalist position is questioned and certain neglected features of Lee's data are construed as providing strong evidence for…

  10. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  11. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Wright

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supporters of the Confederate battle flag often argue that their support is driven by pride in the South, not negative racial attitudes. Opponents of the Confederate battle flag often argue that the flag represents racism, and that support for the flag is an expression of racism and an attempt to maintain oppression of Blacks in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners. In the aggregate, our latent variable model suggests that White support for the flag is driven by Southern pride, political conservatism, and blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks. Using cluster-analysis we were able to distinguish four distinct sub-groups of White Southerners: Cosmopolitans, New Southerners, Traditionalists, and Supremacists. The greatest support for the Confederate battle flag is seen among Traditionalists and Supremacists; however, Traditionalists do not display blatant negative racial attitudes toward Blacks, while Supremacists do. Traditionalists make up the majority of Confederate battle flag supporters in our sample, weakening the claim that supporters of the flag are generally being driven by negative racial attitudes toward Blacks.

  12. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  13. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states

  14. Unstable decay and state selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, Alan; Tarlie, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The decay of unstable states when several metastable states are available for occupation is investigated using path-integral techniques. Specifically, a method is described that enables the probabilities with which the metastable states are occupied to be calculated by finding optimal paths, and fluctuations about them, in the weak-noise limit. The method is illustrated on a system described by two coupled Langevin equations, which are found in the study of instabilities in fluid dynamics and superconductivity. The problem involves a subtle interplay between nonlinearities and noise, and a naive approximation scheme that does not take this into account is shown to be unsatisfactory. The use of optimal paths is briefly reviewed and then applied to finding the conditional probability of ending up in one of the metastable states, having begun in the unstable state. There are several aspects of the calculation that distinguish it from most others involving optimal paths: (i) the paths do not begin and end on an attractor, and moreover, the final point is to a large extent arbitrary, (ii) the interplay between the fluctuations and the leading-order contribution are at the heart of the method, and (iii) the final result involves quantities that are not exponentially small in the noise strength. This final result, which gives the probability of a particular state being selected in terms of the parameters of the dynamics, is remarkably simple and agrees well with the results of numerical simulations. The method should be applicable to similar problems in a number of other areas, such as state selection in lasers, activationless chemical reactions, and population dynamics in fluctuating environments

  15. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms

  16. Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

  17. State-selective electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R.W.; Liu, C.J.; Berry, H.G.; Pardo, R.C.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from a new atomic physics program using the Argonne PII ECR ion source which is being built as part of the upgrade of the Argonne Tandem-Linear Accelerator (ATLAS). Our initial experiments have been aimed at studying state-selective electron capture in ion-atom collisions using the technique of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. We are extending existing cross section measurements at low energy ( 6+ and O 7+ on He and H 2 targets in the energy range from 1-105 keV/amu. We also present uv spectra obtained in collisions of O 6+ , O 5+ and N 5+ on a sodium target. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  19. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary

  20. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments

  1. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  2. Killer whale prey - Determining prey selection by southern resident killer whales (SRKW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prey selectivity by southern resident killer whales is being determined by analyses of fish scales and tissue from predation events and feces. Information on killer...

  3. Tree regeneration following group selection harvesting in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1995-01-01

    An increased interest in the use of group selection harvesting in the Central Hardwood forests has emphasized the lack of scientific information about species response under this uneven-aged management system. Tree regeneration response following group selection harvesting was studied on thirty-six group selection openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane...

  4. Southern Voice State of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Southern Voice on post-MDG International Development Goals (Southern ... conceived by the Southern Voice network that will generate and disseminate ... this project will help expand ownership of the SDGs in case study countries and ... think tanks as effective interlocutors between national capitals, regional hubs, ...

  5. State-selective imaging of cold atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheludko, D.V.; Bell, S.C.; Anderson, R.; Hofmann, C.S.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Scholten, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic coherence phenomena are usually investigated using single beam techniques without spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate state-selective imaging of cold 85Rb atoms in a three-level ladder system, where the atomic refractive index is sensitive to the quantum coherence state of the atoms. We

  6. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  7. Nest site selection of the Southern Pale Chanting Goshawk in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated whether Southern Pale Chanting Goshawks Melierax canorus that est in the low woody vegetation of the arid Little Karoo reduce nest predation by selecting nest trees and sites that are less accessible to and conspicuous for terrestrial predators. The 114 nest trees and shrubs sampled were taller (0 ...

  8. Forest landscape restoration: linkages with stream fishes of the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren

    2012-01-01

    With well over 600 native species, the southern United States supports one of the richest temperate freshwater fish faunas on Earth (Fig. 10.1 ). Unfortunately, an expert review revealed that 27% (188 taxa) of southern fishes are endangered, threatened, or vulnerable (Warren et al. 2000 ) and that 16–18% of native fishes are imperiled in 45 of 51 major southern river...

  9. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized.

  10. Where is the carbon? Carbon sequestration potential from private forestland in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Galik; Brian C. Murray; D. Evan Mercer

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty surrounding the future supply of timber in the southern United States prompted the question, “Where is all the wood?” (Cubbage et al. 1995). We ask a similar question about the potential of southern forests to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sequestering carbon. Because significant carbon sequestration potential occurs on individual nonindustrial...

  11. A New species and records of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Da Conceição Bispo, Pitágoras

    2016-10-17

    Specimens of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil were studied. A new species, Tupiperla sepeensis n. sp. is described. Tupiperla misionera Froehlich 2002 is a new record for Brazil and Gripopteryx reticulata Brauer 1866 and Tupiperla tessellata Brauer 1866 are new records for southern Brazil.

  12. Velocity-selective dark states in rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esslinger, T.

    1995-06-01

    There are two recent developments exerting a strong influence on atomic physics: cooling of atomic gases with laser light, and optics with matter waves. The report addresses both fields. A mechanism for the cooling of atoms is examined, with the wave character of the atom playing an important part in the process. A novel atomic beam experiment has been worked out and is reported which represents application of this cooling method to an alkali atom for the first time. The basic principle of the cooling process is that atoms are optically pumped into quantum states by means of interaction with a standing laser wave, the quantum states having a sharply defined momentum, decoupled from the light field. These states are called dark states, as their dipole moment does not couple to the field of a resonant laser wave. In a one-dimensional standing laser wave with spatially varying polarization, the dark state is delocalised. This state is called velocity-selective dark state (VSDS). So far, such VSDS have only been observed in helium atoms. We succeded for the first time in detecting the population of VSDS with an experiment using alkali atoms. Atoms of a cold rubidium beam are optically pumped into VSDS by way of interaction with a one-dimensional standing laser wave. (orig./MM) [de

  13. Case Study: Incorporating International Themes into the Business Curriculum at Missouri Southern State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Janet; Block, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is charged with preparing graduates to be successful in an international society. This paper will examine Missouri Southern State University's approach to internationalizing their campus and curriculum.

  14. Private forest-land owners of the Southern United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Southern United States. Landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning are discussed.

  15. A genomic portrait of haplotype diversity and signatures of selection in indigenous southern African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile R Chimusa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of genome-wide, dense SNP (∼ 900K and copy number polymorphism data of indigenous southern Africans. We demonstrate the genetic contribution to southern and eastern African populations, which involved admixture between indigenous San, Niger-Congo-speaking and populations of Eurasian ancestry. This finding illustrates the need to account for stratification in genome-wide association studies, and that admixture mapping would likely be a successful approach in these populations. We developed a strategy to detect the signature of selection prior to and following putative admixture events. Several genomic regions show an unusual excess of Niger-Kordofanian, and unusual deficiency of both San and Eurasian ancestry, which were considered the footprints of selection after population admixture. Several SNPs with strong allele frequency differences were observed predominantly between the admixed indigenous southern African populations, and their ancestral Eurasian populations. Interestingly, many candidate genes, which were identified within the genomic regions showing signals for selection, were associated with southern African-specific high-risk, mostly communicable diseases, such as malaria, influenza, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDs. This observation suggests a potentially important role that these genes might have played in adapting to the environment. Additionally, our analyses of haplotype structure, linkage disequilibrium, recombination, copy number variation and genome-wide admixture highlight, and support the unique position of San relative to both African and non-African populations. This study contributes to a better understanding of population ancestry and selection in south-eastern African populations; and the data and results obtained will support research into the genetic contributions to infectious as well as non-communicable diseases in the region.

  16. A genomic portrait of haplotype diversity and signatures of selection in indigenous southern African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimusa, Emile R; Meintjies, Ayton; Tchanga, Milaine; Mulder, Nicola; Seoighe, Cathal; Seioghe, Cathal; Soodyall, Himla; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2015-03-01

    We report a study of genome-wide, dense SNP (∼ 900K) and copy number polymorphism data of indigenous southern Africans. We demonstrate the genetic contribution to southern and eastern African populations, which involved admixture between indigenous San, Niger-Congo-speaking and populations of Eurasian ancestry. This finding illustrates the need to account for stratification in genome-wide association studies, and that admixture mapping would likely be a successful approach in these populations. We developed a strategy to detect the signature of selection prior to and following putative admixture events. Several genomic regions show an unusual excess of Niger-Kordofanian, and unusual deficiency of both San and Eurasian ancestry, which were considered the footprints of selection after population admixture. Several SNPs with strong allele frequency differences were observed predominantly between the admixed indigenous southern African populations, and their ancestral Eurasian populations. Interestingly, many candidate genes, which were identified within the genomic regions showing signals for selection, were associated with southern African-specific high-risk, mostly communicable diseases, such as malaria, influenza, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDs. This observation suggests a potentially important role that these genes might have played in adapting to the environment. Additionally, our analyses of haplotype structure, linkage disequilibrium, recombination, copy number variation and genome-wide admixture highlight, and support the unique position of San relative to both African and non-African populations. This study contributes to a better understanding of population ancestry and selection in south-eastern African populations; and the data and results obtained will support research into the genetic contributions to infectious as well as non-communicable diseases in the region.

  17. Microbiology of acid soils. IV. Selected sites in Northern England and Southern Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J G

    1955-01-01

    A number of localities were selected in Northern England and Southern Scotland at altitudes above 225 m. A series of soil samples were taken over the period 1946-9, and the soils examined for fungal and bacterial activity. The frequency of the appearance of species of the genera penicillium, saccharomyces, pullularia, cladosporium, botrytis, cephalosporium, trichoderma, verticilium and stemphylium and of the mucorles were recorded by a plating-out technique. The distributions of cellulose- and protein-decomposing bacteria, of Clostridium butyricum and of nitrifying bacteria were examined. Finally, the metabolic activities of selected bacteria were recorded.

  18. CHANGING PATTERNS OF ORANGE JUICE CONSUMPTION IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Leigh Ann; Sterns, James A.; Spreen, Thomas H.; Wysocki, Allen F.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 through 2004, per capita orange juice purchases decreased by 12.3 percent while the popularity and media coverage of low-carbohydrate dieting exploded. Content analysis was used to count selected Southern region newspaper articles topically related to low-carbohydrate dieting, the Atkins diet, and the South Beach diet. This data was included in a Southern region orange juice demand model, where purchase data served as the independent variable and proxy for consumer demand of orange ...

  19. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Woodbury; Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each...

  20. Prey selection and feeding habits of the large carnivores in the Southern Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Prey selection and feeding habits of lions Panthera leo, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta, cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus and leopards Panthera pardus are investigated. Lions kill mainly adult gemsbok Oryx gazella and blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, tending to select older animals of both species and males in the case of gemsbok. Spotted hyaenas also prey mainly on gemsbok and wildebeest, but select for juveniles, particularly from gemsbok. Cheetahs prey heavily on springbok Antidorcas marsupialis lambs and then on adult males and older individuals. Leopards also prey relatively heavily on springbok, but appear to have a wider diet than cheetahs do. It is concluded that predators generally have a small impact on their prey populations in the southern Kalahari, although in the case of springbok they do appear to influence the structure of the population.

  1. Stated Preferences for Forest Conservation in Southern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Emmi; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Pouta, Eija

    % support decreasing forest conservation. An average willingness-to-pay for increased biodiversity conservation was 60-212 € per household per year, depending on the described project and measurement method. In addition to costs per household, the number of conserved biotopes and endangered plant and animal......This study analyses Finnish citizens’ valuations and attitudes towards a forest conservation programme for southern Finland and the Pohjanmaa region. In particular, Finnish households’ willingness to accept expenses through increased taxation to guarantee a certain level of biodiversity...... conservation was investigated. Contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE) methods were applied. According to the CV results, 74% of respondents are prepared to pay for increased conservation and 16% support increased conservation but are not willing to pay for it. A further 5% are indifferent and 5...

  2. Factors associated with local public health agency participation in obesity prevention in southern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Jeffrey J; Fields, Tina T

    2015-05-01

    Obesity rates in the southern US states are higher than in other states. Historically, large-scale community-based interventions in the United States have not proven successful. With local public health agencies (LPHAs) tasked with prevention, their role in obesity prevention is important, yet little research exists regarding what predicts the participation of LPHAs. Cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials profile study and two public health conceptual frameworks were used to assess structural and environmental predictors of LPHA participation in obesity prevention. The predictors were compared between southern and nonsouthern states. Univariate and weighted logistic regressions were performed. Analysis revealed that more LPHAs in southern states were engaged in nearly all of the 10 essential public health functions related to obesity prevention compared with nonsouthern states. Presence of community-based organizations and staffing levels were the only significant variables in two of the six logistic regression models. This study provides insights into the success rates of the obesity prevention efforts of LPHAs in southern and nonsouthern states. Future research is needed to understand why and how certain structural elements and any additional factors influence LPHA participation in obesity prevention.

  3. Survey of stocking policies for tailwater trout fisheries in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the 16 southern states showed that 48 tailwaters in 13 states were stocked with trout in 1980. Of the almost 3.7 million trout released in these waters, 81% were of catchable size and 19% were fingerlings (Salmo gairdneri). A trend away from "put-grow-and-take" fisheries toward "put-and-take" fisheries was noted. Limited creel data confirmed that fishing pressure in southern tailwaters was heavy, and that 25 to 90% of the trout stocked were recovered by anglers

  4. The status of water demand management in selected cities of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba

    As a result of the rapid rate of urbanisation throughout Africa, many African cities face mounting challenges of providing their increasing populations with adequate and sustainable water services. Water demand management (WDM) offers a sustainable solution to water woes experienced in most cities in the southern Africa region. The region is characterised by frequent droughts, floods and erratic, unevenly distributed rainfall. Meanwhile nearly half of the southern Africa’s 200 million inhabitants do not have access to safe water and sanitation. This paper makes an assessment of the status of WDM in eight cities in the region based on published data and reports. It provides a basis of benchmarking the progress and success in WDM programmes by using selected key performance indicators. Gross unaccounted-for-water (UAW) is used as a crude measure of WDM good practice. From the eight selected case studies, Windhoek, Bulawayo and Hermanus have achieved considerable success in water use efficiency, implementing WDM programmes and recording UAW values of less than 20%, whilst Johannesburg; Maputo; Maseru; Lusaka and Mutare cannot account for about 40-60% of the water introduced into the distribution system. WDM projects require some key performance indicators which need to be recorded systematically by water supply agencies to enable a consistent monitoring and evaluation of programme. Finally for WDM to succeed, a new breed of professionals with multi-disciplinary skills is required as well as training of operatives, i.e. technicians, plumbers and meter readers.

  5. Neotectonics of coastal Jeffara (southern Tunisia): State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly

    2016-04-01

    Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.

  6. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    within the scope of this paper to go into details, but rather emphasise .... individual herd off-take in the Black States. For exam- ple, a recent finding in two areas of the Ciskei and. Transkei ..... make livestock marketing centres more attractive, by siting them .... cation of the other principles of grazing management. Extension ...

  7. Regeneration response to midstory control following long-term single tree selection management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason R. Lewis; John W. Groninger; David L. Loftis

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability of the single tree selection system in the mixed hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians is compromised by insufficient recruitment of oak species. In 1986, portions of a stand at Bent Creek Experimental Forest that have been under single tree selection management since 1945 were subjected to a midstory herbicide treatment in an effort to improve...

  8. Resource selection for foraging by female Merriam's wild turkeys with poults in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Daniel J. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) resource selection in the context of landscape attributes is an important asset for managing resources on multiple-use public lands. We investigated resource selection for foraging by Merriam's wild turkey broods in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We collected macro- and microhabitat...

  9. Climate-induced changes in vulnerability to biological threats in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Qinfeng Guo; Songlin Fei; William Otrosina; Kier Klepzig; Douglas Streett

    2014-01-01

    Forest land managers face the challenges of preparing their forests for the impacts of climate change. However, climate change adds a new dimension to the task of developing and testing science-based management options to deal with the effects of stressors on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. The large spatial scale and complex interactions make...

  10. Evaluating potential changes in fire risk from Eucalyptus plantings in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2012-01-01

    Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior...

  11. Climate change and outdoor recreation participation in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Neelam Poudyal; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Lynne Seymour; H. Ken Cordell

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we begin to assess the potential effects of climate change on future outdoor recreation in the South, a region spanning 13 states from Virginia to Texas (Chapter 1). Our goal is to provide some useful insights about future natural resource-based recreation-an important nontimber product derived from southern forests-in the face of climate change. We...

  12. Impact of trucking network flow on preferred biorefinery locations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Lee D. Han; James H. Perdue; Stephanie R. Hargrove; Frank M. Guess; Xia Huang; Chung-Hao Chen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the trucking transportation network flow was modeled for the southern United States. The study addresses a gap in existing research by applying a Bayesian logistic regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) geospatial analysis to predict biorefinery site locations. A one-way trucking cost assuming a 128.8 km (80-mile) haul distance was estimated...

  13. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  14. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, C C Z; Krupek, R A; Peres, C K

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  15. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCZ. Branco

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  16. Water stress and social vulnerability in the southern United States, 2010-2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    cassandra Johnson-Gaither; John Schelhas; Wayne Zipperer; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Neelam Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcities are striking in semiarid, subregions of the Southern United States such as Oklahoma and western Texas (Glennon 2009, Sabo et al. 2010). In Texas, water stress has been a constant concern since the 1950s when the state experienced severe drought conditions (Moore 2005). The nearly 2000-mile Rio Grande River, which forms part of the Texas–Mexico border,...

  17. Graft and Corruption Practices Among Selected Public Officials in Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Husain L. Laut

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the graft and corruption practices among selected public officials in southern Philippines. The study is qualitative in nature making use of case study method in which an in-depth analysis of primary data obtained from eight informants, four of whom are town mayors and their four incumbent municipal treasurers, is employed. The findings revealed that the mayor informants got elected through vote buying and bribery. Politics and family matters intersect as informants are supported by their families during election who used guns, gold and goons to ensure election victory. The clannish nature of the community finds expression also in the selection of relatives in municipal employment and in accessing municipal resources. The most prevalent corruption practice disclosed by the informants is amassing the internal revenue allotment (IRA for personal purposes in order to recover the huge amount of money spent during election. Other types of corruption practices also include falsification of documents, nepotism, bribery, kickbacks, and evasion of public bidding. These public officials also do not seem to perform official duties in their towns as they live outside of their municipalities. Inter-agency involvement of corruption among different government agencies in the areas studied are also uncovered. Moreover, the perceived negative effects of corruption are manifested in the poor delivery of the community’s basic social services in health, water supply, education, and security protection. Corruption also adversely affects the construction of community infrastructure facilities and the establishment of an equitable and solid economic base. The study has implications to the strict policy implementation of the provisions of the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines, The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, and other pertinent laws in order to improve the transparency, integrity and accountability of public officials

  18. Flooding in the southern Midwestern United States, April–May 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Holmes, Robert R.; Harris, Thomas E.

    2018-03-09

    Excessive rainfall resulted in flooding on numerous rivers throughout the southern Midwestern United States (southern Midwest) in late April and early May of 2017. The heaviest rainfall, between April 28 and 30, resulted in extensive flooding from eastern Oklahoma to southern Indiana including parts of Missouri, Arkansas, and Illinois.Peak-of-record streamflows were set at 21 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages in the southern Midwest during the resulting April–May 2017 flooding and each of the five States included in the study area had at least one streamgage with a peak of record during the flood. The annual exceedance probability (AEP) estimates for the April–May 2017 peak streamflows indicate that peaks at 5 USGS streamgages had AEPs of 0.2 percent or less (500-year recurrence interval or greater), and peak streamflows at 15 USGS streamgages had AEPs in the range from greater than 0.2 to 1 percent (500- to 100-year recurrence intervals).Examination of the magnitude of the temporal changes in median annual peak streamflows indicated positive increases, in general, throughout the study area for each of the 1930–2017, 1956–2017, 1975–2017, and 1989–2017 analysis periods. The median increase in peak streamflows was greatest in 1975–2017 and 1989–2017 with maximum increases of 8 to 10 percent per year. No stations in the 1975–2017 or 1989–2017 analysis period had median negative changes in peak streamflows.

  19. Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented

  20. Identity, reproductive potential, distribution, ecology and management of invasive Pomacea maculata in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Romi L.; Bernatis, Jennifer; Byers, James E.; Carter, Jacoby; Martin, Charles M.; McDowell, William G.; Van Dyke, Jess; Joshi, R. C.; Cowie, R. H.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    Established populations of introduced Pomacea maculata, a highly fecund, large species of apple snail native to South America, now occur throughout southeast Asia, in Spain and extensively across the southern United States. Substantial research on nonnative apple snails takes place in Southeast Asia and has frequently identified apple snails as P. canaliculata. That these Asian populations represent at least two Pomacea species, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, has been confirmed through anatomical and genetic

  1. Record of Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lohmann Arend

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first record of the Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae for Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. One individual was observed on 10 September 2006 in an open area (cattle pasture and shrubby vegetation in the town of Anita Garibaldi (center-south of the state. We suggest that this punctual encounter is a result of the recent expansion of this species’ distribution due to landscape modification in the region.

  2. Determinants of Food Security Status of Maize-Based Farming Households in Southern Guinea Savannah Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwayemisi Abidemi Onasanya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food and high food import bill, which have debilitating effects on the productive capacity of the citizens. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. This study examined the contribution of maize production to household food security status of rural maize-farming households in the southern guinea savannah of Oyo state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 200 farm households and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, recommended daily calorie requirement (RDCR approach, Logit model. Results showed that about three-quarters of the households were food secure and were able to meet the recommended calorie intake of 2260Kcal per capita per day. The shortfall index (P which measures the extent of deviation from the food security line, indicated that the food secure households exceeded the RDCR by 65%, while the food insecure households fell short of the RDCR by 31%. The logit model showed that maize output, gender, primary occupation of the farmer, farm size and farming experience had a positive influence on food security status while age had a negative influence on the food security status of maize-based farming households in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Oyo State, Nigeria. This suggests need for specific support to improve maize production

  3. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  4. Overview of the Camcore (NC State University) and USDA Forest Service cooperative gene conservation program for threatened and endangered tree species native to the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Jetton; W. Andrew Whittier; William S. Dvorak; Gary R. Hodge; Barbara S. Crane; James “Rusty”. Rhea

    2017-01-01

    The southern United States is home to some of the world’s most biologically diverse temperate forests. These forests range from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains to the Southern Appalachian Mountains and are home to more than 140 tree species which provide a number of ecosystem services, including clean air and water, carbon storage, recreational opportunities, wood...

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this

  7. Economic selection indexes for Hereford and Braford cattle raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R F; Teixeira, B B M; Yokoo, M J; Cardoso, F F

    2017-07-01

    Economic selection indexes (EI) are considered the best way to select the most profitable animals for specific production systems. Nevertheless, in Brazil, few genetic evaluation programs deliver such indexes to their breeders. The aims of this study were to determine the breeding goals (BG) and economic values (EV, in US$) for typical beef cattle production systems in southern Brazil, to propose EI aimed to maximize profitability, and to compare the proposed EI with the currently used empirical index. Bioeconomic models were developed to characterize 3 typical production systems, identifying traits of economic impact and their respective EV. The first was called the calf-crop system and included the birth rate (BR), direct weaning weight (WWd), and mature cow weight (MCW) as selection goals. The second system was called the full-cycle system, and its breeding goals were BR, WWd, MCW, and carcass weight (CW). Finally, the third was called the stocking and finishing system, which had WWd and CW as breeding goals. To generate the EI, we adopted the selection criteria currently measured and used in the empirical index of PampaPlus, which is the genetic evaluation program of the Brazilian Hereford and Braford Association. The comparison between the EI and the current PampaPlus index was made by the aggregated genetic-economic gain per generation (Δ). Therefore, for each production system an index was developed using the derived economic weights, and it was compared with the current empirical index. The relative importance (RI) for BR, WWd, and MCW for the calf-crop system was 68.03%, 19.35%, and 12.62%, respectively. For the full-cycle system, the RI for BR, WWd, MCW, and CW were 69.63%, 7.31%, 5.01%, and 18.06%, respectively. For the stocking and finishing production system, the RI for WWd and CW was 34.20% and 65.80%, respectively. The Δ for the calf-crop system were US$6.12 and US$4.36, using the proposed economic and empirical indexes, respectively. Respective

  8. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  9. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369

  10. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric ...

  11. Textbook Development and Selection in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masaru; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study trip by 13 U.S. social studies educators and publishers to Japan. Compares development, marketing, and selection of textbooks in the United States and Japan. Concludes that both nations should improve textbooks and textbook selection processes. (CFR)

  12. Diversity of Hepatozoon species in naturally infected dogs in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Li, Yihang; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Little, Susan E

    2008-07-04

    Hepatozoon americanum is a protozoan that causes American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) in the southern United States; Hepatozoon canis, the causative agent of canine hepatozoonosis in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America, has not previously been definitively identified in dogs in the United States. To characterize the diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs from Oklahoma, blood samples collected from dogs residing in an endemic area of the state, clinical cases presented to veterinarians with symptoms of ACH, and dogs housed at a local shelter were evaluated by a nested PCR designed to amplify a variable region of the 18S rRNA gene of blood ampicomplexa, including Hepatozoon spp. Hepatozoon sequences recovered from a dog from an area where ACH is endemic, from clinically ill dogs, and from one shelter dog most closely resembled H. americanum. However, two other shelter dogs had evidence of infection with H. canis or a closely related organism. A subsequent review of real-time PCR results from the Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory at Auburn University revealed that the majority of samples submitted from dogs from across the United States which tested positive for Hepatozoon spp. had H. americanum. However, some submissions were also found which contained DNA sequence of H. canis. Mixed H. americanum and H. canis-like infections also were detected. Our data suggest that H. americanum, H. canis, as well as H. canis-like organisms are present and may cause disease in dogs in the southern U.S.

  13. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted from March 2011 to July 2011 on antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun State. Using a well-structured questionnaire, a total of 58 poultry farms were randomly surveyed from the four geo-political zones of Ogun State. All the 58 (100%) poultry farms used one or more antibiotics.

  14. Factors influencing the, selection of state office furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Bruce Anderson

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors influencing the selection of office furniture by nine state governments shows that quality and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the purchasing regulations of the states were key f8CbrS in the use of wood furniture.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Group A Rotaviruses in Water Sources and Selected Raw Vegetables in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W. B.; Page, N. A.; Grabow, W. O. K.; Steele, A. D.; Taylor, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are the most important cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In this study raw and treated drinking water supplies at plants in two geographic areas, as well as selected irrigation water and corresponding raw vegetables in three regions of southern Africa, were screened for the presence of RVs using molecular techniques. Group A RVs were detected in 11.8% of partially treated and 1.7% of finally treated drinking water samples and in 14% of irrigation water samples and 1.7% of corresponding raw vegetable samples. Type-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of multiple types (G1, G2, G8, and G9) in irrigation water and single types (G1 or G3) in raw and treated drinking water. Group A RVs detected in all samples consisted of mixed P types (P[4], P[6], P[8], and P[9]), with P[6] predominating. The detection of types G8, G9, and P[6] reflects the emergence of these types in clinical infections. The similarity of environmental types to those in patients with clinical RV infections confirms the value of wastewater screening as a tool for assessing RVs circulating in communities, with the benefit of detecting types that cause both clinical and subclinical infections. The results provide new information on RV types in water and related environments and identify the potential risk of waterborne transmission. In addition, the presence of RVs in drinking water underlines shortcomings in quality specifications. These data provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of RVs in environmental sources, with important implications for vaccine development. PMID:16820443

  16. Beach rocks characterization from the southern coast of Pernambuco state based on petrography and isotopic evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, H.M.B. de

    1990-01-01

    The study is restricted to the occurence of three lines of beachrocks located between the Maracaipe river and Sirinhaem river, southern coast of Pernambuco state. The mineralogy and petrography, made it possible the characterization of three types of cements (micrite envelope, acicular crust and intergranular cryptocrystalline). They correspond to diagenetics microfacies which are set in different diagenetics environment. X-ray analysis, as well as sup(13)C/ sup(12)C e sup(18) O/ sup(16) O isotope analysis, show evidence of a dominantly marine precipitating fluid with a subordinate fresh water influence on a second cement generation. (author)

  17. Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract' Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors of the subgenus Boophilus. In 1906 an eradication effort was started and by 1943 Boophilus ticks had been confined to a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Texas-Mexico border. However, a dramatic increase in tick infestations in areas outside the TEQA over the last decade suggests these tick vectors may be poised to re-invade the southern United States. We investigated historical and potential future distributions of climatic habitats of cattle fever ticks to assess the potential for a range expansion. Methods We built robust spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the vector species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus across the southern United States for three time periods: 1906, present day (2012), and 2050. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to identify persistent tick occurrences and analysis of bias in the climate proximate to these occurrences to identify key environmental parameters associated with the ecology of both species. We then used ecological niche modeling algorithms GARP and Maxent to construct models that related known occurrences of ticks in the TEQA during 2001–2011 with geospatial data layers that summarized important climate parameters at all three time periods. Results We identified persistent tick infestations and specific climate parameters that appear to be drivers of ecological niches of the two tick species. Spatial models projected onto climate data representative of climate in 1906 reproduced historical pre-eradication tick distributions. Present-day predictions, although constrained to areas near the TEQA, extrapolated well onto climate projections for

  18. Low chromatic aberration hexapole for molecular state selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    In molecular beam state-selection experiments, the electrostatic hexapole acts as an optical lens, imaging molecules from the source to the focus. The molecular longitudinal velocity spread induces the phenomenon of chromatic aberration, which will reduce the state-selection purity. We propose a scheme which can effectively reduce the chromatic aberration by changing the hexapole voltage operating manner. The hexapole is already charged before molecules arrive at the entrance of the hexapole. When molecules are completely inside the hexapole, the voltage is switched off rapidly at an appropriate time. In this manner, faster molecules travel a longer hexapole focusing region than slower molecules. Therefore the focusing positions of molecules with different velocities become close. Numerical trajectory simulations of molecular state selection are carried out, and the results show that this low chromatic aberration hexapole can significantly improve the state purity from 46.2% to 87.0%. (paper)

  19. MIGRATION AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: THE CASES OF SOUTHERN MEXICAN STATES AND THEIR EMIGRANT COMMUNITIES IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Krannich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates institutional approaches of emigrant states toward emigrants abroad, and how these approaches can change over time. These can range from absolute exclusion and non-communication, over fractional collaboration in specific matters, to even permanent institutional inclusion, for instance, through representation of migrants in home parliaments or governments. The approach for institutional incorporation can not only take place on the national, but also on the subnational level. This is the case in Mexico, a federal state in which many member states conduct their own emigrant policy, partially in accord with federal efforts, and partially independently or contrary to the national attempt to address the emigrant community abroad. To highlight these different approaches, I would like to take a look at the Southern Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. Although these states show similar political and social structures, and hold relatively large emigrant populations in the United States of America, the institutional approaches toward their emigrants changed in two different ways: while the institutional opening in Oaxaca goes back to various initiatives by the Oaxacan migrant community in the United States of America, the policy change in Chiapas toward more inclusion of the emigrant community was actively promoted by the government of Chiapas.

  20. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  1. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  2. The Course of Law: State Intervention in Southern Lynch Mob Violence 1882–1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Makovi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Collective violence when framed by its perpetrators as "citizen" justice is inherently a challenge to state legitimacy. To properly account for such violence, it is necessary to consider an opportunity structure incorporating the actions of both vigilantes and agents of the state. The motivation and lethality of lynch mobs in the South cannot be understood without considering how the state reacted to the legitimacy challenges posed by lynching. We trace the shifting orientation of state agents to lynching attempts between the end of Reconstruction and the start of the Great Depression. Analyzing an inventory of more than 1,000 averted and completed lynching events in three Southern states, we model geographic and temporal patterns in the determinants of mob formation, state intervention, and intervention success. Opponents of lynching often pled with mobs to "let the law take its course." This article examines the course followed by the law itself, as state actors moved between encouraging, accommodating, and in many instances averting mob violence.

  3. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  4. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector. Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  5. Forest biomass and energy-wood potential in the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, J.R. [Forestry Sciences Lab., Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Timber resource data were compiled from the most recent USDA Forest Service inventory data for the 12 Southern States from Virginia to Texas. Timber resource inventories traditionally include only trees 5 inches dbh and greater and their volumes to the prevailing merchantable top diameter expressed in cubic feet, board feet, or cords. For this paper, conversion factors were developed to express timber inventories in weight and to expand the inventories to include the crowns of merchantable trees and trees less than 5 inches dbh. By so doing, the total aboveground biomass is estimated for the timberlands in the South. The region contains 185 million acres of timberland. Some 14.6 billion green tons of woody biomass are present on southern timberland -- about 79 tons per acre. When mature stands are harvested, the average acre in the South has 22.2 tons of woody material left in crowns and sapling, and 5.1 tons in cull stems. Thus, an average of 27.3 green tons per acre of potential energy wood are left after conventional harvests. Conversion factors that are presented permit estimates for specific tracts, areas, counties, or states.

  6. Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam) on selective attention and psychological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekeran, Angelica; Rajesh, Sasidharan K; Srinivasan, Tm

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of Thoppukaranam is limited despite it being practiced as a form of worship to the elephant-headed deity Lord Ganapati and punishment in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states in a sample of young adults. A randomized self-as-control within subjects design was employed. Thirty undergraduate students (4 females and 26 males) from a residential Yoga University in Southern India were recruited for this study (group mean age ± standard deviation, 20.17 ± 2.92). The d2 test, State Anxiety Inventory-Short Form and State Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (SMAAS) were used to measure cognitive performance and psychological states. Assessments were made in three sessions: Baseline, control (squats), and experimental (Thoppukaranam) on 3 separate days. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures analyses of variance between three sessions, that is, baseline, squat, and Thoppukaranam. There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance) and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.

  7. Forest resources, government policy, and investment location decisions of the forest products industry in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyou Sun; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of an initial attempt to estimate the effects of state attributes on plant location and investment expenditure were presented for the forest products industry in the southern United States. A conditional logit model was used to analyze new plant births, and a time-series cross-section model to assess the total capital expenditure....

  8. Dogwood anthracnose: how collaboration was used in the Southern United States to effectively deal with a new tree disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Anderson

    1998-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose, caused by the fungus Discula destructiva was found in the Southern United States in 1987. Since that time millions of flowering dogwoods have been killed and disfigured by this disease. As soon as the disease was discovered a group of state and federal personnel formed a working group to develop an action plan for dealing with...

  9. Quantum coherence generated by interference-induced state selectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Garreau, Jean Claude

    2001-01-01

    The relations between quantum coherence and quantum interference are discussed. A general method for generation of quantum coherence through interference-induced state selection is introduced and then applied to `simple' atomic systems under two-photon transitions, with applications in quantum optics and laser cooling.

  10. Kinetics studies following state-selective laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, J.W.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this contract was the study of state-to-state, electronic energy transfer reactions relevant to the excited state chemistry observed in discharges. We studied deactivation reactions and excitation transfer in collisions of excited states of xenon and krypton atoms with Ar, Kr, Xe and chlorine. The reactant states were excited selectively in two-photon transitions using tunable u.v. and v.u.v. lasers. Excited states produced by the collision were observed by their fluorescence. Reaction rates were measured by observing the time dependent decay of signals from reactant and product channels. In addition we measured interaction potentials of the reactants by laser spectroscopy where the laser induced fluorescence or ionization is measured as a function of laser wavelength (excitation spectra) or by measuring fluorescence spectra at fixed laser frequencies with monochromators. The spectra were obtained in the form of either lineshapes or individual lines from rovibrational transitions of bound states. Our research then required several categories of experiments in order to fully understand a reaction process: 1. High resolution laser spectroscopy of bound molecules or lineshapes of colliding pairs is used to determine potential curves for reactants. 2. Direct measurements of state-to-state reaction rates were measured by studying the time dependent loss of excited reactants and the time dependent formation of products. 3. The energy selectivity of a laser can be used to excite reactants on an excited surface with controlled internuclear configurations. For free states of reactants (as exist in a gas cell) this has been termed laser assisted reactions, while for initially bound states (as chemically bound reactants or dimers formed in supersonic beams) the experiments have been termed photo-fragmentation spectroscopy

  11. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  12. Evaluating Potential Changes in Fire Risk from Eucalyptus Plantings in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System is that surface fire behavior in young stands differs little from surface fires common to pine plantations in the southern Coastal Plain. By the age of 9, the absence of a shrub layer, along with an increased height to live crown, reduced initiation potential despite increased bark shedding. When a shrub layer was introduced in the model, the initiation potential became equivalent to common Pinus fuelbeds. If a crown is ignited, however, the potentials for transmissivity and spread are very high, and the potential for crown fire behavior is more severe. Our modeling effort suggests that fire behavior at the stand level differs little from current conditions and points to the importance of avoiding the development of a shrub layer. Stands managed on short rotation (less than 10 years will likely be harvested before bark shedding presents a significant spotting problem.

