WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected source-detector combinations

  1. Efficient Generation and Selection of Combined Features for Improved Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Shono, Ahmad N.

    2014-05-01

    This study contributes a methodology and associated toolkit developed to allow users to experiment with the use of combined features in classification problems. Methods are provided for efficiently generating combined features from an original feature set, for efficiently selecting the most discriminating of these generated combined features, and for efficiently performing a preliminary comparison of the classification results when using the original features exclusively against the results when using the selected combined features. The potential benefit of considering combined features in classification problems is demonstrated by applying the developed methodology and toolkit to three sample data sets where the discovery of combined features containing new discriminating information led to improved classification results.

  2. Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. ... Greenhouse trials showed that combined inoculations of T. atroviride strain 6 and B. subtilis B69 gave the highest growth promotion of bean in terms of ...

  3. INDUSTRIAL BOILER RETROFIT FOR NOX CONTROL: COMBINED SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes retrofitting and testing a 590 kW (2 MBtu/hr), oil-fired, three-pass, fire-tube package boiler with a combined selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The system demonstrated 85% nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction w...

  4. Simulation based investigation of source-detector configurations for non-invasive fetal pulse oximetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttrich Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a method to monitor the oxygen supply of the unborn child non-invasively. Due to the measurement setup, the received signal of the detector is composed of photons coding purely maternal and photons coding mixed fetal-maternal information. To analyze the wellbeing of the fetus, the fetal signal is extracted from the mixed component. In this paper we assess source-detector configurations, such that the mixed fetal-maternal components of the acquired signals are maximized. Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate light propagation and photon distribution in tissue. We use a plane layer and a spherical layer geometry to model the abdomen of a pregnant woman. From the simulations we extracted the fluence at the detector side for several source-detector distances and analyzed the ratio of the mixed fluence component to total fluence. Our simulations showed that the power of the mixed component depends on the source-detector distance as expected. Further we were able to visualize hot spot areas in the spherical layer model where the mixed fluence ratio reaches the highest level. The results are of high importance for sensor design considering signal composition and quality for non-invasive fetal pulse oximetry.

  5. Combining AHP and DEA Methods for Selecting a Project Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruch Keren

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A project manager has a major influence on the success or failure of the project. A good project manager can match between the strategy and objectives of the organization and the goals of the project. Therefore, the selection of the appropriate project manager is a key factor for the success of the project. A potential project manager is judged by his or her proven performance and personal qualifications. This paper proposes a method to calculate the weighted scores and the full rank of candidates for managing a project, and to select the best of those candidates. The proposed method combines specific methodologies: the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP and uses DEA Ranking Methods to enhance selection.

  6. Selection combining for noncoherent decode-and-forward relay networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies a new decode-and-forward relaying scheme for a cooperative wireless network composed of one source, K relays, and one destination and with binary frequency-shift keying modulation. A single threshold is employed to select retransmitting relays as follows: a relay retransmits to the destination if its decision variable is larger than the threshold; otherwise, it remains silent. The destination then performs selection combining for the detection of transmitted information. The average end-to-end bit-error-rate (BER is analytically determined in a closed-form expression. Based on the derived BER, the problem of choosing an optimal threshold or jointly optimal threshold and power allocation to minimize the end-to-end BER is also investigated. Both analytical and simulation results reveal that the obtained optimal threshold scheme or jointly optimal threshold and power-allocation scheme can significantly improve the BER performance compared to a previously proposed scheme.

  7. In vivo time-gated diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliazzi, M; Sekar, S Konugolu Venkata; Di Sieno, L; Colombo, L; Durduran, T; Contini, D; Torricelli, A; Pifferi, A; Mora, A Dalla

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate time domain diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation by using a fast time-gated single-photon avalanche diode without the need of time-tagging electronics. This approach allows for increased photon collection, simplified real-time instrumentation, and reduced probe dimensions. Depth discriminating, quasi-null distance measurement of blood flow in a human subject is presented. We envision the miniaturization and integration of matrices of optical sensors of increased spatial resolution and the enhancement of the contrast of local blood flow changes.

  8. Selection Component Analysis of Natural Polymorphisms using Population Samples Including Mother-Offspring Combinations, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1981-01-01

    Population samples including mother-offspring combinations provide information on the selection components: zygotic selection, sexual selection, gametic seletion and fecundity selection, on the mating pattern, and on the deviation from linkage equilibrium among the loci studied. The theory...

  9. A response matrix method for slab-geometry discrete ordinates adjoint calculations in energy-dependent source-detector problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Ralph S.; Moura, Carlos A., E-mail: ralph@ime.uerj.br, E-mail: demoura@ime.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2017-07-01

    Presented here is an application of the Response Matrix (RM) method for adjoint discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) problems in slab geometry applied to energy-dependent source-detector problems. The adjoint RM method is free from spatial truncation errors, as it generates numerical results for the adjoint angular fluxes in multilayer slabs that agree with the numerical values obtained from the analytical solution of the energy multigroup adjoint SN equations. Numerical results are given for two typical source-detector problems to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered RM computer code. (author)

  10. Efficient Generation and Selection of Combined Features for Improved Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Shono, Ahmad N.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes a methodology and associated toolkit developed to allow users to experiment with the use of combined features in classification problems. Methods are provided for efficiently generating combined features from an original

  11. Collecting data in the home laboratory: evolution of X-ray sources, detectors and working practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarzynski, Tadeusz, E-mail: tadeusz.skarzynski@agilent.com [Agilent Technologies, 10 Mead Road, Yarnton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in X-ray crystallographic hardware related to structural biology research are presented and discussed. While the majority of macromolecular X-ray data are currently collected using highly efficient beamlines at an ever-increasing number of synchrotrons, there is still a need for high-performance reliable systems for in-house experiments. In addition to crystal screening and optimization of data-collection parameters before a synchrotron trip, the home system allows the collection of data as soon as the crystals are produced to obtain the solution of novel structures, especially by the molecular-replacement method, and is invaluable in achieving the quick turnover that is often required for ligand-binding studies in the pharmaceutical industry. There has been a continuous evolution of X-ray sources, detectors and software developed for in-house use in recent years and a diverse range of tools for structural biology laboratories are available. An overview of the main directions of these developments and examples of specific solutions available to the macromolecular crystallography community are presented in this paper, showing that data collection ‘at home’ is still an attractive proposition complementing the use of synchrotron beamlines.

  12. The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand two hundred and fifty sexed day-old broiler chicks obtained from a commercial hatchery were divided randomly into five treatment groups (negative control, antibiotic and essential oil combination (EOC) at three levels) of 250 birds each. Each treatment group was further sub-divided into five replicates of 50 ...

  13. Combination of soil classification and some selected soil properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantage in the combined use of soil classification and top soil analysis for explaining crop yield variation was examined. Soil properties and yields of maize (Zea mays L) on different soil types were measured on farmers' fields for 2 years. Yield prediction improved from 2 per cent at the Order and Association levels to ...

  14. Combining Technical and Financial Impacts for Countermeasure Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzalez-Granadillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in information security has generally focused on providing a comprehensive interpretation of threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks, in particular to evaluate their danger and prioritize responses accordingly. Most of the current approaches propose advanced techniques to detect intrusions and complex attacks but few of these approaches propose well defined methodologies to react against a given attack. In this paper, we propose a novel and systematic method to select security countermeasures from a pool of candidates, by ranking them based on the technical and financial impact associated to each alternative. The method includes industrial evaluation and simulations of the impact associated to a given security measure which allows to compute the return on response investment for different candidates. A simple case study is proposed at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the model.

  15. Enhanced Plasmonic Wavelength Selective Infrared Emission Combined with Microheater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ishihara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The indirect wavelength selective thermal emitter that we have proposed is constructed using a new microheater, demonstrating the enhancement of the emission peak generated by the surface plasmon polariton. The thermal isolation is improved using a 2 μm-thick Si membrane having 3.6 and 5.4 mm outer diameter. The emission at around the wavelength of the absorption band of CO2 gas is enhanced. The absorption signal increases, confirming the suitability for gas sensing. Against input power, the intensity at the peak wavelength shows a steeper increasing ratio than the background intensity. The microheater with higher thermal isolation gives larger peak intensity and its increasing ratio against the input power.

  16. Depth sensitivity and source-detector separations for near infrared spectroscopy based on the Colin27 brain template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial and depth sensitivity of non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurements to brain tissue-i.e., near-infrared neuromonitoring (NIN - is essential for designing experiments as well as interpreting research findings. However, a thorough characterization of such sensitivity in realistic head models has remained unavailable. In this study, we conducted 3,555 Monte Carlo (MC simulations to densely cover the scalp of a well-characterized, adult male template brain (Colin27. We sought to evaluate: (i the spatial sensitivity profile of NIRS to brain tissue as a function of source-detector separation, (ii the NIRS sensitivity to brain tissue as a function of depth in this realistic and complex head model, and (iii the effect of NIRS instrument sensitivity on detecting brain activation. We found that increasing the source-detector (SD separation from 20 to 65 mm provides monotonic increases in sensitivity to brain tissue. For every 10 mm increase in SD separation (up to ~45 mm, sensitivity to gray matter increased an additional 4%. Our analyses also demonstrate that sensitivity in depth (S decreases exponentially, with a "rule-of-thumb" formula S=0.75*0.85(depth. Thus, while the depth sensitivity of NIRS is not strictly limited, NIN signals in adult humans are strongly biased towards the outermost 10-15 mm of intracranial space. These general results, along with the detailed quantitation of sensitivity estimates around the head, can provide detailed guidance for interpreting the likely sources of NIRS signals, as well as help NIRS investigators design and plan better NIRS experiments, head probes and instruments.

  17. Influence of skin blood flow and source-detector distance on near-infrared spectroscopy-determined cerebral oxygenation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirasawa, Ai; Yanagisawa, Shintaro; Tanaka, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Most near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) apparatus fails to isolate cerebral oxygenation from an extracranial contribution although they use different source-detector distances. Nevertheless, the effect of different source-detector distances and change in extracranial blood flow on the NIRS signal...... in a semi-recumbent position, while extracranial blood flow was restricted by application of four different pressures (+20 to +80 mmHg) to the left temporal artery. The O2 Hb was measured at the forehead via a multidistance probe (source-detector distance; 15, 22·5 and 30 mm), and SkBF was determined...... by laser Doppler. Heart rate and blood pressure were unaffected by application of pressure to the temporal artery, while SkBF gradually decreased (Papplied pressure...

  18. SELECTING WORKING TEAMS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OUTSOURCING PROJECTS THROUGH A COMBINATION OF METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Castellini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper deals with a problem that Information Technology outsourcing suppliers generally face when selecting a working team technically capable for specific roles in software development projects. A combination of methodologies, interactively integrated, is proposed. They are Soft System Methodology to structure the problem, Repertory Grid for individual interviews and elicitation of the selection criteria, DRV Processes to assess the candidates and to generate knowledge and consensus on the selection process and Linear Programming to assign people to each position. This multimethodology allowed finding a more comprehensive solution than that initially requested by the company, since it helped to establish the necessary transformations for the selection model to operate in the right way, set the competencies to be considered as selection criteria, develop a consensus estimate of the weighted criteria, and award global values to candidates, optimizing the assignment of roles in the group for the project.

  19. A combination of selected mapping and clipping to increase energy efficiency of OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Moo; Rim, You Seung

    2017-01-01

    We propose an energy efficient combination design for OFDM systems based on selected mapping (SLM) and clipping peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction techniques, and show the related energy efficiency (EE) performance analysis. The combination of two different PAPR reduction techniques can provide a significant benefit in increasing EE, because it can take advantages of both techniques. For the combination, we choose the clipping and SLM techniques, since the former technique is quite simple and effective, and the latter technique does not cause any signal distortion. We provide the structure and the systematic operating method, and show the various analyzes to derive the EE gain based on the combined technique. Our analysis show that the combined technique increases the EE by 69% compared to no PAPR reduction, and by 19.34% compared to only using SLM technique. PMID:29023591

  20. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-diversity combining and selection for relay-assisted mixed RF/FSO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Weidong

    2017-12-01

    We propose and analyze multi-diversity combining and selection to enhance the performance of relay-assisted mixed radio frequency/free-space optics (RF/FSO) system. We focus on a practical scenario for cellular network where a single-antenna source is communicating to a multi-apertures destination through a relay equipped with multiple receive antennas and multiple transmit apertures. The RF single input multiple output (SIMO) links employ either maximal-ratio combining (MRC) or receive antenna selection (RAS), and the FSO multiple input multiple output (MIMO) links adopt either repetition coding (RC) or transmit laser selection (TLS). The performance is evaluated via an outage probability analysis over Rayleigh fading RF links and Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence FSO links with pointing errors where channel state information (CSI) assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) scheme is considered. Asymptotic closed-form expressions at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are also derived. Coding gain and diversity order for different combining and selection schemes are further discussed. Numerical results are provided to verify and illustrate the analytical results.

  2. Engineering Tocopherol Selectivity in α-TTP: A Combined In Vitro/In Silico Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Rachel E.; Aeschimann, Walter; Simona, Fabio; Stocker, Achim; Cascella, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We present a combined in vitro/in silico study to determine the molecular origin of the selectivity of -tocopherol transfer protein (-TTP) towards -tocopherol. Molecular dynamics simulations combined to free energy perturbation calculations predict a binding free energy for -tocopherol to -TTP 8.262.13 kcal mol lower than that of -tocopherol. Our calculations show that -tocopherol binds to -TTP in a significantly distorted geometry as compared to that of the natural ligand. Variations in the hydration of the binding pocket and in the protein structure are found as well. We propose a mutation, A156L, which significantly modifies the selectivity properties of -TTP towards the two tocopherols. In particular, our simulations predict that A156L binds preferentially to -tocopherol, with striking structural similarities to the wild-type--tocopherol complex. The affinity properties are confirmed by differential scanning fluorimetry as well as in vitro competitive binding assays. Our data indicate that residue A156 is at a critical position for determination of the selectivity of -TTP. The engineering of TTP mutants with modulating binding properties can have potential impact at industrial level for easier purification of single tocopherols from vitamin E mixtures coming from natural oils or synthetic processes. Moreover, the identification of a -tocopherol selective TTP offers the possibility to challenge the hypotheses for the evolutionary development of a mechanism for -tocopherol selection in omnivorous animals. PMID:23152872

  3. Analysis of switch and examine combining with post-examining selection in cognitive radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rupali; Srivastava, Neelam; Katiyar, Himanshu

    2018-06-01

    To perform spectrum sensing in fading environment is one of the most challenging tasks for a CR system. Diversity combining schemes are used to combat the effect of fading and hence detection probability of CR gets improved. Among many diversity combining techniques, switched diversity offers one of the lowest complexity solutions. The receiver embedded with switched diversity looks for an acceptable diversity path (having signal to noise ratio (SNR) above the required threshold) to receive the data. In conventional switch and examine combining (SEC) scheme, when no acceptable path is found after all the paths are examined, the receiver randomly chooses an unacceptable path. Switch and examine combining with post-examining selection (SECp) is a modified version of conventional SEC. In SECp, the conventional SEC scheme is altered in a way that it selects the best path when no acceptable path is found after all paths have been examined. In this paper, formula for probability of detection ( ?) is derived using SECp and SEC diversity combining technique over Rayleigh fading channel. Also the performance of SECp is compared with SEC and no diversity case. Performance comparison is done with the help of SNR vs. ? and complementary receiver operating characteristic curves.

  4. Evolution of cooperation: combining kin selection and reciprocal altruism into matrix games with social dilemmas.

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    Som B Ale

    Full Text Available Darwinian selection should preclude cooperation from evolving; yet cooperation is widespread among organisms. We show how kin selection and reciprocal altruism can promote cooperation in diverse 2×2 matrix games (prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift, and hawk-dove. We visualize kin selection as non-random interactions with like-strategies interacting more than by chance. Reciprocal altruism emerges from iterated games where players have some likelihood of knowing the identity of other players. This perspective allows us to combine kin selection and reciprocal altruism into a general matrix game model. Both mechanisms operating together should influence the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of kin selection, reciprocal altruism may be an evolutionarily stable strategy but is unable to invade a population of non-co-operators. Similarly, it may take a high degree of relatedness to permit cooperation to supplant non-cooperation. Together, a little bit of reciprocal altruism can, however, greatly reduce the threshold at which kin selection promotes cooperation, and vice-versa. To properly frame applications and tests of cooperation, empiricists should consider kin selection and reciprocal altruism together rather than as alternatives, and they should be applied to a broader class of social dilemmas than just the prisoner's dilemma.

  5. A Combined group EA-PROMETHEE method for a supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rezaee Kelidbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important decisions which impacts all firms’ activities is the supplier selection problem. Since the 1950s, several works have addressed this problem by treating different aspects and instances. In this paper, a combined multiple criteria decision making (MCDM technique (EA-PROMETHEE has been applied to implement a proper decision making. To this aim, after reviewing the theoretical background regarding to supplier selection, the extension analysis (EA is used to determine the importance of criteria and PROMETHEE for appraisal of suppliers based on the criteria. An empirical example illustrated the proposed approach.

  6. Sensor combination and chemometric variable selection for online monitoring of Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ödman, Peter; Johansen, C.L.; Olsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    of biomass and substrate (casamino acids) concentrations, respectively. The effect of combination of fluorescence and gas analyzer data as well as of different variable selection methods was investigated. Improved prediction models were obtained by combination of data from the two sensors and by variable......Fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor, producing the antibiotic actinorhodin, were monitored online by multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and off-gas analysis. Partial least squares (PLS), locally weighted regression, and multilinear PLS (N-PLS) models were built for prediction...

  7. Evaluation of different selection indices combining Pilodyn penetration and growth performance in Eucalyptus clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Caíque Pires Nunes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the selection indices efficiency for Pilodyn penetration combined with growth traits in Eucalyptus clones. It was carried out experiments in a randomized block design, with single tree plots and 30 replications. Diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (TH, and Pilodyn penetration as an indicator of basic density (BD were measured. The volume was estimated. Based on predicted genotypic values, three indices presented the highest accuracies: I8 (based on partial correlation, I7 (based on the concept of multivariate BLUP and I3 (based on two variables as ratio, which uses a third heritability estimate associated to the ratio DBH/BD, besides the two heritabilities of DBH and BD. Thus, it is possible to optimize the selection by combining properly the variables using their genetic control, precision and the relationships between them. The best options came from using only two no redundant traits DBH and BD.

  8. Frequency Selective Properties of Coaxial Transmission Lines Loaded with Combined Artificial Inclusions

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    Francisco Falcone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a modified coaxial transmission line by periodic inclusions will be discussed. The introduction of split ring resonators, conductor stubs, air gaps, and combination of these gives rise to new frequency selective properties, such as stopband or passband behavior, observable in planar as well as volumetric metamaterial structures. These results envisage new potential applications and implementation of devices in coaxial transmission line technology.