  13. State-building, migration and economic development on the frontiers of northern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bleuer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kunduz River Valley of northern Afghanistan and the Vakhsh River Valley of southern Tajikistan followed what initially appear to be vastly different trajectories. Despite these two adjacent areas having had much in common throughout many periods of history, the present-day region of northern Afghanistan was eventually taken under the control of the Afghan state while the areas north of the Amu Darya and Panj River were to become part of the Soviet Union. However, instead of a divergent course of development and state-building, these two regions were subjected to very similar patterns of agricultural development and migration policies. “Empty” areas were to be populated, by force if necessary, wetlands were to be drained for agriculture, and cotton farming was to become pre-eminent. The end result in both areas was the creation of a socially diverse and economically significant region that was fully integrated into the modern state’s economy and politics. This article analyzes and compares the motives and implementation of the state-building projects in both of these now domestically important regions and finds remarkable similarities despite the obvious differences in the structure of the Afghan and Soviet states.

  14. Solid Waste Management Practices of Select State Universities in CALABARZON, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Gequinto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act prompted higher education institutions including state universities and colleges (SUCs to incorporate ecological waste management in the school system. Thus, this paper aimed to assess the extent of implementation of solid waste management practices in select SUCs in CALABARZON in terms of waste reuse, waste reduction, waste collection, waste recycling, waste treatment, and final waste disposal. Respondents of the study included university administrators, faculty members, non-teaching staff, students and concessionaries for a total of 341. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data from Batangas State University (BatState-U, Cavite State University (CavSU, Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU and Southern Luzon State University (SLSU. Result revealed that solid waste management practices are implemented to a great extent. Among the practices, waste collection got the highest composite mean particularly on the promotion of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle in the collection of waste. On the other hand, waste recycling and waste treatment obtained the lowest composite mean. In terms of waste recycling, establishing partnership with local or private business for recyclable recovery program was to moderate extent. Waste treatment particularly neutralization of acid bases was also of moderate extent. The study recommended strengthening of publicprivate partnership (PPP on the recycling and treatment of wastes.

  15. A framework for analyzing sex-selective abortion: the example of changing sex ratios in Southern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sophie A; Lefèvre, Cécile A; Garenne, Michel L

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a socioeconomic framework of supply, demand, and regulation to explain the development of sex-selective abortion in several parts of the world. The framework is then applied to three countries of southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) where sex-selective abortion has developed since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors argue that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained simply by patriarchal social systems, sex discrimination, or son preference. The emphasis is put on the long-term acceptability of abortion in the region, on acceptability of sex-screening by both the medical establishment and by the population, on newly imported techniques of sex-screening, and on the changing demand for children associated with the major economic and social changes that followed the dismantlement of the Soviet Union. PMID:25349481

  16. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  17. An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Hector

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

  18. Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Tian Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Chappelka, Arthur; Xu Xiaofeng; Ren Wei; Hui Dafeng; Liu Mingliang; Lu Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Lockaby, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Using a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, we assessed carbon dynamics of urbanized/developed lands in the Southern United States during 1945–2007. The results indicated that approximately 1.72 (1.69–1.77) Pg (1P = 10 15 ) carbon was stored in urban/developed lands, comparable to the storage of shrubland or cropland in the region. Urbanization resulted in a release of 0.21 Pg carbon to the atmosphere during 1945–2007. Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. After a rapid decline of carbon storage during land conversion, an urban ecosystem gradually accumulates carbon and may compensate for the initial carbon loss in 70–100 years. The carbon sequestration rate of urban ecosystem diminishes with time, nearly disappearing in two centuries after land conversion. This study implied that it is important to take urbanization effect into account for assessing regional carbon balance. - Highlights: ► A series of spatial and temporal urban/developed land maps were generated. ► Urbanization effects on regional carbon dynamics were studied with a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). ► Carbon storage of urban/developed land was comparable to that stored in cropland and shrubland in the Southern United States. ► Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. ► Urbanization resulted in carbon emission, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time. - Urbanization has resulted in carbon release to the atmosphere, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time.

  19. Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Buschini, MLT.; Borba, NA.; Brescovit, AD.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders speci...

  20. Radiological Conditions in Selected Areas of Southern Iraq with Residues of Depleted Uranium. Report by an International Group of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This publication describes the methods, assumptions and parameters used by the IAEA during the assessment of the post-conflict radiological conditions of the environment and populations in relation to the residues of depleted uranium munitions from 2003 that exist at four selected areas in southern Iraq. The studies conducted by the IAEA used the results of measurements provided by UNEP from the 2006-2007 environmental monitoring campaigns performed by the Iraqi Ministry for the Environment. It presents the data used, the results of the assessment, and the findings and conclusions in connection therewith.

  1. State departments for the selection and control of school textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the State Commissions for the regulation of Schoolbooks, instituted in Argentine at the beginning of the 20th-century. The analysis exhibits a gradual liberalization of the prescriptions and a reassignment of decisions to the publishers, as well as the institution of schoolbooks as ineludible tool of the pedagogical methodology throughout that century. The growing of the publishing industry resulted in a displacement of the functions of control and selection of the produced teaching materials from the State on teachers and publishing companies. The bonds between State proposals and market technologies entailed a state validation of the companies’ conveniences; one of its more harmful consequences was their increasing meddling in the pedagogical methodology to implement in the school.

  2. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  3. Novel target configurations for selective ionization state studies in molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilcisin, K.J.; Feldman, U.; Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.; Suckewer, S.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1990-03-01

    Details of experiments aimed at achieving low ionization state selectivity in molybdenum are presented. Targets are excited with a 10 J CO 2 laser and the resultant VUV spectrum (300--700 Angstrom) has been studied. Combinations of focal spot size, target depth, and target geometries are compared. Simple attenuation of energy is shown not to vary ionization stage composition significantly. Experiments conducted with grazing incidence targets result only in a hot plasma. Modular targets with cooling cylinders of various radii demonstrated good selectivity of the ionization states, but with low absolute signals. Finally, results from combinations of focal spot adjustment and radiative cooling illustrate increased control over desired plasma temperature and density for spectroscopic studies of molybdenum. 7 refs., 14 figs

  4. Adverse Selection Models with Three States of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MARINESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze an adverse selection model with three states of nature, where both the Principal and the Agent are risk neutral. When solving the model, we use the informational rents and the efforts as variables. We derive the optimal contract in the situation of asymmetric information. The paper ends with the characteristics of the optimal contract and the main conclusions of the model.

  5. Selective maintenance of multi-state systems with structural dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Cuong D.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the selective maintenance problem for multi-state systems with structural dependence. Each component can be in one of multiple working levels and several maintenance actions are possible to a component in a maintenance break. The components structurally form multiple hierarchical levels and dependence groups. A directed graph is used to represent the precedence relations of components in the system. A selective maintenance optimization model is developed to maximize the system reliability in the next mission under time and cost constraints. A backward search algorithm is used to determine the assembly sequence for a selective maintenance scenario. The maintenance model helps maintenance managers in determining the best combination of maintenance activities to maximize the probability of successfully completing the next mission. Examples showing the use of the proposed method are presented. - Highlights: • A selective maintenance model for multi-state systems is proposed considering both economic and structural dependence. • Structural dependence is modeled as precedence relationship when disassembling components for maintenance. • Resources for disassembly and maintenance are evaluated using a backward search algorithm. • Maintenance strategies with and without structural dependence are analyzed. • Ignoring structural dependence may lead to over-estimation of system reliability.

  6. The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

  7. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  8. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  9. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic... the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the... Aquariums to collect, with certain conditions, various species of reef fish and live rock in Federal waters...

  10. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  11. Response of lizards to high-severity wildfires in a southern United States mixed pine/hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam ​Duarte; Donald J. Brown; Michael R. J. Forstner

    2017-01-01

    High-severity forest fires are increasing in large areas of the southern and western United States as the climate becomes warmer and drier. Natural resource managers need a better understanding of the short- and long-term effects of wildfires on lizard populations, but there is a paucity of studies focused on lizard-wildfire relationships. We used a before-after,...

  12. Potential impacts of year-round sampling on monitoring presence- absence of invasive flora in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; W. Keith Moser

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that the southern United States is an area of primary concern with regards to the spread of nonnative invasive plant species. Recent data show that species such as Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Nepalese browntop (Microstegium vimineum) are invading forests and displacing native species throughout the...

  13. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, in the southern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Joyce

    Full Text Available The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species.

  14. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  15. Last three millennia Earth's Magnetic field strength in Mesoamerica and southern United States: Implications in geomagnetism and archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Ruiz, Rafael García; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Contreras, Juan Julio Morales; Arechalde, Ana María Soler; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Earth's Magnetic Field variation strength may provide crucial information to understand the geodynamo mechanism and elucidate the conditions on the physics of the Earth's deep interiors. Aimed to reveal the fine characteristics of the geomagnetic field during the last three millennia in Mesoamerica, we analyzed the available absolute geomagnetic intensities associated to absolute radiometric dating as well some ages provided by historical documents. This analysis is achieved using thermoremanent magnetization carried by volcanic lava flows and burned archaeological artefacts. A total of 106 selected intensities from Mesoamerica and other 100 from the southern part of the United States represent the main core of the dataset to construct the variation curve using both combined bootstrap method and temporal penalized B-spline methods. The obtained intensity paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica generally disagrees with the values predicted by the global geomagnetic field models. There is rather firm evidence of eastward drift when compared to similar reference curves in Western Europe, Asia and Pacific Ocean. The recent hypothesis about the relationship between the geomagnetic field strength and paleoclimate is also critically analyzed in the light of this new data compilation.

  16. Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbikowski, Radoslaw; Szefer, Piotr; Latala, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gdansk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. - Enteromorpha sp. can be used as efficient biomonitor for chemical elements in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea

  17. Supplier selection problem: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh R. Ware

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the global competitiveness and growing market environment, “Actual competition is not between firms against firm, than supplier against supplier”. Globally in the fastest market development world gets closer and closer. Consumers prefer fast delivery, economical product, excellent service and high quality product with desired service level. For successful management of this supply chain, supplier considered as the base source for all processes. Therefore, an efficient supplier selection and evaluation process needs to be incorporate. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive state-of-the-art literature review and critique of the studies related to various aspects of supplier selection problem over the past two decades. Research papers appearing in the reputed and leading international journals from 1991 to 2011 are gathered and analyzed. Primary focus is given on more than 200 published and unpublished works. It has been referred extensively to carry out state-of-the-art review for supplier selection problem. Finally, paper provides future perspective based on current research trends available in the published literature.

  18. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  19. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  20. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods--especially eggs and meat products--were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  1. Moisture Content Impact on Mechanical Properties of Selected Cohesive Soils from the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship Southern Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezowicz Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations of shearing resistance and compressibility of fine-grained cohesive soil from the southern part of the wielkopolskie voivodeship in relation to the increasing moisture content are presented. The analysis of two series of samples, using soil paste for the consistency index of 0.9 and 0.4–0.3 was carried out. The results imply that the increasing moisture content causes a decrease in the angle of shearing resistance and cohesion and is also reflected in the higher compressibility of the soil. It was observed that regardless of the soil consistency, the angle of shearing resistance decreases and the cohesion value and the oedometric modulus of primary (consolidation and secondary compressibility grows with the increase in the clay fraction.

  2. Air quality lichen monitoring at three selected urban areas in the Southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators, on teritory of three different urban areas in the Southern Serbia (Leskovac, Vlasotince, Lebane are reported. The analysis of samples from 142 investigated points indicates presence of 53 lichens taxa. The aim of the study is to present the difference in air quality over a certain time interval. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity- IAP values, it has been found that there are different air pollution zones: „normal“ zone, „struggle“ zone and „lichen desert“ zone. The comparison of the results obtained in 2002 and 2013 in Vlasotince indicates the presence of „normal“ zone in 2002 but, in 2013, the „normal zone“ area was completely replaced with the „struggle“ zone. In Leskovac, unlike the previous studies, a slightly narrowing “lichen desert" zone is noticed. In Lebane, there is a presence of all lichen zones.

  3. Steam explosion and fermentation of sugar beets from Southern Florida and the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beets have recently gained interest for cultivation in southern Florida for their economic potential as cattle feed, a feedstock for ethanol production and their use to improve the quality of water via soil nutrient accumulation. Sugar beets grown in southern Florida, Minnesota and Nebraska we...

  4. Local leadership and State governance in southern Ethiopia : from charisma to bureaucracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Vaughan, O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of chiefs, elders and local leaders in southern Ethiopia, this paper analyses the idea of authority, legitimacy and governance among three small-scale societies, the Meén, the Dizi and the Suri. It shows that in southern Ethiopia efforts were made to replace charismatic and

  5. Detection of Schistosoma Antibodies and exploration of associated factors among local residents around Inlay Lake, Southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Htin Zaw; Oo, Cho Cho; Myat, Tin Ohn; Maung, Nay Soe

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Its transmission has been reported in 78 countries affecting at least 258 million people world-wide. It was documented that S. japonicum species was prevalent in Shan State, Myanmar, but the serological study was not conducted yet. General objective of the present study was to detect schistosoma antibodies and explore associated factors among local residents living around Inlay Lake, Nyaung Shwe Township, and Southern Shan State, Myanmar. An exploratory and cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among local residents (n = 315) in selected rural health center (RHC) areas from December 2012 through June 2013. The participants were interviewed with pretested semi-structured questionnaires and their blood samples (serum) were tested using Schistosomiasis Serology Microwell ELISA test kits (sensitivity 100% and specificity 85%) which detected IgG antibodies but could not distinguish between a new and past infection. Data collected were analysed by SPSS software 16.0 and associations of variables were determined by Chi-squared test with a significant level set at 0.05. Schistosoma seroprevalence (IgG) in study area was found to be 23.8% (95% CI: 18.8-28.8%). The present study is the first and foremost study producing serological evidence of schistosoma infection-one of the neglected tropical diseases-in local people of Myanmar. The factors significantly associated with seropositivity were being male [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.49), P Myanmar, and this should be further confirmed parasitologically and kept under surveillance. Proper trainings on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be provided to the healthcare providers. ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458 . Registered 28 September 2014, retrospectively registered.

  6. The radon service industry in selected Northeastern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.R.; Reese, J.P.; Adams, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 the EPA initiated an expedited program of technical assistance in response to the discovery of extremely elevated levels of indoor radon in Pennsylvania homes. A vital component of this project was a training program which addressed the variety of techniques used to reduce human exposure to radon gas and its decay products. The New York State Energy Office was selected as the most suitable organization to assist in this project because of its relevant experience in training programs, especially the building for energy efficiency workshop series with its indoor radon gas component. This paper reports on the project

  7. Fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n Rydberg states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Mueller-Dethlefs, K.; Baranov, L.Y.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time fractional Stark state selective electric field ionization of very high-n (n approx-gt 250) molecular Rydberg states is observed. An open-quote open-quote offset close-quote close-quote electric pulse selectively ionizes the more fragile open-quote open-quote red close-quote close-quote (down shifted in energy) Stark states. The more resilient open-quote open-quote bluer close-quote close-quote, or up-shifted, ones survive and are shifted down in energy upon application of a second (open-quote open-quote probe close-quote close-quote) pulse of opposite direction (diabatic Stark states close-quote inversion). Hence, even for smaller probe than offset fields ionization is observed. The offset/probe ratio allows one to control spectral peak shapes in zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  8. Chaotic Dynamical State Variables Selection Procedure Based Image Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Bashir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the modern digital era, the use of computer technologies such as smartphones, tablets and the Internet, as well as the enormous quantity of confidential information being converted into digital form have resulted in raised security issues. This, in turn, has led to rapid developments in cryptography, due to the imminent need for system security. Low-dimensional chaotic systems have low complexity and key space, yet they achieve high encryption speed. An image encryption scheme is proposed that, without compromising the security, uses reasonable resources. We introduced a chaotic dynamic state variables selection procedure (CDSVSP to use all state variables of a hyper-chaotic four-dimensional dynamical system. As a result, less iterations of the dynamical system are required, and resources are saved, thus making the algorithm fast and suitable for practical use. The simulation results of security and other miscellaneous tests demonstrate that the suggested algorithm excels at robustness, security and high speed encryption.

  9. Marketing of meat sheep with intensive finishing in southern state of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio Arturo; García-Martínez, Anastacio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In the absolute marketing margin of the final consumer price per kilogram of carcass meat, the producer obtained US$2.7/kg (47 %) of the utilities, while the intermediaries obtained US$3.1/kg (53 %). Considering the final cooked product in barbacoa (typical dish), the margin was US$6.3/kg (29 %) for the producer and US$15.2/kg (71 %) for the intermediaries. The B/C ratio was 1.0, 1.1, 2, and 1.3 for the producer, stocker, butcher, and barbacoa seller, respectively. It is concluded that the best marketing channel for the producer was the producer-stocker-processor (butcher and barbacoa seller). The highest marketing margin was for the intermediaries followed by the producer. The order of importance of the B/C kilogram ratio of meat was for the butcher first, then barbacoa seller, and lastly stocker and producer.

  10. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  11. Effects of silvicultural activity on ecological processes in floodplain forests of the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockaby, B.G.; Stanturf, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Activities associated with timber harvesting have occurred within floodplain forests in the southern United States for nearly two hundred years. However, it is only in the last ten years that any information has become available about the effects of harvesting on the ecological functions of this valuable resource. Hydrology is the driving influence behind all ecological processes in floodplains and, in most cases, timber harvesting alone has little long-term effect on hydroperiod. However, there may be some instances where logging roads, built in association with harvest sites , can alter hydroperiod to the extent that vegetation productivity is altered positively or negatively. There is no documentation that harvesting followed by natural regeneration represents a threat to ground or surface water quality on floodplain sites, as long as Best Management Practices are followed. Harvested floodplains may increase or have little effect on decomposition rates of surface organic matter. The nature of the effect seems to be controlled by site wetness. Data from recently harvested sites (i.e. within the last ten years) suggest that vegetation productivity is maintained at levels similar to that observed prior to harvests. During the early stages of stand development vegetation species composition is heavily influenced by harvest method. Similarly, amphibian populations (monitored as bioindicators of ecosystem recovery) seem to rebound rapidly following harvests, although species composition may be different. 40 refs, 3 figs

  12. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Selection of den sites by black bears in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.; Brown, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated selection of den sites by American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, western North Carolina, by comparing characteristics of dens at 53 den sites with availability of habitat characteristics in annual home ranges of bears and in the study area. We also tested whether den-site selection differed by sex, age, and reproductive status of bears. In addition, we evaluated whether the den component of an existing habitat model for black bears predicted where bears would select den sites. We found bears selected den sites far from gravel roads, on steep slopes, and at high elevations relative to what was available in both annual home ranges and in the study area. Den-site selection did not differ by sex or age, but it differed by reproductive status. Adult females with cubs preferred to den in areas that were relatively far from gravel roads, but adult females without cubs did not. The habitat model overestimated the value of areas near gravel roads, underestimated the value of moderately steep areas, and did not include elevation as a predictor variable. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating den selection in terms of both use and availability of den characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Efimov states and bound state properties in selected nuclear and molecular three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    The search is made among selected three-body systems for possible Efimov state behavior. In order to carry out this analysis of phenomenological potentials a new mathematical approach, the FCM (Faddeev-coordinate-momentum) technique, is developed. The analysis then proceeds through the framework of the Faddeev equations by employing the UPE (unitary pole expansion) to reduce these equations to numerically feasible form. The systems chosen for analysis are the 4 He trimer and the three-α model of 12 C. Efimov states are not found in 12 C, thus answering speculation among nuclear theorists. The 4 He trimer, on the other hand, manifests Efimov states for each potential considered and the characteristics of these states are extensively analyzed. Since Efimov states are predicted by all of the phenomenological potentials considered, these states would seem to be a realistically fundamental property of the 4 He trimer system

  15. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa R. Jelinek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  16. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  17. Distribution and behaviour of selected heavy metals and other elements in various components of the southern Baltic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations and discrimination of selected heavy metals in biota from the southern Baltic indicate that a large group of the Baltic organisms bioaccumulates Fe and Pb but discriminates against U. There appears to be no significant transfer of heavy metals along successive levels of the food chain. The distribution of the heavy metals in the associated sediments is a result of the anthropogenic input of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, P and Cu. It is suggested that Pb is introduced to the Polish sector of the Baltic Sea mainly by atmospheric transport whereas other heavy-metal pollutants are introduced mainly from the Vistula River. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. The end-state comfort effect in bimanual grip selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Mark G; Stodden, David F; Lehman, Davana M

    2003-03-01

    During a unimanual grip selection task in which people pick up a lightweight dowel and place one end against targets at variable heights, the choice of hand grip (overhand vs. underhand) typically depends on the perception of how comfortable the arm will be at the end of the movement: an end-state comfort effect. The two experiments reported here extend this work to bimanual tasks. In each experiment, 26 right-handed participants used their left and right hands to simultaneously pick up two wooden dowels and place either the right or left end against a series of 14 targets ranging from 14 to 210 cm above the floor. These tasks were performed in systematic ascending and descending orders in Experiment 1 and in random order in Expiment 2. Results were generally consistent with predictions of end-state comfort in that, for the extreme highest and lowest targets, participants tended to select opposite grips with each hand. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the concept of constraint hierarchies within a posture-based motion-planning model.

  19. Southern complex: geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry of selected uranium- and thorium-rich granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Four major rock groups are defined in the Southern Complex: the Bell Creek Granite (BCG), the Clotted Granitoids (CGR), the Albite Granite (AGR), and the Migmatite Complex. Metatexites of the Migmatite Complex are the oldest rocks and include paleosome of a metasedimentary and metavolcanic protolith represented by Banded Iron Formation, Banded Amphibolite, and Banded Gneisses, and interlayered or crosscutting leucogranites. The CGR span the range from metatexite to diatexite and represent in-situ partial melting of metapelitic layers in the protolith during intrusion of the BCG. The BCG cuts the migmatites, is locally cut by the CGR, and was derived by partial melting of a dominantly metasedimentary protolith at some depth below the presently exposed migmatites during a regional tectonothermal event. The Albite Granite is a 2km diameter, muscovite-fluorite-columbite-bearing intrusive stock that cuts all other major units. The thorium history of the BCG is a function of the history of monazite. The thorium history of the CGR is also dominated by monazite but the thorium content of this unit cannot be entirely accounted for by original restite monazite. The uranium history of the BCG and CGR was dominated by magmatic differentiation and post magmatic, metamorphic and supergene redistributions and is largely independent of the thorium history. The thorium and uranium history of the AGR was dominated by magmatic/deuteric processes unlike the BCG and CGR

  20. Biomass and selected ecological factors of epiphytic bryophyte along altitudinal gradients in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahut Chantanaorrapint

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass of epiphytic bryophytes was investigated along three altitudinal transects in southern Thailand: TarutaoNational Park (25-700 m, Khao Nan National Park (400-1,300 m, and Khao Luang National Park (400-1,500 m. The dry weightof epiphytic bryophytes per surface area increased from 1.15 g/m2 in the lowland to a maximum 199 g/m2 at the lower montaneforests. The estimation of dry weight per hectare increased along transect from 2.4 to 620 kg. The water storing capacity ofepiphytic bryophytes was about 1.2 to 2.4 times as dry weight and was generally higher in the lower montane forest (up to1,500 l/ha than in the lowland forests. The bark pH of host trees range between 3.19 and 6.84, and show negative correlationwith the altitude (r=-0.635, p<0.05. Air temperature gradually decreases with the increasing altitude ca 0.6°C per 100 m elevation.

  1. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  2. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for gender selection in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colls, P.; Silver, L.; Olivera, G.; Weier, J.; Escudero, T.; Goodall, N.; Tomkin, G.; Munne, S.

    2009-08-20

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of gender selection for non medical reasons has been considered an unethical procedure by several authors and agencies in the Western society on the basis of disrupting the sex ratio, being discriminatory againsts women and disposal of normal embryos of the non desired gender. In this study, the analysis of a large series of PGD procedures for gender selection from a wide geographical area in the United States, shows that in general there is no deviation in preference towards any specific gender except for a preference of males in some ethnic populations of Chinese, Indian and Middle Eastern origin that represent a small percentage of the US population. In cases where only normal embryos of the non-desired gender are available, 45.5% of the couples elect to cancel the transfer, while 54.5% of them are open to have transferred embryos of the non-desired gender, this fact being strongly linked to cultural and ethnical background of the parents. In addition this study adds some evidence to the proposition that in couples with previous children of a given gender there is no biological predisposition towards producing embryos of that same gender. Based on these facts, it seems that objections to gender selection formulated by ethics committees and scientific societies are not well-founded.

  3. A new population of the endangered Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806) (Primates: Atelidae) in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ingberman, Bianca; Kaminski, Nicholas; Fusco-Costa, Roberto; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio

    2016-01-01

    The endangered southern muriqui or mono [Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806)], is a primate endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. One known extant population is found at the southern limit of its distribution, in the state of Paraná, where it is regionally classified as Critically Endangered. Here, we report on a new population in southern Brazil. Additionally, we express our concern about the conservation status of this species in Paraná, because both populations are in small, is...

  4. Tree regeneration response to the group selection method in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Tree regeneration response following the use of the group selection method was studied within 36 group openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division in south central Indiana. Two different aspects and three time periods since cutting were examined. The objectives were to determine whether aspect, age, species group, location within the opening, or their...

  5. Extraction and analysis of prebiotics from selected plants from southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santad Wichienchot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen plants and their parts acquired from southern Thailand were investigated for their polysaccharide contentsand prebiotic properties. The fresh, ground samples were extracted with 50% and 95% ethanol and water at ambient and boilingtemperatures. The extracts were freeze-dried, digested with HCl buffer and -amylase, and indigestible polysaccharidecontents were determined. Base on extract yields and indigestible polysaccharide contents, ten samples were chosen aspotential sources of prebiotics. These included embryo, flesh and pericarp of palm fruit (Borrassus flabellifer L., skin, fleshand seed of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., flesh of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., jampadah (Artocarpusinteger Merr., and young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn., and okra pod (Hibiscus esculentus Linn.. Their extract yields (%dry wt were 26.54, 44.94, 51.69, 71.54, 59.43, 16.00, 55.73, 34.11, 22.66, and 12.39, respectively, and indigestible polysaccharidecontents (mg/g dry extract were 409.85, 334.87, 705.80, 689.08, 605.76, 403.44, 566.83, 542.56, 513.87, and 460.73, respectively.The amounts of oligosaccharide were 33.69, 47.20, 14.13, 0.00, 98.05, 29.35, 9.43, 2.40, 0.00, and 49.15 mg/g dry extract, respectively. Subsequently, five samples were chosen for further studies and possible commercial development based on theirextract yield, the amount and type of oligosaccharides, i.e. palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okrapod. Molecular weights of the polysaccharides from the five samples were 190-1,600 Daltons with a degree of polymerizationof 5-6.

  6. Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, M L T; Borba, N A; Brescovit, A D

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape), and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae). Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56%) was significantly higher than the female (38%) and male (6%) percentages.

  7. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  8. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  9. Inter-Annual Variability Of Rainfall In Some States Of Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study inter-annual variability of rainfall in some states in Southern Nigeria focuses on analyzing the trends and fluctuations in annual rainfall over six states in Southern Nigeria covering a period of 1972 2012. In order to ascertain the variabilitys and to model the annual rainfall for future prediction to enhance policy implementation the quantitative and descriptive analysis techniques was employed. The rainfall series were analyzed for fluctuations using Standardized Anomaly Index SAI whereas the trends were examined using Statistical Package for Social Science Software SPSS 17.0. At 95 percent confidence level observations in the stations may be signals that the wetter period dominates the drier periods in this study. Each of the series contains two distinct periods when the rainfall anomalies negative and positive of a particular type were most significant. The period where the annual rainfall is above one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Wet and the period below one standard deviation from the mean annual rainfall is considered Dry for each station. The results of the linear trend lines revealed an increase in rainfall supply over the period of study especially of recent. The annual rate of increase in rainfall over the period of investigation 1972 - 2012 were 15.21mmyear for Calabar 2.18mmyear for Port Harcourt 22.23mmyear for Owerri 3.25mmyear for Benin City 5.08mmyear for Enugu and 16.29mmyear for Uyo respectively. The variability in amount of annual rainfall revealed that in 2012 Calabar received the highest amount of rainfall of about 4062.70mm and the least value of 2099.4mm in 1973. In Porthacourt the highest amount of rainfall occurred in 1993 with a value of 3911.70mm and the least value in 1983 with a value of 1816.4mm. Owerri recorded the highest amount of rainfall of about 3064.0mm in 2011 and the least value occurred in 1986 with a value of 1228.4mm. In 1976 Benin received the

  10. Private Practitioners’ Perspectives on Their Involvement With the Tuberculosis Control Programme in a Southern Indian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Salve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Public and private health sectors both play a crucial role in the health systems of low- and middleincome countries (LMICs. The tuberculosis (TB control strategy in India encourages the public sector to actively partner with private practitioners (PPs to improve the quality of front line service delivery. However, ensuring effective and sustainable involvement of PPs constitutes a major challenge. This paper reports the findings from an empirical study focusing on the perspectives and experiences of PPs towards their involvement in TB control programme in India. Methods The study was carried out between November 2010 and December 2011 in a district of a Southern Indian State and utilised qualitative methodologies, combining observations and in-depth interviews with 21 PPs from different medical systems. The collected data was coded and analysed using thematic analysis. Results PPs perceived themselves to be crucial healthcare providers, with different roles within the public-private mix (PPM TB policy. Despite this, PPs felt neglected and undervalued in the actual process of implementation of the PPM-TB policy. The entire process was considered to be government driven and their professional skills and knowledge of different medical systems remained unrecognised at the policy level, and weakened their relationship and bond with the policy and with the programme. PPs had contrasting perceptions about the different components of the TB programme that demonstrated the public sector’s dominance in the overall implementation of the DOTS strategy. Although PPs felt responsible for their TB patients, they found it difficult to perceive themselves as ‘partners with the TB programme.’ Conclusion Public-private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly utilized as a public health strategy to strengthen health systems. These policies will fail if the concerns of the PPs are neglected. To ensure their long-term involvement in the programme the

  11. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2017-09-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  12. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  14. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  15. Dark energy equation of state and anthropic selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Linde, Andrei; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the dark energy is due to a potential of a scalar field and that the magnitude and the slope of this potential in our part of the Universe are largely determined by anthropic selection effects. We find that, in some models, the most probable values of the slope are very small, implying that the dark energy density stays constant to very high accuracy throughout cosmological evolution. In other models, however, the most probable values of the slope are such that the slow roll condition is only marginally satisfied, leading to a recollapse of the local universe on a time scale comparable to the lifetime of the Sun. In the latter case, the effective equation of state varies appreciably with the redshift, leading to a number of testable predictions

  16. Selective Sentinel Lymphadenectomy for Breast Cancer in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley P.L. Leong

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node status is the most reliable prognostic indicator for breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs are the first draining lymph nodes for metastatic breast cancer to spread from the primary site. Although the therapeutic role of selective sentinel lymphadenectomy (SSL in breast cancer has not been determined, the practical significance is that it is being used as a staging procedure, so that a negative SLN can spare a patient more extensive axillary lymph node dissection (ALND with its associated morbidity. If the SLN is negative, the negative predictive value of the remaining nodal basin for breast cancer exceeds 95%. SSL selects out one or a few SLNs and permits more extensive study of the nodes by the pathologist. Such extensive examination would not be practical for the many nodes yielded by a standard ALND. SSL is rapidly evolving into a standard approach for staging primary breast cancer in the United States, without the maturation of results from clinical trials.

  17. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Awu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM, Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated data was further subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA on difference between means of parameters and graphical method to determine the spatial variation of the water quality characteristics. The time variations of the water quality characteristics as compared with the spatial variations showed that for some variables, there was statistical difference between the means of parameters with respect to time and space at various levels of significance. These include Phosphorus (5%, Copper (1%, Iron (5%, Nickel (5%, Cadmium (1%, Salinity (1%, Bacteria (1% for time variation; and Sulphate (1%, Chemical Oxygen (5%,Nickel (1%, Arsenic (1%, Zinc (1%, Cadmium (1%, Bacteria (1% for spatial variations during dry season and Chemical Oxygen (5%, Nickel (1%, for spatial variation during rainy season. Based on the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water, the results of microbial analysis also indicated that the selected river waters were polluted with disease causing microorganisms, such as E.Coliform, Salmonella, Bacillus Subtilis. Therefore, the river waters are not good for drinking. The consumers of water obtained from the three rivers are likely to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. Necessary recommendations such as treating the water with bio-sand filter before use, amongst others, were made.

  18. Feed selection and radiocaesium intake by reindeer, sheep and goats grazing alpine summer habitats in southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staaland, H.; Garmo, T.H.; Hove, K.; Pedersen, O.

    1995-01-01

    Radiocaesium concentrations ( 137 Cs) were measured in extrusa from oesophageally fistulated sheep, goats and reindeer grazing alpine summer vegetation in Griningsdalen, Southern Norway in the period 1987-1989. The experiments with sheep and goats were conducted in different sub-alpine areas. The reindeer were, in addition, grazed in three areas in the low alpine zone. Grazing bouts lasted for 10-20 min and bite selections were recorded every 15 s through the grazing bout. Reindeer and goats had the most diverse food selection whereas sheep fed mainly on grasses, forbs and to some extent, on leaves of willow. The reindeer extrusa had the highest radiocaesium activity, apparently to a large extent caused by intake of lichens in areas where this type of plants were present. Depending on the type of vegetation in the grazed areas the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to grazed vegetation (Bq kg -1 dry extrusa/Bq m -2 soil) was estimated to 0.02-0.04 in sheep, 0.02-0.05 in goats and 0.02-0.43 in reindeer for 1987. (author)

  19. Vertical and horizontal fluxes of selected radionuclides and trace metals off the coast of southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, C.-A.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of our research, within the structure of the CaBS program, is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of some metabolically-active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro (SM/SP) Basin. Our focus is to examine selected trace metals and radionuclides in seawater, sediment trap material, and bottom sediments. Knowledge of the inventories, fluxes, and routes of these nuclides and metals in or among these reservoirs should lead to a cogent model for these elements in SM/SP Basin, which in turn should shed light on the fate and effects of energy-related by-products in a coastal region impacted by intense human activities. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Diverse Burkholderia Species Isolated from Soils in the Southern United States with No Evidence of B. pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina M Hall

    Full Text Available The global distribution of the soil-dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis, is poorly understood. We used established culturing methods developed for B. pseudomallei to isolate Burkholderia species from soil collected at 18 sampling sites in three states in the southern United States (Arizona (n = 4, Florida (n = 7, and Louisiana (n = 7. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST of seven genes, we identified 35 Burkholderia isolates from these soil samples. All species belonged to the B. cepacia complex (Bcc, including B. cenocepacia, B. cepacia, B. contaminans, B. diffusa, B. metallica, B. seminalis, B. vietnamiensis and two unnamed members of the Bcc. The MLST analysis provided a high level of resolution among and within these species. Despite previous clinical cases within the U.S. involving B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relatives, we did not isolate any of these taxa. The Bcc contains a number of opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Interestingly, we found that B. vietnamiensis was present in soil from all three states, suggesting it may be a common component in southern U.S. soils. Most of the Burkholderia isolates collected in this study were from Florida (30/35; 86%, which may be due to the combination of relatively moist, sandy, and acidic soils found there compared to the other two states. We also investigated one MLST gene, recA, for its ability to identify species within Burkholderia. A 365bp fragment of recA recovered nearly the same species-level identification as MLST, thus demonstrating its cost effective utility when conducting environmental surveys for Burkholderia. Although we did not find B. pseudomallei, our findings document that other diverse Burkholderia species are present in soils in the southern United States.

  1. Diverse Burkholderia Species Isolated from Soils in the Southern United States with No Evidence of B. pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carina M; Busch, Joseph D; Shippy, Kenzie; Allender, Christopher J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W; Schupp, James M; Colman, Rebecca E; Keim, Paul; Currie, Bart J; Wagner, David M

    2015-01-01

    The global distribution of the soil-dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis, is poorly understood. We used established culturing methods developed for B. pseudomallei to isolate Burkholderia species from soil collected at 18 sampling sites in three states in the southern United States (Arizona (n = 4), Florida (n = 7), and Louisiana (n = 7)). Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of seven genes, we identified 35 Burkholderia isolates from these soil samples. All species belonged to the B. cepacia complex (Bcc), including B. cenocepacia, B. cepacia, B. contaminans, B. diffusa, B. metallica, B. seminalis, B. vietnamiensis and two unnamed members of the Bcc. The MLST analysis provided a high level of resolution among and within these species. Despite previous clinical cases within the U.S. involving B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relatives, we did not isolate any of these taxa. The Bcc contains a number of opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Interestingly, we found that B. vietnamiensis was present in soil from all three states, suggesting it may be a common component in southern U.S. soils. Most of the Burkholderia isolates collected in this study were from Florida (30/35; 86%), which may be due to the combination of relatively moist, sandy, and acidic soils found there compared to the other two states. We also investigated one MLST gene, recA, for its ability to identify species within Burkholderia. A 365bp fragment of recA recovered nearly the same species-level identification as MLST, thus demonstrating its cost effective utility when conducting environmental surveys for Burkholderia. Although we did not find B. pseudomallei, our findings document that other diverse Burkholderia species are present in soils in the southern United States.