  9. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming) was used ...

  10. Spaceborne construction and operations planning - Decision rules for selecting EVA, telerobot, and combined work-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is presented for selecting an appropriate work-system for performing construction and operations tasks by humans and telerobots. The decision to use extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by astronauts, extravehicular robotics (EVR), or a combination of EVA and EVR is determined by the ratio of the marginal costs of EVA, EVR, and IVA. The approach proposed here is useful for examining cost trade-offs between tasks and performing trade studies of task improvement techniques (human or telerobotic).

  11. Spectral Quantitative Analysis Model with Combining Wavelength Selection and Topology Structure Optimization

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    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy is an efficient and widely used quantitative analysis method. In this paper, a spectral quantitative analysis model with combining wavelength selection and topology structure optimization is proposed. For the proposed method, backpropagation neural network is adopted for building the component prediction model, and the simultaneousness optimization of the wavelength selection and the topology structure of neural network is realized by nonlinear adaptive evolutionary programming (NAEP. The hybrid chromosome in binary scheme of NAEP has three parts. The first part represents the topology structure of neural network, the second part represents the selection of wavelengths in the spectral data, and the third part represents the parameters of mutation of NAEP. Two real flue gas datasets are used in the experiments. In order to present the effectiveness of the methods, the partial least squares with full spectrum, the partial least squares combined with genetic algorithm, the uninformative variable elimination method, the backpropagation neural network with full spectrum, the backpropagation neural network combined with genetic algorithm, and the proposed method are performed for building the component prediction model. Experimental results verify that the proposed method has the ability to predict more accurately and robustly as a practical spectral analysis tool.

  12. Robot Evaluation and Selection with Entropy-Based Combination Weighting and Cloud TODIM Approach

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    Jing-Jing Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays robots have been commonly adopted in various manufacturing industries to improve product quality and productivity. The selection of the best robot to suit a specific production setting is a difficult decision making task for manufacturers because of the increase in complexity and number of robot systems. In this paper, we explore two key issues of robot evaluation and selection: the representation of decision makers’ diversified assessments and the determination of the ranking of available robots. Specifically, a decision support model which utilizes cloud model and TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese of interactive and multiple criteria decision making method is developed for the purpose of handling robot selection problems with hesitant linguistic information. Besides, we use an entropy-based combination weighting technique to estimate the weights of evaluation criteria. Finally, we illustrate the proposed cloud TODIM approach with a robot selection example for an automobile manufacturer, and further validate its effectiveness and benefits via a comparative analysis. The results show that the proposed robot selection model has some unique advantages, which is more realistic and flexible for robot selection under a complex and uncertain environment.

  13. Bit Error Rate Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Generalized Selection Combining Scheme in Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousa Maan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of fading on mobile communication channels calls for the combining of multiple diversity sources to achieve acceptable error rate performance. Traditional approaches perform the combining of the different diversity sources using either the conventional selective diversity combining (CSC, equal-gain combining (EGC, or maximal-ratio combining (MRC schemes. CSC and MRC are the two extremes of compromise between performance quality and complexity. Some researches have proposed a generalized selection combining scheme (GSC that combines the best branches out of the available diversity resources ( . In this paper, we analyze a generalized selection combining scheme based on a threshold criterion rather than a fixed-size subset of the best channels. In this scheme, only those diversity branches whose energy levels are above a specified threshold are combined. Closed-form analytical solutions for the BER performances of this scheme over Nakagami fading channels are derived. We also discuss the merits of this scheme over GSC.

  14. [The best noise index combined with ASIR weighting selection in low-dose chest scanning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huijuan; Hou, Ping; Liu, Jie; Gao, Jianbo; Tan, Hongna; Liang, Pan; Pu, Shi

    2015-10-06

    To discuss the best noise index combined with ASIR weighting selection in low-dose chest scanning based on BMI. 200 patients collected from May to December 2014 underwent non-contrast chest CT examinations, they were randomly assigned into standard dose group (Group A, NI15 combined with 30% ASIR) and low-dose groups (Group B, NI25 combined with 40% ASIR, Group C, NI30 combined with 50% ASIR, Group D, NI35 combined with 60% ASIR), 50 cases in each group; the patients were assigned into three groups based on BMI (kg/m2): BMI25. Signal-to-nosie ratio (SNR), contrast-to noise ratio (CNR), CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (ED) and subjective scoring between the standard and low-dose groups were compared and analyzed statistically. Differences of SNR, CNR, CTDIvol, DLP and ED among groups were determined with ANOVA analysis and the consistency of diagnosis with Kappa test. SNR, CTDIvol, DLP and ED reduced with the increase of nosie index, the differences among the groups were statistically significant (P25 kg/m2 group. NI35 combined with 60% ASIR in BMIASIR in 18.5 kg/m2≤BMI≤25 kg/m2 group; NI25 combined with 40% ASIR in 18.5 kg/m2≤BMI≤25 kg/m2 group were the best parameters combination which both can significantly reduce the radiation dose and ensure the image quality.

  15. Using variable combination population analysis for variable selection in multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Ting; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lai, Guang-Bi; Liu, Xin-bo; Ren, Da-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Fan, Wei; Xu, Qing-Song

    2015-03-03

    Variable (wavelength or feature) selection techniques have become a critical step for the analysis of datasets with high number of variables and relatively few samples. In this study, a novel variable selection strategy, variable combination population analysis (VCPA), was proposed. This strategy consists of two crucial procedures. First, the exponentially decreasing function (EDF), which is the simple and effective principle of 'survival of the fittest' from Darwin's natural evolution theory, is employed to determine the number of variables to keep and continuously shrink the variable space. Second, in each EDF run, binary matrix sampling (BMS) strategy that gives each variable the same chance to be selected and generates different variable combinations, is used to produce a population of subsets to construct a population of sub-models. Then, model population analysis (MPA) is employed to find the variable subsets with the lower root mean squares error of cross validation (RMSECV). The frequency of each variable appearing in the best 10% sub-models is computed. The higher the frequency is, the more important the variable is. The performance of the proposed procedure was investigated using three real NIR datasets. The results indicate that VCPA is a good variable selection strategy when compared with four high performing variable selection methods: genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination by PLS (MC-UVE-PLS), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and iteratively retains informative variables (IRIV). The MATLAB source code of VCPA is available for academic research on the website: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/authors/498750. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transbasal versus endoscopic endonasal versus combined approaches for olfactory groove meningiomas: importance of approach selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James K; Silva, Nicole A; Sevak, Ilesha A; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE There has been much debate regarding the optimal surgical approach for resecting olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs). In this paper, the authors analyzed the factors involved in approach selection and reviewed the surgical outcomes in a series of OGMs. METHODS A retrospective review of 28 consecutive OGMs from a prospective database was conducted. Each tumor was treated via one of 3 approaches: transbasal approach (n = 15), pure endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA; n = 5), and combined (endoscope-assisted) transbasal-EEA (n = 8). RESULTS The mean tumor volume was greatest in the transbasal (92.02 cm 3 ) and combined (101.15 cm 3 ) groups. Both groups had significant lateral dural extension over the orbits (transbasal 73.3%, p 95%) was achieved in 20% of transbasal and 37.5% of combined cases, all due to tumor adherence to the critical neurovascular structures. The rate of CSF leakage was 0% in the transbasal and combined groups, and there was 1 leak in the EEA group (20%), resulting in an overall CSF leakage rate of 3.6%. Olfaction was preserved in 66.7% in the transbasal group. There was no significant difference in length of stay or 30-day readmission rate between the 3 groups. The mean modified Rankin Scale score was 0.79 after the transbasal approach, 2.0 after EEA, and 2.4 after the combined approach (p = 0.0604). The mean follow-up was 14.5 months (range 1-76 months). CONCLUSIONS The transbasal approach provided the best clinical outcomes with the lowest rate of complications for large tumors (> 40 mm) and for smaller tumors (OGMs invading the sinonasal cavity. Careful patient selection using an individualized, tailored strategy is important to optimize surgical outcomes.

  17. Combination of selected enzymes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in biofilm inactivation, removal and regrowth

    KAUST Repository

    Araujo, Paula Alexandra Da Silva; Machado, Idalina; Meireles, Ana; Leiknes, TorOve; Mergulhã o, Filipe; Melo, Luí s F.; Simõ es, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes are considered an innovative and environmentally friendly approach for biofilm control due to their lytic and dispersal activities. In this study, four enzymes (β-glucanase, α-amylase, lipase and protease) were tested separately and in combination with the quaternary ammonium compound cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to control flow-generated biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The four enzymes caused modest reduction of biofilm colony forming units (CFU). Protease, β-glucanase and α-amylase also caused modest biofilm removal. CTAB combined with either β-glucanase or α-amylase increased biofilm removal. Its combination with either β-glucanase or protease increased CFU reduction. However, CTAB−protease combination was antagonist in biofilm removal. Long-term effects in biofilm mass reduction were observed after protease exposure. In contrast, biofilms treated with β-glucanase were able to regrowth significantly after exposure. Moreover, short-term respirometry tests with planktonic cells were performed to understand the effects of enzymes and their combination with CTAB on P. fluorescens viability. Protease and lipase demonstrated antimicrobial action, while α-amylase increased bacterial metabolic activity. The combination of CTAB with either protease or α-amylase was antagonistic, decreasing the antimicrobial action of CTAB. The overall results demonstrate a modest effect of the selected enzymes in biofilm control, either when applied alone or each one in combination with CTAB. Total biofilm removal or CFU reduction was not achieved and, in some cases, the use of enzymes antagonized the effects of CTAB. The results also propose that complementary tests, to characterize biofilm integrity and microbial viability, are required when someone is trying to assess the role of novel biocide - enzyme mixtures for effective biofilm control.

  18. Combination of selected enzymes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in biofilm inactivation, removal and regrowth

    KAUST Repository

    Araujo, Paula Alexandra Da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Enzymes are considered an innovative and environmentally friendly approach for biofilm control due to their lytic and dispersal activities. In this study, four enzymes (β-glucanase, α-amylase, lipase and protease) were tested separately and in combination with the quaternary ammonium compound cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to control flow-generated biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The four enzymes caused modest reduction of biofilm colony forming units (CFU). Protease, β-glucanase and α-amylase also caused modest biofilm removal. CTAB combined with either β-glucanase or α-amylase increased biofilm removal. Its combination with either β-glucanase or protease increased CFU reduction. However, CTAB−protease combination was antagonist in biofilm removal. Long-term effects in biofilm mass reduction were observed after protease exposure. In contrast, biofilms treated with β-glucanase were able to regrowth significantly after exposure. Moreover, short-term respirometry tests with planktonic cells were performed to understand the effects of enzymes and their combination with CTAB on P. fluorescens viability. Protease and lipase demonstrated antimicrobial action, while α-amylase increased bacterial metabolic activity. The combination of CTAB with either protease or α-amylase was antagonistic, decreasing the antimicrobial action of CTAB. The overall results demonstrate a modest effect of the selected enzymes in biofilm control, either when applied alone or each one in combination with CTAB. Total biofilm removal or CFU reduction was not achieved and, in some cases, the use of enzymes antagonized the effects of CTAB. The results also propose that complementary tests, to characterize biofilm integrity and microbial viability, are required when someone is trying to assess the role of novel biocide - enzyme mixtures for effective biofilm control.

  19. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming was used to determine the best supplier. In this analysis, several suppliers’ criteria were considered, namely quality, delivery, completeness, quality loss and environmental management. By maximizing the suppliers’ performances based on each criterion and aggregating the suppliers’ performances based on the overall criteria, the best supplier was determined. Keywords: supplier selection, taguchi loss function, AHP, fuzzy linear programming,environment

  20. A Selective Mutism Arising from First Language Attrition, Successfully Treated with Paroxetine-CBT Combination Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Agostino; Di Mauro, Paola; Andaloro, Claudio; Maiolino, Luigi; Pavone, Piero; Cocuzza, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    After immersion in a foreign language, speakers often have difficulty retrieving native-language words and may experience a decrease in its proficiency, this phenomenon, in the non-pathological form, is known as first language attrition. Self-perception of this low native-language proficiency and apprehension occurring when speaking is expected and, may sometimes lead these people to a state of social anxiety and, in extreme forms, can involve the withholding of speech as a primitive tool for self-protection, linking them to selective mutism. We report an unusual case of selective mutism arising from first language attrition in an Italian girl after attending a two-year "German language school", who successfully responded to a paroxetine-cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) combination treatment.

  1. Combination of radiotherapy and selective chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced ovarian carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.; Brachetti, A.; Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on 160 patients suffering from ovarian carcinomas the stages which were exactly determined by TNM classification. 32 patients had tumors of the stages T1-T3, 128 patients had tumors of the stage T4. All T3 subgroups showed favorable results after radical surgery and a postoperative combination of radiotherapy and selective cytostatic chemotherapy. The therapy plans including radiotherapy had more advantages than those without radiotherapy. Furthermore, the cytostatic treatment was more successful after a chemotherapy resistance test than after blind administration of cytostatic drugs. (orig.) [de

  2. Treatment of selective mutism based on cognitive behavioural therapy, psychopharmacology and combination therapy - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Kasper Rud

    2018-02-15

    Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating childhood anxiety disorder characterized by a persistent lack of speech in certain social settings and is considered hard to treat. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments are the best described treatments in the literature. To test whether there is evidence on treatment based on CBT, medication or a combination of these. Systematic and critical review of the literature on CBT and/or pharmacological treatments of SM. Literature was sought on PubMed, Embase and Psycinfo in March 2017. Of the included studies, six examined CBT, seven pharmacologic treatment and two a combination of these. Using CBT 53/60 children improved symptomatically whilst respectively 55/67 and 6/7 improved using pharmacologic- and combination-treatment. Pharmacologic treatment and especially CBT showed promising results supported by some degree of evidence, which combination treatment lacks. Yet small numbers, few RCTs, heterogeneous study designs, lack of consistent measures, short treatment and follow-up periods, generally limits the evidence. This needs focus in future research.

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Selected Optimal Combination of Landslide Predisposing Factors in a Large Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are usually initiated under complex geological conditions. It is of great significance to find out the optimal combination of predisposing factors and create an accurate landslide susceptibility map based on them. In this paper, the Information Value Model was modified to make the Modified Information Value (MIV Model, and together with GIS (Geographical Information System and AUC (Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve test, 32 factor combinations were evaluated separately, and factor combination group with members Slope, Lithology, Drainage network, Annual precipitation, Faults, Road and Vegetation was selected as the optimal combination group with an accuracy of 95.0%. Based on this group, a landslide susceptibility zonation map was drawn, where the study area was reclassified into five classes, presenting an accurate description of different levels of landslide susceptibility, with 79.41% and 13.67% of the validating field survey landslides falling in the Very High and High zones, respectively, mainly distributed in the south and southeast of the catchment. It showed that MIV model can tackle the problem of “no data in subclass” well, generate the true information value and show real running trend, which performs well in showing the relationship between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence and can be used for preliminary landslide susceptibility assessment in the study area.

  4. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  5. Combining extractant systems for the simultaneous extraction of transuranic elements and selected fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The popularity of solvent extraction (SX) stems from its ability to operate in a continuous mode, to achieve high throughputs and high decontamination factors of product streams, and to utilize relatively small quantities of very selective chemical compounds as metal ion complexants. The chemical pretreatment of nuclear waste for the purpose of waste minimization will probably utilize one or more SX processes. Because of the diversity and complexity of nuclear waste, perhaps the greatest difficulty for the separation chemist is to develop processes that remove not only actinides but also selected fission products in a single process. A stand alone acid-side SX process (TRUEX) for removal of uranium and transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am) from nuclear waste has been widely reported. Recently, an acid-side SX process (SREX) to extract and recover 90 Sr from high-level nuclear waste has also been reported. Both the TRUEX and SREX processes extract Tc to a significant extent although not as efficiently as they extract transuranics and Sr. Ideally one would like to have a process that can extract and recover all actinides as well as 99 Tc, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs. A possible solution to multielement extraction is to mix two extractants with totally different properties into a single process solvent formulation. For this approach to be successful, both extractants must be essentially the same type, either neutral, liquid cationic, or liquid anionic. Experimental work has been carried out on mixed TRUEX and SREX processes, for synthetically created waste, and demonstrates the combined solvent formulation is effective at extracting both the actinides and Tc, as well as Sr. There is no evidence for the presence of either synergistic or antagonistic effects between the two extractants. This demonstates the feasibility of at least part of a combined solvent extraction scheme

  6. Selection of the best consultant for SAP ERP project using combined AHP-IBA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a combined AHP-IBA model for selecting the best SAP consultant for an SAP ERP project. The goal of the SAP Project Manager is to choose the best consultant, the one who is able to implement standard SAP functionalities with quality and on time. When making a decision on the basis of multiple criteria, the traditional Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method does not take into account the fact that attributes may correlate, assuming that there are no dependencies between them. However, the dependencies of the attributes can often be used to model important knowledge for multiple criteria decision analysis. We propose an extension to the traditional AHP method by applying Interpolative realization of Boolean algebra (IBA, using AHP to determine the criteria weights, and IBA to model the logical interactions among criteria. The research conducted on ERP consultant selection suggests that the decision making process is modelled more accurately if logical interactions between attributes are modelled before applying AHP.

  7. Automatic vibration mode selection and excitation; combining modal filtering with autoresonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Solomon; Bucher, Izhak

    2018-02-01

    Autoresonance is a well-known nonlinear feedback method used for automatically exciting a system at its natural frequency. Though highly effective in exciting single degree of freedom systems, in its simplest form it lacks a mechanism for choosing the mode of excitation when more than one is present. In this case a single mode will be automatically excited, but this mode cannot be chosen or changed. In this paper a new method for automatically exciting a general second-order system at any desired natural frequency using Autoresonance is proposed. The article begins by deriving a concise expression for the frequency of the limit cycle induced by an Autoresonance feedback loop enclosed on the system. The expression is based on modal decomposition, and provides valuable insight into the behavior of a system controlled in this way. With this expression, a method for selecting and exciting a desired mode naturally follows by combining Autoresonance with Modal Filtering. By taking various linear combinations of the sensor signals, by orthogonality one can "filter out" all the unwanted modes effectively. The desired mode's natural frequency is then automatically reflected in the limit cycle. In experiment the technique has proven extremely robust, even if the amplitude of the desired mode is significantly smaller than the others and the modal filters are greatly inaccurate.