  2. MICB gene diversity and balancing selection on its promoter region in Yao population in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xuexiang; Wei, Xiaomou; Meng, Yuming; Liu, Limin; Qin, Shini; Liu, Yanyu; Dai, Shengming

    2016-12-01

    To comprehensively examine the MICB gene polymorphism and identify its differences in Chinese Yao population from other ethnic groups, we investigated the polymorphism in the 5'-upstream regulation region (5'-URR), coding region (exons 2-4), and the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of MICB gene by using PCR-SBT method in 125 healthy unrelated Yao individuals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Higher polymorphism was observed in the 5'-URR, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a two base pairs deletion at position -139/-138 were found in our study. Only five different variation sites, however, were detected in exons 2-4 and three were observed in the 3'-UTR. The minor allele frequencies of all variants were greater than 5%, except for rs3828916, rs3131639, rs45627734, rs113620316, rs779737471, and the variation at position +11803 in the 3'-UTR. The first nine SNPs of 5'-URR and rs1065075, rs1051788 of the coding region showed significant linkage disequilibrium with each other. Ten different MICB extended haplotypes (EH) encompassing the 5'-URR, exons 2-4, and 3'-UTR were found in this population, and the most frequent was EH1 (23.2%). We provided several evidences for balancing selection effect on the 5'-URR of MICB gene in Yao population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupathi, Rao G; Suresh, Babu K; Ujwal, Kumar J; Sujana, P; Raoa, A Veerabhadr; Sreedhar, A S

    2011-08-01

    To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Compared with Morus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 µg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions I, II, and IV inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2µg/mL) showed selective growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from Piper betel leaf extractions. Among the individual compounds, eugenol treatment showed improved growth inhibition compared with stigmasterol and 3-hexene-ol. We are reporting potential anti-bacterial compounds from Piper betel against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria either alone or in combination with drug treatment.

  4. Isotope evidence of paleo - El Nino - Southern Oscillation cycles in loess-paleosol record in the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Follmer, L.R.; Chao-li, Liu

    2000-01-01

    The ??13C of soil carbonate in rhizoconcretions collected from a loess-paleosol sequence in the central United States indicates that growing-season C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated by 35% on a 900 ?? 200 yr time scale during the late Wisconsinan glaciation. The pattern appears in phase with advance and retreat of the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, suggesting influence by paleo-El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation cycles. The ??13C of soil organic matter indicates that the annual average C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated only by 18%, with a periodicity of 450 ?? 100 yr, and closely matched the cyclic pattern of loess-paleosol layers. It suggests a periodic enhancement of the penetration of the Gulf of Mexico air over the region during this time.

  5. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  6. Resistivity Study of Shallow Aquifers in theParts of Southern Ukanafun Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistivity study by vertical electrical sounding (VES employing the Schlumberger electrode configuration has been used to delineate shallow aquifers in some villages in Southern Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. The information realized from the resistivity data and nearby logged boreholes show that the depths penetrated by currents were all sandy formations with various thicknesses. However, the main aquifers comprise within the maximum current penetration, very coarse – grained (gravelly sand and fine sand with resistivity in the ranges of 4680-30700 Ωm and 207-2530 Ωm and thickness in the ranges of 43-63 m and 18-40 m respectively. The aquifers with minor hydraulic gradient are separated by thin beds of clay according to lithology logs and these beds were masked in the sounding data due to the principle of suppression.

  7. Private Practitioners' Perspectives on Their Involvement With the Tuberculosis Control Programme in a Southern Indian State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Solomon; Sheikh, Kabir; Porter, John Dh

    2016-05-08

    Public and private health sectors both play a crucial role in the health systems of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The tuberculosis (TB) control strategy in India encourages the public sector to actively partner with private practitioners (PPs) to improve the quality of front line service delivery. However, ensuring effective and sustainable involvement of PPs constitutes a major challenge. This paper reports the findings from an empirical study focusing on the perspectives and experiences of PPs towards their involvement in TB control programme in India. The study was carried out between November 2010 and December 2011 in a district of a Southern Indian State and utilised qualitative methodologies, combining observations and in-depth interviews with 21 PPs from different medical systems. The collected data was coded and analysed using thematic analysis. PPs perceived themselves to be crucial healthcare providers, with different roles within the public-private mix (PPM) TB policy. Despite this, PPs felt neglected and undervalued in the actual process of implementation of the PPM-TB policy. The entire process was considered to be government driven and their professional skills and knowledge of different medical systems remained unrecognised at the policy level, and weakened their relationship and bond with the policy and with the programme. PPs had contrasting perceptions about the different components of the TB programme that demonstrated the public sector's dominance in the overall implementation of the DOTS strategy. Although PPs felt responsible for their TB patients, they found it difficult to perceive themselves as 'partners with the TB programme.' Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasingly utilized as a public health strategy to strengthen health systems. These policies will fail if the concerns of the PPs are neglected. To ensure their long-term involvement in the programme the abilities of PPs and the important perspectives from other

  8. THE PARADOX OF MIGRATION AND THE INTERESTS OF THE ATOMISTIC NATION-STATES: THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phazha Jimmy Ngandwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The "paradox of migration and the interests of the atomistic nation-states" interrogates the phenomenon of migration in general and in the Southern African Development Community in particular. The point of departure of the paper is the African Union and the Southern African Development Community’s legal framework on migration, as read with the national legal instruments of the different member states. Its focal point is the raison d’être of this phenomenon of migration and the corresponding approaches and attitudes of the nation-states within which migration takes place inter se. This includes the psycho-social impact of migration. Internationally as well as regionally, States are concerned with issues of sovereignty, the preservation of the welfare of the citizenry, ensuring social cohesion social, cultural and economic development including job creation, and fighting against transnational organised crime, including terrorism. The theme of the paper is that whereas migration should form the bedrock of regionalism and globalisation, the negative attitudes of the nation-states to migration are more often than not at variance with the objectives of regionalism and globalisation. The central question of the research is how states can discharge their duties and obligations vis-à-vis their nationals without perpetuating the bottlenecks to and the stigma that attaches to migration and thereby upsetting the international as well as regional integration objectives of the free movement of people. This is the issue that the paper is intended to explore. The main areas of concern are that the negative attitudes of the nation-states are manifested in the hostile treatment of migrants at all ports of entry, including illegal or ungazetted points of entry, within the nation-states in general, and in their labour markets in particular. This research therefore explores the paradoxical nature of the duties and responsibilities of states within the

  9. State selective reactions of cosmic dust analogues at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, James Samuel Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is the most abundant molecule in interstellar space. It is crucial for initiating all of the chemistry in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and consequently plays an important role in star formation. However, the amount of H 2 believed to exist in the ISM cannot be accounted for by formation through gas-phase reactions alone. The current, widely accepted theory, is that H 2 forms on the surface of cosmic dust grains. These grains are thought to be composed of amorphous forms of carbon or silicates with temperatures of around 10 K. This thesis describes a new experiment that has been constructed to study H 2 formation on the surface of cosmic dust analogues and presents the initial experimental results. The experiment simulates, through ultra-high vacuum and the use of cryogenics, the conditions of the ISM where cosmic dust grains and H 2 molecules exist. During the experiment, a beam of atomic hydrogen is aimed at a cosmic dust analogue target. H 2 formed on the target's surface is ionised using a laser spectroscopy technique known as Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton lonisation (REMPI) and detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sensitivity of REMPI is such that H 2 molecules can be ionised in selective internal energy states. This allows the rovibrational populations of the H 2 molecules desorbing from the cosmic dust targets to be determined, providing information on the energy budget of the H 2 formation process in the ISM. Preliminary results from the experiment show that H 2 molecules formed on a diamond-like-carbon surface have a significant non-thermal population of excited vibrational and rotational energy states. (author)

  10. Southern Africa’s climate: Current state and recent historical changes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is a predominantly semi-arid region with high rainfall variability, characterised by frequent droughts and floods. It is also widely recognised as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change because of low levels of adaptive...

  11. Effects of timber management on the hydrology of wetland forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; James P. Shepard; Devendra M. Amatya; Hans Riekerk; Nicholas B. Comerford; Wayne Skaggs; Lloyd Swift

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to review the hydrologic impacts of various common forest management practices that include harvesting, site preparation, and drainage. Field hydrological data collected during the past 5±10 years from ten forested wetland sites across the southern US are synthesized using various methods including hydrologic simulation models and...

  12. Annual Progress Report, 1976. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…

  13. Annual Progress Report, 1975. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Included in this second annual report on the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) 1974-75 plan of work are data re: orientation visits; regional workshops; technical consultants; liaison with regional agencies and organizations; information dissemination; annual evaluation; functional networks in the areas of land use issues, citizen…

  14. Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devall, M.S.; Parresol, B.R. (Forest Service, New Orleans, LA (United States). Inst. for Quantitative Studies)

    1994-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub 2] could have beneficial effects on plants, climate change could cause serious changes to many ecological systems, for example inducing plants to bloom before their pollinators are available, and could precipitate modifications that few scientists have considered. Certainly many ecological systems will be seriously altered by climate change. Large northward shifts in species' ranges are expected, causing communities and ecosystems to change in composition. Loss of or movement of a dominant tree species may influence many other plant and animal species in the southern forest, bringing about large increases in the numbers of threatened and endangered species, as well as extinctions. Predictions about the effects of global climate change to southern forests and suggestions for detecting and preparing for them are included.

  15. Radioactivity, radiological risk and metal pollution assessment in marine sediments from Calabrian selected areas, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Messina, M.; Faggio, G.; Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Belmusto, G.

    2018-02-01

    The two most significant categories of physical and chemical pollutants in sediments (radionuclides and metals) were investigated in this article, in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine sediments from eight different selected sites of the Calabria region, south of Italy. In particular samples were analyzed to determine natural and anthropic radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the investigated area. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The obtained results show that, for radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium), the specific activity ranges from ( 14 ± 1) Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) to ( 54 ± 9) Bq/kg d.w.; for thorium, from ( 12 ± 1) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 83 ± 8) Bq/kg d.w.; for potassium, from ( 470 ± 20) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 1000 ± 70) Bq/kg d.w. and for cesium it is lower than the minimum detectable activity value. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) outdoor and the external hazard index ( H_ex) were calculated to evaluate any possible radiological risk, mainly due to the use of marine sediments for the beach nourishment. The results show low levels of radioactivity, thus discarding any significant radiological risk. Some metals (As, Cd, Cr tot, Hg, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe), that could be released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources, were investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements and compared with the limits set by the Italian Legislation, to assess any possible contamination. Experimental results show that they are much lower than the contamination threshold value, thus excluding their presence as pollutants. The degree of sediment contaminations were quantified using enrichment factor ( EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) for

  16. The Selection of Dry Port Location by a Hybrid CFA-MACBETH-PROMETHEE Method: A Case Study of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraisee Komchornrit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An intermodal transport could be the potential solution for reduction of logistics cost, including an acceleration of product flow, by way of dry port, where is regarded as a key component of combined transport. To promote a dry port in southern Thailand, the aim of this study is to propose an integrated method based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM for selecting its best location. Thus, a new hybrid CFA-MACBETH-PROMETHEE model is presented. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA is applied to determine loads for sorting out the importance of criteria and also investigate the relationship of logistic policy and geographical determination of dry port establishment. Later, measuring attractiveness by a categorical based evaluation technique (MACBETH is utilized to build weights of those criteria. Eventually, preference ranking organization method for enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE is engaged to rank from the most to least attractive alternatives of dry port. In this study, results indicate that Phatthalung railway station is the most attractive location for being a new dry port.

  17. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  18. BSL-3 laboratory practices in the United States: comparison of select agent and non-select agent facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Pompei, Victoria C; Anderson, Alice

    2014-01-01

    New construction of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories in the United States has increased in the past decade to facilitate research on potential bioterrorism agents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inspect BSL-3 facilities and review commissioning documentation, but no single agency has oversight over all BSL-3 facilities. This article explores the extent to which standard operating procedures in US BSL-3 facilities vary between laboratories with select agent or non-select agent status. Comparisons are made for the following variables: personnel training, decontamination, personal protective equipment (PPE), medical surveillance, security access, laboratory structure and maintenance, funding, and pest management. Facilities working with select agents had more complex training programs and decontamination procedures than non-select agent facilities. Personnel working in select agent laboratories were likely to use powered air purifying respirators, while non-select agent laboratories primarily used N95 respirators. More rigorous medical surveillance was carried out in select agent workers (although not required by the select agent program) and a higher level of restrictive access to laboratories was found. Most select agent and non-select agent laboratories reported adequate structural integrity in facilities; however, differences were observed in personnel perception of funding for repairs. Pest management was carried out by select agent personnel more frequently than non-select agent personnel. Our findings support the need to promote high quality biosafety training and standard operating procedures in both select agent and non-select agent laboratories to improve occupational health and safety.

  19. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  20. White Women and the Fight for Equality in the Southern United States (1920-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Stefani

    2008-09-01

    el llamado « Sólido Sur » resultaba inflexible sobre la necesidad de hacer perenne sus instituciones racistas. Pero fue acogido por una minoría importante de la población sudista como el resultado lógico de un movimiento doloroso de reformas que habían empezado en esta región décadas antes. A diferencia del movimiento para los derechos cívicos de los años 1960, que fue encabezado y popularizado por hombres líderes negros carismáticos, la lucha para los derechos cívicos que precedió fue dirigida esencialmente por reformistas blancos entre quienes las mujeres tuvieron un papel significativamente importante y que no siempre fue reconocido como tal. Estas mujeres blancas, pertenecientes a familias blancas segregacionistas, experimentaron un proceso de cuestionamiento que las hizo arrostrar la supremacía blanca y comprometerse en la lucha por la igualdad racial. La historia de este activismo especial fue caracterizada por un proceso peculiar de radicalización, desde los primeros esfuerzos para establecer una cooperación interracial en el contexto de la segregación en los años 1920 hasta la “fraternidad universal” de los estudiantes en los años 1960. Este artículo muestra que, en el contexto del sur segregado, el activismo de las mujeres blancas fue, en muchos aspectos, más radical que el de sus homólogos de esta misma época.From the late 19th century to the 1960s, racial segregation and patriarchy were the main pillars of society in the southern United States. If the modern Civil Rights Movement that led in a few years to the historic abolition of segregation by the federal government came as a surprise to many Americans at the time, as the so-called Solid South was adamant in its determination to maintain its racist institutions forever, it was indeed welcomed by a significant minority of southerners as the logical outcome of a painful reform movement that had started decades earlier in the region. Unlike the Civil Rights Movement of the

  1. Quantification of inorganic arsenic exposure and cancer risk via consumption of vegetables in southern selected districts of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Qin, Kun; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Din, Islamud

    2016-01-01

    Human exposures to arsenic (As) through different pathways (dietary and non-dietary) are considered to be one of the primary worldwide environmental health risks to humans. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of As in soil and vegetable samples collected from agricultural lands located in selected southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, Pakistan. We examined the concentrations of total arsenic (TAs), organic species of As such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA), and inorganic species including arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) in both soil and vegetable. The data were used to determine several parameters to evaluate human health risk, including bioconcentration factor (BCF) from soil to plant, average daily intake (ADI), health risk index (HRI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTCR), and hazard quotient (HQ). The total As concentration in soil samples of the five districts ranged from 3.0-3.9 mg kg−1, exhibiting minimal variations from site to site. The mean As concentration in edible portions of vegetable samples ranged from 0.03-1.38 mg kg−1. It was observed that As concentrations in 75% of the vegetable samples exceeded the safe maximum allowable limit (0.1 mg kg−1) set by WHO/FAO. The highest value of ADI for As was measured for M. charantia, while the lowest was for A. chinense. The results of this study revealed minimal health risk (HI vegetables for the local inhabitants. The ILTCR values for inorganic As indicated a minimal potential cancer risk through ingestion of vegetables. In addition, the HQ values for total As were <1, indicating minimal non-cancer risk. PMID:26820935

  2. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

  3. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  4. Evaluation of the APEX Model to Simulate Runoff Quality from Agricultural Fields in the Southern Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, John J; Radcliffe, David E; Osmond, Deanna; Bolster, Carl; Sharpley, Andrew; Ortega-Achury, Sandra L; Forsberg, Adam; Oldham, J Larry

    2017-11-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely applied to assess phosphorus (P) loss in runoff water and has been proposed as a model to support practical decisions regarding agricultural P management, as well as a model to evaluate tools such as the P Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of APEX to simulate P losses from agricultural systems to determine its potential use for refinement or replacement of the P Index in the southern region of the United States. Uncalibrated and calibrated APEX model predictions were compared against measured water quality data from row crop fields in North Carolina and Mississippi and pasture fields in Arkansas and Georgia. Calibrated models satisfactorily predicted event-based surface runoff volumes at all sites (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] > 0.47, |percent bias [PBIAS]| < 34) except Arkansas (NSE < 0.11, |PBIAS| < 50) but did not satisfactory simulate sediment, dissolved P, or total P losses in runoff water. The APEX model tended to underestimate dissolved and total P losses from fields where manure was surface applied. The model also overestimated sediments and total P loads during irrigation events. We conclude that the capability of APEX to predict sediment and P losses is limited, and consequently so is the potential for using APEX to make P management recommendations to improve P Indices in the southern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Kinetic studies following state-selective laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    During the past year, we have made measurements of state-to-state energy transfer cross sections and radiative lifetimes for Xe*(6p,6p',7p) and Kr*(5p) states in xenon and krypton buffer gases. These results are relevant to kinetic models of both excimer lasers and the infrared xenon laser; and they are a significant improvement in the precision of the known radiative lifetimes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  7. Selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high-lying states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducas, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    This specification relates to the selective excitation of atoms or molecules to high lying states and a method of separating different isotopes of the same element by selective excitation of the isotopes. (U.K.)

  8. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote ... groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future ... In keeping = with international practices, a variety of academic and ...

  9. Polycyclic migmatites from southern of Minas Gerais state and adjacent parts: structural/petrographic characterization and geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artur, A.C.; Wernick, E.; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    The geology of the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais and adjacent parts of the State of Sao Paulo (SE Brazil) is built up by gray gneisses (Barbacena and Amparo Complexes), pink gneisses (Pinhal Complex) and granulites (Guaxupe Complex) areas, the oldest of them of Archaean ages. Structural, petrographic, geochronological and geologic data indicate that in fact each of those complexes is the result of a long evolution including successive phases of deformation, anatexis and intrusions. The extensive migmatization of the Archaean rocks during the Lower and Upper Proterozoic combined with the intrusion of huge granitoid bodies suggest that the considered region has been involved in successively continental approaches by subduction/collision processes. (author)

  10. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - Global El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  11. Selected charmonium and charmonium-like states at BESIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yu-Ping [Institut fuer Kernphysik Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: BESIII-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Using large data samples collected at ψ(3686) peak and around the peaks of the vector charmonium resonances above 4.0 GeV, study of the charmonium (charmonium-like) states are performed at BESIII experiment. Comparing to the charmonium states above the charm threshold, the states below the charm threshold are well understood, except the three spin-singlet states, η{sub c}, h{sub c} and η{sub c}(2S). With the data accumulated at the ψ(3686) peak, the properties of these states are measured with high precision or at the first time. Based on the data samples taken above 4.0 GeV, the process of π{sup +}π{sup -}h{sub c} has been studied, the cross section line-shape will help us to understand the Y-states above the charm threshold. In addition, in the Dalitz study of the π{sup +}π{sup -}h{sub c} system, a charged charmonium-like state Z{sub c}(4020) has been observed, whose property is similar to the previous observed Z{sub c}(3900) in π{sup +}π{sup -}J/ψ system.

  12. State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Selected Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canada, Ben

    2002-01-01

    While the federal government has resources at hand for responding to terrorist attacks, the proximity of state and local first responders insures they will almost always be the first to arrive at the site of an attack...

  13. ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs - Selected indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011-2017. The ASTDD Synopses of State Oral Health Programs contain information useful in tracking states’ efforts to improve oral health and contributions to...

  14. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... streptomycin and tylosin among poultry farms in. Ekiti State, Nigeria. ... in poultry production due to its possibility of forming residue in ... withdrawal periods are not observed before selling ... Manipulating pig production IX.

  15. Chemical characterzation of fine particle emissions from the fireplace combustion of woods grown in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Philip M; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-04-01

    The fireplace combustion of wood is a significant and largely unregulated source of fine particle pollution in the United States. Source apportionment techniques that use particulate organic compounds as tracers have been successful in determining the contribution of wood smoke to ambient fine particle levels in specific areas in California. To apply these techniques to the rest of the United States, the differences in emissions profiles between different wood smoke sources and fuel types should be resolved. To this end, a series of fireplace source tests was conducted on six fuel wood species found in the Southern United States to determine fine particulate emission factors for total mass, ionic and elemental species, elemental and organic carbon, and over 250 individual organic compounds. The wood species tested, chosen for their high abundance and availability in the Southern U.S. region, were yellow poplar, white ash, sweetgum, mockernut hickory, loblolly pine, and slash pine. The differences in the emissions of compounds such as substituted phenols and resin acids help to distinguish between the smoke from hardwood and softwood combustion. Levoglucosan, a cellulose pyrolysis product which may serve as a tracer for wood smoke in general, was quantified in the emissions from all the wood species burned. The furofuran lignan, yangambin, which was emitted in significant quantities from yellow poplar combustion and not detected in any of the other North American wood smokes, is a potential species-specific molecular tracer which may be useful in qualitatively identifying particulate emissions from a specific geographical area where yellow poplar is being burned.

  16. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia

  17. Groundwater Depletion and the Sharp Increase of Seismicity in the Southern States, How GRACE Data Could Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z.; Hasan, E.; Hong, Y.; Xia, B.; Zhong, H.

    2016-12-01

    This study is a contribution to how NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data may be used to track anthropogenic related change in the groundwater in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) as well recently increased seismicity in the southern states. The SGP contains one of the most important groundwater aquifers in the United States, the Ogallala groundwater aquifer, which has been exploited since 1900. Meanwhile, the recent activities of oil and gas extraction from the unconventional shall reservoir systems has led to significantly increased groundwater withdrawal and injection of wastewater. Consequently, numerous induced fracture related earthquakes have been recorded in Oklahoma and Texas between 2002 and 2016 The current paper investigates the utility of GRACE data along with the Land Water Content (LWC) information from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to monitor and track the groundwater changes in three southern states of SGP (Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico). Additionally, the paper investigates links between active seismicity and the injection of the wastewater due to the oil and gas production. Using GRACE data yields unprecedented information about the inter-annual changes in the Total Water Storage (TWS) from 2002 to 2016 over SGP. The LWC data set sums the soil moisture records with the the total canopy water storage to reveal the total land surface water content. The arithmetic difference between the TWS and LWC is the Groundwater Anomaly (GWA) for any particular region. In the current study, the GWA analysis reveals the following: (1) statistically significant drop of the GWA of about - 27 mm from 2002 to 2007 due to natural and anthropogenic causes; (2) the increased precipitation records from 2008 to 2011 over SGP leads to significant recovery in TWS and an increase in the groundwater content of about 40 mm; (3) the period from 2012 to 2015 experienced increased GWA of about - 6 mm for the period. Using the available

  18. Kinetic studies following state-selective laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    We have made measurements of state-to-state deactivation cross sections and radiative lifetimes for Xe*(6p,6p',7p) and Kr*(5p) states in xenon and krypton buffer gases. These results are relevant to kinetic models and both excimer lasers and the infrared xenon laser; and they are a significant improvement in the precision of the known radiative lifetimes. This type of experiment can now be compared with recent calculations of state-to-state collisional relaxation in rare-gases by Hickman, Huestis, and Saxon. We have also made significant progress in the study of the electronic spectra of small molecules of the rare gases. Spectra have been obtained for Xe 2 , Xe 3 , Xe 4 , and larger clusters. As guidance for the larger clusters of the rare gases we have obtained the first multiphoton spectra for excitons in condensed xenon. In collaboration with research on the multiphoton spectra of the rare gases, we have continued experiments using synchrotron radiation in collaboration with the University of Hamburg. In experiments there we have observed excitation and fluorescence spectra for single xenon atoms at the surface, within the second layer, and within the bulk of large argon clusters

  19. State selective dynamics of molecules, clusters, and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John W. Keto

    2005-01-01

    Early objectives of this grant were: (1) Measure two-photon excitation of even parity excitons in liquid an solid xenon, (2) Study state-to-state energy transfer between two-photon laser excited states or rare-gas atoms to other rare has atoms, (3) study reactive half-collisions between xenon and chlorine leading to the XeCl* B state, (4) measure the spectra of ro-vibrational states of cluster ions and radicals formed in high-pressure discharges and to study their dynamics, (5) measure the surface and bulk electronic states of nanoparticles produced by a unique method of synthesis--laser ablation of microspheres (LAM). Using near-field and microluminescence techniques, we obtained spectra of single nanocrystals to compare with spectra obtained in a supersonic jet apparatus using resonance excitation followed by photoionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass analysis. These materials combine the functional advantages obtained from the size-tunable properties of nanocomposite materials with the fabrication and direct-write advantages of NPs manufactured by LAM. We demonstrated that CdSe nanoparticles produced by LAM were efficient fluorescers, even when deposited dry on sapphire substrates. Si nanoparticles were fluorescent when captured in ethylene glycol. We also obtained efficient fluorescence from Er doped phosphate glass nanoparticles which have application to gain waveguides in integrated optics or to nanoslush lasers. We used a femptosecond laser to study the nonlinear spectra of NC composites. We are currently measuring fluorescence and second and third-order susceptibilities of composites of Ag, Si, and GaN nanoparticles encapsulated within thin films of sapphire or SiO2

  20. State selective dynamics of molecules, clusters, and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, John W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Early objectives of this grant were: (1) Measure two-photon excitation of even parity excitons in liquid an solid xenon, (2) Study state-to-state energy transver between two-photon laser excited states or rare-gas atoms to other rare has atoms, (3) study reactive half-collisions between xenon and chlorine leading to the XeCl* B state, (4) measure the spectra of ro-vibrational states of cluster ions and radicals formed in high-pressure discharges and to study their dynamics, (5) measure the surface and bulk electronic states of nanoparticles produced by a unique method of synthesis--laser ablation of microspheres (LAM). Using near-field and microluminescence techniques, we obtained spectra of single nanocrystals to compare with spectra obtained in a supersonic jet apparatus using resonance excitation followed by photoionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass analysis. These materials combine the functional advantages obtained from the size-tunable properties of nanocomposite materials with the fabrication and direct-write advantages of NPs manufactured by LAM. We demostrated that CdSe nanoparticles produced by LAM were efficiient fluorescers, even when deposited dry on sapphire substrates. Si nanoparticles were fluorescent when captured in ethylene glycol. We also obtiained efficient fluorescence from Er doped phosphate glass nanopartiicles which have application to gain wafeguides in integrated optics or to nanoslush lasers. We used a femptosecond laser to study the nonlinear spectra of NC composites. We are currently measuring fluorescence and second and third-order susceptibilities of composites of Ag, Si, and GaN nanoparticles encapsulated within thin films of sapphire or SiO 2.

  1. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  2. Lighting Rural India : Load Segregation Eexperience in Selected States

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Ashish; Mukherjee, Mohua; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Saraswat, Kavita; Khurana, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic development of the rural populace is critical to India achieving its stated objective of inclusive growth. It is widely accepted that access to a reliable and sufficient power supply is a key enabler of rural economic growth. Traditionally, India's rural power supply has been restricted by having feeders to villages serve both agriculture and household loads. Because agric...

  3. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  4. Antimalarial prescribing patterns in state hospitals and selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slowdown of progression to resistance could be achieved by improving prescribing practice, drug quality, and patient compliance. Objective: To determine the antimalarial prescribing pattern and to assess rational prescribing of chloroquine by prescribers in government hospitals and parastatals in Lagos State. Methods: ...

  5. Modeling Selected Climatic Variables in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... The aim of this study was fitting the modified generalized burr density function to total rainfall and temperature data obtained from the meteorological unit in the Department of. Environmental Modelling and Management of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. (FRIN) in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

  6. Woody biomass policies and location decisions of the woody bioenergy industry in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhimei; Hodges, Donald G.; Young, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Woody biomass for bioenergy production has been included in relatively few renewable energy policies since the 1970s. Recently, however, several states have implemented a variety of new woody biomass policies to spur the establishment of new bioenergy industry. Establishing new woody biomass-based facilities in a specific state is affected by a number of factors such as the strength of these new policy incentives, resource availability, business tax climate, and the available labor force. This study employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects relative to some of these other state attributes. The CLM results suggest that state government incentives are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. The results have substantial implications regarding woody biomass policies and the creation of a new bioenergy industry. -- Highlights: •This study explores the effects of state attributes on the siting decisions of new woody bioenergy projects. •Results suggest that state woody biomass policies are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. •Other factors related to the siting of woody bioenergy facilities include resource availability, taxes, and wage rate

  7. Forest products industries of the southern Middle-Atlantic states, 1985 - 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Kevin Mullarkey; Kevin Mullarkey

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output of Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. Results are based on a survey of primary processing mills located in these states and of mills in other states that used wood from the region. Contains statistics on industrial timber production and mill receipts and the production and final end use of manufacturing residues. Comparisons are made...

  8. Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia T. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Forestry management practices can shape patterns of health, illness, and disease. A primary goal for owners federal, state, andprivate forests is to crap ecosystem management plans that simultaneously optimize forest health and human health. Fire-a major forest management issue in the United States-complicates these goals. Wildfires are natural phenomena with...

  9. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  10. Bottom sediment transport by radioactive tracer techniques off a stretch of the southern coast from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomtempo, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results obtained with radioactive tracer techniques as applied to study sea-bottom sediments movements off a stretch of the southern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, namely Praia do Una. Three injections of ground glass containing Iridium-192 were made and the behaviour of this material was tracked by special detection techniques, as it was acted upon by hydrodynamic agents, in two distinct periods of the year of 1982 (summer and winter). Measurement of hydrodynamic parameters was conducted simultaneously with tracer experiments. From the experiments with radioactive tracers, combined with other conventional studies, qualitative and quantitative conclusions could be drawn, as follows: waves are the prevailing agents in moving bottom sediments; during summer time, onshore and alongshore transport can be identified; during winter time, offshore and alongshore transport are present; for summer conditions, Massif transport rate was estimated to be 150 kg m -1 day -1 . (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  11. Role of selection versus historical isolation in racial differentiation of ponderosa pine in southern Oregon: an investigation of alternative hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen; Nancy L. Mandel; Jan E. Aagaard

    2001-01-01

    Continuous populations identified as Pacific and North Plateau races of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. Laws. ex C. Laws.) are parapatric along the crest of the Cascade Range in southern Oregon. A 3-year common-garden study of bud phenology and seedling vigor was performed to estimate the nature and magnitude of differentiation between races, to...

  12. The clinicopathology and pathology of selective toxicoses and storage diseases of the nervous system of ruminants in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Jacob Jan van der

    2002-01-01

    In this study the clinical signs and pathology of five plant poisonings and a mycotoxicosis affecting the nervous system of domestic ruminants in southern Africa are described. For comparative purposes, an inherited storage disease (bèta-mannosidosis) and a drug-induced neurotoxicosis (closantel

  13. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of recent sediments at selected sites in the southern basin of Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Merk, G.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1976 field season, sediment traps and current meters were set out in the southern basin of Lake Michigan to study the relationship between suspended material and currents. The gross mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the bottom sediments at the locations of these experiments were determined

  14. Conservation state of populations of rare plant species in highly transformed meadow steppes of Southern Opillya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Dmytrash-Vatseba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of natural habitats causes rapid extinction of rare plant populations. The diversity of rare plant species in the meadow steppes of Southern Opillya (Western Ukraine depends strongly on patch area, pasture digression of vegetation and a variety of eco-coenotical conditions. The main threats for the rare components of the meadow steppe flora are reduction of habitat and overgrazing. Spatial connections between sites are unable to support a constant rare plant population. The analysis of the composition of rare plant meadow-steppe species indicated that habitats with similar rare species composition usually have similar parameters of area, stages of pasture digression and eco-coenotical conditions. Spatial connectivity of patches does not ensure species similarity of rare components of the flora. Rare plant species were grouped according to their preferences for habitat , area and condition. In small patches subject to any stage of pasture digression grow populations of Adonis vernalis L., Pulsatilla patens (L. Mill., P. grandis Wender., Stipa capillata L., S. рennata L., Chamaecytisus blockianus (Pawł. Klásková etc. On the contrary, populations of other species (Carlina onopordifolia Besser. ex Szafer., Kuecz. et Pawł., Adenophora liliifolia (L. Ledeb. ex A. DC., Crambe tataria Sebeók, Euphorbia volhynica Besser ex Racib., Stipa tirsa Stev. etc. prefer large habitats, not changed by pasture digression. Prevention of reduction of rare species diversity requires preservation (also extension of patch area and regulation of grazing intensity.

  15. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  16. Treatment of personal status in jurisdictions of selected Arab states

    OpenAIRE

    Kopecký, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In my dissertation thesis I tried to explicate the fundamental institutes of Islamic family law, according to modern and contemporary legislation in a number of Arab states. The family law is fairly exhaustively treated in the sacred book of Muslims, in Koran, albeit in a number of scattered passages, mostly in suras from Medinese period. These passages are defined with more precision by the prestigeous method of the interpretation of Koran, with so called taj

  17. Selected equation of state in the acentric factor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, D.R.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-06-01

    A new equation of state in the acentric factor system is developed on the basis of high-precision data. The region in critical temperature T/sub r/, critical density P/sub r/ space is identified where there is good agreement as well as the regions of significant departures. The equation fits very well in the critical region. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Factors of site selection for nuclear power plants in selected industrial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Obermair, G.; Ringler, W.; Romahn, B.; Sanders, H.

    1978-01-01

    The range of the tasks within the project consists of working out an optimal catalogue of criteria for the site selection for nuclear power plants; establishing a structured documentation system for the criteria and licensing procedures used by selected industrial countries when selecting sites for nuclear power plants; analyzing and evaluating the documented material with the aim of supplying the basis for decisions concerning land use. The tasks are being realized within a technological ring of data (for the period until 1990, reactor types, cooling, power-heat coupling, special sites, block sizes, local concentration) and a set politico-economical ring of data for the following countries: F.R. Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Great Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, France, Netherlands, USA, Japan, Yougoslavia. (HP) [de

  19. The Central Bank and the State Budget: Selected Legal Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-01-01

    The Polish Central Bank (National Bank of Poland – NBP) performs mainly macro-economic tasks, for maintaining price levels. This Bank is not focused on tasks aimed at the interests of the State Budget. The Central Bank has a lot of power in the creation of money. It seems, there is possible to create the budgetary revenues, which are connected with the emission of money. In particular, the income from emission of coins may be determined as the budget revenue. The connection the Treasury with ...

  20. Restaurant Food Allergy Practices - Six Selected Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Taylor J; Brown, Laura G; Faw, Brenda; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Perez, Priscela; Viveiros, Brendalee; Ripley, Danny

    2017-04-21

    Food allergies affect an estimated 15 million persons in the United States (1), and are responsible for approximately 30,000 emergency department visits and 150-200 deaths each year (2). Nearly half of reported fatal food allergy reactions over a 13-year period were caused by food from a restaurant or other food service establishment (3). To ascertain the prevalence of food allergy training, training topics, and practices related to food allergies, CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal agencies and state and local health departments with six sites, interviewed personnel at 278 restaurants. Fewer than half of the 277 restaurant managers (44.4%), 211 food workers (40.8%), and 156 servers (33.3%) interviewed reported receiving food allergy training. Among those who reported receiving training, topics commonly included the major food allergens and what to do if a customer has a food allergy. Although most restaurants had ingredient lists for at least some menu items, few had separate equipment or areas designated for the preparation of allergen-free food. Restaurants can reduce the risk for allergic reactions among patrons by providing food allergy training for personnel and ingredient lists for all menu items and by dedicating equipment and areas specifically for preparing allergen-free food.

  1. A survey of plants used for family planning in Bayelsa State, southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Alade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants with both male and female antifertility potential were surveyed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria. A total of 35 medicinal plant species representing 33 genera and 26 families were employed by the traditional birth attendants and elders for contraception, labour induction and abortion among the people of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Among these, only three plant species were mentioned for male contraception purpose. A few animal inclusion was also documented. [J Complement Med Res 2018; 7(1.000: 25-44

  2. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi

  3. 77 FR 58470 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... jointly by APHIS and the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of India as part of the required... standard \\2\\ of the International Plant Protection Convention, of which the United States is a contracting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No...

  4. 77 FR 42621 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... is the most radiation-sensitive, water-soluble vitamin. With regard to this vitamin, the American... fruits and vegetables, particularly through vitamin depletion. One commenter stated that ``many of the... Risks'' (GAO/RCED-00-217): There is also some vitamin loss associated with irradiation-- with certain...

  5. Climate change and wildlife in the southern United States: potential effects and management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Susan C. Loeb; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Eric Winters; E.M. Fucik; M.A. Kwiatkowski; B.R. Parresol; J.D. Austin; G.W. Tanner

    2014-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, climate models project a temperature increase of 2-10°C by 2100 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). Climate change is already evident. Since the 1970s, average temperature has risen by about 1°C, with the greatest seasonal temperature increase during winter. Average precipitation during autumn has increased by 30% since...

  6. MONTHLY PRICE ANALYSIS OF COWPEA (BEANS AND MAIZE IN AKWA IBOM STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the price transmission and market integration of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Average monthly prices (measured in naira per kilogram of Maize and Cowpea in rural and urban markets were used in the analysis. The data was obtained from the quarterly publications of the Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP. The data covered the period; January 2005 to June 2013. The trend analysis showed that, prices of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets had exponential growth rates that were less than unity, which suggested a possible co-movement of these prices in the study area. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient generated for the pair of rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans revealed significant linear symmetric relationships. The result implies the existence of symmetric market information flows between the rural and urban markets for Maize and Beans in the state. The Granger causality test revealed bi-directional relationships between the rural and urban price of Maize and Beans in the study area. The co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans. The coefficients of the price variables in the co-integration equations for Maize and Beans markets converged to unity or law of one price which implied perfect market integration in the long run. The results of the error correction model (ECM also confirm the existence of the short run market integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans in the study area. In addition, it was discovered that, the rural price of Maize adjusted faster to the stable state in the long run than the urban price. Likewise, the urban price of Beans adjusted faster than its corresponding rural price. The index of market connection (IMC supported the high short run market integration for prices of Maize and Beans in rural and urban markets. Based

  7. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  8. A survey of selected Internet pharmacies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A M

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether differences in the provision of pharmacy services exist among different types of Internet pharmacies. Survey of selected pharmacies with a presence on the Internet. Data were abstracted onto a data collection form for further analysis. Data collection was limited to 3 weeks. U.S.-based Internet pharmacies that allow patients to purchase prescription medications online. Pharmacies were identified using a metasearch engine with the search terms "Internet pharmacy" and "Internet pharmacist." Survey. Comparisons of availability of 10 commonly used products representing a variety of product categories, prescription verification methods, and privacy issues; and determinations of site navigability, drug information and provider access, and payment methods. Sites were categorized as "chain pharmacy extensions," "mail order pharmacies," "independent pharmacy extensions," and "online pharmacies." Thirty-three sites were reviewed. There was significant variation among the four types of pharmacies selling prescriptions over the Internet. Most pharmacies provided all of the drugs in the survey. Patients were required to provide their own prescription at 88% of the sites, and 75% of sites used mail or fax to verify prescription integrity. More than 50% of sites had privacy policies posted, and 64% used cookies. Chain pharmacy extensions required completion of an average of 10.2 pages to order drugs versus 2.4 to 4 pages for all other site types. Drug information was written at an eighth-grade reading level at 36% of the sites. More than two-thirds of the sites provided a toll-free telephone for a health care professional. Nearly 80% of the sites accepted health insurance, and 95% accepted credit cards; however, only 40% used a secure transmission mechanism for patient or payment information. Internet pharmacies provide varying levels of service. Policies regarding the use of the Internet for obtaining medications should focus on improving the privacy of

  9. The Central Bank and the State Budget: Selected Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Central Bank (National Bank of Poland – NBP performs mainly macro-economic tasks, for maintaining price levels. This Bank is not focused on tasks aimed at the interests of the State Budget. The Central Bank has a lot of power in the creation of money. It seems, there is possible to create the budgetary revenues, which are connected with the emission of money. In particular, the income from emission of coins may be determined as the budget revenue. The connection the Treasury with the Central Bank results from the historical evolution of the origin and role of the Central Bank. It is reasonable to increase the role of the treasury securities in the Central Bank activity. The Treasury Bills should be used in the open market policy leading by the Central Bank. There is the issue of changing of the Constitution of the Republic Poland in the field of limit of the public debt (60% of GDP. It seems, the Polish Constitution should not be the only constitution in the world that introduced such a limit. This limit, and the limit on annual budgetary deficit, introduces EU law. That is a sufficient legal limit.

  10. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  11. Quantifying Trade-Offs Between Economic and Ecological Objectives in Uneven-Aged Mixed- Species Forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Kenneth E. Skog

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes research on the management of uneven-aged loblolly pine-hardwood stands in the southern United States. This research was composed of three elements: (1) modeling of biological growth of uneven-aged stands of mixed loblolly pine and hardwood trees, (2) optimization to discover sustainable regimes that would best meet economic and ecological...

  12. Integrating Forage, Wildlife, Water, and Fish Projections with Timber Projections at the Regional Level: A Case Study in Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Curtis H. Flather; Patricia A. Flebbe; Thomas W. Hoekstra; Stan J. Ursic

    1990-01-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with...

  13. Experimental evidence of state-selective charge transfer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    State-selective charge-transfer behavior was observed for Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry. Charge transfer from Ar + to Fe, Cr and Mn is state-selective because of inefficient collisional mixing of the quasiresonant charge-transfer energy levels with nearby levels. This low efficiency is the consequence of differences in electronic configuration of the core electrons. The reason for state-selective charge-transfer behavior to Cu is not clear, although a tentative explanation based on efficiency of intramultiplet and intermultiplet mixing for this special case is offered

  14. Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Gustavo Costalunga; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Casarin, Letícia Sopeña; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74%) confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26%) confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32%) were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%), where men (48%) and women (52%) were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%), followed by pastries (25%), cheese (23%), pasta (11%) and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%). The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33%) followed by commercial food establishments (28%). Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain.

  15. Teleportation of N-qubit W State without Bell-State Measurement via Selective Resonant Interaction in Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Wenxue; Geng Jun; Cheng Guangling; Chen Aixi

    2010-01-01

    We present a scheme in which the N-atom W state is teleported by employing the selective interaction of a cavity field with a driven three-level atom in the A configuration and detecting a single atom in one of the ground states. The long-lived W state is teleported from atom A to atom B when the atoms B and A are sent through a cavity successively and atom A is then detected. The advantage is that the present one does not involve the Bell-state measurement and is robust against the atomic spontaneous emission. (general)

  16. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State.

  17. A survey of the state and status of physical education in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the state and status of physical education in selected primary schools in ... Physical Development and movement in the Foundation Phase (FP) and the ... Keywords: Education, Physical Education, Life Orientation, Curriculum 2005, ...

  18. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  19. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Canali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9% had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%. Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  20. Relationship power and HIV risk among young Black men who have sex with men in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, JaNelle M; Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro

    2018-05-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of relationship power on HIV risk behaviour among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southern US. Methods: Data from 425 Black/African American males aged 18-29 years who reported recent anal intercourse with a male partner were analysed. Five selected measures of relationship power were tested for correlation and association with protected receptive anal intercourse using contingency tables and logistic regression analysis. Results: Acts of 100% protected receptive anal intercourse were common (n=277, 65.2%). Men who reported low barriers to condom negotiation were significantly more likely to report protected acts (P<0.001). Men who reported 100% protected acts were less likely to report financial dependence on male sexual partners and serosorting behaviour (12.0% vs 20.7%, P=0.02; 31.5% vs 49.8%, P<0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Future efforts should further examine the role of relationship power in HIV risk among young Black MSM, including the intersection of individual, dyadic and social-structure risks.

  1. Evidence for a climate-induced ecohydrological state shift in wetland ecosystems of the southern Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Owen; Mushet, David M.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Changing magnitude, frequency, and timing of precipitation can influence aquatic-system hydrological, geochemical, and biological processes, in some cases resulting in system-wide shifts to an alternate state. Since the early 1990s, the southern Prairie Pothole Region has been subjected to an extended period of increased wetness resulting in marked changes to aquatic systems defining this region. We explored numerous lines of evidence to identify: (1) how the recent wet period compared to historical variability, (2) hydrological, geochemical, and biological responses, and (3) how these responses might represent a state shift in the region’s wetland ecosystems. We analyzed long-term climate records and compared how different hydrological variables responded in this wet period compared to decades before the observed shift. Additionally, we used multi-decadal records of waterfowl population and subsurface tile drain records to explore wildlife and human responses to a shifting climate. Since 1993, a novel precipitation regime corresponded with increased pond numbers, ponded-water depths, lake levels, stream flows, groundwater heights, soil-moisture, waterfowl populations, and installation of subsurface tile drains in agricultural fields. These observed changes reflect an alteration in water storage and movement across the landscape that in turn has altered solute sources and concentrations of prairie-pothole wetlands and has increased pond permanence. Combined, these changes represent significant evidence for a state shift in the ecohydrological functioning of the region’s wetland ecosystems, a shift that may require a significant refinement of the previously developed “wetland continuum” concept.

  2. The discovery and character of Pleistocene calcrete uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains of west Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hall, Susan M.

    2017-12-18

    This report describes the discovery and geology of two near-surface uranium deposits within calcareous lacustrine strata of Pleistocene age in west Texas, United States. Calcrete uranium deposits have not been previously reported in the United States. The west Texas uranium deposits share characteristics with some calcrete uranium deposits in Western Australia—uranium-vanadium minerals hosted by nonpedogenic calcretes deposited in saline lacustrine environments.In the mid-1970s, Kerr-McGee Corporation conducted a regional uranium exploration program in the Southern High Plains province of the United States, which led to the discovery of two shallow uranium deposits (that were not publicly reported). With extensive drilling, Kerr-McGee delineated one deposit of about 2.1 million metric tons of ore with an average grade of 0.037 percent U3O8 and another deposit of about 0.93 million metric tons of ore averaging 0.047 percent U3O8.The west-Texas calcrete uranium-vanadium deposits occur in calcareous, fine-grained sediments interpreted to be deposited in saline lakes formed during dry interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The lakes were associated with drainages upstream of a large Pleistocene lake. Age determinations of tephra in strata adjacent to one deposit indicate the host strata is middle Pleistocene in age.Examination of the uranium-vanadium mineralization by scanning-electron microscopy indicated at least two generations of uranium-vanadium deposition in the lacustrine strata identified as carnotite and a strontium-uranium-vanadium mineral. Preliminary uranium-series results indicate a two-component system in the host calcrete, with early lacustrine carbonate that was deposited (or recrystallized) about 190 kilo-annum, followed much later by carnotite-rich crusts and strontium-uranium-vanadium mineralization in the Holocene (about 5 kilo-annum). Differences in initial 234U/238U activity ratios indicate two separate, distinct fluid sources.

  3. Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    a computerized test designed to assess pilot skills by measuring spatial orientation and psychomotor skills and multitasking . The second is the...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0028 Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America Joe...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America 5a. CONTRACT

  4. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  5. Understanding the Differential Selectivity of Arrestins toward the Phosphorylation State of the Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sensoy, Ozge; de Sousa Moreira, Irina; Morra, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Proteins in the arrestin family exhibit a conserved structural fold that nevertheless allows for significant differences in their selectivity for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their phosphorylation states. To reveal the mechanism of activation that prepares arrestin for selective

  6. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Castillón Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality, Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest; the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities, and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses. Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for

  7. Soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.; Leone, Andi D.

    2004-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from 30 farms in Alabama, Louisiana and Texas during 1999-2000 to determine residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). One or more of the DDT compounds (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE) was above the quantitation limit (0.1 ng g -1 dry weight) in every soil, and toxaphene was above the quantitation limit (3 ng g -1 ) in 26 soils. Chlordanes, dieldrin and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers occurred less frequently (quantitation limits 0.1 ng g -1 for dieldrin and 0.05 ng g -1 for chlordanes and HCHs). OCPs were measured in air at 40 cm above the soil at selected farms to investigate soil-air partitioning. Concentrations of OCPs in air were positively and significantly (P s and f a ) for samples with quantifiable residues in both compartments. The fugacity fraction ((f s )/(f s +f a ))=0.5 at equilibrium and is 0.5 for net deposition and net volatilisation, respectively. Fugacity fractions varied greatly for different soil-air pairs, reflecting generally disequilibrium conditions. Mean fugacity fractions indicated near-equilibrium for some OCPs (p,p'-DDE, chlordanes, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin) and net volatilisation for others (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, toxaphene, γ-HCH). Chiral analysis showed that enantioselective degradation of (+) or (-) o,p'-DDT in soil was accompanied by enrichment or depletion of the corresponding enantiomers in the overlying air, although there appeared to be some dilution by racemic o,p'-DDT from regional air transport. - Old pesticide residues in agricultural soils continue to be emitted into the atmosphere

  8. State updating and calibration period selection to improve dynamic monthly streamflow forecasts for an environmental flow management application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Matthew S.; McInerney, David; Humphrey, Greer; Thyer, Mark A.; Maier, Holger R.; Dandy, Graeme C.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2018-02-01

    Monthly to seasonal streamflow forecasts provide useful information for a range of water resource management and planning applications. This work focuses on improving such forecasts by considering the following two aspects: (1) state updating to force the models to match observations from the start of the forecast period, and (2) selection of a shorter calibration period that is more representative of the forecast period, compared to a longer calibration period traditionally used. The analysis is undertaken in the context of using streamflow forecasts for environmental flow water management of an open channel drainage network in southern Australia. Forecasts of monthly streamflow are obtained using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model combined with a post-processor error model for uncertainty analysis. This model set-up is applied to two catchments, one with stronger evidence of non-stationarity than the other. A range of metrics are used to assess different aspects of predictive performance, including reliability, sharpness, bias and accuracy. The results indicate that, for most scenarios and metrics, state updating improves predictive performance for both observed rainfall and forecast rainfall sources. Using the shorter calibration period also improves predictive performance, particularly for the catchment with stronger evidence of non-stationarity. The results highlight that a traditional approach of using a long calibration period can degrade predictive performance when there is evidence of non-stationarity. The techniques presented can form the basis for operational monthly streamflow forecasting systems and provide support for environmental decision-making.

  9. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  10. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  11. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  12. Geochronology of sediments in the Cananeia-Iguape estuary and in southern continental shelf of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R.T.; Figueira, R.C.L.; Cunha, I.I.L.; Tessler, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental analysis methods for 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs by gamma-spectrometry in sediments, as well as the sedimentation rates in cores collected from Brazilian coastal region are presented. Sampling locations have covered the Cananeia-Iguape estuary and the continental shelf of southern Sao Paulo State. Values for 210 Pb ranged from 122.5 to 14.3 Bq x kg -1 for estuarine sediments and from 195.5 to 23.6 Bq x kg -1 at the continental shelf. For 226 Ra the values obtained in sediments varied from 15.2 to 2.3 Bq x kg -1 in the estuary and from 30.1 to 16.1 Bq x kg -1 at the continental shelf. Sedimentation rates are variable, ranging from 0.53 to 0.98 cm x y -1 in estuary sediments and from 0.18 to 0.40 cm x y -1 at the continental shelf. (author)

  13. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucatán, Mexico, and reforestation in the Midwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Steven M.; Evans, Tom

    2007-01-01

    We combine mixed-methods research with integrated agent-based modeling to understand land change and economic decision making in the United States and Mexico. This work demonstrates how sustainability science benefits from combining integrated agent-based modeling (which blends methods from the social, ecological, and information sciences) and mixed-methods research (which interleaves multiple approaches ranging from qualitative field research to quantitative laboratory experiments and interpretation of remotely sensed imagery). We test assumptions of utility-maximizing behavior in household-level landscape management in south-central Indiana, linking parcel data, land cover derived from aerial photography, and findings from laboratory experiments. We examine the role of uncertainty and limited information, preferences, differential demographic attributes, and past experience and future time horizons. We also use evolutionary programming to represent bounded rationality in agriculturalist households in the southern Yucatán of Mexico. This approach captures realistic rule of thumb strategies while identifying social and environmental factors in a manner similar to econometric models. These case studies highlight the role of computational models of decision making in land-change contexts and advance our understanding of decision making in general. PMID:18093928

  15. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura, Brachycephalidae) from the coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli Monteiro, Juliane Petry; Condez, Thais Helena; De Anchietta Garcia, Paulo Christiano; Comitti, EstevÃo Jasper; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, CÉlio Fernando Baptista

    2018-04-12

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus from municipality of São Francisco do Sul and municipality of Itapoá, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, southern Atlantic Forest. The new species is known from six localities from near sea level up to 250 meters and represents the first record of a "pumpkin-toadlet" occurring in the lowlands. Morphological traits and phylogenetic analysis of a fragment the 16S mtDNA gene place the new species in the Brachycephalus pernix group. The new species is supported by external morphology, osteology, advertisement call, and mtDNA divergence. It is characterized, among other traits by a dorsal body color dark green with a dark brown vertebral stripe, and an orange background; snout-vent length of 9.2-10.8 mm in males and 11.1-12.4 mm in females; and advertisement call short (0.02-0.03 seconds), composed of one high-frequency note (dominant frequency 6.6-7.3 kHz). We observed synchronized alternation in the emission of vocalizations among neighbor males, indicating that males of the new species are able to hear and use vocalizations to interact with each other. We provide descriptions of clutch, eggs, and juvenile and observations on parental care. The new species has not been recorded within any protected area and can be threatened by human-induced habitat loss and modification.

  16. Spatiotemporal Variability of Humidity Across the Contiguous United States and Southern Canada Using Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Ruben John

    The objective of this dissertation was to show that there is now enough observed humidity data available so that estimates of humidity, along with their necessary assumptions, can be replaced by measured humidity data. The range of applications that depend on humidity data is huge, ranging from water use efficiency of plants and plant stress to human health and agricultural practices. Biases due to the use of estimated humidity can be expected to have short and long impacts, decreasing the accuracy and precision of these, and many other, applications. Data from local, regional, and national observation networks was gathered, and custom quality control routines were written to remove bad data points from over 45000 stations, leaving 12533 usable stations. While still not at the same number of observations as temperature or precipitation, this number is nearly ten times as high as two decades ago. The work I performed consists of three major components, corresponding to the three main chapters of this dissertation. In chapter one, I describe data sources and quality control methods, along with some basic statistics of humidity, describing which geographic variables often used to predict temperature and precipitation can be used to do the same for humidity. Chapter two defines specific diurnal patterns (or "types") of dew point across the United States, including their attributes, causes, and potential influences. Chapter three analyzes biases in evapotranspiration, heat indices, and relative humidity levels that are a direct result of using estimated humidity data. Chapter four discusses contributions this work makes to the scientific community, and potential further research to build on what is presented here. While it may seem that the science of humidity should be well beyond data gathering and bias analysis, the fact remains that humidity is still very commonly estimated through the use of minimum temperature, and diurnal changes in dew point are often ignored

  17. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Retz de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.O número de relatos de ocorrências de florações de cianobactérias em todo o mundo vem aumentando consideravelmente e na maioria desses episódios, as toxinas dominantes são as microcistinas. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de floração na Lagoa do Violão, município de Torres, RS, em janeiro de 2005. As amostras coletadas em 13/01/2005 foram submetidas a estudos taxonômicos, toxicológicos e químicos. O exame microscópico do fitoplancton mostrou a dominância das espécies Microcystis protocystis e Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense; foram observadas, também, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii e Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis. A toxicidade da floração foi confirmada através de ensaio intraperitonial em camundongos e a análise química de extratos obtidos da biomassa liofilizada mostrou que a substância majoritária era a anabaenopeptina F, seguida por anabaenopeptina B, microcistina-LR e microcistina-RR.

  18. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  19. Natural selection and type 2 diabetes-associated mortality in an isolated indigenous community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Bertis B; Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Malina, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that natural selection is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated mortality and fertility in a rural isolated Zapotec community in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Mortality data and related demographic and genealogic information were linked with data for fertility, prereproductive mortality and family history of mortality attributed to T2D. Physician verified T2D mortality (n = 27) between 1980 and 2009 and imputed T2D (n = 70) from cardiovascular mortality (68% random sample) and renal failure (44% random sample). Bootstrapping was used to obtain a robust variance estimate in survival analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. Estimated maximum natural selection by Crow's Index occurred circa 1930 and was relaxed after this time in the study population. Cox-regression survival analysis of T2D mortality with covariates (family history of T2D, cardiovascular disease, renal failure) indicated a significant hazard ratio (HR = 5.95, 95% CI: 1.38-25.67, p natural selection decreased, and favored offspring survival of non-T2D descedants. The results indicated statistically significant directional selection against T2D and imputed T2D to this population isolate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref

  1. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A.; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  2. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers' fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi.

  3. Characterization of pyrolysis products from fast pyrolysis of live and dead vegetation native to the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Saeed Safdari; Mahmood Rahmati; Elham Amini; Joel E. Howarth; Jansen P. Berryhill; Mark Dietenberger; David R. Weise; Thomas H. Fletcher

    2018-01-01

    Prescribed burning (controlled burning) is used to decrease accumulation of combustible materials and reduce impact of uncontrolled wildland fires. Prescribed fires are often used to burn undergrowth in Southern...

  4. An intermediate state of T7 RNA polymerase provides another pathway of nucleotide selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhan-Feng; Liu Yu-Ru; Wang Peng-Ye; Xie Ping

    2017-01-01

    Phage T7 RNA polymerase is a single-subunit transcription enzyme, transcribing template DNA to RNA. Nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) selection and translocation are two critical steps of the transcription elongation. Here, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we found that between pre- and post-translocation states of T7 RNA polymerase an intermediate state exists, where the O helix C-terminal residue tyrosine 639, which plays important roles in translocation, locates between its pre- and post-translocation positions and the side chain of the next template DNA nucleotide has moved into the active site. NTP selection in this intermediate state was studied, revealing that the selection in the intermediate state can be achieved relying on the effect of Watson–Crick interaction between NTP and template DNA nucleotide, effect of stability of the components near the active site such as the nascent DNA–RNA hybrid and role of tyrosine 639. This indicates that another NTP-selection pathway can also exist besides the main pathway where NTP selection begins at the post-translocation state upon the entry of NTP. (paper)

  5. State Politics and Education: An Examination of Selected Multiple-State Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Martin; Geske, Terry G.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the multiple-state case study literature, highlights some findings, discusses several methodological issues, and concludes with suggestions for possible research agendas. Urges students and researchers to be more actively critical of the assumptions and findings of these studies. (Author/IRT)

  6. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Fitsum; Tefera, Tamirat; Biresaw, Gelila; Yohannes, Tsegaye

    2017-03-07

    One way that people get infected with intestinal parasites is through the consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from four local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 21 September 2014 to determine the level of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables sold in Arba Minch town. A total of 360 samples of different types of fruits and vegetables were soaked in physiological saline, followed by vigorous shaking with the aid of a mechanical shaker for 15 minutes and then examined using the sedimentation concentration technique. Out of the 360 samples examined, 196 (54.4%) were contaminated with at least one type of parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides (20.83%) was the most frequently detected parasite and Isospora belli (3.06%) was the least frequently detected one. It was also observed that decreased parasitic contamination was significantly associated with washing the products before displaying it for selling (P parasitic infections from the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. The authors believe that an effort should be made by the relevant bodies to reduce the rate of contamination of products with medically important parasites by educating the vendors and the community.

  7. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas.

  8. Knowledge Attitude And Practice Of Street Food Vendors In Selected Schools Within Bo City Southern Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Lamin-Boima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the lack of knowledge attitude and practices of street food vendors in Bo the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. A cross sectional study conducted among eighty-seven respondents vendors in forty-four in Bo City. Data was collected using a structured and semi structured questionnaire. The collected data is analysed using a simple descriptive statistics with the help Excel Microsoft ware. A statistical significance was found in relation to knowledge. Attitude towards food safety was negative self-reported practices by Street Food Vendors were statistically significant with low hygiene standards while predisposing factors showed relatively low personal hygiene poor environmental sanitation and low food safety practice. The realize consequences are utmost health risks of consuming street foods as food contamination has caused food borne diseases and outbreaks. It is recommended that standard training be provided for these vendors by the Bo City Council in collaboration with Njala University. It is essential that poor people in a developing country such as Sierra Leone be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an easy-to-enter business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are sustained.

  9. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Vascular species composition of a contact zone between Seasonal and Araucaria forests in Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gnigler, Luciana; Caddah, Mayara

    2015-01-01

    A floristic survey was carried out in a contact area between Araucaria Forest and Seasonal Forest areas, in the municipality of Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. We provide a checklist containing 108 species and 42 plant families for the area. Families with the most encountered number of species were Myrtaceae (eight species), Solanaceae (eight), Euphorbiaceae (seven) and Poaceae (six). Two species are classified as endangered of extinction, following IUCN criteri...

  11. Selective population of high-j states via heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early hopes of heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions was to populate states not seen easily or at all by other means. To date, however, I believe it is fair to say that spectroscopic studies of previously unknown states have had, at best, limited success. Despite the early demonstration of selectivity with cluster transfer to high-lying states in light nuclei, the study of heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions has emphasized the reaction mechanism. The value of using two of these reactions for spectroscopy of high spin states is demonstrated: 143 Nd( 16 O, 15 O) 144 Nd and 170 Er( 16 O, 15 Oγ) 171 Er

  12. Forecasting house prices in the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2015-01-01

    We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves substantia......We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves...

  13. Selective maintenance for multi-state series–parallel systems under economic dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Cuong D.; Zuo, Ming J.; Pandey, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on selective maintenance for multi-state series–parallel systems with economically dependent components. In the selective maintenance problem, the maintenance manager has to decide which components should receive maintenance activities within a finite break between missions. All the system reliabilities in the next operating mission, the available budget and the maintenance time for each component from its current state to a higher state are taken into account in the optimization models. In addition, the components in series–parallel systems are considered to be economically dependent. Time and cost savings will be achieved when several components are simultaneously repaired in a selective maintenance strategy. As the number of repaired components increases, the saved time and cost will also increase due to the share of setting up between components and another additional reduction amount resulting from the repair of multiple identical components. Different optimization models are derived to find the best maintenance strategy for multi-state series–parallel systems. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization models. The decision makers may select different components to be repaired to different working states based on the maintenance objective, resource availabilities and how dependent the repair time and cost of each component are

  14. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of population sizes and spatial distributions of zebra mussels along the current southern frontier of their geographic range. Although the future population size trajectory and geographic range are uncertain, increased temperatures and intermittent, extreme droughts likely will affect spatio-temporal dynamics of

  15. Survey of bumble bee (Bombus) pathogens and parasites in Illinois and selected areas of northern California and southern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Christina N; Cameron, Sydney A; Thorp, Robbin W; White, Brendan; Solter, Leellen F

    2011-07-01

    Pathogens have been implicated as potential factors in the recent decline of some North American bumble bee (Bombus) species, but little information has been reported about the natural enemy complex of bumble bees in the United States. We targeted bumble bee populations in a state-wide survey in Illinois and several sites in California and Oregon where declines have been reported to determine presence and prevalence of natural enemies. Based on our observations, most parasites and pathogens appear to be widespread generalists among bumble bee species, but susceptibility to some natural enemies appeared to vary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  17. Competitive Foods and Beverages Available for Purchase in Secondary Schools--Selected Sites, United States, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, L.; Grunbaum, J.; McKenna, M. L.; Wechsler, H.; Galuska, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each school,…

  18. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  19. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  20. Vibrational-state-selected ion--molecule reaction cross sections at thermal energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijkeren, D. van; Boltjes, E.; Eck, J. van; Niehaus, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method designed to measure relative ion—molecule reaction rates at thermal collision energies for selected reactant ion vibrational states is described. Relative reaction rates are determined for the three endothermic reactions: H2+ (υ)(He,H)HeH+, H2+ (υ)(Ne,H)NeH+, D2+(υ)(Ne, D)NeD+, and for the

  1. Compilation of 137Cs concentrations at selected sites in the continental United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, R.A.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes results of cesium-137 analyses of soil samples obtained at 21 locations throughout the continental United States. The sites were all in the vicinity of operating nuclear power reactors, or those scheduled for operation. Selected fallout and meteorological data are also included

  2. Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-27

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Federal Energy Management Program to identify trends in annual water and wastewater price escalation rates across the United States. This study can be used to inform the selection of an appropriate escalation rates for inclusion in LCCA.

  3. Selective ultrafast probing of transient hot chemisorbed and precursor states of CO on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beye, M.; Anniyev, T.; Coffee, R.

    2013-01-01

    to hot-electron-driven vibrational excitations. This process is faster than, but occurs in parallel with, the transition into the precursor state. With resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, we probe each of these states selectively and determine the respective transient populations depending on optical...... (2013)SCIEAS0036-8075] a phonon-mediated transition into a weakly adsorbed precursor state occurring on a time scale of >2 ps prior to desorption. Here we focus on processes within the first picosecond after laser excitation and show that the metal-adsorbate coordination is initially increased due...

  4. Seasonal Variation and Ecosystem Dependence of Emission Factors for Selected Trace Gases and PM2.5 for Southern African Savanna Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korontzi, S.; Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Yokelson, R. J.; Justice, C. O.; Hobbs, P. V.; Smithwick, E. A. H.; Hao, W. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the first early dry season (early June-early August) emission factor measurements for carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (Ca), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and particulates with a diameter less than 2.5 microns (pM2.5) for southern African grassland and woodland fires. Seasonal emission factors for grassland fires correlate linearly with the proportion of green grass, used as a surrogate for the fuel moisture content, and are higher for products of incomplete combustion in the early part of the dry season compared with later in the dry season. Models of emission factors for NMHC and PM(sub 2.5) versus modified combustion efficiency (MCE) are statistically different in grassland compared with woodland ecosystems. We compare predictions based on the integration of emissions factors from this study, from the southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative 1992 (SAFARI-92), and from SAFARI-2000 with those based on the smaller set of ecosystem-specific emission factors to estimate the effects of using regional-average rather than ecosystem-specific emission factors. We also test the validity of using the SAFARI-92 models for emission factors versus MCE to predict the early dry season emission factors measured in this study. The comparison indicates that the largest discrepancies occur at the low end (0.907) and high end (0.972) of MCE values measured in this study. Finally, we combine our models of MCE versus proportion of green grass for grassland fires with emission factors versus MCE for selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds measured in the SAFARI-2000 campaign to derive the first seasonal emission factors for these compounds. The results of this study demonstrate that seasonal variations in savanna fire emissions are important and should be considered in modeling emissions at regional to continental scales.

  5. An Evaluation of Industrial Facilities Defects in Selected Industrial Estates in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseghale, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study appraised the state of industrial facilities in selected industrial estates established between 1957 and 1981 in Lagos State by examining the nature and causes of facilities’ defects in the selected industrial estates. The buildings sampled were load bearing sandcrete block wall (1%, concrete framed structure (83% and steel framed structure (16%. Data were sourced using structured questionnaire administered on the staff of maintenance department of 35 building materials and plastic manufacturing industries purposively selected and located in 18 industrial estates. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistic. The study found the structural elements of the buildings, i.e. foundations, beams, walls, and floors satisfactory. Using the mean response analysis, the result showed that the most severe factors responsible for industrial facilities’ defects were combined effects of geo-climatic factors (2.35, combined effects of biological agencies (2.15, corrosion (1.98, and physical aggression on the facilities (1.71.

  6. Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

    2012-09-01

    A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espírito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention.

  7. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  8. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production – A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village. Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian, after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface, the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands. Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  9. Multi-criteria selection of offshore wind farms: Case study for the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaouachi, Aymen; Covrig, Catalin Felix; Ardelean, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria selection approach for offshore wind sites assessment. The proposed site selection framework takes into consideration the electricity network’s operating security aspects, economic investment, operation costs and capacity performances relative to each potential site. The selection decision is made through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), with an inherited flexibility that aims to allow end users to adjust the expected benefits accordingly to their respective and global priorities. The proposed site selection framework is implemented as an interactive case study for three Baltic States in the 2020 time horizon, based on real data and exhaustive power network models, taking into consideration the foreseen upgrades and network reinforcements. For each country the optimal offshore wind sites are assessed under multiple weight contribution scenarios, reflecting the characteristics of market design, regulatory aspects or renewable integration targets. - Highlights: • We use a multi-criteria selection approach for offshore wind sites assessment. • Security aspects, economic investment, operation costs and capacity performances are included. • The selection decision is made through an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). • We implement the methodology as a case study for three Baltic States in the 2020 time horizon.

  10. Automatic selection of resting-state networks with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Francesca eStorti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a resting-state condition can reveal the co-activation of specific brain regions in distributed networks, called resting-state networks, which are selected by independent component analysis (ICA of the fMRI data. One of the major difficulties with component analysis is the automatic selection of the ICA features related to brain activity. In this study we describe a method designed to automatically select networks of potential functional relevance, specifically, those regions known to be involved in motor function, visual processing, executive functioning, auditory processing, memory, and the default-mode network. To do this, image analysis was based on probabilistic ICA as implemented in FSL software. After decomposition, the optimal number of components was selected by applying a novel algorithm which takes into account, for each component, Pearson's median coefficient of skewness of the spatial maps generated by FSL, followed by clustering, segmentation, and spectral analysis. To evaluate the performance of the approach, we investigated the resting-state networks in 25 subjects. For each subject, three resting-state scans were obtained with a Siemens Allegra 3 T scanner (NYU data set. Comparison of the visually and the automatically identified neuronal networks showed that the algorithm had high accuracy (first scan: 95%, second scan: 95%, third scan: 93% and precision (90%, 90%, 84%. The reproducibility of the networks for visual and automatic selection was very close: it was highly consistent in each subject for the default-mode network (≥ 92% and the occipital network, which includes the medial visual cortical areas (≥ 94%, and consistent for the attention network (≥ 80%, the right and/or left lateralized frontoparietal attention networks, and the temporal-motor network (≥ 80%. The automatic selection method may be used to detect neural networks and reduce subjectivity in ICA

  11. Highly selective population of two excited states in nonresonant two-photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Sun Zhen-Rong

    2011-01-01

    A nonresonant two-photon absorption process can be manipulated by tailoring the ultra-short laser pulse. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate a highly selective population of two excited states in the nonresonant two-photon absorption process by rationally designing a spectral phase distribution. Our results show that one excited state is maximally populated while the other state population is widely tunable from zero to the maximum value. We believe that the theoretical results may play an important role in the selective population of a more complex nonlinear process comprising nonresonant two-photon absorption, such as resonance-mediated (2+1)-three-photon absorption and (2+1)-resonant multiphoton ionization. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  13. Of Policy Entrepreneurship, bandwagoning and free-riding : EU member states and multilateral cooperation frameworks for Europe's southern neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, T.; Bouris, D.; Olszewska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the EU and NATO have displayed considerable agency and thus influence as far as the development of institutionalised collective cooperation and/or foreign policy frameworks towards Europe’s southern neighbourhood is concerned. Against this backdrop, this article puts EU and

  14. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Southern United States and impacts on data analysis and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) utilizes visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes and discusses distributions of three FIA crown condition indicators (crown density, crown dieback, and foliage transparency) for trees in the Southern...

  15. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992

  16. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and selective cutting on soil methane fluxes in a temperate spruce forest in southern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xing; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Gasche, Rainer; Papen, Hans; Willibald, Georg; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-year measurements of CH 4 exchange in sub-daily resolution we show that clear-cutting of a forest in Southern Germany increased soil temperature and moisture and decreased CH 4 uptake. CH 4 uptake in the first year after clear-cutting (-4.5 ± 0.2 μg C m -2 h -1 ) was three times lower than during the pre-harvest period (-14.2 ± 1.3 μg C m -2 h -1 ). In contrast, selective cutting did not significantly reduce CH 4 uptake. Annual mean uptake rates were -1.18 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (spruce control), -1.16 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (selective cut site) and -0.44 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (clear-cut site), respectively. Substantial seasonal and inter-annual variations in CH 4 fluxes were observed as a result of significant variability of weather conditions, demonstrating the need for long-term measurements. Our findings imply that a stepwise selective cutting instead of clear-cutting may contribute to mitigating global warming by maintaining a high CH 4 uptake capacity of the soil. - Highlights: → Long-term, sub-daily measurements of CH 4 exchange at differently managed forest sites. → Inter-annual variability in CH 4 uptake is affected by annual precipitation. → Clear-cutting reduces the CH 4 sink strength of forest soils, whereas thinning has no significant effect. → Sink strength changes due to clear cutting are long-term and were still present approx. nine years following forest harvest. - Forest management affects the soil CH 4 sink strength, with clear-cutting reducing uptake rates for at least eight years.

  17. Toward Rotational State-Selective Photoionization of ThF+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ng, Kia Boon; Gresh, Dan; Cairncross, William; Grau, Matt; Ni, Yiqi; Cornell, Eric; Ye, Jun

    2016-06-01

    ThF+ has been chosen to replace HfF+ for a second-generation measurement of the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Compared to the currently running HfF+ eEDM experiment, ThF+ has several advantages: (i) the eEDM-sensitive state (3Δ1) is the ground state, which facilitates a long coherence time [1]; (ii) its effective electric field (35 GV/cm) is 50% larger than that of HfF+, which promises a direct increase of the eEDM sensitivity [2]; and (iii) the ionization energy of neutral ThF is lower than its dissociation energy, which introduces greater flexibility in rotational state-selective photoionization via core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states [3]. In this talk, we first present our strategy of preparing and utilizing core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states for rotational state-selective ionization. Then, we report spectroscopic data of laser-induced fluorescence of neutral ThF, which provides critical information for multi-photon ionization spectroscopy. [1] D. N. Gresh, K. C. Cossel, Y. Zhou, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, 319 (2016), 1-9 [2] M. Denis, M. S. Nørby, H. J. A. Jensen, A. S. P. Gomes, M. K. Nayak, S. Knecht, T. Fleig, New Journal of Physics, 17 (2015) 043005. [3] Z. J. Jakubek, R. W. Field, Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 205 (2001) 197-220.