  8. IMPACT_S: integrated multiprogram platform to analyze and combine tests of selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maldonado

    Full Text Available Among the major goals of research in evolutionary biology are the identification of genes targeted by natural selection and understanding how various regimes of evolution affect the fitness of an organism. In particular, adaptive evolution enables organisms to adapt to changing ecological factors such as diet, temperature, habitat, predatory pressures and prey abundance. An integrative approach is crucial for the identification of non-synonymous mutations that introduce radical changes in protein biochemistry and thus in turn influence the structure and function of proteins. Performing such analyses manually is often a time-consuming process, due to the large number of statistical files generated from multiple approaches, especially when assessing numerous taxa and/or large datasets. We present IMPACT_S, an easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI software, which rapidly and effectively integrates, filters and combines results from three widely used programs for assessing the influence of selection: Codeml (PAML package, Datamonkey and TreeSAAP. It enables the identification and tabulation of sites detected by these programs as evolving under the influence of positive, neutral and/or negative selection in protein-coding genes. IMPACT_S further facilitates the automatic mapping of these sites onto the three-dimensional structures of proteins. Other useful tools incorporated in IMPACT_S include Jmol, Archaeopteryx, Gnuplot, PhyML, a built-in Swiss-Model interface and a PDB downloader. The relevance and functionality of IMPACT_S is shown through a case study on the toxicoferan-reptilian Cysteine-rich Secretory Proteins (CRiSPs. IMPACT_S is a platform-independent software released under GPLv3 license, freely available online from http://impact-s.sourceforge.net.

  9. IMPACT_S: integrated multiprogram platform to analyze and combine tests of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Emanuel; Sunagar, Kartik; Almeida, Daniela; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Among the major goals of research in evolutionary biology are the identification of genes targeted by natural selection and understanding how various regimes of evolution affect the fitness of an organism. In particular, adaptive evolution enables organisms to adapt to changing ecological factors such as diet, temperature, habitat, predatory pressures and prey abundance. An integrative approach is crucial for the identification of non-synonymous mutations that introduce radical changes in protein biochemistry and thus in turn influence the structure and function of proteins. Performing such analyses manually is often a time-consuming process, due to the large number of statistical files generated from multiple approaches, especially when assessing numerous taxa and/or large datasets. We present IMPACT_S, an easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI) software, which rapidly and effectively integrates, filters and combines results from three widely used programs for assessing the influence of selection: Codeml (PAML package), Datamonkey and TreeSAAP. It enables the identification and tabulation of sites detected by these programs as evolving under the influence of positive, neutral and/or negative selection in protein-coding genes. IMPACT_S further facilitates the automatic mapping of these sites onto the three-dimensional structures of proteins. Other useful tools incorporated in IMPACT_S include Jmol, Archaeopteryx, Gnuplot, PhyML, a built-in Swiss-Model interface and a PDB downloader. The relevance and functionality of IMPACT_S is shown through a case study on the toxicoferan-reptilian Cysteine-rich Secretory Proteins (CRiSPs). IMPACT_S is a platform-independent software released under GPLv3 license, freely available online from http://impact-s.sourceforge.net.

  10. Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C

  11. Validated HPTLC methods for determination of some selected antihypertensive mixtures in their combined dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha A. Shaalan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple and selective HPTLC methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of the antihypertensive drugs; carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide in their binary mixture (Mixture I and amlodipine besylate, valsartan, and hydrochlorothiazide in their combined ternary formulation (Mixture II. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on Fluka TLC plates 20 × 20 cm aluminum cards, 0.2 mm thickness through linear ascending development. For Mixture I, the mobile phase composed of chloroform–methanol in the ratio 8:2 v/v. Detection was performed at 254 nm for both carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide. For Mixture II, the mobile phase was chloroform–methanol–ammonia in the volume ratio 8:2:0.1. Detection was performed at 254 nm for valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, and at 365 nm for amlodipine. Quantification was based on spectrodensitometric analysis. Analytical performance of the proposed HPTLC procedures was statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection and quantification limits. The linearity ranges were 0.05–1.0 and 0.1–2.0 μg/spot for carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively in Mixture I, 0.1–2.0, 0.1–2.0 and 0.2–4.0 μg/spot for amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and valsartan, respectively in Mixture II, with correlation coefficients >0.9992. The validated HPTLC methods were applied to the analysis of the cited antihypertensive drugs in their combined pharmaceutical tablets. The proposed methods confirmed peak identity and purity.

  12. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells by Combining Immunomagnetic Selection and FICTION Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, María; Prior, Celia; Warleta, Fernando; Zudaire, Isabel; Ruíz-Mora, Jesús; Catena, Raúl; Calvo, Alfonso; Gaforio, José J.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients has been proven to have clinical relevance. Cytogenetic characterization of these cells could have crucial relevance for targeted cancer therapies. We developed a method that combines an immunomagnetic selection of CTCs from peripheral blood with the fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for investigation of neoplasm (FICTION) technique. Briefly, peripheral blood (10 ml) from healthy donors was spiked with a predetermined number of human breast cancer cells. Nucleated cells were separated by double density gradient centrifugation of blood samples. Tumor cells (TCs) were immunomagnetically isolated with an anti-cytokeratin antibody and placed onto slides for FICTION analysis. For immunophenotyping and genetic characterization of TCs, a mixture of primary monoclonal anti-pancytokeratin antibodies was used, followed by fluorescent secondary antibodies, and finally hybridized with a TOP2A/HER-2/CEP17 multicolor probe. Our results show that TCs can be efficiently isolated from peripheral blood and characterized by FICTION. Because genetic amplification of TOP2A and ErbB2 (HER-2) in breast cancer correlates with response to anthracyclines and herceptin therapies, respectively, this novel methodology could be useful for a better classification of patients according to the genetic alterations of CTCs and for the application of targeted therapies. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:667–675, 2008) PMID:18413646

  13. Ceramic-supported thin PVA pervaporation membranes combining high flux and high selectivity : contradicting the flux-selectivity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.A.; Poeth, C.H.S.; Benes, N.E.; Buijs, H.C.W.M.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Thin, high-flux and highly selective cross-linked poly(vinyl)alcohol waterselective layers have been prepared on top of hollow fibre ceramic supports. The supports consist of an alpha-Al2O3 hollow fibre substrate and an intermediate gamma-Al2O3 layer, which provides a sufficiently smooth surface for

  14. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  15. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachnic, L. A.; Kaufman, D. S.; Zietman, A. L.; Dallow, K. C.; Griffin, P. P.; Heney, N. M.; Althausen, A. F.; Shipley, W. U.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the success of selective organ preservation or radical cystectomy in a large group of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with induction by combined transurethral resection (TURBT), systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 106 patients (median age 68 years) were treated with induction by maximal TURBT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy (methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine - MCV) followed by 39.6 Gy irradiation in 1.8 Gy fractions with concomitant cisplatin. Tumor response was then evaluated by cystoscopy, rebiopsy, and urine cytology. Complete responders were consolidated with radiation to 64.8 Gy and further cisplatin. Any subsequent isolated invasive local relapse was managed by cystectomy. Patients with any less than a complete response (CR) were recommended cystectomy. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess outcome. Results: 74 CR patients (70%) and 7 non-cystectomy candidates with less than a CR (7%) received consolidation chemotherapy and radiation. 13 incomplete responders (12%) underwent immediate cystectomy. 6 patients underwent cystectomy because they could not tolerate induction chemo-radiation. 1 complete response patient underwent radical cystectomy. 83 patients completed their planned therapy but 5 died of treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Five year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival were 52% and 60% respectively. For T2 patients, actuarial overall survival was 63%, and for T3-4, 45%. Five year survival with an intact functioning bladder was 43%. Five year freedom from distant metastases was 66%. Of those who had a CR after TURBT and MCV, the risk of a subsequent invasive bladder relapse was 18% at 5 years. Of those who had a CR after the completion of induction chemotherapy and 39.6 Gy, this risk was 21%. 18 patients (17%) have experienced a non-invasive bladder relapse requiring further TUR and

  16. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, L A; Kaufman, D S; Zietman, A L; Dallow, K C; Griffin, P P; Heney, N M; Althausen, A F; Shipley, W U

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the success of selective organ preservation or radical cystectomy in a large group of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with induction by combined transurethral resection (TURBT), systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 106 patients (median age 68 years) were treated with induction by maximal TURBT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy (methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine - MCV) followed by 39.6 Gy irradiation in 1.8 Gy fractions with concomitant cisplatin. Tumor response was then evaluated by cystoscopy, rebiopsy, and urine cytology. Complete responders were consolidated with radiation to 64.8 Gy and further cisplatin. Any subsequent isolated invasive local relapse was managed by cystectomy. Patients with any less than a complete response (CR) were recommended cystectomy. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess outcome. Results: 74 CR patients (70%) and 7 non-cystectomy candidates with less than a CR (7%) received consolidation chemotherapy and radiation. 13 incomplete responders (12%) underwent immediate cystectomy. 6 patients underwent cystectomy because they could not tolerate induction chemo-radiation. 1 complete response patient underwent radical cystectomy. 83 patients completed their planned therapy but 5 died of treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Five year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival were 52% and 60% respectively. For T2 patients, actuarial overall survival was 63%, and for T3-4, 45%. Five year survival with an intact functioning bladder was 43%. Five year freedom from distant metastases was 66%. Of those who had a CR after TURBT and MCV, the risk of a subsequent invasive bladder relapse was 18% at 5 years. Of those who had a CR after the completion of induction chemotherapy and 39.6 Gy, this risk was 21%. 18 patients (17%) have experienced a non-invasive bladder relapse requiring further TUR and

  17. Selective Targeting of CTNBB1-, KRAS- or MYC-Driven Cell Growth by Combinations of Existing Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C M Uitdehaag

    Full Text Available The aim of combination drug treatment in cancer therapy is to improve response rate and to decrease the probability of the development of drug resistance. Preferably, drug combinations are synergistic rather than additive, and, ideally, drug combinations work synergistically only in cancer cells and not in non-malignant cells. We have developed a workflow to identify such targeted synergies, and applied this approach to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cell lines with mutations in genes that are difficult to modulate with small molecules. The approach is based on curve shift analysis, which we demonstrate is a more robust method of determining synergy than combination matrix screening with Bliss-scoring. We show that the MEK inhibitor trametinib is more synergistic in combination with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib than with vemurafenib, another BRAF inhibitor. In addition, we show that the combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitors is synergistic in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells, and additive or antagonistic in, respectively, BRAF-wild type melanoma cells and non-malignant fibroblasts. This combination exemplifies that synergistic action of drugs can depend on cancer genotype. Next, we used curve shift analysis to identify new drug combinations that specifically inhibit cancer cell proliferation driven by difficult-to-drug cancer genes. Combination studies were performed with compounds that as single agents showed preference for inhibition of cancer cells with mutations in either the CTNNB1 gene (coding for β-catenin, KRAS, or cancer cells expressing increased copy numbers of MYC. We demonstrate that the Wnt-pathway inhibitor ICG-001 and trametinib acted synergistically in Wnt-pathway-mutant cell lines. The ERBB2 inhibitor TAK-165 was synergistic with trametinib in KRAS-mutant cell lines. The EGFR/ERBB2 inhibitor neratinib acted synergistically with the spindle poison docetaxel and with the Aurora kinase inhibitor GSK-1070916 in cell lines

  18. Selective Targeting of CTNNB1-, KRAS- or MYC-Driven Cell Growth by Combinations of Existing Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Joost C. M.; de Roos, Jeroen A. D. M.; van Doornmalen, Antoon M.; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; Spijkers-Hagelstein, Jill A. P.; de Vetter, Judith R. F.; de Man, Jos; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Zaman, Guido J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of combination drug treatment in cancer therapy is to improve response rate and to decrease the probability of the development of drug resistance. Preferably, drug combinations are synergistic rather than additive, and, ideally, drug combinations work synergistically only in cancer cells and not in non-malignant cells. We have developed a workflow to identify such targeted synergies, and applied this approach to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cell lines with mutations in genes that are difficult to modulate with small molecules. The approach is based on curve shift analysis, which we demonstrate is a more robust method of determining synergy than combination matrix screening with Bliss-scoring. We show that the MEK inhibitor trametinib is more synergistic in combination with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib than with vemurafenib, another BRAF inhibitor. In addition, we show that the combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitors is synergistic in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells, and additive or antagonistic in, respectively, BRAF-wild type melanoma cells and non-malignant fibroblasts. This combination exemplifies that synergistic action of drugs can depend on cancer genotype. Next, we used curve shift analysis to identify new drug combinations that specifically inhibit cancer cell proliferation driven by difficult-to-drug cancer genes. Combination studies were performed with compounds that as single agents showed preference for inhibition of cancer cells with mutations in either the CTNNB1 gene (coding for β-catenin), KRAS, or cancer cells expressing increased copy numbers of MYC. We demonstrate that the Wnt-pathway inhibitor ICG-001 and trametinib acted synergistically in Wnt-pathway-mutant cell lines. The ERBB2 inhibitor TAK-165 was synergistic with trametinib in KRAS-mutant cell lines. The EGFR/ERBB2 inhibitor neratinib acted synergistically with the spindle poison docetaxel and with the Aurora kinase inhibitor GSK-1070916 in cell lines with MYC amplification

  19. alpha-Tocopheryl succinate promotes selective cell death induced by vitamin K3 in combination with ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, M; Strafella, E; Staffolani, S; Santarelli, L; Neuzil, J; Guerrieri, R

    2010-04-13

    A strategy to reduce the secondary effects of anti-cancer agents is to potentiate the therapeutic effect by their combination. A combination of vitamin K3 (VK3) and ascorbic acid (AA) exhibited an anti-cancer synergistic effect, associated with extracellular production of H(2)O(2) that promoted cell death. The redox-silent vitamin E analogue alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) was used in combination with VK3 and AA to evaluate their effect on prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer cells were sensitive to alpha-TOS and VK3 treatment, but resistant to AA upto 3.2 mM. When combined, a synergistic effect was found for VK3-AA, whereas alpha-TOS-VK3 and alpha-TOS-AA combination showed an antagonist and additive effect, respectively. However, sub-lethal doses of AA-VK3 combination combined with a sub-toxic dose of alpha-TOS showed to induce efficient cell death that resembles autoschizis. Associated with this cell demise, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, cytoskeleton alteration, lysosomal-mitochondrial perturbation, and release of cytochrome c without caspase activation were observed. Inhibition of lysosomal proteases did not attenuate cell death induced by the combined agents. Furthermore, cell deaths by apoptosis and autoschizis were detected. These finding support the emerging idea that synergistic combinations of some agents can overcome toxicity and other side-effects associated with high doses of single drugs creating the opportunity for therapeutically relevant selectivity.

  20. Making the Cut in Gifted Selection: Score Combination Rules and Their Impact on Program Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2018-01-01

    The recommendation of using "multiple measures" is common in policy guidelines for gifted and talented assessment systems. However, the integration of multiple test scores in a system that uses cut-scores requires choosing between different methods of combining quantitative scores. Past research has indicated that OR combination rules…

  1. Selective cultures for the isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria: comparison of different combinations of environmental inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Patrícia M; Louvado, António; Oliveira, Vanessa; Coelho, Francisco J C R; Almeida, Adelaide; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The potential of estuarine microniches as reservoirs of biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated by testing different combinations of inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources. Selective cultures using diesel, petroleum, or paraffin as hydrophobic carbon sources were prepared and inoculated with water from the surface microlayer, bulk sediments, and sediment of the rhizosphere of Halimione portulacoides. These inocula were compared regarding the frequency of biosurfactant-producing strains among selected isolates. The community structure of the selective cultures was profiled using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene fragments at the end of the incubation. The DGGE profiles corresponding to the communities established in selective cultures at the end of the incubation revealed that communities were different in terms of structural diversity. The highest diversity was observed in the selective cultures containing paraffin (H (') = 2.5). Isolates were obtained from the selective cultures (66) and tested for biosurfactant production by the atomized oil assay. Biosurfactant production was detected in 17 isolates identified as Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Serratia. The combination of estuarine surface microlayer (SML) water as inoculum and diesel as carbon source seems promising for the isolation of surfactant-producing bacteria. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  2. Activity measurements of radioactive solutions by liquid scintillation counting and pressurized ionization chambers and Monte Carlo simulations of source-detector systems for metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiot, Marie-Noelle

    2013-01-01

    The research works 'Activity measurements of radioactive solutions by liquid scintillation and pressurized ionization chambers and Monte Carlo simulations of source-detector systems' was presented for the graduation: 'Habilitation a diriger des recherches'. The common thread of both themes liquid scintillation counting and pressurized ionization chambers lies in the improvement of the techniques of radionuclide activity measurement. Metrology of ionization radiation intervenes in numerous domains, in the research, in the industry including the environment and the health, which are subjects of constant concern for the world population these last years. In this big variety of applications answers a large number of radionuclides of diverse disintegration scheme and under varied physical forms. The presented works realized within the National Laboratory Henri Becquerel have for objective to assure detector calibration traceability and to improve the methods of activity measurements within the framework of research projects and development. The improvement of the primary and secondary activity measurement methods consists in perfecting the accuracy of the measurements in particular by a better knowledge of the parameters influencing the detector yield. The works of development dealing with liquid scintillation counting concern mainly the study of the response of liquid scintillators to low energy electrons as well as their linear absorption coefficients using synchrotron radiation. The research works on pressurized ionization chambers consist of the study of their response to photons and electrons by experimental measurements compared to the simulation of the source-detector system using Monte Carlo codes. Besides, the design of a new type of ionization chamber with variable pressure is presented. This new project was developed to guarantee the precision of the amount of activity injected into the patient within the framework of diagnosis examination

  3. Traditional Amerindian cultivators combine directional and ideotypic selection for sustainable management of cassava genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputié, A; Massol, F; David, P; Haxaire, C; McKey, D

    2009-06-01

    Plant domestication provides striking examples of rapid evolution. Yet, it involves more complex processes than plain directional selection. Understanding the dynamics of diversity in traditional agroecosystems is both a fundamental goal in evolutionary biology and a practical goal in conservation. We studied how Amerindian cultivators maintain dynamically evolving gene pools in cassava. Farmers purposely maintain diversity in the form of phenotypically distinct, clonally propagated landraces. Landrace gene pools are continuously renewed by incorporating seedlings issued from spontaneous sexual reproduction. This poses two problems: agronomic quality may decrease because some seedlings are inbred, and landrace identity may be progressively lost through the incorporation of unrelated seedlings. Using a large microsatellite dataset, we show that farmers solve these problems by applying two kinds of selection: directional selection against inbred genotypes, and counter-selection of off-type phenotypes, which maintains high intra-landrace relatedness. Thus, cultural elements such as ideotypes (a representation of the ideal phenotype of a landrace) can shape genetic diversity.