  18. Threshold-selecting strategy for best possible ground state detection with genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lässig, Jörg; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2009-04-01

    Genetic algorithms are a standard heuristic to find states of low energy in complex state spaces as given by physical systems such as spin glasses but also in combinatorial optimization. The paper considers the problem of selecting individuals in the current population in genetic algorithms for crossover. Many schemes have been considered in literature as possible crossover selection strategies. We show for a large class of quality measures that the best possible probability distribution for selecting individuals in each generation of the algorithm execution is a rectangular distribution over the individuals sorted by their energy values. This means uniform probabilities have to be assigned to a group of the individuals with lowest energy in the population but probabilities equal to zero to individuals which are corresponding to energy values higher than a fixed cutoff, which is equal to a certain rank in the vector sorted by the energy of the states in the current population. The considered strategy is dubbed threshold selecting. The proof applies basic arguments of Markov chains and linear optimization and makes only a few assumptions on the underlying principles and hence applies to a large class of algorithms.

  19. Habitat selection and quality for multiple cohorts of young-of-the-year bluefish ( Pomatomus saltatrix): Comparisons between estuarine and ocean beaches in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L.; Nichols, Ryan S.; Able, Kenneth W.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, seasonal and annual variability in the use of estuarine and ocean beaches by young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, was evaluated by indices of abundance in coastal areas of southern New Jersey (1998-2000). Biological and physical factors measured at specific sites were correlated with bluefish abundance to determine the mechanisms underlying habitat selection. In addition, integrative and discrete indicators of bluefish growth were used to examine spatio-temporal dynamics in habitat quality and its effect on habitat selection by multiple cohorts of bluefish. Intra-annual recruitment to coastal areas of southern New Jersey was episodic, and resulted from the ingress of spring-spawned bluefish (hatch-date ˜April) to estuarine beaches in late May to early June, followed by the recruitment of summer-spawned fish (hatch-date ˜early July) to ocean beaches from July to October. Bluefish utilized estuarine and ocean beaches in a facultative manner that was responsive to dynamics in prey composition and temperature conditions. The recruitment and residency of bluefish in the estuary (1998-1999) and ocean beaches (1998), for example, was coincidental with the presence of the Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia and bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, the principal prey species for bluefish occupying these respective habitat-types. Bluefish abundance in the estuary (2000) and ocean beaches (1999-2000) was also correlated with water temperature, with the greatest catches of juveniles coinciding with their optimal growth temperature (24 °C). Bluefish growth, estimated as the slope of age-length relationships and daily specific growth rates, equaled 1.27-2.63 mm fork length (FL) d -1 and 3.8-8.7% body length increase d -1, respectively. The growth of sagittal otoliths was also used as a proxy for changes in bluefish size during and shortly before their time of capture. Accordingly, otolith growth rates of summer-spawned bluefish were greater at ocean

  20. Collisional quenching at ultralow energies: controlling efficiency with internal state selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S; Bodo, E; Gianturco, F A

    2007-12-14

    Calculations have been carried out for the vibrational quenching of excited H(2) molecules which collide with Li(+) ions at ultralow energies. The dynamics has been treated exactly using the well-known quantum coupled-channel expansions over different initial vibrational levels. The overall interaction potential has been obtained from the calculations carried out earlier by our group using highly correlated ab initio methods. The results indicate that specific features of the scattering observables, e.g., the appearance of Ramsauer-Townsend minima in elastic channel cross sections and the marked increase of the cooling rates from specific initial states, can be linked to potential properties at vanishing energies (sign and size of scattering lengths) and to the presence of either virtual states or bound states. The suggestion is made such that by selecting the initial state preparation of the molecular partners, the ionic interactions would be amenable to controlling quenching efficiency at ultralow energies.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228 Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228 Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228 Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the

  2. Trends and characteristics of home vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in the United States and selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J; Stotland, Naomi

    2012-04-01

    To examine trends and characteristics of home vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in the United States and selected states from 1990-2008. Birth certificate data were used to track trends in home and hospital VBACs from 1990-2008. Data on planned home VBAC were analyzed by sociodemographic and medical characteristics for the 25 states reporting this information in 2008 and compared with hospital VBAC data. In 2008, there were approximately 42,000 hospital VBACs and approximately 1,000 home VBACs in the United States, up from 664 in 2003 and 656 in 1990. The percentage of home births that were VBACs increased from less than 1% in 1996 to 4% in 2008, whereas the percentage of hospital births that were VBACs decreased from 3% in 1996 to 1% in 2008. Planned home VBACs had a lower risk profile than hospital VBACs with fewer births to teenagers, unmarried women, or smokers; fewer preterm or low-birth-weight deliveries; and higher maternal education levels. Recent increases in the proportion of U.S. women with a prior cesarean delivery mean that an increasing number of women are faced with the choice and associated risks of either VBAC or repeat cesarean delivery. Recent restrictions in hospital VBAC availability have coincided with increases in home VBACs; however, home VBAC remains rare, with approximately 1,000 occurrences in 2008. II.

  3. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  4. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D. R. [University of North Texas; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens; Havener, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  5. Multiparticle quantum superposition and stimulated entanglement by parity selective amplification of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, F. de; Giuseppe, G. di

    2001-01-01

    A multiparticle quantum superposition state has been generated by a novel phase-selective parametric amplifier of an entangled two-photon state. This realization is expected to open a new field of investigations on the persistence of the validity of the standard quantum theory for systems of increasing complexity, in a quasi decoherence-free environment. Because of its nonlocal structure the new system is expected to play a relevant role in the modern endeavor on quantum information and in the basic physics of entanglement. (orig.)

  6. Classical/quantum correspondence in state selective charge transfer and excitation reactions involving highly charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M

    2009-01-01

    State selective charge transfer and excitation cross sections for collisions of Ne q+ (q = 1-10) with atomic hydrogen are calculated within the framework of Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation.

  7. Selective excitation of a vibrational level within the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule with ultra pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Clercq, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent control of the upper vibrational level populations in the electronic ground state of a polyatomic molecule was simulated. Results indicate that selective excitation of a specific upper state level is possible...

  8. Changes in state of stress on the southern san andreas fault resulting from the california earthquake sequence of april to june 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumé, S C; Sykes, L R

    1992-11-20

    The April to June 1992 Landers earthquake sequence in southern California modified the state of stress along nearby segments of the San Andreas fault, causing a 50-kilometer segment of the fault to move significantly closer to failure where it passes through a compressional bend near San Gorgonio Pass. The decrease in compressive normal stress may also have reduced fluid pressures along that fault segment. As pressures are reequilibrated by diffusion, that fault segment should move closer to failure with time. That fault segment and another to the southeast probably have not ruptured in a great earthquake in about 300 years.

  9. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mendes Ruas

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM for abundance variations and ANOVA for variations on the size of individuals. The pink shrimp was more abundant at Saco da Mangueira, in seagrass meadows and areas of higher salinity. The blue crab was more abundant at Saco do Arraial and in lower levels of salinity. The importance of submerged vegetation for the blue crab lies in a preference of smaller crabs of the species for the seagrass meadows. It has been shown that these species choose different habitats in the estuary, and both the salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows influence the selection of habitat.

  10. Body size, diet and endoparasites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in an Atlantic Forest area of southern Bahia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Sluys

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet composition, endoparasites and sexual size dimorphism of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba (Microhylidae from a "mussununga" habitat in the municipality of Nova Viçosa, southern Bahia state, Brazil. All the 119 specimens analyzed were collected in a single night of heavy rainfall. Females (mean snout-vent length = 15.7 + 3.0 mm were significantly larger than males (mean snout-vent length = 13.2 + 2.1 mm, and specimens of both sexes were smaller than those of a conspecific population previously reported in Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo state. The diet of C. capixaba was dominated by mites, ants and collembolans. Seventy-nine frogs (66.4% of the total were infected by helminths, all belonging to a single species, Cosmocerca ornata, an intestinal nematode parasite.

  11. Selective two-photon excitation of a vibronic state by correlated photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hisaki

    2011-03-28

    We theoretically investigate the two-photon excitation of a molecular vibronic state by correlated photons with energy anticorrelation. A Morse oscillator having three sets of vibronic states is used, as an example, to evaluate the selectivity and efficiency of two-photon excitation. We show that a vibrational mode can be selectively excited with high efficiency by the correlated photons, without phase manipulation or pulse-shaping techniques. This can be achieved by controlling the quantum correlation so that the photon pair concurrently has two pulse widths, namely, a temporally narrow width and a spectrally narrow width. Though this concurrence is seemingly contradictory, we can create such a photon pair by tailoring the quantum correlation between two photons.

  12. Food production in Poland, compared to selected European Union Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzesińska-Kowal, Joanna; Drabarczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the food sector in Poland during 2008-2012, compared to selected European Union Member States, and to define the factors affecting growth of the sector under consideration. The structure of sold production of the Polish food industry and the levels of food production in Europe are presented in the paper. Discussion covers quantitative fluctuations in the number of businesses and production value of food products, as well as employment and salaries ...

  13. Selective detection and quantification of modified DNA with solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Autumn T; Zahid, Osama K; Ruzicka, Jan A; Taylor, Ethan W; Hall, Adam R

    2014-10-08

    We demonstrate a solid-state nanopore assay for the unambiguous discrimination and quantification of modified DNA. Individual streptavidin proteins are employed as high-affinity tags for DNA containing a single biotin moiety. We establish that the rate of translocation events corresponds directly to relative concentration of protein-DNA complexes and use the selectivity of our approach to quantify modified oligonucleotides from among a background of unmodified DNA in solution.

  14. Advance Pricing Agreements and the Selectivity Criterion in EU State Aid Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Härö, O

    2017-01-01

    The Commission of the EU has recently decided that Advance Pricing Agreement rulings (the APA rulings) that Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands have granted for Apple, Fiat and Starbucks (respectively) constitute illegal State aid according to Article 107 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). The Commission claims that the APA rulings deviate from the arm´s length principle and that they grant economic benefit for the beneficiary undertakings in a selective manner...

  15. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  16. The Soviet State Social Policy in the Sphere of Development of the Material Culture of the Southern Russian Peasants in the 1920-ies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna D. Bagdasaryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems of formation of the Soviet state social policy transformations in material culture of the southern Russian peasants in the 1920-ies. The necessity of studying the Soviet state social policy in Russia in the period of 1920-ies the historical aspect is determined by several factors. First, in the study of Russian history of the XX century, one of the main directions of national historiography was and remains the study of social problems at various stages of its development. In this regard, relevant is the consideration of the main challenges for social development at country and regional level. Secondly, in the formation of a new concept of social development of the country increases the need to adequate understanding of the role and importance of the Soviet state in the modernization of Russian society. One of the fundamental principles of state social policy is the principle of state responsibility for creating the conditions necessary for the development of society and the individual. In this regard, special scientific and practical interest becomes the problem of the essence of social policy in different historical periods, especially in the 1920-ies the history of the Soviet state, when it formed the Soviet system. In the analysed time clearly showed different approaches to solving social problems: in the framework of the state ideology and assumptions in Economics elements of private property (1921-1929.

  17. Theory of Nonlinear Dispersive Waves and Selection of the Ground State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, A.; Weinstein, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    A theory of time-dependent nonlinear dispersive equations of the Schroedinger or Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree type is developed. The short, intermediate and large time behavior is found, by deriving nonlinear master equations (NLME), governing the evolution of the mode powers, and by a novel multitime scale analysis of these equations. The scattering theory is developed and coherent resonance phenomena and associated lifetimes are derived. Applications include Bose-Einstein condensate large time dynamics and nonlinear optical systems. The theory reveals a nonlinear transition phenomenon, 'selection of the ground state', and NLME predicts the decay of excited state, with half its energy transferred to the ground state and half to radiation modes. Our results predict the recent experimental observations of Mandelik et al. in nonlinear optical waveguides

  18. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  19. Structural interventions to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted disease: are they cost-effective for women in the southern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Wu, Shin-Yi; Farley, Thomas A

    2006-07-01

    Structural interventions are theoretically promising for populations with a low prevalence of HIV, because they can reach large numbers of people to influence their social norms and collective risky behaviors for a relatively low cost per person. Because HIV transmission is continuing to increase among women in the southern United States, interventions to stem this epidemic are particularly warranted. This study explores whether structural interventions may be a cost-effective way to prevent HIV in this population. We used the cost-effectiveness estimator, "Maximizing the Benefit" to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of 6 structural HIV prevention interventions. "Maximizing the Benefit" is a spreadsheet tool using mathematical models to estimate the cost per HIV infection prevented taking into account the epidemiologic contexts, behavioral change as a result of an intervention, and the costs of intervention. We applied estimates of HIV prevalence related to blacks in the southern United States. All the structural interventions were cost-effective compared with average lifetime treatment costs of HIV, but mass media, condom availability, and alcohol taxes theoretically prevented the largest numbers of HIV infections. Although the assumptions used in cost-effectiveness estimates have many limitations, they do allow for a relative comparison of different interventions and help to inform policy decisions related to the allocation of HIV prevention resources. Structural interventions hold the greatest promise in reducing HIV transmission among low-prevalence populations.

  20. A Study in Sea-Air Intermodal Port Selection: Strategic Decision Making for United States Southern Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    commerce ( B2B EC) and electronic data interchange (EDI) enabled by internet connectivity are leading the way in industry innovation. Business can profit...points. Companies like Bon-Ton Stores Inc. are rethinking their supply chains and are using intermodal for the first time ever. In this case, they...W. (1997). Strategic Decision Making: Multiobjective Decision Analysis with Spreadsheets. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company

  1. A Two-Timescale Response of the Southern Ocean to Ozone Depletion: Importance of the Background State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-02-01

    It has been recently suggested that the response of Southern Ocean sea-ice extent to stratospheric ozone depletion is time-dependent; that the ocean surface initially cools due to enhanced northward Ekman drift caused by a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet, and then warms after some time due to upwelling of warm waters from below the mixed layer. It is therefore possible that ozone depletion could act to favor a short-term increase in sea-ice extent. However, many uncertainties remain in understanding this mechanism, with different models showing widely differing time-scales and magnitudes of the response. Here, we analyze an ensemble of coupled model simulations with a step-function ozone perturbation. The two-timescale response is present with an approximately 30 year initial cooling period. The response is further shown to be highly dependent upon the background ocean temperature and salinity stratification, which is influenced by both natural internal variability and the isopycnal eddy mixing parameterization. It is suggested that the majority of inter-model differences in the Southern Ocean response to ozone depletion are caused by differences in stratification.

  2. Selected elements of rock burst state assessment in case studies from the Silesian hard coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef Kabiesz; Janusz Makowka [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    Exploitation of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is conducted in complex and difficult conditions. These difficulties are connected with the occurrence of many natural mining hazards and limitations resulting from the existing in this area surface infrastructure. One of the most important problems of Polish mining is the rock burst hazard and reliable evaluation of its condition. During long-years' mining practice in Poland a comprehensive system of evaluation and control of this hazard was developed. In the paper the main aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation will be presented, comprising: 1) rock mass inclination for rock bursts, i.e., rock strength properties investigation, comprehensive parametric evaluation of rock mass inclination for rock bursts, prognosis of seismic events induced by mining operations, methods of computer-aided modelling of stress and rock mass deformation parameters distribution, strategic rock mass classification under rock burst degrees; 2) immediate seismic and rock burst hazard state evaluation, i.e., low diameter test drilling method, seismologic and seismoacoustic method, comprehensive method of rock burst hazard state evaluation, non-standard methods of evaluation; 3) legal aspects of rock burst hazard state evaluation. Selected elements of the hazard state evaluation system are illustrated with specific practical examples of their application. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Spatial and simultaneous seroepidemiology of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in dog owners and their dogs from randomly selected households in a major city of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Mareze, Marcelle; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Galhardo, Juliana Arena; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2018-06-01

    Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities. Overall, 564 households were surveyed and included 597 homeowners and their 729 dogs. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9/597 (1.50%) dog owners and in 32/729 (4.38%) dogs, with significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0042) in dogs. Spatial analysis revealed associations between seropositive dogs and households located up to 500 m from the local railway. No clusters were found for either owner or dog case distributions. In summary, the seroepidemiological and spatial results collectively show a lack of association of the factors for infection, and the results demonstrated higher exposure for dogs than their owners. However, railway areas may provide favorable conditions for the maintenance of infected phlebotomines, thereby causing infection in nearby domiciled dogs. In such an urban scenario, local sanitary barriers should be focused on the terrestrial routes of people and surrounding areas, particularly railways, via continuous vector surveillance and identification of phlebotomines infected by Leishmania spp. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus of southern Venezuela: altitude and blackfly species composition as predictors of endemicity to select communities for ivermectin control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martinez, S; Basáñez, M G; Grillet, M E; Weiss, H; Botto, C; García, M; Villamizar, N J; Chavasse, D C

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for an ivermectin distribution programme, the prevalence and intensity of infection due to Onchocerca volvulus as well as the species composition and abundance of Simulium vectors were investigated in 22 Yanomami communities situated along 2 altitudinal transects in the southern Venezuelan onchocerciasis focus. These transects corresponded to the Ocamo-Putaco and Orinoco-Orinoquito river systems, covering a range of elevation between 50 m and 740 m above sea level (asl). A total of 831 people underwent parasitological examination in this survey and an additional 196 patients from a previous study, at an altitude of 950 m, were included in the analysis. A total of 92,659 man-biting blackflies were collected and identified to morphospecies. S. oyapockense s.l. was the predominant simuliid up to 150 m asl, whereas S. guianense s.l. and S. incrustatum s.l. prevailed above 150 m. Communities located below 150 m were found to range from hypo- to mesoendemic; all villages above 150 m proved to be hyperendemic (> 60% microfilarial prevalence) and mass ivermectin treatment should be implemented. Age above 10-14 years, altitude of the village and biting rate of S. guianense s.l. up to 200 m asl were found to be statistically significant independent predictors of infection by multivariate logistic regression using a spline model. There were no differences in infection status according to sex. Above 200 m, microfilarial rate and density remained approximately constant, prevalence averaging 79% regardless of blackfly abundance. For the implementation of ivermectin-based onchocerciasis control programmes in the Amazonian focus, altitude and species composition of the blackfly population might be adopted as useful indicators aiding selection of the most affected communities. However, below 200 m additional parasitological indicators may also be necessary. As a direct result of this study, regular mass-ivermectin delivery to meso- and hyperendemic communities is now

  5. The monitoring of pesticides and alkylphenols in selected rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B L L; Mustafa, A M

    2004-01-01

    Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.

  6. Cation selectivity of the plasma membrane of tobacco protoplasts in the electroporated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Lars H

    2013-08-01

    Cation selectivity of the cellular membrane of tobacco culture cells (cell line 'bright yellow-2') exposed to pulsed electric fields in the millisecond range was investigated. The whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique was established on protoplasts prepared from these cells. Ion selectivity of the electroporated membrane was investigated by measuring the reversal potential of currents passing through field-induced pores. To this end the membrane was hyper- or depolarized for 10ms (prepulse); subsequently the voltage was driven to opposite polarity at a constant rate (+40 or -40mV/ms, respectively). The experiment was started by polarizing the membrane to moderately negative or positive voltages (prepulse potential ±150mV) that would not induce pore formation. Subsequently, an extended voltage range was scanned in the porated state of the membrane (prepulse potential ±600mV). IV curves in the porated and the non-porated state (obtained at the same prepulse polarity) were superimposed to determine the voltage at which both curves intersected ('Intersection potential'). Using a modified version of the Goldmann-Hodgkin-Katz equation relative permeabilities to Ca(2+) and various monovalent alkali and organic cations were calculated. Pores were found to be fairly cation selective, with a selectivity sequence determined to be Ca(2+)>Li(+)>Rb(+)≈K(+)≈Na(+)>TEA(+)≈TBA(+)>Cl(-). Relative permeability to monovalent cations was inversely related to the ionic diameter. By fitting a formalism suggested by Dwyer at al. (J. Gen. Physiol. 75 (1980), 469-492) the effective average diameter of field induced pores was estimated to be about 1.8nm. Implications of these results for biotechnology and electroporation theory are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.

  8. Engineering the temporal response of photoconductive photodetectors via selective introduction of surface trap states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Levina, Larissa; Fischer, Armin; Sargent, Edward H

    2008-05-01

    Photoconductive photodetectors fabricated using simple solution-processing have recently been shown to exhibit high gains (>1000) and outstanding sensitivities ( D* > 10(13) Jones). One ostensible disadvantage of exploiting photoconductive gain is that the temporal response is limited by the release of carriers from trap states. Here we show that it is possible to introduce specific chemical species onto the surfaces of colloidal quantum dots to produce only a single, desired trap state having a carefully selected lifetime. In this way we demonstrate a device that exhibits an attractive photoconductive gain (>10) combined with a response time ( approximately 25 ms) useful in imaging. We achieve this by preserving a single surface species, lead sulfite, while eliminating lead sulfate and lead carboxylate. In doing so we preserve the outstanding sensitivity of these devices, achieving a specific detectivity of 10(12) Jones in the visible, while generating a temporal response suited to imaging applications.

  9. State-selective multireference coupled-cluster theory: In pursuit of property calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, K.B.; Piecuch, P.; Pal, S.; Adamowicz, L.

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we examine the efficiency of the recently developed [P. Piecuch et al., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6732 (1993)] state-selective (SS) multi-reference (MR) coupled-cluster (CC) method for calculation of molecular properties. In our earlier papers, we demonstrated that the SSMRCC method with inclusion of single, double, and internal and semi-internal triple excitations [SSCCSD(T) approach] is capable of providing an accurate description of the ground-state potential energy surfaces. In this paper, we present the dipole moment and polarizability values of the HF molecule at equilibrium and stretched geometries calculated using finite field technique and SSCCSD(T) ansatz. The calculations use double zeta quality basis sets with and without polarization functions. Molecular orbital basis sets include both relaxed and nonrelaxed orbitals. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. 78 FR 39765 - Notice of Proposed Classification of Public Lands/Minerals for State Indemnity Selection, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Proposed Classification of Public Lands/Minerals for State Indemnity Selection, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Classification. SUMMARY: The Colorado State Board... public lands and mineral estate in lieu of lands to which the State was entitled but did not receive...

  11. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-06-23

    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  12. Experimental Insights into Ground-State Selection of Quantum XY Pyrochlores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Alannah M.; Gaudet, Jonathan; Gaulin, Bruce D.

    2018-03-01

    Extensive experimental investigations of the magnetic structures and excitations in the XY pyrochlores have been carried out over the past decade. Three families of XY pyrochlores have emerged: Yb2B2O7, Er2B2O7, and, most recently, [Formula: see text]Co2F7. In each case, the magnetic cation (either Yb, Er, or Co) exhibits XY anisotropy within the local pyrochlore coordinates, a consequence of crystal field effects. Materials in these families display rich phase behavior and are candidates for exotic ground states, such as quantum spin ice, and exotic ground-state selection via order-by-disorder mechanisms. In this review, we present an experimental summary of the ground-state properties of the XY pyrochlores, including evidence that they are strongly influenced by phase competition. We empirically demonstrate the signatures for phase competition in a frustrated magnet: multiple heat capacity anomalies, suppressed TN or TC, sample- and pressure-dependent ground states, and unconventional spin dynamics.

  13. Awareness regarding risk factors, symptoms and treatment facilities for cancer in selected states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sherin; Piang, Lam Khan; Nair, K S; Tiwari, V K; Kaur, H; Singh, Bacchu

    2012-01-01

    To study the level of awareness and knowledge about cancers and associated risk factors among households in selected states of India. In the study 3070 households were interviewed from six states viz, West Bengal, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Mizoram. Knowledge of cancers other than those related to tobacco was very low (prostate 8%, colon 11% ) among the communities, with a poor awareness of warning signs and symptoms. The knowledge varied from state to state. It is found that the major source of information related to cancers was television (38%) followed by friends and relatives (36%). Only about 15 % of respondents had knowledge about cancer awareness camps organized in their districts but they did not have knowledge about the organizers of the camp. Findings suggested a strong need for strengthening of DCCP. It is important to create awareness among community through educational programs on cancer prevention, preventable cancer risk factors, benefits of early diagnosis, and availability of screening facilities. Integration of District Cancer Control activities with NRHM could be the most cost-effective strategy to prevent cancers and rural population.

  14. The W (Sn-Mo)-specialized catinga suite and other granitoids of the Brusque Group, neo proterozoic of the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Neivaldo Araujo de; Crosta, Alvaro Penteado; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp

    1999-01-01

    The petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data on the granitoids intrusive in the Brusque Group, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, are presented in this paper. These are late-to post-tectonic rocks, being the most evolved ones those that constitute the Catinga Suite. The granitoids intrusive in the southern domain of the Brusque Group are grayish rocks, in which biotite (when present) is practically the only mafic mineral. They are rather reduced, slightly alkalic, transitional between meta-and peraluminous. An acid subvolcanic pluton, the Ribeirao da Velha pluton, has similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics, and seems to be genetically related to these granitoids. LREE fractionation relative to HREE is incipient for the Catinga suite, and the REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomaly. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, from the literature for these granitoids are around 0.721 (Sao Joao Batista granitoid) and the only available t DM model age (Valsungana granitoid) points to a genesis from a continental crust of ca. 2020 Ma old. Gneiss-migmatitic rocks such as those that occur in the eastern portion of Brusque Group domain and as enclaves in the Nova Italia granitoid are strong candidates for protoliths of these granitoids. Little available information on the granitoids intrusive in the northern domain of the Brusque Group reports the presence of pink K-feldspar hornblende granitoids (Faxinal pluton) and light pink K-feldspar biotite granitoid (Guabiruba pluton). These granitoids are more enriched in K and more oxidized than those in the southern domain, and the LREE fractionation relative to HREE is strong, with the REE patterns showing incipient negative Eu anomaly. It is suggested that part of the Au concentrations found in the northern domain may be genetically associated with the granitoids, since they present characteristics favorable to promote Au mineralizations than the granitoids in the southern domain. Distinct protoliths and

  15. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water - United States, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, J W; Adam, E A; Collier, S A; Fullerton, K E; Feinman, S J; Beach, M J

    2017-06-01

    Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio). We documented annual numbers of deaths in the United States associated with these infections using a combination of death certificate data, nationally representative hospital discharge data, and disease-specific surveillance systems (2003-2009). We documented 6,939 annual total deaths associated with the 13 infections; of these, 493 (7%) were caused by seven pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. A total of 6,301 deaths (91%) were associated with infections from Pseudomonas, NTM, and Legionella, environmental pathogens that grow in water system biofilms. Biofilm-associated pathogens can cause illness following inhalation of aerosols or contact with contaminated water. These findings suggest that most mortality from these 13 selected infections in the United States does not result from classical fecal-oral transmission but rather from other transmission routes.

  16. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  17. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from "road tests" that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  18. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment

  19. Analysis and inundation mapping of the April-May 2011 flood at selected locations in northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Drew A.; Merriman, Katherine R.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation that fell from April 19 through May 3, 2011, resulted in widespread flooding across northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri. The first storm produced a total of approximately 16 inches of precipitation over an 8-day period, and the following storms produced as much as 12 inches of precipitation over a 2-day period. Moderate to major flooding occurred quickly along many streams within Arkansas and Missouri (including the Black, Cache, Illinois, St. Francis, and White Rivers) at levels that had not been seen since the historic 1927 floods. The 2011 flood claimed an estimated 21 lives in Arkansas and Missouri, and damage caused by the flooding resulted in a Federal Disaster Declaration for 59 Arkansas counties that received Federal or State assistance. To further the goal of documenting and understanding floods, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers–Little Rock and Memphis Districts, and Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, conducted a study to summarize meteorological and hydrological conditions before the flood; computed flood-peak magnitudes for 39 streamgages; estimated annual exceedance probabilities for 37 of those streamgages; determined the joint probabilities for 11 streamgages paired to the Mississippi River at Helena, Arkansas, which refers to the probability that locations on two paired streams simultaneously experience floods of a magnitude greater than or equal to a given annual exceedance probability; collected high-water marks; constructed flood-peak inundation maps showing maximum flood extent and water depths; and summarized flood damages and effects. For the period of record used in this report, peak-of-record stage occurred at 24 of the 39 streamgages, and peak-of-record streamflow occurred at 13 of the 30 streamgages where streamflow was determined. Annual exceedance probabilities were estimated to be less than 0.5 percent at three

  20. Selective and extensive 13C labeling of a membrane protein for solid-state NMR investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.; Jakes, K.

    1999-01-01

    The selective and extensive 13C labeling of mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues in a 25 kDa membrane protein, the colicin Ia channel domain, is reported. The novel 13C labeling approach takes advantage of the amino acid biosynthetic pathways in bacteria and suppresses the synthesis of the amino acid products of the citric acid cycle. The selectivity and extensiveness of labeling significantly simplify the solid-state NMR spectra, reduce line broadening, and should permit the simultaneous measurement of multiple structural constraints. We show the assignment of most 13C resonances to specific amino acid types based on the characteristic chemical shifts, the 13C labeling pattern, and the amino acid composition of the protein. The assignment is partly confirmed by a 2D homonuclear double-quantum-filter experiment under magic-angle spinning. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution attained with this 13C-labeling protocol, which is termed TEASE for ten-amino acid selective and extensive labeling, are demonstrated

  1. Distributed BOLD-response in association cortex vector state space predicts reaction time during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Francesco; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Schäffner, Cornelius; Friedrich, Britta; Frech, Peter; Stoeter, Peter; Winterer, Georg

    2006-02-15

    Human cortical information processing is thought to be dominated by distributed activity in vector state space (Churchland, P.S., Sejnowski, T.J., 1992. The Computational Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge.). In principle, it should be possible to quantify distributed brain activation with independent component analysis (ICA) through vector-based decomposition, i.e., through a separation of a mixture of sources. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a selective attention-requiring task (visual oddball), we explored how the number of independent components within activated cortical areas is related to reaction time. Prior to ICA, the activated cortical areas were determined on the basis of a General linear model (GLM) voxel-by-voxel analysis of the target stimuli (checkerboard reversal). Two activated cortical areas (temporoparietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) were further investigated as these cortical regions are known to be the sites of simultaneously active electromagnetic generators which give rise to the compound event-related potential P300 during oddball task conditions. We found that the number of independent components more strongly predicted reaction time than the overall level of "activation" (GLM BOLD-response) in the left temporoparietal area whereas in the medial prefrontal cortex both ICA and GLM predicted reaction time equally well. Comparable correlations were not seen when principle components were used instead of independent components. These results indicate that the number of independently activated components, i.e., a high level of cortical activation complexity in cortical vector state space, may index particularly efficient information processing during selective attention-requiring tasks. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a potential relationship between neuronal generators of cognitive processes, the associated electrophysiological evidence for the existence of distributed networks

  2. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) for Fiscal Year 2009... the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended, for... the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended by...

  3. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  4. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  5. EFFECT OF SEASON ON SERUM COPPER AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN CROSSBRED GOATS HAVING DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE STATUS UNDER SEMIARID RANGELAND CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Vázquez-Armijo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of season (rainy: RS, and dry: DS and reproductive status on copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations in blood serum of crossbred goats (BW= 36.01 ± 1.59 kg were studied under semiarid rangeland conditions in Southern Mexico State. Blood samples from 80 crossbred goats were taken each season (RS and DS. The goats were clustered into 10 different groups considering their reproductive status. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in serum were assayed using atomic absorption. Data were analyzed using a general linear model procedure for a completely randomized design and differences among means were examined using a Tukey test. Blood serum concentrations of Cu and Zn were affected by reproductive status and season (P

  6. The roles of spirituality in the relationship between traumatic life events, mental health, and drug use among African American women from one southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the role of spirituality as a moderator of the relationship between traumatic life experiences, mental health, and drug use in a sample of African American women. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship overall between spirituality and mental health and drug use among this sample of African American women. Secondly, was expected that spirituality would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and mental health and drug use. African American women (n = 206) were recruited from the community and from probation officers in three urban areas of a southern state, and face-to-face interviews were completed. Findings indicated that there was a main effect for spirituality (as measured by existential well-being on the Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and traumatic life events, mental health, and alcohol use. In addition, spirituality was a significant moderator of the relationship between traumatic life events and cocaine use. Discussion and implications for African American women are included.

  7. 14C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidotto, Elaine; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Gouveia, Susy Eli M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia; Aravena, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition ( 12 C, 13 C and 14 N, 15 N) and 14 C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The δ 13 C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with δ 13 C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C 3 land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The 14 C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  8. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  9. Locating Spatial Variation in the Association Between Wildland Fire Risk and Social Vulnerability Across Six Southern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Neelam C.; Johnson-Gaither, Cassandra; Goodrick, Scott; Bowker, J. M.; Gan, Jianbang

    2012-03-01

    Wildland fire in the South commands considerable attention, given the expanding wildland urban interface (WUI) across the region. Much of this growth is propelled by higher income retirees and others desiring natural amenity residential settings. However, population growth in the WUI increases the likelihood of wildfire fire ignition caused by people, as humans account for 93% of all wildfires fires in the South. Coexisting with newly arrived, affluent WUI populations are working class, poor or otherwise socially vulnerable populations. The latter groups typically experience greater losses from environmental disasters such as wildfire because lower income residents are less likely to have established mitigation programs in place to help absorb loss. We use geographically weighted regression to examine spatial variation in the association between social vulnerability (SOVUL) and wildfire risk. In doing so, we identify "hot spots" or geographical clusters where SOVUL varies positively with wildfire risk across six Southern states—Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. These clusters may or may not be located in the WUI. These hot spots are most prevalent in South Carolina and Florida. Identification of these population clusters can aid wildfire managers in deciding which communities to prioritize for mitigation programming.

  10. Paleoenvironmental evolution of the coastal plain of Southern Brazil: palynological data from a Holocene core in Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIA A. KUHN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a paleoenvironmental reconstruction from palynological analyses of a sedimentary core of Holocene age, drilled at municipality of Garopaba (Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. A total of 46 samples was collected for palynological analyses in the 450 cm-long core PCSC-3, as also three samples for radiocarbon dating and granulometric analyses. The palynological content includes 84 taxa related to pollen grains of angiosperms (38 and gimnosperm (3, spores of pteridophyta (16 and bryophyta (2, spores of fungi (8, algae (3, acritarchs (3, dinoflagellate cysts (2 and microforaminiferal linings (1. Three specimens of acritarchs are described and illustrated in detail. Three palynological phases were defined based on changes in assemblages: Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. The Phase I is characterized as a lagoonal paleoenvironment with marine influence from the beginning of the sedimentation (5390 cal yr BP, based on occurrences of acritarchs, dinoflagellate cysts and microforaminiferal linings. The Phase II (3032 yr BP until 858 cal yr BP also is characterized by a lagoonal paleoenvironment, however, presented decrease in percentage of marine elements and increase in freshwater algae record, suggesting less marine influence in the lagoonal body. In Phase III (last 856 years, underwater sedimentation prevailed, under swamp-like conditions.

  11. The southern Hessen waste management task force - initial situation, objectives, state of development; Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft - Ausgangssituation, Zielsetzung und Entwicklungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.J. [Stadt Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994, the rural districts of Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald and Gross-Gerau in southern Hessen and the town of Darmstadt concluded a cooperation agreement permitting them to meet the future demands of the technical code on municipal waste and the `Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz` (act concerning waste recycling and waste management). In order to formally prepare different forms of cooperation and to accompany corresponding preliminary investigations, the Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) was founded as a municipal task force. SAGA`s task is to debate common affairs in the waste management sector with a view to joint planning and joint facilities. In particular, the requirements of the technical code on municipal waste must be met. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1994 haben die suedhessischen Landkreise Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstrasse, Odenwald, Gross-Gerau sowie die Stadt Darmstadt beschlossen, bezueglich der kuenftigen Anforderung der TA Siedlungsabfall und des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes zu kooperieren. Zur formellen Vorbereitung von verschiedenen dann auszufuehrenden Kooperationsformen und zur Begleitung entsprechender Voruntersuchungen wurde die Suedhessische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Abfallwirtschaft (SAGA) als Kommunale Arbeitsgemeinschaft gegruendet. Aufgabe der Kommunalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft ist es, gemeinsam beruehrende Angelegenheiten im Abfallbereich unter dem Gesichtspunkt gemeinsamer Planung und gemeinsamer Einrichtungen zu beraten. Hierbei sollen insbesondere die Vorgaben der TA Siedlungsabfall beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  12. A fast chaos-based image encryption scheme with a dynamic state variables selection mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Li-bo

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a variety of chaos-based image cryptosystems have been investigated to meet the increasing demand for real-time secure image transmission. Most of them are based on permutation-diffusion architecture, in which permutation and diffusion are two independent procedures with fixed control parameters. This property results in two flaws. (1) At least two chaotic state variables are required for encrypting one plain pixel, in permutation and diffusion stages respectively. Chaotic state variables produced with high computation complexity are not sufficiently used. (2) The key stream solely depends on the secret key, and hence the cryptosystem is vulnerable against known/chosen-plaintext attacks. In this paper, a fast chaos-based image encryption scheme with a dynamic state variables selection mechanism is proposed to enhance the security and promote the efficiency of chaos-based image cryptosystems. Experimental simulations and extensive cryptanalysis have been carried out and the results prove the superior security and high efficiency of the scheme.

  13. Is MGNREG Scheme complementary to fishing activities? A study on some selected states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjib Neogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fish output is taken as a proxy variable for empirical assessment of indirect benefits in terms of enhanced quantity of freshwater fish (output cultivation. It is not unlikely to assess empirically the productivity of subsidized public scheme when rural development or rural asset generations are underlined in the said scheme, MGNREG Act, 2005. Rainwater harvesting is a major component part of the scheme since about 49.5 per cent of the total fund is already utilized on water conservation and obviously it has an impact on the cultivation of freshwater fish output. Time series data on annual expenditure on MGNREG and corresponding freshwater fish output at the state level are taken during the period 2006-07 to 2013-14 for 16 major Indian states. Fixed effect model and random effect models are being applied and the Hausman specification test suggests that fixed effect model is more appropriate than random effect model. Significant differences among the intercepts of the selected states are revealed as per F test. The results of fixed effect panel regression establish that fish output is enhanced by 0.000257 thousand tones or 0.26 tones if MGNREG expenditure rises by one crore or 10 million rupees.

  14. An equilibrium for frustrated quantum spin systems in the stochastic state selection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munehisa, Tomo; Munehisa, Yasuko

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new method to calculate eigenvalues in frustrated quantum spin models. It is based on the stochastic state selection (SSS) method, which is an unconventional Monte Carlo technique that we have investigated in recent years. We observe that a kind of equilibrium is realized under some conditions when we repeatedly operate a Hamiltonian and a random choice operator, which is defined by stochastic variables in the SSS method, to a trial state. In this equilibrium, which we call the SSS equilibrium, we can evaluate the lowest eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian using the statistical average of the normalization factor of the generated state. The SSS equilibrium itself has already been observed in unfrustrated models. Our study in this paper shows that we can also see the equilibrium in frustrated models, with some restriction on values of a parameter introduced in the SSS method. As a concrete example, we employ the spin-1/2 frustrated J 1 -J 2 Heisenberg model on the square lattice. We present numerical results on the 20-, 32-, and 36-site systems, which demonstrate that statistical averages of the normalization factors reproduce the known exact eigenvalue to good precision. Finally, we apply the method to the 40-site system. Then we obtain the value of the lowest energy eigenvalue with an error of less than 0.2%

  15. The Water Reuse project: Sustainable waste water re-use technologies for irrigated land in NIS and southern European states; project overview and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, E.; Doerr, S.; Ritsema, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    In irrigated areas in the New Independent States (NIS) and southern European States, inefficient use of conventional water resources occurs through incomplete wetting of soils, which causes accelerated runoff and preferential flow, and also through excessive evaporation associated with unhindered capillary rise. Furthermore, a largely unexploited potential exists to save conventional irrigation water by supplementation with organic-rich waste water, which, if used appropriately, can also lead to improvements to soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. This project aims to (a) reduce irrigation water losses by developing, evaluating and promoting techniques that improve the wetting properties of soils, and (b) investigate the use of organic-rich waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation and, in addition, as a tool in improving soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. Key activities include (i) identifying, for the NIS and southern European partner countries, the soil type/land use combinations, for which the above approaches are expected to be most effective and their implementation most feasible, using physical and socio-economic research methods, and (ii) examining the water saving potential, physical, biological and chemical effects on soils of the above approaches, and also their impact on performance. Expected outputs include techniques for sustainable improvements in soil wettability management as a novel approach in water saving, detailed evaluation of the prospects and effects of using supplemental organic-rich waste waters in irrigation, an advanced process-based numerical hydrological model, fully adapted to quantify and upscale resulting water savings and nutrient and potential contaminant fluxes for irrigated areas, and identification of suitable areas in the NIS and Mediterranean (in soil, land use, legislative and socio-economic terms) for implementation.

  16. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  17. Fairness reactions to personnel selection methods: An international comparison between the Netherlands, the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, N.; Witvliet, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports reactions to employee selection methods in the Netherlands and compares these findings internationally against six other previously published samples covering the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore. A sample of 167 participants rated 10 popular assessment

  18. Collisions in the presence of a laser field and the laser as a tool for state selective preparation of molecular states in collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    In the study of individual collision events laser light can be used to influence or probe the process prior to, during, or after the binary particle interaction. We discuss some problems and particularly challenging possibilities for modifying the collision process in a high, but not too high, laser field. We discuss the possibilities of state selective preparation of quasimolecular Σ and π states in ion-atom collisions, with asymptotically laser optical pumped atomic p-states

  19. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  20. The distribution of selected elements and minerals in soil of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Smith, David; Solano, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1600 km2, 4857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soil of the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Three soil samples were collected, if possible, from each site; (1) a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 cm, (2) a composite of the soil A-horizon, and (3) a deeper sample from the soil C-horizon or, if the top of the C-horizon was at a depth greater than 100 cm, from a depth of approximately 80–100 cm. The The major mineralogical components in samples from the soil A- and C-horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling ended in 2010 and chemical and mineralogical analyses were completed in May 2013. Maps of the conterminous United States showing predicted element and mineral concentrations were interpolated from actual soil data for each soil sample type by an inverse distance weighted (IDW) technique using ArcGIS software. Regional- and national-scale map patterns for selected elements and minerals apparent in interpolated maps are described here in the context of soil-forming factors and possible human inputs. These patterns can be related to (1) soil parent materials, for example, in the distribution of quartz, (2) climate impacts, for example, in the distribution of feldspar and kaolinite, (3) soil age, for example, in the distribution of carbonate in young glacial deposits, and (4) possible anthropogenic loading of phosphorus (P) and lead (Pb) to surface soil. This new geochemical and mineralogical data set for the conterminous United States represents a major step forward from prior national-scale soil geochemistry data and provides a robust soil data framework for the United States now and into the future.

  1. The Judicialization of Health and the Quest for State Accountability: Evidence from 1,262 Lawsuits for Access to Medicines in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socal, Mariana P.; Amon, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of increasing numbers of lawsuits for access to medicines in Brazil is hotly debated. Government officials and scholars assert that the “judicialization of health” is driven by urban elites and private interests, and is used primarily to access high-cost drugs. Using a systematic sample of 1,262 lawsuits for access to medicines filed against the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, we assess these claims, offering empirical evidence that counters prevailing myths and affirms the heterogeneity of the judicialization phenomenon. Our findings show that the majority of patient-litigants are in fact poor and older individuals who do not live in major metropolitan areas and who depend on the state to provide their legal representation, and that the majority of medicines requested were already on governmental formularies. Our data challenge arguments that judicialization expands inequities and weakens the universal health care system. Our data also suggest that judicialization may serve as a grassroots instrument for the poor to hold the state accountable. Failing to acknowledge regional differences and attempting to fit all data into one singular narrative may be contributing to a biased interpretation of the nature of judicialization, and limiting the understanding of its drivers, consequences, and implications at local levels. PMID:27781011

  2. Divergence of Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is indicated by morphometric and molecular analyses when examined between taxa from the southeastern United States and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, David A; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2013-11-01

    The medically important sand fly Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) was collected at eight different sites: seven within the southeastern United States and one in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A canonical discriminant analysis was conducted on 40 female L. shannoni specimens from each of the eight collection sites (n = 320) using 49 morphological characters. Four L. shannoni specimens from each of the eight collection sites (n = 32) were sent to the Barcode of Life Data systems where a 654-base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genetic marker was sequenced from each sand fly. Phylogeny estimation based on the COI segments, in addition to genetic distance, divergence, and differentiation values were calculated. Results of both the morphometric and molecular analyses indicate that the species has undergone divergence when examined between the taxa of the United States and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Although purely speculative, the arid or semiarid expanse from southern Texas to Mexico City could be an allopatric barrier that has impeded migration and hence gene flow, resulting in different morphology and genetic makeup between the two purported populations. A high degree of intragroup variability was noted in the Quintana Roo sand flies.

  3. The importance of identity-by-state information for the accuracy of genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Tu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is commonly assumed that prediction of genome-wide breeding values in genomic selection is achieved by capitalizing on linkage disequilibrium between markers and QTL but also on genetic relationships. Here, we investigated the reliability of predicting genome-wide breeding values based on population-wide linkage disequilibrium information, based on identity-by-descent relationships within the known pedigree, and to what extent linkage disequilibrium information improves predictions based on identity-by-descent genomic relationship information. Methods The study was performed on milk, fat, and protein yield, using genotype data on 35 706 SNP and deregressed proofs of 1086 Italian Brown Swiss bulls. Genome-wide breeding values were predicted using a genomic identity-by-state relationship matrix and a genomic identity-by-descent relationship matrix (averaged over all marker loci. The identity-by-descent matrix was calculated by linkage analysis using one to five generations of pedigree data. Results We showed that genome-wide breeding values prediction based only on identity-by-descent genomic relationships within the known pedigree was as or more reliable than that based on identity-by-state, which implicitly also accounts for genomic relationships that occurred before the known pedigree. Furthermore, combining the two matrices did not improve the prediction compared to using identity-by-descent alone. Including different numbers of generations in the pedigree showed that most of the information in genome-wide breeding values prediction comes from animals with known common ancestors less than four generations back in the pedigree. Conclusions Our results show that, in pedigreed breeding populations, the accuracy of genome-wide breeding values obtained by identity-by-descent relationships was not improved by identity-by-state information. Although, in principle, genomic selection based on identity-by-state does not require

  4. The year-wise nodulation behavior and biological nitrogen fixation parameters of chickpea (cicer aritinum, L) at some selected sites in the southern zone of Pakistan during 1995-98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, M.

    2000-01-01

    Study was carried out during 1995-98 to know the location and year-wise nodulation response (number and weight of nodules/plant) and the related biological nitrogen fixation parameters (dry matter yield, n concentration and yield/plant) of the crop at some selected sites ( Peshawar, Kohat, Krak, Bannu and D. I. Khan ) under the agro climatic conditions prevailing in the southern zones of NWFP-Pakistan. The crop was found to be profusely nodulating under the agro climatic conditions prevailing at all sites except at Barani-Agricultural Research station (bars) Kohat, where the nodulation of the crop almost remained inclined to be nil. The nodulation behavior and biological nitrogen fixation parameters of chickpea during 1995-98 in the southern zone of NWFP- Pakistan has been described. (author)

  5. Treatment compliance and challenges among tuberculosis patients across selected health facilities in Osun State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, K O; Ogundun, O A; Afolabi, O T; Ojo, T O; Atiba, B P; Oguntunase, D O

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the world and Africa has approximately one quarter of the world's cases. One of the greatest challenges facing most TB programmes is the non-compliance to TB treatment among TB patients. This study aimed at determining the challenges of management of tuberculosis (TB) across selected Osun State health facilities. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 102 TB patients in the health facilities. The instrument measured socio-demographic variables, patient related factors, socio-economic variables, health care system related factors to TB disease and treatment. Data were analysed and summarized using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical significance was placed at p facilities (χ2 = 21.761, p facility and patient-related factors were largely responsible.

  6. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  7. Selected examples of intelligent (micro) sensor systems: state-of-the-art and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2006-03-01

    The capability of intelligent sensors to have more intelligence built into them continues to drive their application in areas including automotive, aerospace and defense, industrial, intelligent house and wear, medical and homeland security. In principle it is difficult to overestimate the importance of intelligent (micro) sensors or sensor systems within advanced societies but one characteristic feature is the global market for sensors, which is now about 20 billion annually. Therefore sensors or sensor systems play a dominant role in many fields from the macro sensor in manufacturing industry down to the miniaturized sensor for medical applications. The diversity of sensors precludes a complete description of the state-of-the-art; selected examples will illustrate the current situation. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices are of special interest in the context of micro sensor systems. In past the main requirements of a sensor were in terms of metrological performance. The electrical (or optical) signal produced by the sensor needed to match the measure relatively accurately. Such basic functionality is no longer sufficient. Data processing near the sensor, the extraction of more information than just the direct sensor information by signal analysis, system aspects and multi-sensor information are the new demands. A shifting can be observed away from aiming to design perfect single-function transducers and towards the utilization of system-based sensors as system components. In the ideal case such systems contain sensors, actuators and electronics. They can be realized in monolithic, hybrid or discrete form—which kind is used depends on the application. In this article the state-of-the-art of intelligent sensors or sensor systems is reviewed using selected examples. Future trends are deduced.

  8. Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Security Operatives in Selected Tertiary Institutions In Kwara State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Y. Saliu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of civil disorder and cultism in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria and the apparent inability of security operatives to stem the tide has continued to be a source of concern to both the Government and Individuals in recent times. This study examines the effect of organisational commitment on job satisfaction among security operatives working in Nigeria universities. In this study a sample of three hundred (300 security operatives were selected from both public and private universities in Kwara State. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed through Descriptive, Comparative, Regression analysis and Spearman Rank Correlation. The findings revealed that these security operatives, a positive relationship exists between organisational commitment and job satisfaction with affective commitment having little or no significant relationship and continuance commitment having significant positive relationship. The study also found that the level of affective commitment was significantly lower than the other components. The study thus concludes that there is a significant positive relationship between organisation commitment and job satisfaction amongst the security operatives. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the selected Universities should focus on improving affective and normative commitment among security operatives in order to be able to deal with the problem of high job turnover and poor performance.

  9. State test-anxiety, selective attention and concentration in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Caurcel, María J

    2015-08-01

    The principal aim of this study was to assess the level of selective attention and mental concentration before exams in a sample of university students and to determine a possible relationship between anxiety and reduction of levels of attention in this circumstance. A total of 403 university students, 176 men and 227 women, aged from 18 to 46 years, participated in the study. Of them, 169 were first-year undergraduates, 118 were second to fourth-year undergraduates and 116 were postgraduate Master's degree students. All of them completed the Spanish version of the Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory and the D2 Attention Test just before taking an exam. Our results showed that participants with lower levels of anxiety had higher levels of selective attention and mental concentration before the exam. These results specifically indicate that when anxiety levels are very high, this could over-activate the orientating and alerting functions and to reduce the capacity of attentional control. These processes could have a negative impact on specific attentional processes and become a negative influence on performance in exams. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Selection of metastatic breast cancer cells based on adaptability of their metabolic state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A small subpopulation of highly adaptable breast cancer cells within a vastly heterogeneous population drives cancer metastasis. Here we describe a function-based strategy for selecting rare cancer cells that are highly adaptable and drive malignancy. Although cancer cells are dependent on certain nutrients, e.g., glucose and glutamine, we hypothesized that the adaptable cancer cells that drive malignancy must possess an adaptable metabolic state and that such cells could be identified using a robust selection strategy. As expected, more than 99.99% of cells died upon glutamine withdrawal from the aggressive breast cancer cell line SUM149. The rare cells that survived and proliferated without glutamine were highly adaptable, as judged by additional robust adaptability assays involving prolonged cell culture without glucose or serum. We were successful in isolating rare metabolically plastic glutamine-independent (Gln-ind variants from several aggressive breast cancer cell lines that we tested. The Gln-ind cells overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2, an indicator of tumor aggressiveness, and they were able to adjust their glutaminase level to suit glutamine availability. The Gln-ind cells were anchorage-independent, resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and resistant to a high concentration of a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The number of cells being able to adapt to non-availability of glutamine increased upon prior selection of cells for resistance to chemotherapy drugs or resistance to celecoxib, further supporting a linkage between cellular adaptability and therapeutic resistance. Gln-ind cells showed indications of oxidative stress, and they produced cadherin11 and vimentin, indicators of mesenchymal phenotype. Gln-ind cells were more tumorigenic and more metastatic in nude mice than the parental cell line as judged by incidence and time of occurrence. As we decreased the number of cancer cells in xenografts, lung metastasis

  11. Selection of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Based on Adaptability of Their Metabolic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Tai, Karen; Madan, Simran; Raythatha, Milan R.; Cady, Amanda M.; Braunlin, Megan; Irving, LaTashia R.; Bajaj, Ankur; Lucci, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A small subpopulation of highly adaptable breast cancer cells within a vastly heterogeneous population drives cancer metastasis. Here we describe a function-based strategy for selecting rare cancer cells that are highly adaptable and drive malignancy. Although cancer cells are dependent on certain nutrients, e.g., glucose and glutamine, we hypothesized that the adaptable cancer cells that drive malignancy must possess an adaptable metabolic state and that such cells could be identified using a robust selection strategy. As expected, more than 99.99% of cells died upon glutamine withdrawal from the aggressive breast cancer cell line SUM149. The rare cells that survived and proliferated without glutamine were highly adaptable, as judged by additional robust adaptability assays involving prolonged cell culture without glucose or serum. We were successful in isolating rare metabolically plastic glutamine-independent (Gln-ind) variants from several aggressive breast cancer cell lines that we tested. The Gln-ind cells overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2, an indicator of tumor aggressiveness, and they were able to adjust their glutaminase level to suit glutamine availability. The Gln-ind cells were anchorage-independent, resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and resistant to a high concentration of a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The number of cells being able to adapt to non-availability of glutamine increased upon prior selection of cells for resistance to chemotherapy drugs or resistance to celecoxib, further supporting a linkage between cellular adaptability and therapeutic resistance. Gln-ind cells showed indications of oxidative stress, and they produced cadherin11 and vimentin, indicators of mesenchymal phenotype. Gln-ind cells were more tumorigenic and more metastatic in nude mice than the parental cell line as judged by incidence and time of occurrence. As we decreased the number of cancer cells in xenografts, lung metastasis and then primary

  12. Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Badea; S. Neagu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; D. Silaghi; I. Barbu; C. Iacoban; F. Popescu; M. Andrei; E. Preda; C. Iacob; I. Dumitru; H. Iuncu; C. Vezeanu; V. Huber

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring studies carried out in the southern Romanian Carpathians (Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts) provide a scientific support for long term ecosystem research (LTER). Their general objective is to characterize the air pollution and its potential effects upon forest ecosystems' status and biodiversity in close connection with climatic changes. Two...

  13. Safety Considerations in the Selection of Nuclear Power Plant Candidate Sites in Johor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, A.T.; Basri, N.A.; Abu Hanifah, N.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best options for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation / production, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. The most obvious challenges are to ensure the nation’s safety and to handle security issues that may arise from a nuclear power plant site. This paper aims to propose a site for nuclear power plant in Johor State, Malaysia as well as listing the possible safety challenges in the process. The site selection uses the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) guideline document as the main reference, supported by documents from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and from various countries. Only five site characteristics are chosen as study parameters – geological features and seismic data, air dispersion analysis using meteorological data, population distribution, safety zones and emergency supports. This paper concluded that site number 2 (CS2) at Tanjung Tenggaroh, Mersing is the most suitable area for nuclear power plant in Johor state. It has the least possible risks, safety and security issues. (author)

  14. Modeling the hyperfine state selectivity of a short lamb-shift spin-filter polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, A.J.; Roper, C.D.; Clegg, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    An rf cavity, previously used as a spin filter in a Lamb-shift polarized ion source, is being adapted for use as a polarimeter in an atomic beam polarized hydrogen and deuterium ion source. Paramount among the design criteria is maintaining the current source performance while providing on-line beam polarization monitoring. This requires minimizing both the polarimeter system length and the coupling with the magnetic fields of the other ion source systems. Detailed computer calculations have modeled the four-level interaction involving the 2S 1/2 -2P 1/2 states of the atomic beam. These indicate that a significantly shorter spin-filter cavity and uniform axial magnetic field than used in the Lamb-shift source do not compromise the spin-state selectivity. The calculations also predict the axial magnetic field uniformity needed as well as the gains achieved from proper shaping of the cavity rf and dc fields. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Integrated watershed-scale response to climate change for selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Ward-Garrison, D. Christian; Risley, John C.; Battaglin, William A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Chase, Katherine J.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Mastin, Mark C.; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.; Vining, Kevin C.; Walker, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the hydrologic response to different projected carbon emission scenarios of the 21st century using a hydrologic simulation model. This study involved five major steps: (1) setup, calibrate and evaluated the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model in 14 basins across the United States by local USGS personnel; (2) acquire selected simulated carbon emission scenarios from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project; (3) statistical downscaling of these scenarios to create PRMS input files which reflect the future climatic conditions of these scenarios; (4) generate PRMS projections for the carbon emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and (5) analyze the modeled hydrologic response. This report presents an overview of this study, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the carbon emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations.

  16. Safety Considerations in the Selection of Nuclear Power Plant Candidate Sites in Johor State, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, A. T.; Basri, N. A.; Abu Hanifah, N. Z.H., [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best options for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation / production, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. The most obvious challenges are to ensure the nation’s safety and to handle security issues that may arise from a nuclear power plant site. This paper aims to propose a site for nuclear power plant in Johor State, Malaysia as well as listing the possible safety challenges in the process. The site selection uses the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) guideline document as the main reference, supported by documents from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and from various countries. Only five site characteristics are chosen as study parameters – geological features and seismic data, air dispersion analysis using meteorological data, population distribution, safety zones and emergency supports. This paper concluded that site number 2 (CS2) at Tanjung Tenggaroh, Mersing is the most suitable area for nuclear power plant in Johor state. It has the least possible risks, safety and security issues. (author)

  17. Postcolonial Sub-Saharan 1 State and Contemporary General Business Environment. Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz W. Kolasinski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of a qualitative analysis of selected aspects of general business environment. The author strives to answer the following question formulated in the context of postcolonial deliberations: has the general business environment been affected by European colonialism? Methodology: Semantic and semiotic analysis of primary sources (statistical data and research findings formulated by international organisations, such as the World Bank, OECD, UNIDO and secondary sources (scientific and research studies of Polish and foreign authors based on primary sources; literature review. Findings: In the postcolonial perspective, qualitative analysis shows neither a positive nor a negative impact of colonialism on the contemporary general business environment. If certain signs of its deterioration are observed, they are mostly due to the erosion of state capacity, whose origins can be traced back to the Berlin Conference. Originality: Papers on Postcolonial Management and Critical Management Studies (CMS bridge the gap in literaturę pertaining to management issues, especially in Poland. Due to their interdisciplinary nature, Postcolonial Management and CMS cover a broad range of research areas (i.e. theory of state and nation, sociology, economic history. They pertain to both economics an management, and are therefore difficult to classify.

  18. Multi-state systems with selective propagated failures and imperfect individual and group protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Xing Liudong; Ben-Haim, Hanoch; Da, Yuanshun

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for evaluating performance distribution of complex series–parallel multi-state systems with propagated failures and imperfect protections. The failure propagation can have a selective effect, which means that the failures originated from different system elements can cause failures of different subsets of elements. Individual elements or some disjoint groups of elements can be protected from propagation of failures originated outside the group. The protections can fail with given probabilities. The suggested algorithm is based on the universal generating function approach and a generalized reliability block diagram method. The performance distribution evaluation procedure is repeated for each combination of propagated failures and protection failures. Both an analytical example and a numerical example are provided to illustrate the suggested algorithm. - Highlights: ► Systems with propagated failures and imperfect protections are considered. ► Failures originated from different elements can affect different subsets of elements. ► Protections of individual elements or groups of elements can fail with given probabilities. ► An algorithm for evaluating multi-state system performance distribution is suggested.

  19. An Assessment of Nutrition Education in Selected Counties in New York State Elementary Schools (Kindergarten through Fifth Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sheldon O.; Pinero, Domingo J.; Alter, Mark M.; Lancaster, Kristie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which nutrition education is implemented in selected counties in New York State elementary schools (kindergarten through fifth grade) and explore how nutrition knowledge is presented in the classroom and what factors support it. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: New York State elementary…

  20. Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for Ohio and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in Ohio. Descriptive statistics are presented for Ohio and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population characteristics,…

  1. Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for Iowa and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in Iowa. Descriptive statistics are presented for Iowa and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population characteristics,…

  2. Diverse rupture modes for surface-deforming upper plate earthquakes in the southern Puget Lowland of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prehistory of the southern Puget Lowland, in the north-south compressive regime of the migrating Cascadia forearc, reflects diverse earthquake rupture modes with variable recurrence. Stratigraphy and Bayesian analyses of previously reported and new 14C ages in trenches and cores along backthrust scarps in the Seattle fault zone restrict a large earthquake to 1040–910 cal yr B.P. (2σ), an interval that includes the time of the M 7–7.5 Restoration Point earthquake. A newly identified surface-rupturing earthquake along the Waterman Point backthrust dates to 940–380 cal yr B.P., bringing the number of earthquakes in the Seattle fault zone in the past 3500 yr to 4 or 5. Whether scarps record earthquakes of moderate (M 5.5–6.0) or large (M 6.5–7.0) magnitude, backthrusts of the Seattle fault zone may slip during moderate to large earthquakes every few hundred years for periods of 1000–2000 yr, and then not slip for periods of at least several thousands of years. Four new fault scarp trenches in the Tacoma fault zone show evidence of late Holocene folding and faulting about the time of a large earthquake or earthquakes inferred from widespread coseismic subsidence ca. 1000 cal yr B.P.; 12 ages from 8 sites in the Tacoma fault zone limit the earthquakes to 1050–980 cal yr B.P. Evidence is too sparse to determine whether a large earthquake was closely predated or postdated by other earthquakes in the Tacoma basin, but the scarp of the Tacoma fault was formed by multiple earthquakes. In the northeast-striking Saddle Mountain deformation zone, along the western limit of the Seattle and Tacoma fault zones, analysis of previous ages limits earthquakes to 1200–310 cal yr B.P. The prehistory clarifies earthquake clustering in the central Puget Lowland, but cannot resolve potential structural links among the three Holocene fault zones.

  3. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  4. An Interpretive Inquiry of the Case Law of Teacher Evaluation in the Southern Regional Education Board States: Forecasting Pressing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder-Wilkerson, Kathy S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze case law related to teacher evaluation between 1980 and 2008 in the SREB states to determine the problems associated with teacher evaluation and if these problems were documented in the literature. Content analysis of teacher dismissal cases revealed many types of teacher evaluation problems. The two most…

  5. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  6. Nuclear waste transportation package testing: A review of selected programs in the United States and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedeker, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides an overview of some recent nuclear waste transportation package development programs. This information is intended to aid the State of Nevada in its review of US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear waste transportation programs. This report addresses cask testing programs in the United Kingdom and selected 1/4 and full scale testing in the US. Facilities that can provide cask testing services, both in the US and to a limited extent abroad, are identified. The costs for different type test programs are identified as a means to estimate costs for future test programs. Not addressed is the public impact such testing might have in providing an increased sense of safety or confidence. The British test program was apparently quite successful in demonstrating safety to the public at the time. There is no US test effort that is similar in scope for direct comparison. Also addressed are lessons learned from testing programs and areas that may merit possible future integrated examination. Areas that may require further examination are both technical and institutional. This report provides information which, when combined with other sources of information will enable the State of Nevada to assess the following areas: feasibility of full scale testing; costs of full scale tests; potential benefits of testing; limits that full scale testing impose; and disadvantages of emphasis on testing vs analytical solutions. This assessment will then allow the state to comment on DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) plans for the development and licensing of new shipping cask designs. These plans currently expect contractors to perform engineering testing for materials development, quarter scale model testing to validate analytical assessments and full scale prototype testing of operational features. DOE currently plans no full scale or extra-regulatory destructive testing to aid in cask licensing. 1 tab

  7. Selective impairments of resting-state networks in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE is a neuro-cognitive dysfunction characterized by impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative functions, while the sensorimotor function was often unaffected. Little is known, so far, about the exact neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms of aberrant cognition function in this disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate how the brain function is changed in MHE, we applied a resting-state fMRI approach with independent component analysis (ICA to assess the differences of resting-state networks (RSNs between MHE patients and healthy controls. Fourteen MHE patients and 14 age-and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent resting-state fMRI scans. ICA was used to identify six RSNs [dorsal attention network (DAN, default mode network (DMN, visual network (VN, auditory network (AN, sensorimotor network (SMN, self-referential network (SRN] in each subject. Group maps of each RSN were compared between the MHE and healthy control groups. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the RSNs functional connectivity (FC and venous blood ammonia levels, and neuropsychological tests scores for all patients. Compared with the healthy controls, MHE patients showed significantly decreased FC in DAN, both decreased and increased FC in DMN, AN and VN. No significant differences were found in SRN and SMN between two groups. A relationship between FC and blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores were found in specific regions of RSNs, including middle and medial frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MHE patients have selective impairments of RSNs intrinsic functional connectivity, with aberrant functional connectivity in DAN, DMN, VN, AN, and spared SMN and SRN. Our fMRI study might supply a novel way to understand the neuropathophysiological mechanism of cognition function changes in MHE.

  8. The single-particle mixing state and cloud scavenging of black carbon: a case study at a high-altitude mountain site in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Duohong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Brechtel, Fred J.; Chen, Jianxin; Yan, Weijun; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI) was used to sample cloud droplet residual (cloud RES) particles, while a parallel PM2.5 inlet was used to sample cloud-free or cloud interstitial (cloud INT) particles. The mixing state of black carbon (BC)-containing particles and the mass concentrations of BC in the cloud-free, RES and INT particles were investigated using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and two aethalometers, respectively, at a mountain site (1690 m a. s. l. ) in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were extensively internally mixed with sulfate and were scavenged into cloud droplets (with number fractions of 0.05-0.45) to a similar (or slightly lower) extent as all the measured particles (0.07-0.6) over the measured size range of 0.1-1.6 µm. The results indicate the preferential activation of larger particles and/or that the production of secondary compositions shifts the BC-containing particles towards larger sizes. BC-containing particles with an abundance of both sulfate and organics were scavenged less than those with sulfate but limited organics, implying the importance of the mixing state on the incorporation of BC-containing particles into cloud droplets. The mass scavenging efficiency of BC with an average of 33 % was similar for different cloud events independent of the air mass. This is the first time that both the mixing state and cloud scavenging of BC in China have been reported. Our results would improve the knowledge on the concentration, mixing state, and cloud scavenging of BC in the free troposphere.

  9. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  10. Sales of Forestry-Related Specialty License Plates in the Southern United States: A County Level Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Tanger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, specialty license plates have become an increasingly popular way to raise awareness and show support for a myriad of issues with which the plate is linked. Several states and various organizations that provide forestry education have developed forestry license plates. Vehicle owners can purchase the plates to show their support towards forestry by buying the forestry license plates, which generates revenue for the provider organization. Using county-level data from five states in the Southeastern United States, a statistical model was developed to examine explanatory factors of forestry-based specialty license plate sales in 2014. Using linear count regression modeling, we observed that the significant predictor variables of plate sales were income per capita, population density, the percentage of acres that are forested in the county, acres of forest in the county that are privately owned, percentage of people who are 65 or older, and presence of the forest industry in the county. Plate sales were positively correlated with the presence of the forest industry in the county.

  11. Characterizing Geosocial-Networking App Use Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Multi-City Cross-Sectional Survey in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Park, Su Hyun; Hambrick, H Rhodes; Dangerfield Ii, Derek T; Goedel, William C; Brewer, Russell; Mgbako, Ofole; Lindsey, Joseph; Regan, Seann D; Hickson, DeMarc A

    2018-06-14

    Understanding where and how young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in the southern United States meet their sexual partners is germane to understanding the underlying factors contributing to the ongoing HIV transmission in this community. Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use geosocial networking apps to meet sexual partners. However, there is a lack of literature exploring geosocial networking app use in this particular population. Our aim was to examine the characteristics, preferences, and behaviors of a geographically diverse sample of geosocial networking app-using YBMSM in the southern United States. Data were collected from a sample of 75 YBMSM across three cities (Gulfport, Mississippi; Jackson, Mississippi; and New Orleans, Louisiana). Multiple aspects of geosocial networking app use were assessed, including overall app use, age of participant at first app use, specific apps used, reasons for app use, photos presented on apps, logon times and duration, number of messages sent and received, and characteristics of and behaviors with partners met on apps. Survey measures of app-met partner and sexual behavior characteristics assessed at midpoint (Day 7) and completion visits (Day 14) were compared using McNemar's test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In addition, we assessed activity spaces derived from GPS devices that participants wore for 2 weeks. Of the 70 participants who responded to the overall app-use item, almost three-quarters (53/70, 76%) had ever used geosocial networking apps. Jack'd was the most commonly used geosocial networking app (37/53, 70%), followed by Adam4Adam (22/53, 42%), and Grindr (19/53, 36%). The mean and median number of apps used were 4.3 (SD 2.7) and 4.0 (range 0-13), respectively. Most app-using participants displayed their face on the profile picture (35/52, 67%), whereas fewer displayed their bare legs (2/52, 4%) or bare buttocks (or ass; 2/52, 4%). The mean age at the initiation of app use was 20.1 years (SD 2

  12. Habitat selection of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in an estuary in southern Brazil: influence of salinity and submerged seagrass meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Ruas, Vinicius Mendes; Rodrigues, Marcos Alaniz; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in two estuarine inlets (Saco da Mangueira and Saco do Arraial) at the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The changes in relative abundance and size of post-larvae and juvenile shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and juvenile blue crab Callinectes sapidus were compared, considering the influence of salinity and the presence of submerged seagrass meadows. The analyses were performed using generalized linear models (GLM) for abundance variations and A...

  13. Technical and Economic Efficiency of Palm Oil Marketing in the Niger Delta Region of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural performance and productive efficiency of palm oil marketing in some selected States in Southern Nigeria. Eighty districts were selected in the Niger Delta Area and data were collected from 1000 palm oil sellers randomly selected in these towns. The tools of analysis were marketing margin, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to measure the structural performance while the productive efficiency was measured with the use of the production function analysis using ...

  14. Retail Deli Slicer Cleaning Frequency--Six Selected Sites, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G; Hoover, E Rickamer; Ripley, Danny; Matis, Bailey; Nicholas, David; Hedeen, Nicole; Faw, Brenda

    2016-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths (an estimated 255) in the United States annually, after nontyphoidal Salmonella species and Toxoplasma gondii (1). Deli meats are a major source of listeriosis illnesses, and meats sliced and packaged at retail delis are the major source of listeriosis illnesses attributed to deli meat (4). Mechanical slicers pose cross-contamination risks in delis and are an important source of Listeria cross-contamination. Reducing Listeria contamination of sliced meats in delis will likely reduce Listeria illnesses and outbreaks. Good slicer cleaning practices can reduce this foodborne illness risk. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) studied how often retail deli slicers were fully cleaned (disassembled, cleaned, and sanitized) at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code-specified minimum frequency of every 4 hours and examined deli and staff characteristics related to slicer cleaning frequency. Interviews with staff members in 298 randomly-selected delis in six EHS-Net sites showed that approximately half of delis fully cleaned their slicers less often than FDA's specified minimum frequency. Chain-owned delis and delis with more customers, more slicers, required manager food safety training, food safety-knowledgeable workers, written slicer-cleaning policies, and food safety-certified managers fully cleaned their slicers more frequently than did other types of delis, according to deli managers or workers. States and localities should require deli manager training and certification, as specified in the FDA Food Code. They should also consider encouraging or requiring delis to have written slicer-cleaning policies. Retail food industry leaders can also implement these prevention efforts to reduce risk in their establishments. Because independent and smaller delis had lower frequencies of slicer cleaning, prevention efforts should focus on these types of

  15. Temperature modulation and quadrature detection for selective titration of two-state exchanging reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrelli, K; Barilero, T; Cavatore, E; Berthoumieux, H; Le Saux, T; Croquette, V; Lemarchand, A; Gosse, C; Jullien, L

    2011-04-01

    Biological samples exhibit huge molecular diversity over large concentration ranges. Titrating a given compound in such mixtures is often difficult, and innovative strategies emphasizing selectivity are thus demanded. To overcome limitations inherent to thermodynamics, we here present a generic technique where discrimination relies on the dynamics of interaction between the target of interest and a probe introduced in excess. Considering an ensemble of two-state exchanging reactants submitted to temperature modulation, we first demonstrate that the amplitude of the out-of-phase concentration oscillations is maximum for every compound involved in a reaction whose equilibrium constant is equal to unity and whose relaxation time is equal to the inverse of the excitation angular frequency. Taking advantage of this feature, we next devise a highly specific detection protocol and validate it using a microfabricated resistive heater and an epifluorescence microscope, as well as labeled oligonucleotides to model species displaying various dynamic properties. As expected, quantification of a sought for strand is obtained even if interfering reagents are present in similar amounts. Moreover, our approach does not require any separation and is compatible with imaging. It could then benefit some of the numerous binding assays performed every day in life sciences.

  16. WIND SPEED AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY TRENDS FOR SELECTED UNITED STATES SURFACE STATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Allen H. Weber, A

    2006-11-01

    Recently it has been suggested that global warming and a decrease in mean wind speeds over most land masses are related. Decreases in near surface wind speeds have been reported by previous investigators looking at records with time spans of 15 to 30 years. This study focuses on United States (US) surface stations that have little or no location change since the late 1940s or the 1950s--a time range of up to 58 years. Data were selected from 62 stations (24 of which had not changed location) and separated into ten groups for analysis. The group's annual averages of temperature, wind speed, and percentage of Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability categories were fitted with linear least squares regression lines. The results showed that the temperatures have increased for eight of the ten groups as expected. Wind speeds have decreased for nine of the ten groups. The mean slope of the wind speed trend lines for stations within the coterminous US was -0.77 m s{sup -1} per century. The percentage frequency of occurrence for the neutral (D) PG stability category decreased, while that for the unstable (B) and the stable (F) categories increased in almost all cases except for the group of stations located in Alaska.