  4. Combined piezosurgery and selective distraction osteogenesis to correct malpositioned implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma-Benfenati, Stefano; Maino, Giuliano B

    2015-01-01

    This case report shows the combined use of piezosurgical and orthodontic procedures to successfully relocate two severely malpositioned implants in the anterior maxilla by moving them separately, with the objective of attaining functional prosthetic restoration and acceptable esthetics.

  5. Molecularly imprinted membrane extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for selective analysis of cloxacillin from shrimp samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Sun, Min; Guo, Pengqi; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2018-09-01

    Nowadays, the abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has generated considerable problems for food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a simple and selective method for monitoring illegal use of antibiotics in aquatic products. In this study, a method combined molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) extraction and liquid chromatography was developed for the selective analysis of cloxacillin from shrimp samples. The MIMs was synthesized by UV photopolymerization, and characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo-gravimetric analysis and swelling test. The results showed that the MIMs exhibited excellent permselectivity, high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for cloxacillin. Finally, the method was utilized to determine cloxacillin from shrimp samples, with good accuracies and acceptable relative standard deviation values for precision. The proposed method was a promising alternative for selective analysis of cloxacillin in shrimp samples, due to the easy-operation and excellent selectivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. One-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation for biodiesel production from starting material of high degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Su, Mengxing; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Xinmin; Zhang, Hua

    2010-08-01

    A one-pot process combining transesterification and selective hydrogenation was established to produce biodiesel from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil which is eliminated as a potential feedstock by a specification of iodine value (IV; 120 g I(2)/100g maximum) contained in EN 14214. A series of alkaline earth metal oxides and alkaline earth metal supported copper oxide were prepared and tested as catalysts. SrO supported 10 wt.% CuO showed the superior catalytic activity for transesterification with a biodiesel yield of 96% and hydrogenation with a reduced iodine value of 113 and also exhibited a promising selectivity for eliminating methyl linolenate and increasing methyl oleate without rising methyl stearate in the selective hydrogenation. The fuel properties of the selective hydrogenated methyl esters are within biodiesel specifications. Furthermore, cetane numbers and iodine values were well correlated with the compositions of the hydrogenated methyl esters according to degrees of unsaturation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining epidemiology and biomechanics in sports injury prevention research: a new approach for selecting suitable controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case

  8. Combining epidemiologic and biostatistical tools to enhance variable selection in HIV cohort analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rentsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variable selection is an important step in building a multivariate regression model for which several methods and statistical packages are available. A comprehensive approach for variable selection in complex multivariate regression analyses within HIV cohorts is explored by utilizing both epidemiological and biostatistical procedures. METHODS: Three different methods for variable selection were illustrated in a study comparing survival time between subjects in the Department of Defense's National History Study and the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center's HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study. The first two methods were stepwise selection procedures, based either on significance tests (Score test, or on information theory (Akaike Information Criterion, while the third method employed a Bayesian argument (Bayesian Model Averaging. RESULTS: All three methods resulted in a similar parsimonious survival model. Three of the covariates previously used in the multivariate model were not included in the final model suggested by the three approaches. When comparing the parsimonious model to the previously published model, there was evidence of less variance in the main survival estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The variable selection approaches considered in this study allowed building a model based on significance tests, on an information criterion, and on averaging models using their posterior probabilities. A parsimonious model that balanced these three approaches was found to provide a better fit than the previously reported model.

  9. Detecting loci under recent positive selection in dairy and beef cattle by combining different genome-wide scan methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Tani Utsunomiya

    Full Text Available As the methodologies available for the detection of positive selection from genomic data vary in terms of assumptions and execution, weak correlations are expected among them. However, if there is any given signal that is consistently supported across different methodologies, it is strong evidence that the locus has been under past selection. In this paper, a straightforward frequentist approach based on the Stouffer Method to combine P-values across different tests for evidence of recent positive selection in common variations, as well as strategies for extracting biological information from the detected signals, were described and applied to high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data generated from dairy and beef cattle (taurine and indicine. The ancestral Bovinae allele state of over 440,000 SNP is also reported. Using this combination of methods, highly significant (P<3.17×10(-7 population-specific sweeps pointing out to candidate genes and pathways that may be involved in beef and dairy production were identified. The most significant signal was found in the Cornichon homolog 3 gene (CNIH3 in Brown Swiss (P = 3.82×10(-12, and may be involved in the regulation of pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Other putative pathways under selection are the glucolysis/gluconeogenesis, transcription machinery and chemokine/cytokine activity in Angus; calpain-calpastatin system and ribosome biogenesis in Brown Swiss; and gangliosides deposition in milk fat globules in Gyr. The composite method, combined with the strategies applied to retrieve functional information, may be a useful tool for surveying genome-wide selective sweeps and providing insights in to the source of selection.

  10. Combinational Effect of Cell Adhesion Biomolecules and Their Immobilized Polymer Property to Enhance Cell-Selective Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Kurimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although surface immobilization of medical devices with bioactive molecules is one of the most widely used strategies to improve biocompatibility, the physicochemical properties of the biomaterials significantly impact the activity of the immobilized molecules. Herein we investigate the combinational effects of cell-selective biomolecules and the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the polymeric substrate on selective adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs, fibroblasts (FBs, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs. To control the polymeric substrate, biomolecules are immobilized on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide (poly(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm-grafted glass surfaces. By switching the molecular conformation of the biomolecule-immobilized polymers, the cell-selective adhesion performances are evaluated. In case of RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide-immobilized surfaces, all cell types adhere well regardless of the surface hydrophobicity. On the other hand, a tri-Arg-immobilized surface exhibits FB-selectivity when the surface is hydrophilic. Additionally, a tri-Ile-immobilized surface exhibits EC-selective cell adhesion when the surface is hydrophobic. We believe that the proposed concept, which is used to investigate the biomolecule-immobilized surface combination, is important to produce new biomaterials, which are highly demanded for medical implants and tissue engineering.

  11. Combining selection for carcass quality, body weight and milk traits in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liinamo, A.E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Alternative selection strategies were evaluated for breeding for carcass quality, body weight, and milk traits in dairy cattle. The efficiency of different alternatives was evaluated by comparing predicted genetic responses in individual traits as well as in the aggregate genotype. Particular

  12. Performance Analysis of Selective Decode-and-Forward Multinode Incremental Relaying with Maximal Ratio Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, we propose an incremental multinode relaying protocol with arbitrary N-relay nodes that allows an efficient use of the channel spectrum. The destination combines the received signals from the source and the relays using maximal ratio Combining (MRC). The transmission ends successfully once the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeds a predefined threshold. The number of relays participating in the transmission is adapted to the channel conditions based on the feedback from the destination. The use of incremental relaying allows obtaining a higher spectral efficiency. Moreover, the symbol error probability (SEP) performance is enhanced by using MRC at the relays. The use of MRC at the relays implies that each relay overhears the signals from the source and all previous relays and combines them using MRC. The proposed protocol differs from most of existing relaying protocol by the fact that it combines both incremental relaying and MRC at the relays for a multinode topology. Our analyses for a decode-and-forward mode show that: (i) compared to existing multinode relaying schemes, the proposed scheme can essentially achieve the same SEP performance but with less average number of time slots, (ii) compared to schemes without MRC at the relays, the proposed scheme can approximately achieve a 3 dB gain.

  13. A Combined Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-GRA Methodology for Hydrogen Energy Storage Method Selection in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac Yildiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to select the most appropriate Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES method for Turkey from among the alternatives of tank, metal hydride and chemical storage, which are determined based on expert opinions and literature review. Thus, we propose a Buckley extension based fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (Fuzzy-AHP and linear normalization based fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis (Fuzzy-GRA combined Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methodology. This combined approach can be applied to a complex decision process, which often makes sense with subjective data or vague information; and used to solve to solve HES selection problem with different defuzzification methods. The proposed approach is unique both in the HES literature and the MCDM literature.

  14. Antibiotic combination therapy can select for broad-spectrum multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm; Marvig, Rasmus L.

    2016-01-01

    with the resistance evolved after single-drug exposure. Combination therapy selected for mutants that displayed broad-spectrum resistance, and a major resistance mechanism was mutational inactivation of the repressor gene mexR that regulates the multidrug efflux operon mexAB–oprM. Deregulation of this operon led...... to a broad-spectrum resistance phenotype that decreased susceptibility to the combination of drugs applied during selection as well as to unrelated antibiotic classes. Mutants isolated after single-drug exposure displayed narrow-spectrum resistance and carried mutations in the MexCD–OprJ efflux pump...... regulator gene nfxB conferring ciprofloxacin resistance, or in the gene encoding the non-essential penicillin-binding protein DacB conferring ceftazidime resistance. Reconstruction of resistance mutations by allelic replacement and in vitro fitness assays revealed that in contrast to single antibiotic use...

  15. Preparation of fluorescent mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles via selective etching for combined chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yannan; Yu, Meihua; Song, Hao; Wang, Yue; Yu, Chengzhong

    2015-07-01

    Well-dispersed mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles with particle sizes of ~50 nm have been successfully prepared by incorporating fullerene molecules into the silica framework followed by a selective etching method. The fabricated fluorescent silica-fullerene composite with high porosity demonstrates excellent performance in combined chemo/photodynamic therapy.Well-dispersed mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles with particle sizes of ~50 nm have been successfully prepared by incorporating fullerene molecules into the silica framework followed by a selective etching method. The fabricated fluorescent silica-fullerene composite with high porosity demonstrates excellent performance in combined chemo/photodynamic therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02769a

  16. Selection of Yeast Strains for Tequila Fermentation Based on Growth Dynamics in Combined Fructose and Ethanol Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete-Tapia, J A; Miranda-Castilleja, D E; Arvizu-Medrano, S M; Hernández-Iturriaga, M

    2018-02-01

    The high concentration of fructose in agave juice has been associated with reduced ethanol tolerance of commercial yeasts used for tequila production and low fermentation yields. The selection of autochthonous strains, which are better adapted to agave juice, could improve the process. In this study, a 2-step selection process of yeasts isolated from spontaneous fermentations for tequila production was carried out based on analysis of the growth dynamics in combined conditions of high fructose and ethanol. First, yeast isolates (605) were screened to identify strains tolerant to high fructose (20%) and to ethanol (10%), yielding 89 isolates able to grow in both conditions. From the 89 isolates, the growth curves under 8 treatments of combined fructose (from 20% to 5%) and ethanol (from 0% to 10%) were obtained, and the kinetic parameters were analyzed with principal component analysis and k-means clustering. The resulting yeast strain groups corresponded to the fast, medium and slow growers. A second clustering of only the fast growers led to the selection of 3 Saccharomyces strains (199, 230, 231) that were able to grow rapidly in 4 out of the 8 conditions evaluated. This methodology differentiated strains phenotypically and could be further used for strain selection in other processes. A method to select yeast strains for fermentation taking into account the natural differences of yeast isolates. This methodology is based on the cell exposition to combinations of sugar and ethanol, which are the most important stress factors in fermentation. This strategy will help to identify the most tolerant strain that could improve ethanol yield and reduce fermentation time. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. An application of locally linear model tree algorithm with combination of feature selection in credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami, Mohammad; Gholamian, Mohammad Reza; Basiri, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring is one of the most important topics in the banking sector. Credit scoring models have been widely used to facilitate the process of credit assessing. In this paper, an application of the locally linear model tree algorithm (LOLIMOT) was experimented to evaluate the superiority of its performance to predict the customer's credit status. The algorithm is improved with an aim of adjustment by credit scoring domain by means of data fusion and feature selection techniques. Two real world credit data sets - Australian and German - from UCI machine learning database were selected to demonstrate the performance of our new classifier. The analytical results indicate that the improved LOLIMOT significantly increase the prediction accuracy.

  18. Combining Fuzzy AHP with GIS and Decision Rules for Industrial Site Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Taibi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study combines Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP, Geographic Information System (GIS and Decision rules to provide decision makers with a ranking model for industrial sites in Algeria. A ranking of the suitable industrial areas is a crucial multi-criteria decision problem based on socio-economical and technical criteria as on environmental considerations. Fuzzy AHP is used for assessment of the candidate industrial sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The decision rule base serves as a filter that performs criteria pre-treatment involving a reduction of their numbers. GIS is used to overlay, generate criteria maps and for visualizing ranked zones on the map. The rank of a zone so obtained is an index that guides decision-makers to the best utilization of the zone in future.

  19. Combination and Selection of Traffic Safety Expert Judgments for the Prevention of Driving Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Redchuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a new framework to combine experts’ judgments for the prevention of driving risks in a cabin truck. In addition, the methodology shows how to choose among the experts the one whose predictions fit best the environmental conditions. The methodology is applied over data sets obtained from a high immersive cabin truck simulator in natural driving conditions. A nonparametric model, based in Nearest Neighbors combined with Restricted Least Squared methods is developed. Three experts were asked to evaluate the driving risk using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS, in order to measure the driving risk in a truck simulator where the vehicle dynamics factors were stored. Numerical results show that the methodology is suitable for embedding in real time systems.

  20. Local Strategy Combined with a Wavelength Selection Method for Multivariate Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors influencing the prediction accuracy of multivariate calibration models is the quality of the calibration data. A local regression strategy, together with a wavelength selection approach, is proposed to build the multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression. The local algorithm is applied to create a calibration set of spectra similar to the spectrum of an unknown sample; the synthetic degree of grey relation coefficient is used to evaluate the similarity. A wavelength selection method based on simple-to-use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis minimizes the influence of noisy variables, and the most informative variables of the most similar samples are selected to build the multivariate calibration model based on partial least squares regression. To validate the performance of the proposed method, ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra of mixed solutions of food coloring analytes in a concentration range of 20–200 µg/mL is measured. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only enhance the prediction accuracy of the calibration model, but also greatly reduce its complexity.

  1. A combination of modified transnasal endoscopic maxillectomy via transnasal prelacrimal recess approach with or without radiotherapy for selected sinonasal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuangba; Bakst, Richard L; Guo, Tao; Sun, Jingwu

    2015-10-01

    An external approach for resection of sinonasal tumors is associated with increased morbidity. Therefore, we employed a modified transnasal endoscopic maxillectomy combined with pre and/or postoperative radiotherapy for early stage maxillary carcinomas. It aims to evaluate our early experience with endoscopic resection of selected malignant sinonasal tumors. The medical and radiology records of patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic resection of malignant sinonasal tumors between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten cases of selected malignant tumor were performed to resect by modified transnasal endoscopic maxillectomy. All the patients were without evidence of disease at a mean follow-up of 26.8 months. No major complications were recorded. The mean hospitalization stay was 6.6 days. In very carefully selected cases of malignant tumors, modified transnasal endoscopic maxillectomy is acceptable. The postoperative complication rate is low, cosmetic outcome is excellent and patients do not require a long hospitalization.

  2. Combining Phage and Yeast Cell Surface Antibody Display to Identify Novel Cell Type-Selective Internalizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Using phage antibody display, large libraries can be generated and screened to identify monoclonal antibodies with affinity for target antigens. However, while library size and diversity is an advantage of the phage display method, there is limited ability to quantitatively enrich for specific binding properties such as affinity. One way of overcoming this limitation is to combine the scale of phage display selections with the flexibility and quantitativeness of FACS-based yeast surface display selections. In this chapter we describe protocols for generating yeast surface antibody display libraries using phage antibody display selection outputs as starting material and FACS-based enrichment of target antigen-binding clones from these libraries. These methods should be widely applicable for the identification of monoclonal antibodies with specific binding properties.

  3. Immunomagnetic separation combined with colony immunoblotting for selective enrichment and detection of piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Q; Wei, Y F; Rao, S Q; Gao, L; Yin, Y Q; Xue, F; Fang, W M; Gu, R X; Jiao, X A

    2016-11-01

    Piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (pLR) strains have attracted much attention owing to their excellent mucus adhering capacity and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive method for isolating pLR strains in complex ecosystems using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with colony immunoblotting (CIB). Magnetic nanobeads (diameter: 180 nm) conjugated with anti-pLR SpaA pilin antibodies (anti-SpaA) were prepared and used to preconcentrate pLR strains in samples, followed by confirmation with anti-SpaA-based CIB analysis. Under optimized experimental conditions, IMS-CIB selectively recovered pLR strains from 10 7  CFU ml -1 of faecal microbiota samples spiked with 2·9 × 10 1 to 2·4 × 10 6  CFU ml -1 of pLR strains. No positive colonies were detected in samples without addition of pLR strains. The detection limit of IMS-CIB was 29 CFU pLR ml -1 of faecal microbiota, which is much lower than that of CIB without IMS preconcentration (2·0 × 10 4  CFU ml -1 ). IMS-CIB allowed selective preconcentration of pLR strains in highly heterogeneous bacterial suspensions and direct detection of pLR colonies, which remained readily available for subsequent isolation. Our findings established an effective method for selective enrichment and detection of pLR strains. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Detection of Salmonella spp. in veterinary samples by combining selective enrichment and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Laura B; McDonough, Patrick L; Anderson, Renee R; Franklin-Guild, Rebecca J; Ryan, James R; Perkins, Gillian A; Thachil, Anil J; Glaser, Amy L; Thompson, Belinda S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid screening for enteric bacterial pathogens in clinical environments is essential for biosecurity. Salmonella found in veterinary hospitals, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, can pose unique challenges for culture and testing because of its poor growth. Multiple Salmonella serovars including Dublin are emerging threats to public health given increasing prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. We adapted an automated food testing method to veterinary samples and evaluated the performance of the method in a variety of matrices including environmental samples ( n = 81), tissues ( n = 52), feces ( n = 148), and feed ( n = 29). A commercial kit was chosen as the basis for this approach in view of extensive performance characterizations published by multiple independent organizations. A workflow was established for efficiently and accurately testing veterinary matrices and environmental samples by use of real-time PCR after selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya (RVS) medium. Using this method, the detection limit for S. Dublin improved by 100-fold over subculture on selective agars (eosin-methylene blue, brilliant green, and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate). Overall, the procedure was effective in detecting Salmonella spp. and provided next-day results.

  5. Adaptive Steganalysis Based on Selection Region and Combined Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital image steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of information hiding in carrier images. When detecting recently developed adaptive image steganography methods, state-of-art steganalysis methods cannot achieve satisfactory detection accuracy, because the adaptive steganography methods can adaptively embed information into regions with rich textures via the guidance of distortion function and thus make the effective steganalysis features hard to be extracted. Inspired by the promising success which convolutional neural network (CNN has achieved in the fields of digital image analysis, increasing researchers are devoted to designing CNN based steganalysis methods. But as for detecting adaptive steganography methods, the results achieved by CNN based methods are still far from expected. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach by designing a region selection method and a new CNN framework. In order to make the CNN focus on the regions with complex textures, we design a region selection method by finding a region with the maximal sum of the embedding probabilities. To evolve more diverse and effective steganalysis features, we design a new CNN framework consisting of three separate subnets with independent structure and configuration parameters and then merge and split the three subnets repeatedly. Experimental results indicate that our approach can lead to performance improvement in detecting adaptive steganography.