  17. All-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on screen-printed carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhan; Rong, Yuanzhen; Hu, Ruifen; Wang, You; Luo, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    A novel disposable all-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode using poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (POT) as an ion-to-electron transducer has been developed. The POT was dropped onto the reaction area of the carbon paste electrode covered by the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, which contains N,N-Dioctyl-3 α ,12 α -bis(4-trifluoroacetylbenzoyloxy)-5 β -cholan-24-amide as a carbonate ionophore. The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of  −27.5 mV/decade with a detection limit of 3.6 * 10 −5 mol l −1 . Generally, the detection time was 30 s. Because these electrodes are fast, convenient and low in cost, they have the potential to be mass produced and used in on-site testing as disposable sensors. Furthermore, the repeatability, reproducibility and stability have been studied to evaluate the properties of the electrodes. Measurement of the carbonate was also conducted in a human blood solution and achieved good performance. (paper)

  18. Negative ion formation in the scattering of state-selected NO+ on GaAs(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.S.; Greeley, J.N.; Morris, J.R.; Ferenchok, B.T.; Jacobs, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    A hyperthermal beam of state-selected NO + X 1 Σ + (v,j) impinges on a clean, well characterized GaAs(110) surface. The resulting two-electron transfer products NO-and O- are independently interrogated with a novel ion imaging technique as a function of NO + translational and vibrational energies. The products are shown to have different appearance thresholds, product translational energy distributions, and NO + vibrational energy dependencies. Most notably, vibrational energy is an order of magnitude more effective that translational energy in activating O- formation at a collision energy of 45 eV. The O- angular distribution exhibits a correlation with translational energy which is asymmetric about the surface normal. These results suggest that the probability of O- formation is dependent on the molecules point of impact with the GaAs (110) surface. The dynamical features of the NO + /GaAs(110) reaction will be discussed in terms of the three independent coordinates addressed in this experiment: the diatom internuclear separation, the molecule-surface distance, and the surface impact parameter

  19. Phytoremediation potential of Alocasia microrrhiza grown on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaolu S. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alocasia microrrhiza could be a good candidate for Pb and Cuphytoextraction. BF, TF and RR values (1.1–1.6, (4.3-4.8 and (1.4–2.3 revealed the effectiveness of the plant to translocate Pb and Cu to their harvestable portion. RRs values greater than one also indicated the efficiency of plant under chelate-induced phytoextraction. However, the concentration of heavy metals did not vary significantly at p < 0.05 (LSD test in all dumpsites investigated.

  20. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  1. Financial Barriers and Lapses in Treatment and Care of HIV-Infected Adults in a Southern State in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, David A; Kuwahara, Rita K; Javadi, Kamran; Kirby, Christine; Rosen, David L; Napravnik, Sonia; Farel, Claire

    2017-11-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence has largely been considered from the perspective of an individual's behavior with less attention given to potential structural causes for lapses in treatment, such as the cost of medications and care. HIV medication expense is typically covered by third party payers. However, private insurance premiums and deductibles may rise, or policies terminated such as with a change in employment. Likewise, a patient's eligibility for publicly funded coverage like state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) or Medicaid can also be lost. We conducted a one-time survey of a sample of 300 patients receiving HIV care at a single large academic center in the south of United States to examine lapses in HIV therapy due to financial reasons. We found that during the prior year, financial issues including medication cost or coverage led to a lapse in ARVs in 10% (n = 31) of participants. However, of the 42% (n = 125) participants who had been enrolled in ADAP at any time during the prior year, 21% (n = 26) reported an ARV lapse due to problems with ADAP or medication cost. Respondents cited ADAP's required semi-annual renewal process and other administrative issues as the cause of ARV lapses. The median duration of missed ARVs was 2 weeks (range of financial burdens to care by respondents. In conclusion, although conducted at a single medical center and one state, this study suggests that a significant minority of HIV-infected patients encounter financial barriers to ARV access, and this is paradoxically more common among those enrolled in the state ADAP. Streamlining, supporting, and simplifying ADAP renewal procedures will likely reduce lapses in ARV adherence and persistence.

  2. GENDER VIOLENCE AND CONTROL BODIES: A CASE ANALYSIS OF MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SOUTHERN STATE OF GUANAJUATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosas-Vargas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives from a research project on gender violence to students in middle and high Guanajuato. Surveys, interviews and workshops were applied were performed. During the course of the latter, the high level of youth reported being raped because you do not meet the image that are supposed to have the body that the media tells them to show. Anxiety over what is apparently not conducive indicates serious trouble and sometimes they have attempted suicide. In this sense, we approach the work from the idea that female bodies which are normalized, and where social norms of womanhood (Harcourt, 2011 will also resist. It is in bodies, socio-culturally constructed, where power games enroll. Butler (2010: 93 states that "we are exposed to others, and while this may be a condition of our desire, it also raises the possibility of subjugation and cruelty This results from the fact that the bodies are closely related to each other. through the material, the feel, language and a number of relationships without which we can not survive. "That is, the need for others, for recognition tell us that to meet our needs, we must be as we are told and if we are not then we will not get the recognition and yes cruelty, but as we can not survive and may reactions are self-destruction and violence. What then are the bodies that represent a problem?

  3. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Bárbara Monique Dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phthiraptera and Gamasida Parasites of Columbina picui (Temminck (Columbiformes: Columbidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAA. Coimbra

    Full Text Available Thirty-two specimens of Columbina picui (picui ground-dove were examined, and a collection of arthropods was made by washing the external surface of the body and the nasal cavity. The species in the order Phthiraptera found and their respective prevalences, mean abundance and mean intensity were: Columbicola passerinae (84.4%; 10.3; 12.2, Hohorstiella passerinae (21.9%; 0.7; 3.1 and Physconelloides eurysema (3.1%; 0.1; 2. The gamasid mites found in the birds and their respective prevalences, mean abundance and mean intensity were: Pellonyssus marui (31.3%; 1.2; 3.9, Ornithonyssus bursa (15.6%; 0.2. ;1.2 and Mesonyssus sp. (6.3%; 0.1; 1. Columbicola passerinae, H. passerinae, P. eurysema, O. bursa, P. marui and Mesonyssus sp. were recorded for the first time infecting C. picui in Brazil. Except for O. bursa, the other species are reported for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  5. Using stated preference methods to design cost-effective subsidy programs to induce technology adoption: an application to a stove program in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Walter; Salgado, Hugo; Vásquez, Felipe; Chávez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the design of an economic incentive based program - a subsidy - to induce adoption of more efficient technology in a pollution reduction program in southern Chile. Stated preferences methods, contingent valuation (CV), and choice experiment (CE) are used to estimate the probability of adoption and the willingness to share the cost of a new technology by a household. The cost-effectiveness property of different subsidy schemes is explored numerically for different regulatory objectives. Our results suggest that households are willing to participate in voluntary programs and to contribute by paying a share of the cost of adopting more efficient technologies. We find that attributes of the existing and the new technology, beyond the price, are relevant determinant factors of the participation decision and payment. Limited access to credit markets for low income families can be a major barrier for an effective implementation of these types of programs. Variations in the design of the subsidy and on the regulator's objective and constraints can have significant impact on the level and the cost of reduction of aggregate emissions achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Steady-state sulfur critical loads and exceedances for protection of aquatic ecosystems in the U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Todd C; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hessburg, Paul F; Reynolds, Keith M; Povak, Nicholas A; Cosby, Bernard J; Jackson, William; Salter, R Brion

    2014-12-15

    Atmospherically deposited sulfur (S) causes stream water acidification throughout the eastern U.S. Southern Appalachian Mountain (SAM) region. Acidification has been linked with reduced fitness and richness of aquatic species and changes to benthic communities. Maintaining acid-base chemistry that supports native biota depends largely on balancing acidic deposition with the natural resupply of base cations. Stream water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is maintained by base cations that mostly originate from weathering of surrounding lithologies. When ambient atmospheric S deposition exceeds the critical load (CL) an ecosystem can tolerate, stream water chemistry may become lethal to biota. This work links statistical predictions of ANC and base cation weathering for streams and watersheds of the SAM region with a steady-state model to estimate CLs and exceedances. Results showed that 20.1% of the total length of study region streams displayed ANC high elevation, and cool and moist forested conditions, the percentage of stream length in exceedance was highest for mountain wilderness areas and in national parks, and lowest for privately owned valley bottom land. Exceedance results were summarized by 12-digit hydrologic unit code (subwatershed) for use in developing management goals and policy objectives, and for long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. {sup 14}C dating and isotopic composition of mangrove soil in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Southern Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidotto, Elaine; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Gouveia, Susy Eli M.; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: evidotto@cena.usp.br; pessenda@cena.usp.br; susyeli@cena.usp.br; jab@cena.usp.br; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fresia@ige.unicamp.br; Aravena, Ramon [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: roaraven@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca

    2007-07-01

    This work is part of a study involving paleoenvironmental records based on pollen analysis, isotopic composition ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N, {sup 15}N) and {sup 14}C dating of mangrove soil. Samplings have been made in the Jacariu mangrove located at Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananeia, southern Sao Paulo state. This study must improve significantly the studies of vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the late Holocene (approximately the last 2000 years) in the southeastern region of Brazil. The {delta}{sup 13}C results of mangrove soil presented values from -24 to -26 per mille The values of TOC and C/N associated with {delta}{sup 13}C values indicated the predominance of organic matter from C{sub 3} land plant and phytoplankton (algal) in the whole profile. The {sup 14}C dating indicated Modern age at the shallow horizons to 1810 years B.P. for the deeper horizon. (author)

  8. Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E E; Ohlendorf, H M; Cromartie, E

    1980-12-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  9. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  10. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Crenuchidae endemic to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. S. Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Characidium is described based on specimens obtained from the highland streams of the Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest Biome, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The new species is possibly a member member of the C. lauroi group, which is diagnosed by having the isthmus unscaled, bars poorly marked, and spots on sides of body, and is composed by four additional species: C. japuhybense ; C. lauroi ; C. oiticicai ; and C. schubarti . The new species differs from its congeners with naked isthmus, except C. helmeri , by having 15-18 principal caudal-fin rays; and 10-12 pectoral-fin rays; and from C. helmeri , by having a slender body, tip of pectoral fin not reaching origin of pelvic fin, tip of pelvic fin not reaching beyond anus, supraorbital present and well developed, and by lacking vertically elongated dashes on sides of body. The new species is known from tributaries of the rio Jordão, in the rio Iguaçu Basin, and rio Taquari, a tributary of the rio Ribeira de Iguape coastal drainage.

  11. Potentiometric surfaces, summer 2013 and winter 2015, and select hydrographs for the Southern High Plains aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Jake

    2016-04-07

    Cannon Air Force Base (Cannon AFB) is located in the High Plains physiographic region of east-central New Mexico, about 5 miles west of Clovis, New Mexico. The area surrounding Cannon AFB is primarily used for agriculture, including irrigated cropland and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for Cannon AFB, for the nearby town of Clovis, and for local agriculture and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer in the vicinity of Cannon AFB consists of three subsurface geological formations: the Chinle Formation of Triassic age, the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age, and the Blackwater Draw Formation of Quaternary age. The Ogallala Formation is the main water-yielding formation of the Southern High Plains aquifer. Groundwater-supplied, center-pivot irrigation dominates pumping from the Southern High Plains aquifer in the area surrounding Cannon AFB, where the irrigation season typically extends from early March through October. The U.S. Geological Survey has been monitoring groundwater levels in the vicinity of Cannon AFB since 1954 and has developed general potentiometric-surface maps that show groundwater flow from northwest to southeast in the study area. While previous potentiometric-surface maps show the general direction of groundwater flow, a denser well network is needed to show details of groundwater flow at a local scale. Groundwater levels were measured in 93 wells during summer 2013 and 100 wells during winter 2015.The summer and winter potentiometric-surface maps display the presence of what is interpreted to be a groundwater trough trending from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. This groundwater trough may be the hydraulic expression of a Tertiary-age paleochannel. Groundwater north of the trough flows in a southerly direction into the trough, and groundwater south of the trough flows in an easterly direction into the trough.During the 18-month period between summer 2013 and winter 2015, changes

  12. Does social selection explain the association between state-level racial animus and racial disparities in self-rated health in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetta, Sarah; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pratt, Charissa; Bates, Lisa; Link, Bruce G; Keyes, Katherine M

    2017-08-01

    Racism, whether defined at individual, interpersonal, or structural levels, is associated with poor health among Blacks. This association may arise because exposure to racism causes poor health, but geographic mobility patterns pose an alternative explanation-namely, Black individuals with better health and resources can move away from racist environments. We examine the evidence for selection effects using nationally representative, longitudinal data (1990-2009) from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics (n = 33,852). We conceptualized state-level racial animus as an ecologic measure of racism and operationalized it as the percent of racially-charged Google search terms in each state. Among those who move out of state, Blacks reporting good self-rated health (SRH) are more likely to move to a state with less racial animus than Blacks reporting poor SRH (P = .01), providing evidence for at least some selection into environments with less racial animus. However, among Blacks who moved states, over 80% moved to a state within the same quartile of racial animus, and fewer than 5% resided in states with the lowest level of racial animus. Geographic mobility patterns are therefore likely to explain only a small part of the relationship between racial animus and SRH. These results require replication with alternative measures of racist attitudes and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  14. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  15. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change on soil erosion? An assessment from winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen D. Garbrecht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the need to increase crop production to meet the needs of a growing population, protecting the productivity of our soil resource is essential. However, conservationists are concerned that conservation practices that were effective in the past may no longer be effective in the future under projected climate change. In winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the U.S., increased precipitation intensity and increased aridity associated with warmer temperatures may pose increased risks of soil erosion from vulnerable soils and landscapes. This investigation was undertaken to determine which conservation practices would be necessary and sufficient to hold annual soil erosion by water under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario at or below the present soil erosion levels. Advances in and benefits of agricultural soil and water conservation over the last century in the United States are briefly reviewed, and challenges and climate uncertainties confronting resource conservation in this century are addressed. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP computer model was used to estimate future soil erosion by water from winter wheat cropland in Central Oklahoma and for 10 projected climates and 7 alternative conservation practices. A comparison with soil erosion values under current climate conditions and conventional tillage operations showed that, on average, a switch from conventional to conservation tillage would be sufficient to offset the average increase in soil erosion by water under most projected climates. More effective conservation practices, such as conservation tillage with a summer cover crop would be required to control soil erosion associated with the most severe climate projections. It was concluded that a broad range of conservation tools are available to agriculture to offset projected future increases in soil erosion by water even under assumed worst case climate change scenarios in Central Oklahoma. The problem

  16. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relations between sinkhole density and anthropogenic contaminants in selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between sinkhole density and water quality was investigated in seven selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States. Sinkhole density for these aquifers was grouped into high (>25 sinkholes/100 km2), medium (1–25 sinkholes/100 km2), or low (2) categories using a geographical information system that included four independent databases covering parts of Alabama, Florida, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Field measurements and concentrations of major ions, nitrate, and selected pesticides in samples from 451 wells and 70 springs were included in the water-quality database. Data were collected as a part of the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Areas with high and medium sinkhole density had the greatest well depths and depths to water, the lowest concentrations of total dissolved solids and bicarbonate, the highest concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and the lowest partial pressure of CO2 compared to areas with low sinkhole density. These chemical indicators are consistent conceptually with a conduit-flow-dominated system in areas with a high density of sinkholes and a diffuse-flow-dominated system in areas with a low density of sinkholes. Higher cave density and spring discharge in Pennsylvania also support the concept that the high sinkhole density areas are dominated by conduit-flow systems. Concentrations of nitrate-N were significantly higher (p sinkhole density than in low sinkhole-density areas; when accounting for the variations in land use near the sampling sites, the high sinkhole-density area still had higher concentrations of nitrate-N than the low sinkhole-density area. Detection frequencies of atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, prometon, and the atrazine degradate deethylatrazine indicated a pattern similar to nitrate; highest pesticide detections were associated with high sinkhole-density areas. These patterns generally persisted when analyzing the detection frequency by land

  18. Estimation of entrance dose during selected fluoroscopic examinations in some hospitals in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Heba Abdalkareem Osman

    2016-01-01

    A diagnostic fluoroscopy is a modality that involves visualizing the anatomy using radiation in real time. Therefore, patients doses have a potential for being great, increasing the chance of the radiation induced carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the mean entrance surface dose (ESD) from selected fluoroscopic examinations namely, hysterosalpingography (HSG) and ascendingurethogram (ASU) in three hospitals in Khartoum State. A total of 87 and 110 patents for HSG and ASU respectively were examined. The data were collected over four months. The mean ESD for patients who underwent HSG were 16.2 mGy, 20.6 mGy and 25.9 mGY respectively, while the ESD for patient who underwent ascendingurethrogram for AP view were 3.5mGy, 2.9mGy and 11.9mGy and for OB view 15.9 mGy, 18.3 mGy and 25.4 mGy. Patient doses were calculated using mathematical equation and the results were compared with the ESDs calculated using mathematical equation and the results were found to be comparable with the ESDs reported in previous studies and within the guidance level established by the ICRP. Fluoroscopy time, operator skills, x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported in the measured ESDs. The study demonstrated the need for standardization of techniques throughout the hospitals and suggested that there ia a need to optimize the procedures.(Author)

  19. Radiation oxidation of polypropylene: A solid-state 13C NMR study using selective isotopic labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowery, Daniel M.; Assink, Roger A.; Derzon, Dora K.; Klamo, Sara B.; Bernstein, Robert; Clough, Roger L.

    2007-01-01

    Polypropylene samples, in which the three different carbon atoms along the chain were selectively labeled with carbon-13, were subjected to radiation under inert and air atmospheres, and to post-irradiation exposure in air at various temperatures. By using solid-state 13 C NMR measurements at room temperature, we have been able to identify and quantify the oxidation products. The isotopic labeling provides insight into chemical reaction mechanisms, since oxidation products can be traced back to their positions of origin on the macromolecule. The major products include peroxides and alcohols, both formed at tertiary carbon sites along the chain. Other products include methyl ketones, acids, esters, peresters, and hemiketals formed from reaction at the tertiary carbon, together with in-chain ketones and esters from reaction at the secondary chain carbon. No evidence is found of products arising from reactions at the methyl side chain. Significant temperature-dependent differences are apparent; for example much higher yields of chain-end methyl ketones, which are the indicator product of chain scission, are generated for both elevated temperature irradiation and for post-irradiation treatment at elevated temperatures. Time-dependent plots of yields of the various oxidation products have been obtained under a wide range of conditions, including the post-irradiation oxidation of a sample at room temperature in air that has been monitored for 2 years. Radiation-oxidation products of polypropylene are contrasted to products measured for 13 C-labeled polyethylene in an earlier investigation: the peroxides formed in irradiated polypropylene are remarkably longer lived, the non-peroxidic products are significantly different, and the overall ratios of oxidation products in polypropylene change relatively little as a function of the extent of oxidation

  20. Usage, biological activity, and safety of selected botanical dietary supplements consumed in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Annécie Benatrehina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the continuous growth of the botanical dietary supplement industry and the increased popularity of lesser known or exotic botanicals, recent findings are described on the phytochemical composition and biological activities of five selected fruits consumed in the United States, namely, açaí, noni, mangosteen, black chokeberry, and maqui berry. A review of the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants has revealed some similarities ranging from wound-healing to the treatment of fever and infectious diseases. Laboratory studies on açaí have shown both its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and more importantly, its neuroprotective properties in animals. Anthraquinones and iridoid glucosides isolated from noni fruit induce the phase II enzyme quinone reductase (QR, and noni fruit juice exhibited antitumor and antidiabetic activities in certain animal models. Antitumorigenic effects of mangosteen in animal xenograft models of human cancers have been attributed to its xanthone content, and pure α-mangostin was shown to display antineoplastic activity in mice despite a reported low oral bioavailability. Work on the less extensively investigated black chokeberry and maqui berry has focused on recent isolation studies and has resulted in the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites with QR-inducing and hydroxyl-radical scavenging properties. On the basis of the safety studies and toxicity case reports described herein, these fruits may be generally considered as safe. However, cases of adulteration found in a commercialized açaí product and some conflicting results from mangosteen safety studies warrant further investigation on the safety of these marketed botanical dietary supplements. Keywords: Açaí, Noni, Mangosteen, Black chokeberry, Maqui berry

  1. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China.

  2. Final state selection in the 4p photoemission of Rb by combining laser spectroscopy with soft-x-ray photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.; Tchaplyguine, M.; Rander, T.; Bergersen, H.; Lindblad, A.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Sankari, R.; Osmekhin, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.

    2005-01-01

    Fine structure resolved 4p photoemission studies have been performed on free rubidium atoms in the ground state and after excitation into the [Kr]5p 2 P 1/2 and 2 P 3/2 states. The 4p 5 5p final states have been excited in the 4p 6 5s→4p 5 5p conjugate shakeup process from ground state atoms as well as by direct photoemission from laser excited atoms. The relative intensities differ considerably in these three excitation schemes. The differences in the laser excited spectra could be described well using calculations based on the pure jK-coupling scheme. Thereby it was possible to specify the character of the various final states. Furthermore it has been possible to resolve two of the final states whose energy separation is smaller than the experimental resolution by selectively exciting them in a two step scheme, where the laser selects the spin-orbit coupling in the intermediate state and determines the final state coupling after x-ray photoemission

  3. The Availability and Utilization of School Library Resources in Some Selected Secondary Schools (High School) in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owate, C. N.; Iroha, Okpa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the availability and utilization of school library resources by Secondary School (High School) Students. Eight Selected Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria were chosen based on their performance in external examinations and geographic locations. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were administered to both…

  4. 34 CFR 226.12 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use in evaluating an application for a State Charter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE CHARTER SCHOOL FACILITIES INCENTIVE PROGRAM How Does the... facilities on a per-pupil basis. (b) Quality of plan. (1) The likelihood that the proposed grant project will... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What selection criteria does the Secretary use in...

  5. An Analysis of the Importance of Selected Functions of Counseling Centers in Public Colleges in the State of Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas S.; And Others

    Counseling center directors at colleges in the state of Maryland were asked to rate the importance of several selected functions of their counseling centers. The functions rated were: (1) psychological problem counseling; (2) reading and study skills assistance; (3) testing; (4) academic advisement; (5) college orientation; (6) evening student…

  6. Assessment of Information Provision Services of Libraries in the 21st Century in Some Selected Academic Libraries in Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbah, Enovwor Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study is an assessment of Information Provision Services of Libraries in the 21st century in some selected academic libraries in Delta State. A descriptive survey was adopted in carrying out the research. The questionnaire was the instrument for data collection of which 62 were retrieved. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended…

  7. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  8. A Study of Power Relations in Doctor-Patient Interactions in Selected Hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores power relations in clinical interactions in Nigeria. It seeks to investigate the use of power between doctors and patients during consultations on patient-centred approach to medicine in selected public and private hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective is to establish how doctors' projection of power, using the…

  9. The Southern Forest Futures Project: technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis

    2013-01-01

    Please visit the Southern Forest Futures Project website for more information.The Southern Forest Futures Project provides a science-based “futuring” analysis of the forests of the 13 States of the Southeastern United States. With findings...

  10. Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Chandrasekeran

    2014-01-01

    Results: There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. Conclusions: These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.

  11. Ion bombardment effects on surface states in selected oxide systems: rutile and alkaline earth titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the nature of the surface states of n-type TiO 2 and SrTiO 3 is discussed and the role of ion bombardment in modifying the properties of these states is elucidated. Insofar as possible, the interrelationships between oxide nonstoichiometry, surface states, ion bombardment effects and photoelectrolysis are explored

  12. Treatment selection for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast using the University of Southern California/Van Nuys (USC/VNPI) prognostic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Melvin J; Lagios, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The University of Southern California/Van Nuys Prognostic Index (USC/VNPI) is an algorithm that quantifies five measurable prognostic factors known to be important in predicting local recurrence in conservatively treated patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (tumor size, margin width, nuclear grade, age, and comedonecrosis). With five times as many patients since originally developed, sufficient numbers now exist for analysis by individual scores rather than groups of scores. To achieve a local recurrence rate of less than 20% at 12 years, these data support excision alone for all patients scoring 4, 5, or 6 and patients who score 7 but have margin widths ≥3 mm. Excision plus RT achieves the less than 20% local recurrence threshold at 12 years for patients who score 7 and have margins USC/VNPI is a numeric tool that can be used to aid the treatment decision-making process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The prevalence of selected genes involved in the biosynthesis of trichothecenes assessed with the specific PCR tests in Fusarium spp. isolated from cereals in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis was conducted using 50 isolates of fungi of the genus Fusarium belonging to the species classified as major trichothecene mycotoxin producers: F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. poae. The tested fungi were isolated from ears of cereal crops in southern Poland during the two growing seasons (2011 and 2012). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of genes involved in the biosynthesis of trichothecene mycotoxins using the specific PCR tests. Molecular analyses indicated that the genes responsible for the production of trichothecenes (Tri3, Tri5, Tri7, Tri13) were abundant in the examined genetic material. The tested fungal isolates were characterized by a large diversity in terms of the number and composition of the possessed Tri genes. On the other hand, 14 of 50 isolates were found not to carry any of Tri genes.

  14. All-Solid-State Sodium-Selective Electrode with a Solid Contact of Chitosan/Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional ion-selective electrodes with a liquid junction have the disadvantage of potential drift. All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes with solid contact in between the metal electrode and the ion-selective membrane offer high capacitance or conductance to enhance potential stability. Solution-casted chitosan/Prussian blue nanocomposite (ChPBN was employed as the solid contact layer for an all-solid-state sodium ion-selective electrode in a potentiometric sodium ion sensor. Morphological and chemical analyses confirmed that the ChPBN is a macroporous network of chitosan that contains abundant Prussian blue nanoparticles. Situated between a screen-printed carbon electrode and a sodium-ionophore-filled polyvinylchloride ion-selective membrane, the ChPBN layer exhibited high redox capacitance and fast charge transfer capability, which significantly enhanced the performance of the sodium ion-selective electrode. A good Nernstian response with a slope of 52.4 mV/decade in the linear range from 10−4–1 M of NaCl was observed. The stability of the electrical potential of the new solid contact was tested by chronopotentiometry, and the capacitance of the electrode was 154 ± 4 µF. The response stability in terms of potential drift was excellent (1.3 µV/h for 20 h of continuous measurement. The ChPBN proved to be an efficient solid contact to enhance the potential stability of the all-solid-state ion-selective electrode.

  15. Selection of conformational states in surface self-assembly for a molecule with eight possible pairs of surface enantiomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Lind Cramer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly of a molecule with many distinct conformational states, resulting in eight possible pairs of surface enantiomers, is investigated on a Au(111) surface under UHV conditions. The complex molecule is equipped with alkyl and carboxyl moieties to promote controlled self-assembly of lamel......Self-assembly of a molecule with many distinct conformational states, resulting in eight possible pairs of surface enantiomers, is investigated on a Au(111) surface under UHV conditions. The complex molecule is equipped with alkyl and carboxyl moieties to promote controlled self......-assembly of lamellae structures. From statistical analysis of Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) data we observe a clear selection of specific conformational states after self-assembly. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations we rationalise how this selection is correlated to the orientation of the alkyl...

  16. State-selective electron capture into He-like U90+ ions in collisions with gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.; Stoehlker, T.; Brinzanescu, O.; Fritzsche, S.; Ludziejewski, T.; Stachura, Z.; Warczak, A.

    2000-11-01

    For He-like uranium, a state-selective electron capture study was carried out for relativistic collisions with gaseous targets. In the experiment, the projectile X-ray emission produced by electron capture in collisions of 223 MeV/u U 90+ ions on N 2 , Ar, Kr, and Xe targets was measured in coincidence with down-charged U 89+ projectiles. Due to the large fine structure splitting in heavy ions, the well resolved Balmer transitions observed were used to deduce subshell sensitive cross-sections for electron capture. For this purpose a theoretical spectrum analysis and simulation was performed by taking into account electron cascades from states up to n = 40. The state-selective data are compared with theoretical calculations as a function of target atomic number. An overall agreement is found between the experimental data and the theoretical approaches applied except for the j-sensitive part. (orig.)

  17. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of some less stable oxidation states of selected lanthanide and actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.

    1981-06-01

    Simultaneous observation of electrochemical and spectroscopic properties (spectroelectrochemistry) at optically transparent electrodes (OTE's) was used to study some less stable oxidation states of selected lanthanide and actinide elements. Cyclic voltammetry at microelectrodes was used in conjunction with spectroelectrochemistry for the study of redox couples. Additional analytical techniques were used. The formal reduction potential (E 0 ') values of the M(III)/M(II) redox couples in 1 M KCl at pH 6 were -0.34 +- 0.01 V for Eu, -1.18 +- 0.01 V for Yb, and -1.50 +- 0.01 V for Sm. Spectropotentiostatic determination of E 0 ' for the Eu(III)/Eu(II) redox couple yielded a value of -0.391 +- 0.005 V. Spectropotentiostatic measurement of the Ce(IV)/Ce(III) redox couple in concentrated carbonate solution gave E 0 ' equal to 0.051 +- 0.005 V, which is about 1.7 V less positive than the E 0 ' value in noncomplexing solution. This same difference in potential was observed for the E 0 ' values of the Pr(IV)/Pr(III) and Tb(IV)/Tb(III) redox couples in carbonate solution, and thus Pr(IV) and Tb(IV) were stabilized in this medium. The U(VI)/U(V)/U(IV) and U(IV)/U(III) redox couples were studied in 1 M KCl at OTE's. Spectropotentiostatic measurement of the Np(VI)/Np(V) redox couple in 1 M HClO 4 gave an E 0 ' value of 1.140 +- 0.005 V. An E 0 ' value of 0.46 +- 0.01 V for the Np(VII)/Np(VI) couple was found by voltammetry. Oxidation of Am(III) was studied in concentrated carbonate solution, and a reversible cyclic voltammogram for the Am(IV)/Am(III) couple yielded E 0 ' = 0.92 +- 0.01 V in this medium; this value was used to estimate the standard reduction potential (E 0 ) of the couple as 2.62 +- 0.01 V. Attempts to oxidize Cm(III) in concentrated carbonate solution were not successful which suggests that the predicted E 0 value for the Cm(IV)/Cm(III) redox couple may be in error

  18. The Utilisation of Facebook for Knowledge Sharing in Selected Local Government Councils in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzoma Heman Ononye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Facebook has made it possible for organisation to embrace social and network centric knowledge processes by creating opportunities to connect, interact, and collaborate with stakeholders. We have witnessed a significant increase in the popularity and use of this tool in many organisations, especially in the private sector. But the utilisation of Facebook in public organisations is at its infancy, with many also believing that the use of Facebook is not a common practice in many public organisations in Nigeria. In spite of this fact, our discernment on the implications of Facebook usage in public organisations in Nigeria, especially organisations at the local level, seem to be remarkably limited. This paper specifically sought to ascertain if Facebook usage influenced inward and outward knowledge sharing in the selected local government councils in Delta State, Nigeria Methodology: The qualitative method was adopted. The study used interview as the primary means of data gathering. The study purposively sampled thirty-six employees as interviewees, twenty from Oshimili South and sixteen from Oshimili North local government councils respectively. The thematic content analysis method was used to analyse interview transcripts. Contribution: This research made distinct contributions to the available literature in social knowledge management, specifically bringing to the fore the intricacies surrounding the use of Facebook for knowledge sharing purposes in the public sector. Findings: The local government councils were yet to appreciate and utilise the interactive and collaborative nature of Facebook in improving stakeholders’ engagement, feedback, and cooperation. Facebook was used for outward knowledge sharing but not for inward knowledge sharing. Recommendations for Practitioners: Local government councils should encourage interaction via Facebook, show willingness to capture knowledge from identifiable sources, and effectively manage

  19. Review: Regional groundwater flow modeling in heavily irrigated basins of selected states in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.

    2013-09-01

    Water resources in agriculture-dominated basins of the arid western United States are stressed due to long-term impacts from pumping. A review of 88 regional groundwater-flow modeling applications from seven intensively irrigated western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and Texas) was conducted to provide hydrogeologists, modelers, water managers, and decision makers insight about past modeling studies that will aid future model development. Groundwater models were classified into three types: resource evaluation models (39 %), which quantify water budgets and act as preliminary models intended to be updated later, or constitute re-calibrations of older models; management/planning models (55 %), used to explore and identify management plans based on the response of the groundwater system to water-development or climate scenarios, sometimes under water-use constraints; and water rights models (7 %), used to make water administration decisions based on model output and to quantify water shortages incurred by water users or climate changes. Results for 27 model characteristics are summarized by state and model type, and important comparisons and contrasts are highlighted. Consideration of modeling uncertainty and the management focus toward sustainability, adaptive management and resilience are discussed, and future modeling recommendations, in light of the reviewed models and other published works, are presented.

  20. United States Southern Command * Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    or concerns please email or call us at 305-437-2287. Testing The USAG- Miami Joint Education Testing the Air Force | The Air University | US Air Force Academy Army: Army Continued Education System | Army Marine Corps Institute | US Marine Corps Training and Education Command | US Marine Corps University Navy

  1. Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard's departure from the Medical College of Virginia: incompatible science or incompatible social views in pre-Civil War southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joseph C; Ho, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard was one of the most colorful characters in modern physiology. His scientific methods of self-experimentation and animal vivisection led to many great observations, including the eponymous syndrome of hemisection of the spinal cord. Despite his renown, he stayed but one year in his first major academic post. Details of his sojourn at the Medical College of Virginia (now part of Virginia Commonwealth University) in Richmond were divined from perusal of archival material, letters, and from the available literature. His notoriety in the field of physiology landed him a post at the Medical College of Virginia in 1854 as the chair of physiology. During a brief time here, he was able to publish his landmark monograph of 1855 on the pathways of the spinal cord "Experimental and Clinical Researches on the Physiology and Pathology of the Spinal Cord." He had a near-death experience while experimenting on himself to determine the function of the skin. It was rumored that his English was poor, his lectures unintelligible, and his scientific methods disturbing to the neighbors and that for those reasons he was asked to vacate his post. Personal communications and other accounts indicate a different view: his mixed-blood heritage and his views on slavery were unpopular in the pre-Civil War southern United States. These disparate viewpoints lend an insight into the life and career of this pioneer in modern medicine and experimental design and to the clash of science and social views. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Medication Compliance Behavior in Patients with Depression in Southern United States in 2016 in a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Britney; Sharma, Manoj; Bennett, Russell; Mawson, Anthony R; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Sung, Jung Hye

    2018-03-01

    Introduction: Depression is a major public health issue. One of the concerns in depression research and practice pertains to non-compliance to prescribed medications. The purpose of the study was to predict compliance with medication use for patients with depression using social cognitive theory (SCT). Based on this study it was envisaged that recommendations for interventions to enhance compliance for medication use could be developed for patients with depression. Methods: The study was conducted using cross sectional design (n=148) in southern United States with a convenience sample of clinic-based depression patients with a 37-item valid and reliable questionnaire. Sample size was calculated to be 148 using G*Power (five predictors with a 0.80 power at the 0.05 alpha level and an estimated effect size of 0.10 with an inflation by 10% for missing data). Social cognitive theory constructs of expectations, self-efficacy and self-efficacy in overcoming barriers, self-control, and environment were reified. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Self-control for taking medication for depression (P=0.04), expectations for taking medication for depression (P=0.025), age (P<0.0001) and race (P=0.04) were significantly related to intent for taking medication for depression (Adjusted R 2 = 0.183). In race, Blacks had lower intent to take medication for depression. Conclusion: Social cognitive theory is weakly predictive with low explained variance for taking medication for depression. It needs to be bolstered by newer theories like integrative model or multi-theory model of health behavior change for designing educational interventions aimed at enhancing compliance to medication for depression.