  6. The CHOICE study: effect of counselling on the selection of combined hormonal contraceptive methods in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Johannes; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Roumen, Frans; Marintcheva-Petrova, Maya; van Bakel, Bas; Oddens, Björn J

    2012-02-01

    To encourage healthcare professionals to counsel women seeking combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) about alternative CHCs and to study the influence of counselling on women's selection of CHCs. Women (15-40 years old) in 11 countries who consulted HCPs about CHCs were counselled about the pill, transdermal patch, and vaginal ring. Both the HCPs and the women completed questionnaires. Of women who were counselled (n = 18,787), 47% selected another CHC method than originally planned. One in four who intended to use the pill chose another method (16% chose the patch; 65% chose the ring). In total, patch use increased from 5% -8% (difference = 3.7% [97.5% CI: 3.3-4.2]; p use nearly quadrupled from 8% -30% (difference = 21.7% [97.5% CI: 21.0-22.5]; p women who were undecided prior to counselling selected a method after counselling. Selection of the pill increased most in Russia (+ 11%) and Sweden (+ 5%); patch selection was greatest in Russia (+ 7%) and Israel (+ 6%); ring use increased most in Ukraine and in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (+ 36%). Counselling increases use of alternative CHCs, such as the patch and the ring. Considerable differences between countries were noted.

  7. Selecting statistical models and variable combinations for optimal classification using otolith microchemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M; Bruguier, Olivier; Vasconcelos, Rita P; Cabral, Henrique N; Costa, Maria J; Lara, Monica; Jones, David L; Mouillot, David

    2011-06-01

    Reliable assessment of fish origin is of critical importance for exploited species, since nursery areas must be identified and protected to maintain recruitment to the adult stock. During the last two decades, otolith chemical signatures (or "fingerprints") have been increasingly used as tools to discriminate between coastal habitats. However, correct assessment of fish origin from otolith fingerprints depends on various environmental and methodological parameters, including the choice of the statistical method used to assign fish to unknown origin. Among the available methods of classification, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is the most frequently used, although it assumes data are multivariate normal with homogeneous within-group dispersions, conditions that are not always met by otolith chemical data, even after transformation. Other less constrained classification methods are available, but there is a current lack of comparative analysis in applications to otolith microchemistry. Here, we assessed stock identification accuracy for four classification methods (LDA, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis [QDA], Random Forests [RF], and Artificial Neural Networks [ANN]), through the use of three distinct data sets. In each case, all possible combinations of chemical elements were examined to identify the elements to be used for optimal accuracy in fish assignment to their actual origin. Our study shows that accuracy differs according to the model and the number of elements considered. Best combinations did not include all the elements measured, and it was not possible to define an ad hoc multielement combination for accurate site discrimination. Among all the models tested, RF and ANN performed best, especially for complex data sets (e.g., with numerous fish species and/or chemical elements involved). However, for these data, RF was less time-consuming and more interpretable than ANN, and far more efficient and less demanding in terms of assumptions than LDA or QDA

  8. Discriminative region extraction and feature selection based on the combination of SURF and saliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Chunhong; Rao, Changhui

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a possible optimization on salient region algorithm, which is extensively used in recognizing and learning object categories. Salient region algorithm owns the superiority of intra-class tolerance, global score of features and automatically prominent scale selection under certain range. However, the major limitation behaves on performance, and that is what we attempt to improve. By reducing the number of pixels involved in saliency calculation, it can be accelerated. We use interest points detected by fast-Hessian, the detector of SURF, as the candidate feature for saliency operation, rather than the whole set in image. This implementation is thereby called Saliency based Optimization over SURF (SOSU for short). Experiment shows that bringing in of such a fast detector significantly speeds up the algorithm. Meanwhile, Robustness of intra-class diversity ensures object recognition accuracy.

  9. Study of the source-detector system geometry using the MCNP-X code in the flowrate measurement with radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilan Puertas, Eddie, E-mail: epuertas@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Braz, Delson, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Brandao, Luis E.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use radioactive tracers for flow rate measurement is applied to a great variety of situations, however the accuracy of the technique is highly dependent of the adequate choice of the experimental measurement conditions. To measure flow rate of fluids in ducts partially filled, is necessary to measure the fluid flow velocity and the fluid height. The flow velocity can be measured with the cross correlation function and the fluid level, with a fluid level meter system. One of the error factors when measuring flow rate, is on the correct setting of the source-detector of the fluid level meter system. The goal of the present work is to establish by mean of MCNP-X code simulations the experimental parameters to measure the fluid level. The experimental tests will be realized in a flow rate system of 10 mm of diameter of acrylic tube for water and oil as fluids. The radioactive tracer to be used is the {sup 82}Br and for the detection will be employed two 1″ NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors, shielded with collimators of 0.5 cm and 1 cm of circular aperture diameter. (author)

  10. Combining Co-Benefits and Stakeholders Perceptions into Green Infrastructure Selection for Flood Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Alves

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An important increase in flood risk levels is expected in future decades in many areas around the globe. In addition, the traditional approaches for flood management offer options with low sustainability. As a response, the use of non-traditional drainage measures, also called green infrastructures, has been increasingly suggested in the last years. One important reason for their increasing popularity has been the co-benefits that they offer to the environment. The development of an efficient planning for sustainable urban drainage systems is a complex process that needs the involvement of multiple stakeholders. Moreover, the measures to be adopted should be evaluated considering their potential to achieve multiple benefits related to human well-being, rather than just to flood risk management. In this work, we propose a framework for the selection of green infrastructures on the basis of a co-benefits analysis. The aim is to include the achievement of co-benefits and human well-being into decision-making for flood management, considering the stakeholders’ perceptions to define the most important benefits to be enhanced. The application of the framework presented here to a case study in Ayutthaya, Thailand, shows the importance of including different stakeholder’s opinions. In addition, it shows that decision makers should consider locally defined co-benefits as well as flood risk reduction when defining which green infrastructures to apply.

  11. Protein structural model selection by combining consensus and single scoring methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan He

    Full Text Available Quality assessment (QA for predicted protein structural models is an important and challenging research problem in protein structure prediction. Consensus Global Distance Test (CGDT methods assess each decoy (predicted structural model based on its structural similarity to all others in a decoy set and has been proved to work well when good decoys are in a majority cluster. Scoring functions evaluate each single decoy based on its structural properties. Both methods have their merits and limitations. In this paper, we present a novel method called PWCom, which consists of two neural networks sequentially to combine CGDT and single model scoring methods such as RW, DDFire and OPUS-Ca. Specifically, for every pair of decoys, the difference of the corresponding feature vectors is input to the first neural network which enables one to predict whether the decoy-pair are significantly different in terms of their GDT scores to the native. If yes, the second neural network is used to decide which one of the two is closer to the native structure. The quality score for each decoy in the pool is based on the number of winning times during the pairwise comparisons. Test results on three benchmark datasets from different model generation methods showed that PWCom significantly improves over consensus GDT and single scoring methods. The QA server (MUFOLD-Server applying this method in CASP 10 QA category was ranked the second place in terms of Pearson and Spearman correlation performance.

  12. Selective removal of dissolved toxic metals from groundwater by ultrafiltration in combination with chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Le, V.T.; McConeghy, G.J.; Martin, J.F.

    1989-09-01

    An alternative in-place process for the removal of toxic heavy metals based on aqueous solution chemistry and treatment is being evaluated under the auspices of the Emerging Technologies Program funded through the USEPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program. The technique involves the contacting of aqueous solutions containing the heavy metal contaminants with low concentrations of polyelectrolytes, and then removing the polyelectrolytes from solution with ultrafiltration membranes. The first phase of the program is considered complete. Success has been achieved for the separation of soluble, heavy metal ions: cadmium, lead, and mercury even in the presence of an organic compound, toluene. Removal was successful at alkaline conditions, using any combination of membrane material or polyelectrolyte. Arsenic was removed, but not effectively, using the current polyelectrolytes, simply because arsenic is present as an anionic species rather than as a cationic species. Optimization of the process variables is nearing completion and pilot and field testing will take place in the second year of the program to verify the process under realistic conditions and to establish process economics

  13. Selected spices and their combination modulate hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria A Otunola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effect of aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Capsicum fructensces (cayenne pepper and their mixture on oxidative stress in rats fed high Cholesterol/high fat diet was investigated. Rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n = 6 and given different dietary/spice treatments. Group 1 standard rat chow (control, group 2, hypercholesterolemic diet plus water, and groups 3, 4, 5, 6, hypercholesterolemic diet with 0.5 ml 200 mg · kg-1 aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, cayenne pepper or their mixture respectively daily for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Pronounced oxidative stress in the hypercholesterolemic rats evidenced by significant (p < 0.05 increase in MDA levels, and suppression of the antioxidant enzymes system in rat's liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues was observed. Extracts of spices singly or combined administered at 200 mg.kg-1 body weight significantly (p < 0.05 reduced MDA levels and restored activities of antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that consumption of garlic, ginger, pepper, or their mixture may help to modulate oxidative stress caused by hypercholesterolemia in rats.

  14. Adjustable selective maxillary expansion combined with maxillomandibular surgery: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyder, Patrick; Altounian, Gérard; Chardain, Jacques; Quilichini, Julien

    2015-09-01

    Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) is usually considered the gold standard for maxillary transverse expansion in adults. However, a second surgical procedure is needed in cases of associated sagittal or vertical discrepancies. We describe the use of two new innovative devices for the correction of discrepancies in all dimensions during a single surgical procedure, thus reducing treatment duration. We report the case of a 21-year-old female patient, referred to our department for skeletal Class III malocclusion associated with right-side laterognathism and transverse maxillary deficiency. The patient underwent one-stage surgery, using sliding osteosynthesis plates and an adjustable bone-borne distractor. Pre-surgical orthodontics consisted in leveling and aligning the mandibular arch; maxillary leveling was initiated 3 months before surgery. Postoperative palatal distraction combined with orthodontic finishing enabled complete correction of dental and bony discrepancies after 3 months. In our experience, treatment of transverse, sagittal and vertical discrepancies has been possible in a single surgical procedure, using two innovative techniques: sliding osteosynthesis and an adjustable bone distractor. Two years post-surgery, the correction is stable in all dimensions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Evaluation of selected nursery traits in combination rootstocks and variety for Asian pear trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Nečas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the nursery traits of rootstocks and varieties is an important tool for optimisation of the fruit orchard plants final growing. The present experiment evaluated the standard and progressive rootstocks for the pear trees in combination with the Asian varieties of P. pyrifolia Nakai. a P. ussuriensis Maxim. in comparison with the control variety ‘Conference’ P. communis L. The evaluation was focused on such properties as affinity, growth of the tree propagated by budding, thickness of the root crown at the rootstock and the root suckering. Their interactions were tested statistically. The highest values of affinity within the nursery were achieved with the following rootstocks: ‘BET’ (96.6%, ‘FOX 11’ (95.5 %, and ‘MA’ (94.4 %. ‘Hosui’ was identified as the variety with the greatest growing capacity, with an average gain of 1238.2 mm. The most supported variety growth was exhibited by the ‘FOX 11’ rootstock, with an average gain of the trees propagated by budding of 1388.8 mm. The growth intensity itself was demonstrated most in the thickness of the root crown of the ‘BET’ (P. betulifolia rootstock, namely 15.8 mm. The rootstock that exhibited the strongest root suckering was also ‘BET’ with 6.2 suckers per rootstock. The identified differences between the varieties and rootstocks were confirmed as statistically significant or even highly statistically significant.

  16. Comparative study of SVM methods combined with voxel selection for object category classification on fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sutao; Zhan, Zhichao; Long, Zhiying; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li

    2011-02-16

    Support vector machine (SVM) has been widely used as accurate and reliable method to decipher brain patterns from functional MRI (fMRI) data. Previous studies have not found a clear benefit for non-linear (polynomial kernel) SVM versus linear one. Here, a more effective non-linear SVM using radial basis function (RBF) kernel is compared with linear SVM. Different from traditional studies which focused either merely on the evaluation of different types of SVM or the voxel selection methods, we aimed to investigate the overall performance of linear and RBF SVM for fMRI classification together with voxel selection schemes on classification accuracy and time-consuming. Six different voxel selection methods were employed to decide which voxels of fMRI data would be included in SVM classifiers with linear and RBF kernels in classifying 4-category objects. Then the overall performances of voxel selection and classification methods were compared. Results showed that: (1) Voxel selection had an important impact on the classification accuracy of the classifiers: in a relative low dimensional feature space, RBF SVM outperformed linear SVM significantly; in a relative high dimensional space, linear SVM performed better than its counterpart; (2) Considering the classification accuracy and time-consuming holistically, linear SVM with relative more voxels as features and RBF SVM with small set of voxels (after PCA) could achieve the better accuracy and cost shorter time. The present work provides the first empirical result of linear and RBF SVM in classification of fMRI data, combined with voxel selection methods. Based on the findings, if only classification accuracy was concerned, RBF SVM with appropriate small voxels and linear SVM with relative more voxels were two suggested solutions; if users concerned more about the computational time, RBF SVM with relative small set of voxels when part of the principal components were kept as features was a better choice.

  17. Combining Pickering Emulsion Polymerization with Molecular Imprinting to Prepare Polymer Microspheres for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Malachite Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Liang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malachite green (MG is currently posing a carcinogenic threat to the safety of human lives; therefore, it is highly desirable to develop an effective method for fast trace detection of MG. Herein, for the first time, this paper presents a systematic study on polymer microspheres, being prepared by combined Pickering emulsion polymerization and molecular imprinting, to detect and purify MG. The microspheres, molecularly imprinted with MG, show enhanced adsorption selectivity to MG, despite a somewhat lowered adsorption capacity, as compared to the counterpart without molecular imprinting. Structural features and adsorption performance of these microspheres are elucidated by different characterizations and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. The surface of the molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (M-PMs exhibits regular pores of uniform pore size distribution, endowing M-PMs with impressive adsorption selectivity to MG. In contrast, the microspheres without molecular imprinting show a larger average particle diameter and an uneven porous surface (with roughness and a large pore size, causing a lower adsorption selectivity to MG despite a higher adsorption capacity. Various adsorption conditions are investigated, such as pH and initial concentration of the solution with MG, for optimizing the adsorption performance of M-PMs in selectively tackling MG. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics are deeply discussed and analyzed, so as to provide a full picture of the adsorption behaviors of the polymer microspheres with and without the molecular imprinting. Significantly, M-PMs show promising solid-phase extraction column applications for recovering MG in a continuous extraction manner.

  18. Study on combined effects of acidification and sonication on selected quality attributes of carrot juice during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, S.; Hu, B.; Ali, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the combined effects of acid blanching and sonication treatments on selected quality parameters of carrot juice stored at 4 degree C for 18 days. Carrots were blanched in acidified water (40g/L citric acid) at 100 degree C for 4 min and the juice was then extracted. Sonication of the juice was done at an amplitude level of 70% and a frequency of 20 kHz for 2 min at 15 degree C, keeping the pulse duration of 5 Sec on and 5 Sec off. As results, the combined treatment of acidification and sonication of carrot juice showed a significant decrease in pH and increase (P < 0.05) in acidity which remained stable during storage period. No significant changes were observed in Brix. Color values (L, a, b) and non enzymatic browning (NEB) influenced significantly in acidified and sonicated carrot juice during storage period. Maximum stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid were also observed in the combined treatment of acidification and sonication. The findings of this study indicated that the combined treatments of acidification and sonication may successfully be utilized for the production of high quality carrot juice with improved stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid during 18 days of storage. (author)

  19. Electricity Price Forecast Using Combined Models with Adaptive Weights Selected and Errors Calibrated by Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined forecast with weights adaptively selected and errors calibrated by Hidden Markov model (HMM is proposed to model the day-ahead electricity price. Firstly several single models were built to forecast the electricity price separately. Then the validation errors from every individual model were transformed into two discrete sequences: an emission sequence and a state sequence to build the HMM, obtaining a transmission matrix and an emission matrix, representing the forecasting ability state of the individual models. The combining weights of the individual models were decided by the state transmission matrixes in HMM and the best predict sample ratio of each individual among all the models in the validation set. The individual forecasts were averaged to get the combining forecast with the weights obtained above. The residuals of combining forecast were calibrated by the possible error calculated by the emission matrix of HMM. A case study of day-ahead electricity market of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM, USA, suggests that the proposed method outperforms individual techniques of price forecasting, such as support vector machine (SVM, generalized regression neural networks (GRNN, day-ahead modeling, and self-organized map (SOM similar days modeling.

  20. Mechanisms of Acquired Drug Resistance to the HDAC6 Selective Inhibitor Ricolinostat Reveals Rational Drug-Drug Combination with Ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Jennifer E; Prabhu, Sathyen A; Lombardo, Maximilian; Zullo, Kelly; Johannet, Paul M; Gonzalez, Yulissa; Scotto, Luigi; Serrano, Xavier Jirau; Wei, Ying; Duong, Jimmy; Nandakumar, Renu; Cremers, Serge; Verma, Akanksha; Elemento, Olivier; O'Connor, Owen A

    2017-06-15

    Purpose: Pan-class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are effective treatments for select lymphomas. Isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors are emerging as potentially more targeted agents. ACY-1215 (ricolinostat) is a first-in-class selective HDAC6 inhibitor. To better understand the discrete function of HDAC6 and its role in lymphoma, we developed a lymphoma cell line resistant to ACY-1215. Experimental Design: The diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line OCI-Ly10 was exposed to increasing concentrations of ACY-1215 over an extended period of time, leading to the development of a resistant cell line. Gene expression profiling (GEP) was performed to investigate differentially expressed genes. Combination studies of ACY-1215 and ibrutinib were performed in cell lines, primary human lymphoma tissue, and a xenograft mouse model. Results: Systematic incremental increases in drug exposure led to the development of distinct resistant cell lines with IC 50 values 10- to 20-fold greater than that for parental lines. GEP revealed upregulation of MAPK10, HELIOS, HDAC9, and FYN, as well as downregulation of SH3BP5 and LCK. Gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed modulation of the BTK pathway. Ibrutinib was found to be synergistic with ACY-1215 in cell lines as well as in 3 primary patient samples of lymphoma. In vivo confirmation of antitumor synergy was demonstrated with a xenograft of DLBCL. Conclusions: The development of this ACY-1215-resistant cell line has provided valuable insights into the mechanistic role of HDAC6 in lymphoma and offered a novel method to identify rational synergistic drug combinations. Translation of these findings to the clinic is underway. Clin Cancer Res; 23(12); 3084-96. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Spinal endoscopy combined with selective CT myelography for dural closure of the spinal dural defect with superficial siderosis: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Higashino, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Akazawa, Ayumi; Arai, Hiroshi; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Matsuda, Ken; Kodera, Toshiaki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Awara, Kousuke; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The authors describe a new procedure to detect the tiny dural hole in patients with superficial siderosis (SS) and CSF leakage using a coronary angioscope system for spinal endoscopy and selective CT myelography using a spinal drainage tube. Under fluoroscopy, surgeons inserted the coronary angioscope into the spinal subarachnoid space, similar to the procedure of spinal drainage, and slowly advanced it to the cervical spine. The angioscope clearly showed the small dural hole and injured arachnoid membrane. One week later, the spinal drainage tube was inserted, and the tip of the drainage tube was located just below the level of the dural defect found by the spinal endoscopic examination. This selective CT myelography clarifies the location of the dural defect. During surgery, the small dural hole could be easily located, and it was securely sutured. It is sometimes difficult to detect the actual location of the small dural hole even with thin-slice MRI or dynamic CT myelography in patients with SS. The use of a coronary angioscope for the spinal endoscopy combined with selective CT myelography may provide an effective examination to assess dural closure of the spinal dural defect with SS in cases without obvious dural defects on conventional imaging.

  2. Combining selected immunomodulatory Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains: Reverse engineering development of an anti-inflammatory cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plé, Coline; Breton, Jérôme; Richoux, Romain; Nurdin, Marine; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Falentin, Hélène; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Lemée, Riwanon; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Jan, Gwénaël; Van de Guchte, Maarten; Foligné, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitutes a growing public health concern in western countries. Bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties are lacking in the dysbiosis accompanying IBD. Selected strains of probiotic bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties accordingly alleviate symptoms and enhance treatment of ulcerative colitis in clinical trials. Such properties are also found in selected strains of dairy starters such as Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (Ld). We thus investigated the possibility to develop a fermented dairy product, combining both starter and probiotic abilities of both lactic acid and propionic acid bacteria, designed to extend remissions in IBD patients. We developed a single-strain Ld-fermented milk and a two-strain P. freudenreichii and Ld-fermented experimental pressed cheese using strains previously selected for their anti-inflammatory properties. Consumption of these experimental fermented dairy products protected mice against trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid induced colitis, alleviating severity of symptoms, modulating local and systemic inflammation, as well as colonic oxidative stress and epithelial cell damages. As a control, the corresponding sterile dairy matrix failed to afford such protection. This work reveals the probiotic potential of this bacterial mixture, in the context of fermented dairy products. It opens new perspectives for the reverse engineering development of anti-inflammatory fermented foods designed for target populations with IBD, and has provided evidences leading to an ongoing pilot clinical study in ulcerative colitis patients. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors, alone and in combination, on a murine model of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbraith Deirdre

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-inflammatory effects of the selective phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors cilostazol (PDE 3, RO 20-1724 (PDE 4 and sildenafil (PDE 5 were examined in a murine model of allergic asthma. These compounds were used alone and in combination to determine any potential synergism, with dexamethasone included as a positive control. Methods Control and ovalbumin sensitised Balb/C mice were administered orally with each of the possible combinations of drugs at a dose of 3 mg/Kg for 10 days. Results When used alone, RO 20-1724 significantly reduced eosinophil influx into lungs and lowered tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared to untreated mice. Treatment with cilostazol or sildenafil did not significantly inhibit any markers of inflammation measured. Combining any of these PDE inhibitors produced no additive or synergistic effects. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory effects of RO 20-1724 were attenuated by co-administration of either cilostazol or sildenafil. Conclusions These results suggest that concurrent treatment with a PDE 3 and/or PDE 5 inhibitor will reduce the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of a PDE 4 inhibitor.

  4. Rapid Onset of the Effects of Combined Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Electroacupuncture on Primary Depression: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Qu, Shan-shan; Zhang, Ji-ping; Sun, Ya-ling; Liu, Wei-lu; Xie, Ling; Huang, Yong; Chen, Jun-qi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and electroacupuncture therapies for the early treatment of primary depression. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were analyzed to compare therapy combining SSRIs and electroacupuncture to SSRI therapy alone. The RCTs were identified by searching, among others, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chongqing VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, WANFANG DATA, and the Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database. Scores from Self-Rated Depression Scale (SDS), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Side Effect Rating Scale (SERS), and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) were analyzed and coded by two independent investigators and used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatment. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Six RCTs were analyzed. The meta-analysis revealed that the combined therapy of SSRIs and electroacupuncture were associated with superior scores on the HAMD, SDS, and SERS measures compared with SSRIs alone after 1-4 weeks of treatment: HAMD scores, mean difference (MD)(1 week), 2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI](1 week), 1.47-3.16, p(1 week)electroacupuncture therapies is more efficient than treatments with SSRIs alone and leads to a better and earlier control of depressive symptoms.

  5. SACALCCYL, Calculates the average solid angle subtended by a volume; SACALC2B, Calculates the average solid angle for source-detector geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SACALC2B calculates the average solid angle subtended by a rectangular or circular detector window to a coaxial or non-coaxial rectangular, circular or point source, including where the source and detector planes are not parallel. SACALC C YL calculates the average solid angle subtended by a cylinder to a rectangular or circular source, plane or thick, at any location and orientation. This is needed, for example, in calculating the intrinsic gamma efficiency of a detector such as a GM tube. The program also calculates the number of hits on the cylinder side and on each end, and the average path length through the detector volume (assuming no scattering or absorption). Point sources can be modelled by using a circular source of zero radius. NEA-1688/03: Documentation has been updated (January 2006). 2 - Methods: The program uses a Monte Carlo method to calculate average solid angle for source-detector geometries that are difficult to analyse by analytical methods. The values of solid angle are calculated to accuracies of typically better than 0.1%. The calculated values from the Monte Carlo method agree closely with those produced by polygon approximation and numerical integration by Gardner and Verghese, and others. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program models a circular or rectangular detector in planes that are not necessarily coaxial, nor parallel. Point sources can be modelled by using a circular source of zero radius. The sources are assumed to be uniformly distributed. NEA-1688/04: In SACALC C YL, to avoid rounding errors, differences less than 1 E-12 are assumed to be zero

  6. Development of Portable Digital Radiography System with a Device for Monitoring X-ray Source-Detector Angle and Its Application in Chest Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a device measuring the X-ray source-detector angle (SDA and evaluated the imaging performance for diagnosing chest images. The SDA device consisted of Arduino, an accelerometer and gyro sensor, and a Bluetooth module. The SDA values were compared with the values of a digital angle meter. The performance of the portable digital radiography (PDR was evaluated using the signal-to-noise (SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, spatial resolution, distortion and entrance surface dose (ESD. According to different angle degrees, five anatomical landmarks were assessed using a five-point scale. The mean SNR and CNR were 182.47 and 141.43. The spatial resolution and ESD were 3.17 lp/mm (157 μm and 0.266 mGy. The angle values of the SDA device were not significantly difference as compared to those of the digital angle meter. In chest imaging, the SNR and CNR values were not significantly different according to the different angle degrees. The visibility scores of the border of the heart, the fifth rib and the scapula showed significant differences according to different angles (p < 0.05, whereas the scores of the clavicle and first rib were not significant. It is noticeable that the increase in the SDA degree was consistent with the increases of the distortion and visibility score. The proposed PDR with a SDA device would be useful for application in the clinical radiography setting according to the standard radiography guidelines.

  7. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  8. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy combined with selective release of lateral soft tissue for severe hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hiroyuki; Suda, Yasunori; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Niki, Yasuo

    2018-03-21

    Minimally invasive techniques for hallux valgus have been widely used to treat mild to moderate hallux valgus deformities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of distal linear metatarsal osteotomy (DLMO), which is one of the minimally invasive techniques, for severe hallux valgus. 95 patients (141 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent DLMOs. Lateral soft tissue release (LSTR) was performed at the same time for the cases selected by an original manual test. The satisfaction level, the Japanese Society of Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) hallux scale score, and weight-bearing radiographs of the foot were assessed preoperatively and after more than 24 months. In addition, the clinical and radiographic outcomes were compared among three groups divided by the kind of LSTR: no LSTR; manual correction; and open release through skin incision. Although the first metatarsal bone was significantly shortened, dorsiflexed, and elevated on postoperative radiographs, the rate of satisfaction was 87.2% (123/141), and the mean JSSF hallux scale score improved significantly from 60.4 (44-73) to 90.4 (65-100). The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles also improved significantly from 45.5° (40.0-60.0°) to 10.3° (-28.0-40.9°) and from 19.9° (14.0-28.7°) to 8.3° (-1.6-18.5°), respectively. Delayed union (18 feet), metatarsalgia (16 feet), recurrence (22 feet), and hallux varus (22 feet) were observed, and they were more obvious in DLMO combined with open release through a skin incision. DLMO combined selectively with LSTR is an effective procedure for correcting severe hallux valgus. However, the indication for open release with DLMO should be considered carefully. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A Context Aware Recommender System for Mobile Phone Selection Using Combination of Elimination Method and Analytic Hierarchy Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rezaeenour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems suggest proper items to customers based on their preferences and needs. Needed time to search is reduced and the quality of customer’s choice is increased using recommender systems. The context information like time, location and user behaviors can enhance the quality of recommendations and customer satisfication in such systems. In this paper a context aware recommender system is designed and implemented in android smart phones to help customers select mobile phones. The system removes ineffective criteria on user’s purcheses using customer mobile phones’ sensor data. Then creates analytic hierarchy processing tree and computes weights. Finally the recommender system recommends proper mobile phone to user. The system selects and recommends suitable phones using combination of elimination method and analytic hierarchy processing (AHP. The context aware recommender system is used by mobile phone customers to assess recomendation satisfication and user interface design satisfication. In addition a traditional non-context aware recommender system is used by users to compare the recommendation results in two different systems. The article concludes that using context information can improve the recommendation quality and user satisfication. Because of decreasing criteria and pair-wised comparisions, the user interface design satisfication improves a little too.

  10. When the most potent combination of antibiotics selects for the greatest bacterial load: the smile-frown transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pena-Miller

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom holds that the best way to treat infection with antibiotics is to 'hit early and hit hard'. A favoured strategy is to deploy two antibiotics that produce a stronger effect in combination than if either drug were used alone. But are such synergistic combinations necessarily optimal? We combine mathematical modelling, evolution experiments, whole genome sequencing and genetic manipulation of a resistance mechanism to demonstrate that deploying synergistic antibiotics can, in practice, be the worst strategy if bacterial clearance is not achieved after the first treatment phase. As treatment proceeds, it is only to be expected that the strength of antibiotic synergy will diminish as the frequency of drug-resistant bacteria increases. Indeed, antibiotic efficacy decays exponentially in our five-day evolution experiments. However, as the theory of competitive release predicts, drug-resistant bacteria replicate fastest when their drug-susceptible competitors are eliminated by overly-aggressive treatment. Here, synergy exerts such strong selection for resistance that an antagonism consistently emerges by day 1 and the initially most aggressive treatment produces the greatest bacterial load, a fortiori greater than if just one drug were given. Whole genome sequencing reveals that such rapid evolution is the result of the amplification of a genomic region containing four drug-resistance mechanisms, including the acrAB efflux operon. When this operon is deleted in genetically manipulated mutants and the evolution experiment repeated, antagonism fails to emerge in five days and antibiotic synergy is maintained for longer. We therefore conclude that unless super-inhibitory doses are achieved and maintained until the pathogen is successfully cleared, synergistic antibiotics can have the opposite effect to that intended by helping to increase pathogen load where, and when, the drugs are found at sub-inhibitory concentrations.

  11. When the most potent combination of antibiotics selects for the greatest bacterial load: the smile-frown transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Miller, Rafael; Laehnemann, David; Jansen, Gunther; Fuentes-Hernandez, Ayari; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Beardmore, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the best way to treat infection with antibiotics is to 'hit early and hit hard'. A favoured strategy is to deploy two antibiotics that produce a stronger effect in combination than if either drug were used alone. But are such synergistic combinations necessarily optimal? We combine mathematical modelling, evolution experiments, whole genome sequencing and genetic manipulation of a resistance mechanism to demonstrate that deploying synergistic antibiotics can, in practice, be the worst strategy if bacterial clearance is not achieved after the first treatment phase. As treatment proceeds, it is only to be expected that the strength of antibiotic synergy will diminish as the frequency of drug-resistant bacteria increases. Indeed, antibiotic efficacy decays exponentially in our five-day evolution experiments. However, as the theory of competitive release predicts, drug-resistant bacteria replicate fastest when their drug-susceptible competitors are eliminated by overly-aggressive treatment. Here, synergy exerts such strong selection for resistance that an antagonism consistently emerges by day 1 and the initially most aggressive treatment produces the greatest bacterial load, a fortiori greater than if just one drug were given. Whole genome sequencing reveals that such rapid evolution is the result of the amplification of a genomic region containing four drug-resistance mechanisms, including the acrAB efflux operon. When this operon is deleted in genetically manipulated mutants and the evolution experiment repeated, antagonism fails to emerge in five days and antibiotic synergy is maintained for longer. We therefore conclude that unless super-inhibitory doses are achieved and maintained until the pathogen is successfully cleared, synergistic antibiotics can have the opposite effect to that intended by helping to increase pathogen load where, and when, the drugs are found at sub-inhibitory concentrations.

  12. Super-selective interventional chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of postoperative gliomas:a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Hu Qinglei; Sun Yanchun; Feng Lei; Liu Yunzhen; Liu Ju; Kong Ruifen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate super-selective interventional chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy in treating postoperative gliomas. Methods: During the period of 2005-2009, a total of 46 patients with glioma were encountered in our hospital. According to the principle of patient's free will the involved patients were divided into two groups. Study group (n = 25): after operation the patients received routine radiotherapy, which was followed by super-selective interventional chemotherapy combined simultaneously with systemic chemotherapy. Control group (n = 21): after operation the patients received routine radiotherapy, which was followed by systemic chemotherapy only. The patients were regularly followed up. Cranial CT checkups were made to determine the tumor size, and the results were evaluated with Karnofsky scores. The clinical data were analyzed and compared between two groups. Results: In the study group, the side-effects and complications included epileptic seizures (n = 3), eye pain (n = 5), headache (n = 9), nausea and vomiting (n = 8) and thrombopenia (n = 1). In the control group,the side-effects and complications were as follows: epileptic seizures (n = 1), headache (n = 7), nausea and vomiting (n = 6) and thrombopenia(n = 3). No death occurred in either of the two groups. The patients were followed up for an average period of 2.3 years. Before chemotherapy no statistically significant difference in tumor size existed between two groups (P > 0.05). One year after the chemotherapy, the tumor volume in study group was reduced by 67.11%, while it was 45.79% in control group. By using independent sample t test analysis, the difference between two groups was of statistical significance (P < 0.05). Wilcoxon rank sum test and Karnofsky prognostic score analysis indicated that the prognosis of study group was much better than that of control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In comparison with routine radiotherapy plus simple systemic chemotherapy, routine

  13. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  14. Minimally invasive surgical technique: Percutaneous external fixation combined with titanium elastic nails for selective treatment of tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Kai; Zhou, Xian-Ting; Tao, Zhou-Shan; Chen, Wei-Kai; Huang, Zheng-Liang; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques have been described to treat tibial fractures, which respectively remains defects. This article presents a novel intra- and extramedullary fixation technique: percutaneous external fixator combined with titanium elastic nails (EF-TENs system). The purpose of this study is to introduce this new minimally invasive surgical technique and selective treatment of tibial fractures, particularly in segmental fractures, diaphysis fractures accompanied with distal or proximal bone subfissure, or fractures with poor soft-tissue problems. Following ethical approval, thirty-two patients with tibial fractures were treated by the EF-TENs system between January 2010 and December 2012. The follow-up studies included clinical and radiographic examinations. All relevant outcomes were recorded during follow-up. All thirty-two patients were achieved follow-ups. According to the AO classification, 3 Type A, 9 Type B and 20 Type C fractures were included respectively. According to the Anderson-Gustilo classification, there were 5 Type Grade II, 3 Type Grade IIIA and 2 Type Grade IIIB. Among 32 patients, 8 of them were segmental fractures. 12 fractures accompanied with bone subfissure. Results showed no nonunion case, with an average time of 23.7 weeks (range, 14-32 weeks). Among them, there were 3/32 delayed union patients and 0/32 malunion case. 4/32 patients developed a pin track infection and no patient suffered deep infection. The external fixator was removed with a mean time of 16.7 weeks (range, 10-26 weeks). Moreover, only 1/32 patient suffered with the restricted ROM of ankle, none with the restricted ROM of knee. This preliminary study indicated that the EF-TENs system, as a novel intra- and extramedullary fixation technique, had substantial effects on selective treatment of tibial fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study on the Priority Selection of Sediment-related Desaster Evacuation Using Debris Flow Combination Degree of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C.; Kang, M.; Seo, J.; Kim, D.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    As the mountainous urbanization has increased the concern about landslides in the living area, it is essential to develop the technology to minimize the damage through quick identification and sharing of the disaster occurrence information. In this study, to establish an effective system of alert evacuation that has influence on the residents, we used the debris flow combination degree of risk to predict the risk of the disaster and the level of damage and to select evacuation priorities. Based on the GIS information, the physical strength and social vulnerability were determined by following the debris flow combination of the risk formula. The results classify the physical strength hazard rating of the debris flow combination of the through the normalization process. Debris flow the estimated residential population included in the damage range of the damage prediction map is based on the area and the unit size data. Prediction of occupant formula was calculated by applying different weighting to the resident population and users, and the result was classified into 5 classes as the debris flow physical strength. The debris flow occurrence physical strength and social and psychological vulnerability were classified into the classifications to be reflected in the debris flow integrated risk map using the matrix technique. In addition, to supplement the risk of incorporation of debris flow, we added weight to disaster vulnerable facilities that require a lot of time and manpower to evacuate. The basic model of welfare facilities was supplemented by using basic data, population density, employment density and GDP. First, evacuate areas with high integrated degree of risk level, and evacuate with consideration of physical class differences if classification difficult because of the same or similar grade among the management areas. When the physical hazard class difference is similar, the population difference of the area including the welfare facility is considered

  16. Effects of selected combinations of tall fescue alkaloids on the vasoconstrictive capacity of fescue-naive bovine lateral saphenous veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Kirch, B H; Aiken, G E; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2008-04-01

    Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot alkaloids, individually or in paired combinations, using bovine lateral saphenous veins biopsied from fescue-naïve cattle. Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied from healthy crossbred yearling heifers (n = 22; 330 +/- 8 kg of BW). Veins were trimmed of excess fat and connective tissue, sliced into 2- to 3-mm sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O(2)/5% CO(2); pH = 7.4; 37 degrees C). Increasing doses of ergovaline, lysergic acid, and N-acetylloline individually or in combination were evaluated. Contractile data were normalized as a percentage of the contractile response induced by a reference dose of norepinephrine (1 x 10(- 4) M). Increasing concentrations of lysergic acid did not result in an appreciable contractile response until the addition of 1 x 10(- 4) M lysergic acid. In contrast, the vascular response to increasing concentrations of ergovaline was apparent at 1 x 10(- 8) M and increased to a maximum of 104.2 +/- 6.0% with the addition of 1 x 10(- 4) M ergovaline. The presence of N-acetylloline did not alter the onset or magnitude of vascular response to either lysergic acid or ergovaline. The presence of 1 x 10(- 5) M lysergic acid with increasing concentrations of N-acetylloline and ergovaline generated an increased contractile response during the initial additions compared with the responses of N-acetylloline and ergovaline alone. In the presence of 1 x 10(- 7) M ergovaline, the contractile response increased with increasing concentrations of N-acetylloline and lysergic acid. Neither N-acetylloline nor lysergic acid elicited an intense contractile response individually

  17. Rapid and selective detection of E. coli O157:H7 combining phagomagnetic separation with enzymatic colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Yan, Chenghui; Yang, Hang; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2017-11-01

    Mammal IgG antibodies are normally used in conventional immunoassays for E. coli O157:H7, which could lead to false positive results from the presence of protein A producing S. aureus. In this study, a natural specific bacteriophage was isolated and then conjugated with magnetic beads as a capture element in a sandwich format for the rapid and selective detection of E. coli O157:H7. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first time to utilize a natural bacteriophage to develop a phagomagnetic separation combined with colorimetric assay for E. coli O157:H7. The method has an overall time less than 2h with a detection limit of 4.9×10 4 CFU/mL. No interference from S. aureus was observed. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied to detect E. coli O157:H7 in spiked skim milk. The proposed detection system provided a potential method for E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic bacteria in food samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schmitt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1 was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions.