  3. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Medication Compliance Behavior in Patients with Depression in Southern United States in 2016 in a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britney Bennett

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is a major public health issue. One of the concerns in depression research and practice pertains to non-compliance to prescribed medications. The purpose of the study was to predict compliance with medication use for patients with depression using social cognitive theory (SCT. Based on this study it was envisaged that recommendations for interventions to enhance compliance for medication use could be developed for patients with depression. Methods: The study was conducted using cross sectional design (n=148 in southern United States with a convenience sample of clinic-based depression patients with a 37-item valid and reliable questionnaire. Sample size was calculated to be 148 using G*Power (five predictors with a 0.80 power at the 0.05 alpha level and an estimated effect size of 0.10 with an inflation by 10% for missing data. Social cognitive theory constructs of expectations, self-efficacy and self-efficacy in overcoming barriers, self-control, and environment were reified. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Self-control for taking medication for depression (P=0.04, expectations for taking medication for depression (P=0.025, age (P<0.0001 and race (P=0.04 were significantly related to intent for taking medication for depression (Adjusted R2 = 0.183. In race, Blacks had lower intent to take medication for depression. Conclusion: Social cognitive theory is weakly predictive with low explained variance for taking medication for depression. It needs to be bolstered by newer theories like integrative model or multi-theory model of health behavior change for designing educational interventions aimed at enhancing compliance to medication for depression.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  5. Chemical-Mineralogical Characterization of Magnetic Materials from Magnetic Soils of the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Chain and of the Upper Jequitinhonha Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christófaro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Chain and in the Upper Jequitinhonha Valley, magnetic soils, in different pedogenetic stages, are found to be forming over intrusions of basic lithology. The essential chemical and mineralogical properties of samples from magnetic soil profiles from those two physiographic environments in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are reported. Three of the pedons (Rhodic Kandiustox – RKox, Rhodic Haplustox – RHox, and Typic Argiustoll - TAoll were identified as being indeed developed over basic rocks; the fourth pedon (Typic Haplustox - THox is currently forming on an acidic rock. Particle size and routine chemical analyses were performed on samples from all horizons of the four selected soil profiles. For a deeper insight into the dominant mineralogy of each diagnostic soil horizon, the elemental contents, expressed in terms of the corresponding metal cation oxides, namely Fe2O3, Al2O3, and MnO2, were obtained from digesting the whole soil samples with sulfuric acid. A similar chemical analytical procedure was performed for the residual solid extracts obtained from attacking the whole soil materials with mixtures of (i dithionite - citrate - bicarbonate and (ii oxalate - oxalic acid. The soil samples were also analyzed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (~298 °K in an attempt to better identify the main magnetic iron oxides. Maghemite (δFe2O3 was found in all samples and magnetite (Fe3O4 was identified only for the sample from the Typic Argiustoll. The pedogenetic loss of silica and consequent accumulation of iron and aluminum oxides along the profile are found to be somehow correlated to the weathering sequence in the soils forming on basic rocks: TAoll < RKox < RHox.

  6. Presence, concentrations and risk assessment of selected antibiotic residues in sediments and near-bottom waters collected from the Polish coastal zone in the southern Baltic Sea - Summary of 3years of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlewicz, Grzegorz; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Borecka, Marta; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Pazdro, Ksenia

    2018-04-01

    Concentrations of selected antibiotic compounds from different groups were measured in sediment samples (14 analytes) and in near-bottom water samples (12 analytes) collected in 2011-2013 from the southern Baltic Sea (Polish coastal zone). Antibiotics were determined at concentration levels of a few to hundreds of ng g -1 d.w. in sediments and ng L -1 in near-bottom waters. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline in sediments and sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in near-bottom waters. The occurrence of the identified antibiotics was characterized by spatial and temporal variability. A statistically important correlation was observed between sediment organic matter content and the concentrations of sulfachloropyridazine and oxytetracycline. Risk assessment analyses revealed a potential high risk of sulfamethoxazole contamination in near-bottom waters and of contamination by sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracyclines in sediments. Both chemical and risk assessment analyses show that the coastal area of the southern Baltic Sea is highly exposed to antibiotic residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic evidence for natural selection in humans in the contemporary United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Jonathan P

    2016-07-12

    Recent findings from molecular genetics now make it possible to test directly for natural selection by analyzing whether genetic variants associated with various phenotypes have been under selection. I leverage these findings to construct polygenic scores that use individuals' genotypes to predict their body mass index, educational attainment (EA), glucose concentration, height, schizophrenia, total cholesterol, and (in females) age at menarche. I then examine associations between these scores and fitness to test whether natural selection has been occurring. My study sample includes individuals of European ancestry born between 1931 and 1953 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study, a representative study of the US population. My results imply that natural selection has been slowly favoring lower EA in both females and males, and are suggestive that natural selection may have favored a higher age at menarche in females. For EA, my estimates imply a rate of selection of about -1.5 mo of education per generation (which pales in comparison with the increases in EA observed in contemporary times). Although they cannot be projected over more than one generation, my results provide additional evidence that humans are still evolving-albeit slowly, especially compared with the rapid changes that have occurred over the past few generations due to cultural and environmental factors.

  8. SELECTED AMMONOID FAUNA FROM PRATI DI STUORES/STUORES WIESEN AND RELATED SECTIONS ACROSS THE LADINIAN-CARNIAN BOUNDARY (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAOLO MIETTO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna of the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section (Dolomites, north-eastern Italy was studied in detail. This section was proposed as stratotype for the Carnian GSSP, with the first appearance of Daxatina cf. canadensis as primary marker, based on preliminary data. The validity of this proposal is confirmed by the present study, which integrates collections from the Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section and from others, particularly Bec de Roces (Passo Campolongo and Antersass (Badia Valley. Ammonoids collected in these localities belong to three biostratigraphic units: regoledanus, canadensis and aon subzones. These subzones constitute, in the Southern Alps, the Ladinian/Carnian boundary interval. Regoledanus Subzone: the north American species Zestoceras enode is most probably documented in this biostratigraphic interval. Canadensis Subzone: the base is marked by the first appearance of Daxatina canadensis, and at least, another north American species, Daxatina laubei, seems to be present. Two species of Zestoceras were found: Z. barwicki e Z. lorigae sp.n. Two species of Trachyceras, distinct from T. aon, are represented in the canadensis Subzone: T. muensteri and T. bipunctatum. These species predate the first appearance of Trachyceras, justifying the canadensis Subzone to be included in the Carnian also on the basis of nomenclatural stability. Other significant taxa of this subzone are Rossiceras? armatum and Sirenotrachyceras thusneldae. Aon Subzone: the ammonoid fauna of this subzone is extensively treated in existing literature and thus not further discussed. Taxonomical notes and stratigraphic consequences: the new subfamily Anolcitinae (family Trachyceratidae is erected. At present, Frankites regoledanus, F. apertus and F. sp. A have been recognized in the Southern Alps. The lectotype of Ammonites (Trachyceras ? Regoledanus was defined. The latter species is exclusive of the regoledanus Subzone, whereas the

  9. Information as Power: An Anthology of Selected United States Army War College Student Papers. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    some efforts along this path recently when it worked with the Walt Disney Company to produce a seven minute film and hundreds of still images... Disney Parks and Resorts Partners with Departments 53. of State and Homeland Security to Welcome International Visitors to the United States

  10. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and medical students' demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, L J; van Zyl, G J; St Clair Gibson, A; Viljoen, M; Iputo, J E; Mammen, M; Chitha, W; Perez, A M; Hartman, N; Fonn, S; Green-Thompson, L; Ayo-Ysuf, O A; Botha, G C; Manning, D; Botha, S J; Hift, R; Retief, P; van Heerden, B B; Volmink, J

    2015-12-16

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote equitable and fair access to students from all population groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future healthcare practitioners who will fulfil the needs of the local society. In keeping with international practices, a variety of academic and non-academic measures are used to select applicants for medical training programmes in SA medical schools. To provide an overview of the selection procedures used by all eight medical schools in SA, and the student demographics (race and gender) at these medical schools, and to determine to what extent collective practices are achieving the goals of student diversity and inclusivity. A retrospective, quantitative, descriptive study design was used. All eight medical schools in SA provided information regarding selection criteria, selection procedures, and student demographics (race and gender). Descriptive analysis of data was done by calculating frequencies and percentages of the variables measured. Medical schools in SA make use of academic and non-academic criteria in their selection processes. The latter include indices of socioeconomic disadvantage. Most undergraduate medical students in SA are black (38.7%), followed by white (33.0%), coloured (13.4%) and Indian/Asian (13.6%). The majority of students are female (62.2%). The number of black students is still proportionately lower than in the general population, while other groups are overrepresented. Selection policies for undergraduate medical programmes aimed at redress should be continued and further refined, along with the provision of support to ensure student success.

  11. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  12. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  13. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  14. Discrimination against international medical graduates in the United States residency program selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Norman A; Vidaillet, Humberto J

    2010-01-25

    Available evidence suggests that international medical graduates have improved the availability of U.S. health care while maintaining academic standards. We wondered whether studies had been conducted to address how international graduates were treated in the post-graduate selection process compared to U.S. graduates. We conducted a Medline search for research on the selection process. Two studies provide strong evidence that psychiatry and family practice programs respond to identical requests for applications at least 80% more often for U.S. medical graduates than for international graduates. In a third study, a survey of surgical program directors, over 70% perceived that there was discrimination against international graduates in the selection process. There is sufficient evidence to support action against discrimination in the selection process. Medical organizations should publish explicit proscriptions of discrimination against international medical graduates (as the American Psychiatric Association has done) and promote them in diversity statements. They should develop uniform and transparent policies for program directors to use to select applicants that minimize the possibility of non-academic discrimination, and the accreditation organization should monitor whether it is occurring. Whether there should be protectionism for U.S. graduates or whether post-graduate medical education should be an unfettered meritocracy needs to be openly discussed by medicine and society.

  15. 14C dating of charcoal in the soil for the study of biological remount of soil matter and of the colluvium in the formation of ferralitic soils of Sao Paulo state, southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, S.E.M.; Pessenda, L.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper complements a scientific investigation, published in a precedent Compte Rendu, that showed that the burial of charcoal in a oxisol of the Minas Gerais State, southern Brazil, is a result of the biological remount of soil matter removed from deeper parts by the fauna. Such transported material would then constitute the soil layer containing charcoal (generally up to 2 m). The new results obtained at two sites in Sao Paulo State confirm, on the one hand, the role of the fauna in the development of these oxisols and, on the other hand, that colluvium can intervene in the burial of charcoal. (authors)

  16. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination

  17. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination.

  18. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  19. Non-affine deformation in microstructure selection in solids II: Elastoplastic theory for the dynamics of solid state transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Arya; Bhattacharya, Jayee; Sengupta, Surajit [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Calcutta 700 098 (India); Rao, Madan [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

    2008-09-10

    We study the nucleation dynamics of a model solid state transformation and the criterion for microstructure selection. Using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we had shown that the dynamics of the solid is accompanied by the creation of transient non-affine zones (NAZ), which evolve with the rapidly moving transformation front. Guided by our MD results, we formulate a dynamical continuum theory of solid state transformation, which couples the elastic strain to the non-affine deformation. We demonstrate that our elastoplastic description recovers all qualitative features of the MD simulation. We construct a dynamical phase diagram for microstructure selection, including regimes where martensite or ferrite obtains, in addition to making several testable predictions.

  20. Selected Oral Health Indicators in the United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restoration prevalence varied by race and ethnicity and poverty level across the lifespan. Prevalence of untreated caries ... in teeth, by sex, race and ethnicity, and poverty level: United States, 2005–2008 Characteristic Untreated dental ...

  1. Reversible switch between the nanoporous and the nonporous state of amphiphilic block copolymer films regulated by selective swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nina; Wang, Yong

    2015-09-21

    Switchable nanoporous films, which can repeatedly alternate their porosities, are of great interest in a diversity of fields. Currently these intelligent materials are mostly based on polyelectrolytes and their porosities can change only in relatively narrow ranges, typically under wet conditions, severely limiting their applications. Here we develop a new system, which is capable of reversibly switching between a highly porous state and a nonporous state dozens of times regulated simply by exposure to selective solvents. In this system nanopores are created or reversibly eliminated in films of a block copolymer, polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), by exposing the films to P2VP-selective or PS-selective solvents, respectively. The mechanism of the switch is based on the selective swelling of the constituent blocks in corresponding solvents, which is a nondestructive and easily controllable process enabling the repeatable and ample switch between the open and the closed state. Systematic microscopic and ellipsometric characterization methods are performed to elucidate the pore-closing course induced by nonsolvents and the cycling between the pore-open and the pore-closed state up to 20 times. The affinity of the solvent for PS blocks is found to play a dominating role in determining the pore-closing process and the porosities of the pore-open films increase with the cycling numbers as a result of loose packing conditions of the polymer chains. We finally demonstrate the potential applications of these films as intelligent antireflection coatings and drug carriers.

  2. Measurement of conformational constraints in an elastin-mimetic protein by residue-pair selected solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Mei [Iowa State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: mhong@iastate.edu; McMillan, R. Andrew; Conticello, Vincent P. [Emory University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2002-02-15

    We introduce a solid-state NMR technique for selective detection of a residue pair in multiply labeled proteins to obtain site-specific structural constraints. The method exploits the frequency-offset dependence of cross polarization to achieve {sup 13}CO{sub i} {sup {yields}} {sup 15}N{sub i} {sup {yields}} {sup 13}C{alpha}{sub i} transfer between two residues. A {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-labeled elastin mimetic protein (VPGVG){sub n} is used to demonstrate the method. The technique selected the Gly3 C{alpha} signal while suppressing the Gly5 C{alpha} signal, and allowed the measurement of the Gly3 C{alpha} chemical shift anisotropy to derive information on the protein conformation. This residue-pair selection technique should simplify the study of protein structure at specific residues.

  3. Measurement of conformational constraints in an elastin-mimetic protein by residue-pair selected solid-state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Mei; McMillan, R. Andrew; Conticello, Vincent P.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a solid-state NMR technique for selective detection of a residue pair in multiply labeled proteins to obtain site-specific structural constraints. The method exploits the frequency-offset dependence of cross polarization to achieve 13 CO i → 15 N i → 13 Cα i transfer between two residues. A 13 C, 15 N-labeled elastin mimetic protein (VPGVG) n is used to demonstrate the method. The technique selected the Gly3 Cα signal while suppressing the Gly5 Cα signal, and allowed the measurement of the Gly3 Cα chemical shift anisotropy to derive information on the protein conformation. This residue-pair selection technique should simplify the study of protein structure at specific residues

  4. All-solid-state potassium-selective electrode using graphene as the solid contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fenghua; Ye, Junjin; Zhou, Min

    2012-01-01

    Graphene sheets are used for the first time to fabricate a new type of solid-contact ion-selective electrode (SC-ISE) as the intermediate layer between an ionophore-doped solvent polymeric membrane and a glassy carbon electrode. The new transducing layer was characterized by transmission electron...

  5. Assisted selection in the improvement of soy for human consumption in the State of Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristoteles Capone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy in human food has several health benefits, but finds resistance to its consumption by the western ones due to the flavor caused by the lipoxygenases enzymes. The objective of this study was to select soybean TN (Triple Null hybrids in a population of the fourth self-fertilization cycle (F4 using techniques that use molecular markers. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal University of Tocantins Campus Gurupi - TO. Hybridizations between soybean progenitors adapted to Tocantins and TN were performed. Obtained the F1 population in the greenhouse, F2, F3 and F4 were planted in the field, in the F4 generation was selection of superior hybrid for DNA analysis in order to identify hybrids with the trait complete absence of Lox2 and 3. We selected one hundred seventy-one hybrid, made up of DNA extraction and PCR of all. It was concluded that the highest percentage of TN hybrids was obtained at the intersection BRSMG 790A (TN X GB874. Lox2 and Lox3 amplification primers confirmed as an essential tool in a soybean breeding program for human consumption. We selected 34 TN hybrids with the desired agronomic characteristics.

  6. Using a Prescreening Rubric for All-State Violin Selection: Influences of Performance and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Allen, Michael L.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Scott, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessment is an integral part of young musicians' development. Students enrolled in music programs frequently participate in adjudication festivals and many audition for select ensembles. Outcomes of such events are deemed consequential among all concerned: students, parents, teachers, and administrators. Furthermore, the number of…

  7. USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES IN SELECTED SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NONINI, CERISE

    A SURVEY BY QUESTIONNAIRE WAS MADE OF THE PROBLEM OF USER SERVICES AND EXTENSION SERVICES USED IN THE DISSEMINATION OF MATERIALS AND INFORMATION TO A SELECTED NUMBER OF INDUSTRIAL LIBRARIES. THE SURVEY RESULTED IN DATA CONCERNING STAFF SIZE, PROFESSIONAL-TO-CLERICAL RATIO, SIZE OF BOOK, DOCUMENT, PERIODICAL AND MICROFORM COLLECTIONS, LIBRARY…

  8. On the effect of emotional states on operator thinking. [psychological test for operator selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkova, A. V.

    1975-01-01

    A combination sonic and electrical skin stimuli stress test is reported that is suitable for the psychological selection of individuals to perform operator functions. The behavior of these people is characterized by a fighting spirit, increased work capacity, minimum expenditure of strength and insignificant fatigue.

  9. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  10. Ocular findings and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Cassandra D; Aquino, Susette; Woodhouse, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To describe ophthalmic examination findings and standard diagnostic test results in 2 penguin species. Macaroni & Southern Rockhopper Penguins. Complete ophthalmic examinations including Schirmer tear test (STT), modified phenol red thread test (PTT), tonometry, and echobiometry were performed on penguins housed at the Detroit Zoo. Mean and standard deviation of ophthalmic tests are reported and compared for significance using two sample t-tests with significance set at P Penguins, and 68% of Rockhopper Penguins. There were anterior segment anomalies in all eyes with cataracts consistent with lens-induced uveitis. The mean modified PTT for the Macaronis was 24.7 ± 6.37 mm/15 s and 25.1 ± 7.07 mm/15 s in the Rockhoppers. The mean STT value for the Macaronis was 12.1 ± 5.43 mm/min and 11.0 ± 3.96 mm/min in the Rockhoppers. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) for the Macaronis was 21.9 ± 7.05 mmHg measured by applanation tonometry and 29.1 ± 7.16 mmHg using rebound tonometry. The Rockhoppers had a mean IOP of 20.0 ± 5.77 mmHg and 24.1 ± 5.09 mmHg for applanation and rebound tonometry, respectively. In both populations, there was a significant difference in IOP measurement between the two instruments. In the Macaroni penguins, the presence of cataracts correlated significantly with increased age and lower IOP readings. Anterior chamber distance and axial globe length were significantly greater in males than in females in both penguin species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Review of Southern African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Southern African Studies is a multidisciplinary journal of Arts, Social and Behavioural Sciences. Vol 13, No 1 (2009). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Health-Care Waste Practices in Selected Health-Care Facilities in Maseru ...

  12. Soil fertility, humic fractions and natural abundance of "1"3C and "1"5N in soil under different land use in Parana State, Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, Arcangelo; Pereia, Marcos Gervasio; Costa, Elias Mendes; Beutler, Sidinei Julio; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia

    2016-01-01

    Humic fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) and measurements of "1"3C and "1"5N isotope can be used to highlight differences between management systems with different intensities of land use. This study characterized soil fertility, quantified carbon levels in the humic fractions and evaluated the natural abundance of "1"3C and "1"5N in systems cultivated under no-tillage system (NTS) and conventional tillage system (CTS) or used with secondary forest or perennial pasture in Marmeleiro, Parana State, Southern Brazil. NTS was more efficient than the conventional tillage system (CTS) in increasing pH (0.0-0.10 m layer), Ca (0.0-0.05 m layer), P (except 0.05-0.10 m layer) and N (0.0-0.10 m) levels, total organic carbon (TOC) stocks (0.0-0.20 and 0.0-0.40 m layers); carbon of the humin fraction (C-HUM) in 0.0-0.40 m; the fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF) and humic acid (C-HAF) in 0.0-0.05 m. The use of grasses, in NTS and pasture, increased TOC stocks compared to the other soil use or management systems evaluated in the 0.0-0.40 m layer. In the topsoil layer, the anthropogenic influence of plowing and harrowing in CTS promoted greater loss of carbon in C-HUM, C-FAF and C-HAF than NTS, forest and pasture. In CTS, growing corn for 42 years after the removal of forest cover did not alter the "1"3C at 0.0-0.40 m. In pasture, the absence of legumes, constant deposition of cattle manure and a more stable organic matter favored high "1"5N levels (except at 0.0-0.05 m in CTS). The decrease in "1"5N values from the 0.0-0.10 to 0.10-0.20 m layer in CTS indicates that soil turnover (by plowing and harrowing) has the potential to disturb the depth-related variation in soil "1"5N, accelerating decomposition and compromising N transformations. Among the variables analyzed, the determination of carbon in humic fractions and "1"5N values were efficient in identifying soil changes produced by land use or management systems

  13. Características produtivas de cultivares de cebola no Sul de Minas Gerais Yield of onion cultivars in the Southern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificou-se cultivares de cebola mais produtivas através de um ensaio da EPAMIG em Lavras, de março a setembro de 1994. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos, constituídos das cultivares Granex 33, Texas Grano 502, Crioula, Pira Ouro, Baia Periforme, Jubileu e Chata Roxa com parcelas de 3,84 m² de área útil. A produtividade de bulbos comerciais variou de 22,58 a 50,21 t/ha, destacando-se as cultivares Granex 33 (50,21 t/ha e Texas Grano 502 (44,36 t/ha que não mostraram diferença significativa entre si. Estas cultivares apresentaram incrementos na produtividade da ordem de 204,3 a 168,8% em relação à média nacional (16,5 t/ha. O mais baixo rendimento foi observado para a cultivar Chata Roxa com 22,58 t/ha. Observaram-se variações de 45,99 a 97,69 g/bulbo para peso médio de bulbo e 5,35 a 7,38 cm para o diâmetro transversal de bulbos.To identify onion cultivars of higher yield for the southern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, a field trial from EPAMIG was conducted in Lavras, Brazil, from March to September 1994.The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and seven treatments: Granex 33, Texas Grano 502, Crioula, Pira Ouro, Baia Periforme, Jubileu and Chata Roxa. The harvesting area of each plot was 3.84 m². The yield of commercial bulbs varied from 22.58 to 50.21 t/ha, and the highest yield was achieved by the cultivars Granex (50.21 t/ha and Texas Grano 502 (44.36 t/ha with no significant difference between them. These cultivars exceeded the national average yield (16.5 t/ha from 204.3 to 168.8%. The lowest yield was shown by the cultivar Chata Roxa (22.58 t/ha. A variation occurred from 45.99 to 97.69 g/bulb and 5.35 to 7.39 cm for the bulb diameter.

  14. Chronology and References of Volcanic Eruptions and Selected Unrest in the United States, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The United States ranks as one of the top countries in the world in the number of young, active volcanoes within its borders. The United States, including the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is home to approximately 170 geologically active (age activity, unrest, that do not culminate in eruptions. Monitoring volcanic activity in the United States is the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and is accomplished with academic, Federal, and State partners. The VHP supports five Volcano Observatories - the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the exception of HVO, which was established in 1912, the U.S. Volcano Observatories have been established in the past 27 years in response to specific volcanic eruptions or sustained levels of unrest. As understanding of volcanic activity and hazards has grown over the years, so have the extent and types of monitoring networks and techniques available to detect early signs of anomalous volcanic behavior. This increased capability is providing us with a more accurate gauge of volcanic activity in the United States. The purpose of this report is to (1) document the range of volcanic activity that U.S. Volcano Observatories have dealt with, beginning with the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, (2) describe some overall characteristics of the activity, and (3) serve as a quick reference to pertinent published literature on the eruptions and unrest documented in this report.

  15. Selective Efficacy of Static and Dynamic Imagery in Different States of Physical Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira Dias Kanthack

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that motor imagery contributes to improved motor performance, and recent work showed that dynamic motor imagery (dMI might provide additional benefits by comparison with traditional MI practice. However, the efficacy of motor imagery in different states of physical fatigue remains largely unknown, especially as imagery accuracy may be hampered by the physical fatigue states elicited by training. We investigated the effect of static motor imagery (sMI and dMI on free-throw accuracy in 10 high-level basketball athletes, both in a non-fatigued state (Experiment 1 and immediately after an incremental running test completed until exhaustion (20 m shuttle run-test-Experiment 2. We collected perceived exhaustion and heart rate to quantify the subjective experience of fatigue and energy expenditure. We found that dMI brought better shooting performance than sMI, except when athletes were physically exhausted. These findings shed light on the conditions eliciting optimal use of sMI and dMI. In particular, considering that the current physical state affects body representation, performing dMI under fatigue may result in mismatches between actual and predicted body states.

  16. Chemical-state-selective mapping at nanometer scale using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Norie; Baba, Yuji; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Shimoyama, Iwao; Honda, Mitsunori

    2010-01-01

    For surface analyses of semiconductor devices and various functional materials, it has become indispensable to analyze valence states at nanometer scale due to the rapid developments of nanotechnology. Since a method for microscopic mapping dependent on the chemical bond states has not been established so far, we have developed a photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) system combined with synchrotron soft X-ray excitation. The samples investigated were Si/SiO x micro-patterns prepared by O 2 + ion implantation in Si(001) wafer using a mask. PEEM images excited by various photon energies around the Si K-edge were observed. The lateral spatial resolution of the system was about 41 nm. The brightness of each spot in PEEM images changed depending on the photon energy, due to the X-ray absorption intensity of the respective chemical state. Since the surface of this sample was topographically flat, it has been demonstrated that the present method can be applied to observations of the microscopic pattern, depending not on the morphology, but only on the valence states of silicon. We have also in-situ measured the changes of the PEEM images upon annealing, and elucidated the mechanism of the lateral diffusion of oxygen and valence states of silicon at the nanometer scale. (author)

  17. Chemical-state-selective mapping at nanometer scale using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Norie; Baba, Yuji; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Shimoyama, Iwao; Honda, Mitsunori

    2008-01-01

    For surface analyses of semiconductor devices and various functional materials, it has become indispensable to analyze the valence states at the nanometer scale due to the rapid developments of nanotechnology. Since a method for microscopic mapping dependent on the chemical bond states has not been established so far, we have developed a photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) system combined with synchrotron soft X-ray excitation. The samples investigated were Si/SiO x micro-patterns prepared by O 2 + ion implantation in a Si(001) wafer using a mask. PEEM images excited by various photon energies around the Si K-edge were observed. The lateral spatial resolution of the system was about 41 nm. The brightness of each spot in PEEM images changed depending on the photon energy, due to the X-ray absorption intensity of the respective chemical state. Since the surface of this sample is topographically flat, it has been demonstrated that the present method can be applied to observations of the microscopic pattern, depending not on the morphology, but only on the valence states of silicon. We have also in-situ measured the changes of PEEM images upon annealing, and elucidated the mechanism of the lateral diffusion of oxygen and valence states of silicon at the nanometer scale. (author)

  18. Probing the Vibrational Spectroscopy of the Deprotonated Thymine Radical by Photodetachment and State-Selective Autodetachment Photoelectron Spectroscopy via Dipole-Bound States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dao-Ling; Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonated thymine can exist in two different forms, depending on which of its two N sites is deprotonated: N1[T-H]^- or N3[T-H]^-. Here we report a photodetachment study of the N1[T-H]^- isomer cooled in a cryogenic ion trap and the observation of an excited dipole-bound state. Eighteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state are observed, and its vibrational ground state is found to be 238 ± 5 wn below the detachment threshold of N1[T-H]^-. The electron affinity of the deprotonated thymine radical (N1[T-H]^.) is measured accruately to be 26 322 ± 5 wn (3.2635 ± 0.0006 eV). By tuning the detachment laser to the sixteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state that are above the detachment threshold, highly non-Franck-Condon resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectra are obtained due to state- and mode-selective vibrational autodetachment. Much richer vibrational information is obtained for the deprotonated thymine radical from the photodetachment and resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectroscopy. Eleven fundamental vibrational frequencies in the low-frequency regime are obtained for the N1[T-H]^. radical, including the two lowest-frequency internal rotational modes of the methyl group at 70 ± 8 wn and 92 ± 5 wn. D. L. Huang, H. T. Liu, C. G. Ning, G. Z. Zhu and L. S. Wang, Chem. Sci., 6, 3129-3138 (2015)

  19. Isotropic-nematic transition in shear flow: State selection, coexistence, phase transitions, and critical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Peter D.; Goldbart, Paul M.

    1992-10-01

    Macroscopic fluid motion can have dramatic consequences near the isotropic-nematic transition in fluids of nematogens. We explore some of these consequences using both deterministic and stochastic descriptions involving coupled hydrodynamic equations of motion for the nematic order parameter and fluid velocity fields. By analyzing the deterministic equations of motion we identify the locally stable states of homogeneous nematic order and strain rate, thus determining the homogeneous nonequilibrium steady states which the fluid may adopt. By examining inhomogeneous steady states we construct the analog of a first-order phase boundary, i.e., a line in the nonequilibrium phase diagram spanned by temperature and applied stress, at which nonequilibrium states may coexist, and which terminates in a nonequilibrium analog of a critical point. From an analysis of the nematic order-parameter discontinuity across the coexistence line, along with properties of the interface between homogeneous states, we extract the analog of classical equilibrium critical behavior near the nonequilibrium critical point. We develop a theory of fluctuations about biaxial nonequilibrium steady states by augmenting the deterministic description with noise terms, to simulate the effect of thermal fluctuations. We use this description to discuss the scattering of polarized light by order-parameter fluctuations near the nonequilibrium critical point and also in weak shear flow near the equilibrium phase transition. We find that fluids of nematogens near an appropriate temperature and strain rate exhibit the analog of critical opalescence, the intensity of which is sensitive to the polarizations of the incident and scattered light, and to the precise form of the critical mode.

  20. Hook selectivity of the pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 in the Pantanal, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peixer

    Full Text Available The Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is the most captured fish species in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, and since 1994, its maximum sustainable yield had already been exceeded. Its capture is carried out only by hooks, as mesh gears are forbidden either for professional or for recreational fishing. The aim of this study was to determine selectivity for different hook sizes used in P. mesopotamicus fishing and to verify which sizes capture only adults. Data were collected in the rivers Miranda, Aquidauana, and Vermelho, in January, March, and April 2002. Six longlines with eight hook sizes were used and we adopted the hook opening as a measure related to selectivity. Different hooks captured individuals of the same length and their medians were similar, evidencing the great overlap among sizes. Regression results showed no significant relationship between ln[c2 (l/c1 (l] and total length of captured individuals. In addition, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test also did not detect significant differences in the size of captured fish. Several hypotheses, such as the selectivity models, shape of selection curves, scarcity of large fishes, and behavior are used in order to explain the absence of hook selectivity for this species. Size of recruitment for this gear was 28 cm of total length, when individuals are still immature.

  1. SELECTION AND USE OF YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM AUTOCHTHONOUS SOUTHERN ITALY GRAPEWINE CULTIVARS AND IMPACT ON AROMA PROFILE OF PRODUCED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Boscaino, Floriana

    2015-01-01

    Today, the use of selected commercial yeasts (LSA) from Saccharomyces species "sensu stricto" is widespread, because it allows to minimize risks in the production process, to standardize the winemaking procedure and ensure the quality of the final product. On the other hand, the widespread use of starter cultures in the wine industry has resulted in a loss of wine sensory characteristics and in a flattening of those differences crucial to distinguish wines of different cultivars. For this ...

  2. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2017-05-23

    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  3. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Rang; Chung, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Sun Woo

    2012-01-01

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  4. Transparent control of three-body selective destruction of tunneling via unusual states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yunrong; Tan, Jintao; Hai, Wenhua; Lu, Gengbiao

    2015-01-01

    We study transparent control of quantum tunneling via unusual analytical solutions for three bosons held in a driven double-well. Under high-frequency approximation, we analytically obtain the fine band structure and general non-Floquet state. At some collapse points of the quasi-energy spectra, the latter becomes the unusual special states. Based on the analytical results and their numerical correspondences, we clearly reveal the mechanism of coherent tunneling and suggest a scheme to transparently control the tunneling of three bosons from one well to another. The results can be observed with the current experimental capability (Chen et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 210405) (paper)

  5. Beam experiments with state selected Ne (3P0, 3P2) metastable atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable rare gas atoms play an important role in all types of plasmas and gas discharges, e.g. in fluorescent lamps and in laser discharges (helium-neon laser or excimer lasers). In this thesis, the metastable states of NeI are studied. First, the theory of excited neon atoms and diatomic molecules is introduced, as well as Penning ionisation. Next, some experimental facilities are described (e.g. the dye laser system). With these instruments, natural lifetime measurements of the 2p fine structure states of NeI are carried out. Results are reported. Finally, total Penning ionisation cross sections are calculated using the optical potential model. (Auth.)

  6. WRF model sensitivity to land surface model and cumulus parameterization under short-term climate extremes over the southern Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi Pei; Nathan Moore; Shiyuan Zhong; Lifeng Luo; David W. Hyndman; Warren E. Heilman; Zhiqiu. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather and climate events, especially short-term excessive drought and wet periods over agricultural areas, have received increased attention. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) is one of the largest agricultural regions in North America and features the underlying Ogallala-High Plains Aquifer system worth great economic value in large part due to production...

  7. Effects of Watershed Land Use and Geomorphology on Stream Low Flows During Severe Drought Conditions in the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, Georgia and North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use and physiographic variability influence stream low flows, yet their interactions and relative influence remain unresolved. Our objective was to assess the influence of land use and watershed geomorphic characteristics on low-flow variability in the southern Blue Ridge Mo...

  8. Effects of watershed land use and geomorphology on stream low flows during severe drought conditions in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, Georgia and North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Price; C. Jackson; Albert Parker; Trond Reitan; John Dowd; Mike Cyterski

    2011-01-01

    Land use and physiographic variability influence stream low flows, yet their interactions and relative influence remain unresolved. Our objective was to assess the influence of land use and watershed geomorphic characteristics on low-flow variability in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina and Georgia. Ten minute interval discharge data for 35 streams (...

  9. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2015-11-05

    Profiles of reservoir properties of oil-bearing plays for selected petroleum provinces in the United States were developed to characterize the database to be used for a potential assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of oil that would be technically recoverable by the application of enhanced oil recovery methods using injection of carbon dioxide (CO2-EOR). The USGS assessment methodology may require reservoir-level data for the purposes of screening conventional oil reservoirs and projecting CO2-EOR performance in terms of the incremental recoverable oil. The information used in this report is based on reservoir properties from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012). As described by Nehring Associates, Inc., the database “covers all producing provinces (basins) in the United States except the Appalachian Basin and the Cincinnati Arch.”

  10. Southern African Development Research Network | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to craft policies for fruitful integration into the global economy and inclusive growth. ... The grant will support a broad-based research network, the Southern Africa ... researchers based in regional institutions; transforming selected institutions ...

  11. State University of New York Maritime College: Selected Financial Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This report presents audit findings of the financial management practices at the State University of New York (SUNY) Maritime College, which trains students to become licensed officers in the U.S. Merchant Marines. Specifically, the audit examined whether SUNY Maritime maintains an adequate internal control environment and adequate internal…

  12. The way toward theoretical description of state-selected reactions of O+ with methane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrušák, Jan; Paidarová, Ivana

    354-355, SI (2013), s. 372-377 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0446 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : methane oxidation * excited state * ab initio MCSCF calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  13. Iterative universal state selective correction for the Brillouin-Wigner multireference coupled-cluster theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banik, Subrata; Ravichandran, Lalitha; Brabec, J.; Hubač, I.; Kowalski, K.; Pittner, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 11 (2015), s. 114106 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13117; GA ČR GAP208/11/2222 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : QUADRUPLY EXCITED CLUSTERS * QUASI-DEGENERATE STATES * DOUBLE-EXCITATION MODEL Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2015

  14. Attitude of Students towards Cooperative Learning in Some Selected Secondary Schools in Nasarawa State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah; Gudi, Kreni Comfort

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the attitude of students toward the cooperative learning approach. A quasiexperimental design was used for the study. The sample was made of 179 SS 1 students drawn from three public secondary schools in Nasarawa state. The Jigsaw Attitude Questionnaire (JAQ) was adapted from Koprowski and Perigo (2000) and was…

  15. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  16. Selective buckling via states of self-stress in topological metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Jayson; Meeussen, Anne S; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2015-06-23

    States of self-stress--tensions and compressions of structural elements that result in zero net forces--play an important role in determining the load-bearing ability of structures ranging from bridges to metamaterials with tunable mechanical properties. We exploit a class of recently introduced states of self-stress analogous to topological quantum states to sculpt localized buckling regions in the interior of periodic cellular metamaterials. Although the topological states of self-stress arise in the linear response of an idealized mechanical frame of harmonic springs connected by freely hinged joints, they leave a distinct signature in the nonlinear buckling behavior of a cellular material built out of elastic beams with rigid joints. The salient feature of these localized buckling regions is that they are indistinguishable from their surroundings as far as material parameters or connectivity of their constituent elements are concerned. Furthermore, they are robust against a wide range of structural perturbations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this topological design through analytical and numerical calculations as well as buckling experiments performed on two- and three-dimensional metamaterials built out of stacked kagome lattices.

  17. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  18. Preliminary assessment of biogeographic affinities of selected insect taxa of the state of Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Jones; Alejandro Obregon-Zuniga; Sandra Guzman-Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The biogeographic affinites of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperidae), damsel and dragonflies (Odonata), and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) reported from the State of Sonora, Mexico were analyzed using published species lists. The combined distribution of these taxa was proportionally greater (47.4%) for those species within the Mega-Mexico3...

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STATE LICENSING BOARDS FOR SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND OTHER SELECTED PROFESSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLINARI, RALPH G.; AND OTHERS

    COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION, CHARACTERISTICS, AND CURRENT LICENSING PRACTICES OF STATE LICENSING BOARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION WITH LICENSING PROGRAMS FOR SEVEN OTHER PROFESSIONS, (ACCOUNTANCY, ARCHITECTURE, DENTISTRY, ENGINEERING, LAW, MEDICINE, AND NURSING) WAS THE PURPOSE OF THIS NATIONWIDE STUDY. THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES WERE DIVIDED…

  20. Step Towards Modeling the Atmosphere of Titan: State-Selected Reactions of O+ with Methane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrušák, Jan; Paidarová, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-424 ISSN 0169-6149 Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1308 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : methane oxidation * excited states * transition dipole moments Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2016