  19. Highly selective generation of vanillin by anodic degradation of lignin: a combined approach of electrochemistry and product isolation by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Dominik; Regenbrecht, Carolin; Hartmer, Marius; Stecker, Florian; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative degradation of lignin into a variety of valuable products has been under investigation since the first half of the last century. Especially, the chance to claim this cheap, abundant and renewable source for the production of the important aroma chemical vanillin (1) was one of the major driving forces of lignin research. So far most of the developed methods fail in technical application since no viable concept for work-up is included. This work represents a combined approach of electrochemical conversion of Kraft lignin and product recovery by adsorption on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Electrolysis conditions are optimized regarding reaction temperatures below 100 °C allowing operation of aqueous electrolytes in simple experimental set-up. Employing ion exchange resins gives rise to a selective removal of low molecular weight phenols from the strongly alkaline electrolyte without acidification and precipitation of remaining lignin. The latter represents a significant advantage compared with conventional work-up protocols of lignin solutions.

  20. Genetic algorithm based feature selection combined with dual classification for the automated detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welikala, R A; Fraz, M M; Dehmeshki, J; Hoppe, A; Tah, V; Mann, S; Williamson, T H; Barman, S A

    2015-07-01

    Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a condition that carries a high risk of severe visual impairment. The hallmark of PDR is the growth of abnormal new vessels. In this paper, an automated method for the detection of new vessels from retinal images is presented. This method is based on a dual classification approach. Two vessel segmentation approaches are applied to create two separate binary vessel map which each hold vital information. Local morphology features are measured from each binary vessel map to produce two separate 4-D feature vectors. Independent classification is performed for each feature vector using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The system then combines these individual outcomes to produce a final decision. This is followed by the creation of additional features to generate 21-D feature vectors, which feed into a genetic algorithm based feature selection approach with the objective of finding feature subsets that improve the performance of the classification. Sensitivity and specificity results using a dataset of 60 images are 0.9138 and 0.9600, respectively, on a per patch basis and 1.000 and 0.975, respectively, on a per image basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Region-selective electroless gold plating on polycarbonate sheets by UV-patterning in combination with silver activating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Qinghua [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen Hengwu, E-mail: hwchen@zju.edu.c [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang Yi [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Zijin' gang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2010-02-28

    A simple, time- and cost-effective approach for region-selective metalization of polycarbonate (PC) surface has been established by combining photoresist-free UV-patterning with tin- and amine-free silver activating and electroless gold plating. The surface of PC sheets was exposed to the UV lights emitted from a low-pressure mercury lamp through a photomask, the micro pattern on the mask being transferred to the PC surface due to the photochemical generation of carboxyl groups on the UV-exposed region. The UV-exposed PC sheets were then treated with an ammoniacal AgNO{sub 3} solution, so that the silver ions were chemisorbed by the photochemically generated carboxyl groups. When the Ag{sup +}-adsorbed PC sheet was immersed into an electroless gold plating bath, shiny gold film quickly deposited on the UV-exposed region, resulting in the formation of a micro gold devices on the PC surface. The whole plating process including UV-exposure, surface activating and gold plating can be completed in about 3-4 h. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to trace the surface change during the plating process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Scotch-tape test were employed to characterize the electrochemical properties and adhesion strength of the prepared micro gold devices, respectively. The prepared micro gold electrodes were demonstrated for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide.

  2. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Combined Exercises on Humoral Immune and Hematological Index in Inactive Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Old age is associated with irregularities in many aspects of body immune system function. During this period, the immune responses decline with increasing age. In other words, with decreasing number of immune cells, which are responsible for detecting and direct attack to contaminated cells, the immune response decreases and results in failure of the immune system. As sports activities could affect the immune system and old age is associated with progressive immune failure, the study of the effects of exercise on the immune system function in old age becomes important. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of selected combined exercises (aerobic and resistance training on the serum level of cortisol and immunoglobulins in inactive elderly men. Methods & Materials: In this quasi-experimental study, 24 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Their age and body mass index ranged 60–70 years and 22–25 kg/m2, respectively. Then, they were randomly assigned into 2 groups (experimental [n=12] and control [n=12]. The experimental group started the combined training exercise, and the control group continued their inactive usual routines. The combined training exercise (aerobic-resistance included running on a treadmill for 20 minutes per session, 3 sessions per week, for 8 weeks, with an intensity of 60% to 70% HRR. Furthermore, the resistance training comprised 10 circling stationary movements of leg flexion, leg extension, leg press, scott, underarm stretch, chest press, iron cross with dumbbells, biceps flexion, triceps extension, and rowing motion with rope. This training included an intensity of 60% to 70% of one maximum repetition with extra load and 10 repetitions in 2 successive times with 30 seconds rest between each repetition and 2 minutes’ rest between each movement. In this study, the blood samples were taken 24 hours before the exercise and 24 hours after the last session of

  3. Combining metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC and selective mass spectrometry for robust identification of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weckwerth Wolfram

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is accepted as a major regulatory pathway in plants. More than 1000 protein kinases are predicted in the Arabidopsis proteome, however, only a few studies look systematically for in vivo protein phosphorylation sites. Owing to the low stoichiometry and low abundance of phosphorylated proteins, phosphorylation site identification using mass spectrometry imposes difficulties. Moreover, the often observed poor quality of mass spectra derived from phosphopeptides results frequently in uncertain database hits. Thus, several lines of evidence have to be combined for a precise phosphorylation site identification strategy. Results Here, a strategy is presented that combines enrichment of phosphoproteins using a technique termed metaloxide affinity chromatography (MOAC and selective ion trap mass spectrometry. The complete approach involves (i enrichment of proteins with low phosphorylation stoichiometry out of complex mixtures using MOAC, (ii gel separation and detection of phosphorylation using specific fluorescence staining (confirmation of enrichment, (iii identification of phosphoprotein candidates out of the SDS-PAGE using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and (iv identification of phosphorylation sites of these enriched proteins using automatic detection of H3PO4 neutral loss peaks and data-dependent MS3-fragmentation of the corresponding MS2-fragment. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by the identification of phosphorylation sites in Arabidopsis thaliana seed proteins. Regulatory importance of the identified sites is indicated by conservation of the detected sites in gene families such as ribosomal proteins and sterol dehydrogenases. To demonstrate further the wide applicability of MOAC, phosphoproteins were enriched from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell cultures. Conclusion A novel phosphoprotein enrichment procedure MOAC was applied to seed proteins of A. thaliana and to

  4. A combination therapy of selective intraarterial anti-cancer drug infusion and radiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Yumiko; Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Mikami, Koji; Takeuchi, Takumi; Matsuda, Izuru; Arahira, Satoko

    2017-01-01

    The gold standard for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer Without metastasis is radical cystectomy. However, there increase patients very elderly and with serious complications. They are not good candidates for invasive surgical operation. Intraarterial infusion of 70 mg/m"2 of cisplatin and 30 mg/m"2 of pirarubicin into bilateral bladder arteries was conducted for 5 patients diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancers without distant metastasis. Right and left distribution of anti-cancer drugs was determined based on the location of bladder tumor(s). External beam radiation therapy was commenced immediately following intraarterial infusion. The patients were followed up with clinical and radiographic investigations and bladderbiopsy was performed as needed. Patients were all males who are smoking or with smoking history ranging from 73 to 85 years of age (median 82). The duration between transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TUR-Bt) and intraarterial infusion of anti-cancer drugs was 47.4 days (range 26-68), the median follow-up period after intraarterial infusion was 21.5 months (range 87-547) without death. Total radiation dose was 59.2 ±3.0 Gy. Complete remission was accomplished in all cases. One patient showed intravesical recurrence of non muscle-invasive tumors 45.8 months following intraarterial infusion and underwent TUR-Bt. Two cases underwent bladder biopsies showing no tumors. All patients but one case with bladder recurrence were free of tumor recurrence with radiographic investigation. For adverse events, acute renal failure was in one case and leukocytopenia was in all 5 cases, Grade 2 for one and Grade 3 for 4 cases. Follow-up periods are not long enough, but early results of a combination therapy of selective intraarterial anti-cancer drug infusion and radiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer were good. (author)

  5. A combined Fisher and Laplacian score for feature selection in QSAR based drug design using compounds with known and unknown activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizade Hasanloei, Mohammad Amin; Sheikhpour, Razieh; Sarram, Mehdi Agha; Sheikhpour, Elnaz; Sharifi, Hamdollah

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is an effective computational technique for drug design that relates the chemical structures of compounds to their biological activities. Feature selection is an important step in QSAR based drug design to select the most relevant descriptors. One of the most popular feature selection methods for classification problems is Fisher score which aim is to minimize the within-class distance and maximize the between-class distance. In this study, the properties of Fisher criterion were extended for QSAR models to define the new distance metrics based on the continuous activity values of compounds with known activities. Then, a semi-supervised feature selection method was proposed based on the combination of Fisher and Laplacian criteria which exploits both compounds with known and unknown activities to select the relevant descriptors. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed semi-supervised feature selection method in selecting the relevant descriptors, we applied the method and other feature selection methods on three QSAR data sets such as serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK3 inhibitors, ROCK inhibitors and phenol compounds. The results demonstrated that the QSAR models built on the selected descriptors by the proposed semi-supervised method have better performance than other models. This indicates the efficiency of the proposed method in selecting the relevant descriptors using the compounds with known and unknown activities. The results of this study showed that the compounds with known and unknown activities can be helpful to improve the performance of the combined Fisher and Laplacian based feature selection methods.

  6. Combined Influence of Selective Focus and Decision Involvement on Attitude-Decision Consistency in a Memory-based Decision Context

    OpenAIRE

    A. VAN KERCKHOVE; I. VERMEIR; M. GEUENS

    2009-01-01

    Marketers often use salient stimuli to draw consumers’ attention to a specific brand in the hope that a selective focus on the own brand increases the sales of this brand. However, previous studies are inconsistent concerning the impact that selectively focusing on a specific brand has on final brand choice. To offer an explanation for these inconsistent results, this paper introduces decision involvement as a moderator of the relation between selective focus and attitude-decision consistency...

  7. When the Most Potent Combination of Antibiotics Selects for the Greatest Bacterial Load: The Smile-Frown Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Miller, Rafael; Laehnemann, David; Jansen, Gunther; Fuentes-Hernandez, Ayari; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Beardmore, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the best way to treat infection with antibiotics is to 'hit early and hit hard'. A favoured strategy is to deploy two antibiotics that produce a stronger effect in combination than if either drug were used alone. But are such synergistic combinations necessarily optimal? We combine mathematical modelling, evolution experiments, whole genome sequencing and genetic manipulation of a resistance mechanism to demonstrate that deploying synergistic antibiotics can, in...

  8. Effects of boron neutron capture therapy using borocaptate sodium in combination with a tumor-selective vasoactive agent in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Baba, Hideo.

    1998-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) destroys tumor cells by means of α particles and recoil protons emitted by 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction. For BNCT to be effective, the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B must be larger than 1.0, because neutron distribution is not selective. We examined the combination of 10 B-enriched borocaptate sodium (BSH) with flavone acetic acid (FAA) as a model compound which causes vascular collapse in squamous cell carcinoma in mice (SCCVII tumors) and would increase the tumor/normal tissue concentration ratio of 10 B. FAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected, and 5 min later BSH (75 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered, followed 15 to 180 min later by irradiation with thermal neutrons. The 10 B concentrations were measured by prompt gamma ray spectrometry. Without FAA, tumor 10 B concentrations were less than or equal to normal tissue concentrations at all time intervals, except that the concentrations were 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in tumor than muscle at 15 and 180 min after injection of BSH. With FAA, 10 B concentrations 2.1- to 6.9-fold greater in tumor than in muscle were achieved at all intervals tested. For blood and skin, significant differential accumulations were found in tumors at 120 and 180 min. Tumor/liver ratios were less than 1 at all times. Cell survival was determined by in vivo/in vitro colony assay, and increasing radiosensitization correlated with increasing tumor 10 B concentrations, whether or not they were achieved with FAA. Tumor control rates, determined at 180 days after BNCT, similarly appeared to depend only on 10 B levels at the time of irradiation. Because 10 B levels correlate with the radiation response of tissues, a therapeutic gain would be expected whenever the tumor levels exceed normal tissue levels, such as in tumors located in muscle irradiated at 15-180 min after FAA+BSH, or in those in skin irradiated at 120 and 180 min. (author)

  9. Rate of improvement during and across three treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia : Cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or both combined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, Franske J.; Van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Mersch, Peter Paul A.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Existing literature on panic disorder (PD) yields no data regarding the differential rates of improvement during Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) or both combined (CBT+SSRI). Method: Patients were randomized to CBT, SSRI or CBT+SSRI which

  10. ptxD gene in combination with phosphite serves as a highly effective selection system to generate transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, Devendra; Campbell, LeAnne M; Nunes, Eugenia; Lopez-Arredondo, Damar L; Janga, Madhusudhana R; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rathore, Keerti S

    2017-12-01

    This report demonstrates the usefulness of ptxD/phosphite as a selection system that not only provides a highly efficient and simple means to generate transgenic cotton plants, but also helps address many of the concerns related to the use of antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes in the production of transgenic crops. Two of the most popular dominant selectable marker systems for plant transformation are based on either antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes. Due to concerns regarding their safety and in order to stack multiple traits in a single plant, there is a need for alternative selectable marker genes. The ptxD gene, derived from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88, that confers to cells the ability to convert phosphite (Phi) into orthophosphate (Pi) offers an alternative selectable marker gene as demonstrated for tobacco and maize. Here, we show that the ptxD gene in combination with a protocol based on selection medium containing Phi, as the sole source of phosphorus (P), can serve as an effective and efficient system to select for transformed cells and generate transgenic cotton plants. Fluorescence microscopy examination of the cultures under selection and molecular analyses on the regenerated plants demonstrate the efficacy of the system in recovering cotton transformants following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under the ptxD/Phi selection, an average of 3.43 transgenic events per 100 infected explants were recovered as opposed to only 0.41% recovery when bar/phosphinothricin (PPT) selection was used. The event recovery rates for nptII/kanamycin and hpt/hygromycin systems were 2.88 and 2.47%, respectively. Molecular analysis on regenerated events showed a selection efficiency of ~ 97% under the ptxD/Phi system. Thus, ptxD/Phi has proven to be a very efficient, positive selection system for the generation of transgenic cotton plants with equal or higher transformation efficiencies compared to the commonly used, negative selection systems.

  11. A Comparative Investigation of the Combined Effects of Pre-Processing, Wavelength Selection, and Regression Methods on Near-Infrared Calibration Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Morris, A Julian; Thennadil, Suresh N

    2017-07-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is being widely used in various fields ranging from pharmaceutics to the food industry for analyzing chemical and physical properties of the substances concerned. Its advantages over other analytical techniques include available physical interpretation of spectral data, nondestructive nature and high speed of measurements, and little or no need for sample preparation. The successful application of NIR spectroscopy relies on three main aspects: pre-processing of spectral data to eliminate nonlinear variations due to temperature, light scattering effects and many others, selection of those wavelengths that contribute useful information, and identification of suitable calibration models using linear/nonlinear regression . Several methods have been developed for each of these three aspects and many comparative studies of different methods exist for an individual aspect or some combinations. However, there is still a lack of comparative studies for the interactions among these three aspects, which can shed light on what role each aspect plays in the calibration and how to combine various methods of each aspect together to obtain the best calibration model. This paper aims to provide such a comparative study based on four benchmark data sets using three typical pre-processing methods, namely, orthogonal signal correction (OSC), extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) and optical path-length estimation and correction (OPLEC); two existing wavelength selection methods, namely, stepwise forward selection (SFS) and genetic algorithm optimization combined with partial least squares regression for spectral data (GAPLSSP); four popular regression methods, namely, partial least squares (PLS), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and Gaussian process regression (GPR). The comparative study indicates that, in general, pre-processing of spectral data can play a significant

  12. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    KAUST Repository

    Yabiku, Y.; Kubo, S.; Nakagawa, M.; Vacha, M.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can

  13. A hybrid method for information technology selection combining multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) with technology roadmapping

    OpenAIRE

    García Mejía, Jaime Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Strategic information technology (IT) management has been recognized as vital for achieving competitive advantage. IT selection, the process of choosing the best technology alternative from a number of available options, is an important part of IT management. The IT selection is a multi-criteria decision making process, where relative importance of each criterion is determined and the degree of satisfaction of every criterion from each alternative is evaluated. Decision makers (DMs)...

  14. Selection of discriminant mid-infrared wavenumbers by combining a naïve Bayesian classifier and a genetic algorithm: Application to the evaluation of lignocellulosic biomass biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Abbas; Perrin, Eric; Vrabie, Valeriu; Assaf, Rabih; Fenniri, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Infrared spectroscopy provides useful information on the molecular compositions of biological systems related to molecular vibrations, overtones, and combinations of fundamental vibrations. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is sensitive to organic and mineral components and has attracted growing interest in the development of biomarkers related to intrinsic characteristics of lignocellulose biomass. However, not all spectral information is valuable for biomarker construction or for applying analysis methods such as classification. Better processing and interpretation can be achieved by identifying discriminating wavenumbers. The selection of wavenumbers has been addressed through several variable- or feature-selection methods. Some of them have not been adapted for use in large data sets or are difficult to tune, and others require additional information, such as concentrations. This paper proposes a new approach by combining a naïve Bayesian classifier with a genetic algorithm to identify discriminating spectral wavenumbers. The genetic algorithm uses a linear combination of an a posteriori probability and the Bayes error rate as the fitness function for optimization. Such a function allows the improvement of both the compactness and the separation of classes. This approach was tested to classify a small set of maize roots in soil according to their biodegradation process based on their MIR spectra. The results show that this optimization method allows better discrimination of the biodegradation process, compared with using the information of the entire MIR spectrum, the use of the spectral information at wavenumbers selected by a genetic algorithm based on a classical validity index or the use of the spectral information selected by combining a genetic algorithm with other methods, such as Linear Discriminant Analysis. The proposed method selects wavenumbers that correspond to principal vibrations of chemical functional groups of compounds that undergo degradation

  15. Antistaphylococcal effect of enterocin AS-48 in bakery ingredients of vegetable origin, alone and in combination with selected antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of enterocin AS-48 against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in various types of bakery ingredients. Antibacterial activity greatly depended on the food substrate, ranging from complete inactivation of S. aureus in liquid caramel (in which the bacterium survived poorly) to no significant inhibition (as in vanilla or chocolate creams). Significant reductions of viable counts in the range of 1.8 to 2.7 log units (P enterocin AS-48 was tested in combination with other antimicrobials. Bactericidal activity increased markedly for the combinations of AS-48 and 0.1% eugenol (v/v), 0.5% 2-nitropropanol (v/v), or 3% Nisaplin (w/v). Enterocin AS-48 could be applied in combination with other antimicrobials for preservation of bakery ingredients against S. aureus.

  16. High-strength bulk nano-crystalline silver prepared by selective leaching combined with spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 627, March (2015), s. 326-332 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nano-crystalline material * Selective leaching * Silver * Spark plasma sintering * Strength Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.01.014

  17. Selection of the optimum combination of responses for Wave Buoy Analogy - An approach based on local sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2016-01-01

    One method to estimate the wave spectrum onboard ships is to use measured ship responses. In this method, known also as Wave Buoy Analogy, amongst various responses that are available from sensor measurements, a couple of responses (at least three) are usually utilized. Selec-tion of the best com...

  18. Determination of main fruits in adulterated nectars by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate calibration and variable selection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaw, Carolina Sheng Whei; Assis, Camila; Silva, Alessandro Rangel Carolino Sales; Cunha, Maria Luísa; Sena, Marcelo Martins; de Souza, Scheilla Vitorino Carvalho

    2018-07-15

    Grape, orange, peach and passion fruit nectars were formulated and adulterated by dilution with syrup, apple and cashew juices at 10 levels for each adulterant. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform mid infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra were obtained. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models allied to different variable selection methods, such as interval partial least squares (iPLS), ordered predictors selection (OPS) and genetic algorithm (GA), were used to quantify the main fruits. PLS improved by iPLS-OPS variable selection showed the highest predictive capacity to quantify the main fruit contents. The selected variables in the final models varied from 72 to 100; the root mean square errors of prediction were estimated from 0.5 to 2.6%; the correlation coefficients of prediction ranged from 0.948 to 0.990; and, the mean relative errors of prediction varied from 3.0 to 6.7%. All of the developed models were validated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal selection for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing using a combination of ' easy to apply ' probability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodmer, D.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; van der Hout, A. H.; Gloudemans, S.; Ansink, K.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2006-01-01

    To establish an efficient, reliable and easy to apply risk assessment tool to select families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients for BRCA mutation testing, using available probability models. In a retrospective study of 263 families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients, the utility of

  20. Selective extraction of intracellular components from the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by combined pulsed electric field-temperature treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Pataro, G.; Capitoli, M.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Olivieri, G.; Ferrari, G.

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic effect of temperature (25-65°C) and total specific energy input (0.55-1.11kWhkgDW -1) by pulsed electric field (PEF) on the release of intracellular components from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was studied. The combination of PEF with temperatures from

  1. Combining ZnO/microwave treatment for changing wettability of WEEE styrene plastics (ABS and HIPS) and their selective separation by froth flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Truc, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a simple froth flotation method to separate plastic wastes of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) after initial hydrophilization by coating the plastics with ZnO and microwave treatment. ABS and HIPS are typical styrene-based WEEE plastics having similar density and hydrophobicity, which hinders their separation for recycling. After coating with ZnO, 2-min microwave treatment rearranged the ABS surface and thus changed its molecular mobility and increased its hydrophilicity. The combined ZnO coating/microwave treatment facilitated the selective separation of ABS and HIPS with 100% and 95.2% recovery and 95.4% and 100% purity in froth flotation, respectively. The combination of ZnO coating-microwave treatment and froth flotation can be utilized as a selective ABS/HIPS separation technique for improved recycling of WEEE plastics.

  2. Plot of invariant mass distribution of diphoton candidates after all selections of the inclusive analysis for the combined 7 TeV and 8 TeV data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Invariant mass distribution of diphoton candidates after all selections of the inclusive analysis for the combined 7 TeV and 8 TeV data. The result of a fit to the data with the sum of a SM Higgs boson signal (with mH =126.8 GeV and free signal strength) and background is superimposed. The residuals of the data with respect to the fitted background are displayed in the lower panel.

  3. The determination of iodine in cheese by neutron activation combined with separation of iodine by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbye, P.I.; Augustson, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    Iodine has been determined in Norwegian cheese by combination of neutron activation and subsequent separation of radioiodine ( 128 I) by selective retention on Dowex 2-X8 anion exchange resin. Iodine may be detected down to 5ng in terms of absolute amounts. In terms of concentration the detection limit was 10ppb. Results showed a precision of 5 percent at a concentration level of 1ppm. (Auth.)

  4. Combined polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and 1,3-propanediol production from crude glycerol: Selective conversion of volatile fatty acids into PHA by mixed microbial consortia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burniol Figols, Anna; Varrone, Cristiano; Le, Simone Balzer

    2018-01-01

    in the supernatant by means of mixed microbial consortia selection strategies. The process showed highly reproducible results in terms of PHA yield, 0.99 ± 0.07 Cmol PHA/Cmol S (0.84 g COD PHA/g COD S), PHA content (76 ± 3.1 g PHA/100 g TSS) and 1,3-PDO recovery (99 ± 2.1%). The combined process had an ultimate...

  5. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops I. Effect at Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. . The research was conducted during 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian coriander cultivar Lozen 1 (Coriandrum sativum L.). The purpose of the investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank mixtures on the coriander. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Silba SC, Sharpen 33 EC,...

  6. The modulation of radiosensitivity by combined treatment of selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS 398 and EGF receptor blocker AG 1478 in HeLa cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Seon Min; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Joo Heon; Park, Mi Ja; Seong, In Ock [Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Yong [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Selective inhibition of multiple molecular targets may improve the antitumor activity of radiation. Two specific inhibitors of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were combined with radiation on the HeLa cell line. To investigate cooperative mechanism with selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker, in vitro experiments were done. Antitumor effect was obtained by growth inhibition and apoptosis analysis by annexin V-Flous method. Radiation modulation effects were determined by the clonogenic cell survival assay. Surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF{sub 2}) and dose enhancement radio at a surviving fraction of 0.25 were evaluated. To investigate the mechanism of the modulation of radiosensitivity, the cell cycle analyses were done by flow cytometry. The bcl-2 and bax expressions were analyzed by western blot. A cooperative effect were observed on the apoptosis of the HeLa cell line when combination of the two drugs, AG 1478 and NS 398 with radiation at the lowest doses, apoptosis of 22.70% compare with combination of the one drug with radiation, apoptosis of 8.49%. In cell cycle analysis, accumulation of cell on G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase and decrement of S phase fraction was observed from 24 hours to 72 hours after treatment with radiation, AG 1478 and NS 398. The combination of NS 398 and AG 1478 enhanced radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells with dose enhancement ratios of 3.00 and SF{sub 2} of 0.12 but the combination of one drug with radiation was not enhanced radiosensitivity with dose enhancement ratios of 1.12 and SF2 of 0.68 ({rho} = 0.005). The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax were reduced when combined with AG 1478 and NS 398. Our results indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker combined with radiation have potential additive or cooperative effects on radiation treatment and may act through various mechanisms including direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation

  7. The modulation of radiosensitivity by combined treatment of selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS 398 and EGF receptor blocker AG 1478 in HeLa cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Seon Min; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Joo Heon; Park, Mi Ja; Seong, In Ock; Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Yong

    2005-01-01

    Selective inhibition of multiple molecular targets may improve the antitumor activity of radiation. Two specific inhibitors of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were combined with radiation on the HeLa cell line. To investigate cooperative mechanism with selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker, in vitro experiments were done. Antitumor effect was obtained by growth inhibition and apoptosis analysis by annexin V-Flous method. Radiation modulation effects were determined by the clonogenic cell survival assay. Surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF 2 ) and dose enhancement radio at a surviving fraction of 0.25 were evaluated. To investigate the mechanism of the modulation of radiosensitivity, the cell cycle analyses were done by flow cytometry. The bcl-2 and bax expressions were analyzed by western blot. A cooperative effect were observed on the apoptosis of the HeLa cell line when combination of the two drugs, AG 1478 and NS 398 with radiation at the lowest doses, apoptosis of 22.70% compare with combination of the one drug with radiation, apoptosis of 8.49%. In cell cycle analysis, accumulation of cell on G 0 /G 1 phase and decrement of S phase fraction was observed from 24 hours to 72 hours after treatment with radiation, AG 1478 and NS 398. The combination of NS 398 and AG 1478 enhanced radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells with dose enhancement ratios of 3.00 and SF 2 of 0.12 but the combination of one drug with radiation was not enhanced radiosensitivity with dose enhancement ratios of 1.12 and SF2 of 0.68 (ρ = 0.005). The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax were reduced when combined with AG 1478 and NS 398. Our results indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker combined with radiation have potential additive or cooperative effects on radiation treatment and may act through various mechanisms including direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, suppression of tumor cell

  8. The combined effect of heat and gamma irradiation on the inactivation of selected microorganisms associated with food hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.J.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The bactericidal effectiveness of radiation alone or in combination with heat against 8 strains associated with food hygiene were evaluated. In the case of radiation alone, D values of micro-organisms were 0.14~0.48 kGy, and inactivation factors were 4.54~21.43 at the doses of 2~3 kGy. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive among the tested strains, resulting in a D value of 0.14 kGy. D values of tile strains were 10~40 minutes at 50±1°C and 5~10 minutes at 60±1°C. Combination with heat and radiation showed D values of 0.04~0.31. Inactivation factors were 6.45~75 at the doses of 2 to 3 kGy. Therefore, heat treatment prior to irradiation significantly increased activation rate by increasing radiation sensitivity of microorganisms

  9. Selective extraction of intracellular components from the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by combined pulsed electric field-temperature treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Pataro, G; Capitoli, M; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M; Olivieri, G; Ferrari, G

    2016-03-01

    The synergistic effect of temperature (25-65 °C) and total specific energy input (0.55-1.11 kWh kgDW(-1)) by pulsed electric field (PEF) on the release of intracellular components from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was studied. The combination of PEF with temperatures from 25 to 55 °C resulted in a conductivity increase of 75% as a result of cell membrane permeabilization. In this range of temperatures, 25-39% carbohydrates and 3-5% proteins release occurred and only for carbohydrate release a synergistic effect was observed at 55 °C. Above 55 °C spontaneous cell lysis occurred without PEF. Combined PEF-temperature treatment does not sufficiently disintegrate the algal cells to release both carbohydrates and proteins at yields comparable to the benchmark bead milling (40-45% protein, 48-58% carbohydrates). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective adsorption of volatile organic compounds in micropore aluminum methylphosphonate-alpha: a combined molecular simulation-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdes, Carmelo; Valente, Anabela; Lin, Zhi; Rocha, João; Coutinho, João A P; Medina, Francisco; Vega, Lourdes F

    2007-06-19

    Results concerning the adsorption capacity of aluminum methylphosphonate polymorph alpha (AlMePO-alpha) for pure ethyl chloride and vinyl chloride by measured individual adsorption isotherms of these pure compounds are presented and discussed here. The experimental data supports the idea of using these materials as selective adsorbents for separating these compounds in mixtures. To explore this possibility further, we have performed grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations using a recently proposed molecular simulation framework for gas adsorption on AlMePO, and the results are presented here. The molecular model of the material was used in a purely transferable manner from a previous work (Herdes, C.; Lin, Z.; Valente, A.; Coutinho, J. A. P.; Vega, L. F. Langmuir 2006, 22, 3097). Regarding the molecular model of the fluids, an existing model for ethyl chloride was improved to capture the experimental dipole value better; an equivalent force field for the vinyl chloride molecule was also developed for simulation purposes. Simulations of the pure compounds were found to be in excellent agreement with the measured experimental data at the three studied temperatures. Simulations were also carried out in a purely predictive manner as a tool to find the optimal conditions for the selective adsorption of these compounds prior experimental measurements are carried out. The influence of the temperature and the bulk composition on the adsorption selectivity was also investigated. Results support the use of AlMePO-alpha as an appropriate adsorbent for the purification process of vinyl chloride, upholding the selective adsorption of ethyl chloride.

  11. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Masahiro; Yamaya, Tadafumi

    2005-01-01

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width

  12. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Masahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: seo@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamaya, Tadafumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-11-10

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width.

  13. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and herbicide combinations for the grain yield of maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 - 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was cycloxydim tolerant maize hybrid Ultrafox duo (Zea mays L.. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 soil-applied herbicides – Adengo 465 SC (isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon – 440 ml/ha, Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid – 4 l/ha and Lumax 538 SC (S-metolachlor + terbuthylazine + mesotrione – 4 l/ha. Factor C included no treated check and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Stellar 210 SL (topramezon + dicamba – 1 l/ha, Principal plus (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + dicamba – 380 g/ha, Ventum WG (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron – 150 g/ha, Monsun active OD (foramsulfuron + tiencarbazon – 1.5 l/ha and Laudis OD (tembotrione – 2 l/ha. In addition to these variants by conventional technology for maize growing one variant by Duo system technology is also included in the experiment. It includes soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex 480 SC (isoxaflutole – 420 g/ha and tank mixture of antigraminaceous herbicide Focus ultra (cycloxydim - 2 l/ha + antibroadleaved herbicide Kalam (tritosulfuron + dicamba – 300 g/ha. It is found that herbicide combination of soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex with tank mixture Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology leads to obtaining high grain yield. High yields of maize grain are also obtained by herbicide combinations Lumax + Principal plus, Lumax + Laudis and Wing + Principal plus. The most unstable are the non-treated check and single use of soilapplied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Merlin flex + Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology, followed by combinations of foliar-applied herbicides Principal plus and Laudis with soil-applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax by conventional technology. Single use of herbicides has low estimate due to must to combine soil-applied with foliar

  14. The combined effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and selected substituted methcathinones on measures of neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Nicholas B; O'Callaghan, James P; Phillips, Tamara J; Janowsky, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i.p. injection of the drugs, at 2h intervals, either singularly: MDMA 15 or 30mg/kg, methylone 20mg/kg, MDPV 1mg/kg; or in combination: methylone/MDMA 20/15mg/kg, MDPV/MDMA 1/15mg/kg. Drug effects on thermoregulation were characterized and striatal tissue analyzed after 2 or 7days for dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Two days following drug administration, DA and TH were decreased only in the MDMA 30mg/kg group, whereas GFAP expression was dose-dependently increased by MDMA alone. While the combination of the methcathinones with the lower MDMA dose did not affect DA or TH levels, both blocked the MDMA-induced increase in GFAP expression. Seven days following drug administration, there were no significant differences in DA, TH, or GFAP for any treatment group, indicating that changes in DA, TH, and GFAP were transient. Five of the six drug groups exhibited acute hypothermia followed by gradually increasing temperatures. Animals treated with MDPV did not exhibit these biphasic temperature changes, and resembled the saline group. These results indicate that specific effects of both methylone and MDPV on DA depletion or astrocyte activation in the striatum are not additive with effects of MDMA, but block astrogliosis caused by MDMA alone. Additionally, MDPV modulates thermoregulation through a different mechanism than methylone or MDMA. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yabiku

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can be visualized with the image resolution better than 80 nm. The method was applied to image 100 nm-wide polymer nanopatterns fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. The results point to the applicability of the method for evaluating residual polymer thin films and dewetting defect of the polymer resist patterns which are important for the quality control of the fine nanoimprinted patterns.

  16. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    KAUST Repository

    Yabiku, Y.

    2013-10-22

    We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can be visualized with the image resolution better than 80 nm. The method was applied to image 100 nm-wide polymer nanopatterns fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. The results point to the applicability of the method for evaluating residual polymer thin films and dewetting defect of the polymer resist patterns which are important for the quality control of the fine nanoimprinted patterns. 2013 Author(s).

  17. Pharmacodynamically optimized erythropoietin treatment combined with phlebotomy reduction predicted to eliminate blood transfusions in selected preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebraugh, Matthew R; Widness, John A; Nalbant, Demet; Cress, Gretchen; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Preterm very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants weighing eliminated by reducing laboratory blood loss in combination with pharmacodynamically optimized erythropoietin (Epo) treatment. Twenty-six VLBW ventilated infants receiving RBCTx were studied during the first month of life. RBCTx simulations were based on previously published RBCTx criteria and data-driven Epo pharmacodynamic optimization of literature-derived RBC life span and blood volume data corrected for phlebotomy loss. Simulated pharmacodynamic optimization of Epo administration and reduction in phlebotomy by ≥ 55% predicted a complete elimination of RBCTx in 1.0-1.5 kg infants. In infants 1.0 kg.

  18. Final state selection in the 4p photoemission of Rb by combining laser spectroscopy with soft-x-ray photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.; Tchaplyguine, M.; Rander, T.; Bergersen, H.; Lindblad, A.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Sankari, R.; Osmekhin, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.

    2005-01-01

    Fine structure resolved 4p photoemission studies have been performed on free rubidium atoms in the ground state and after excitation into the [Kr]5p 2 P 1/2 and 2 P 3/2 states. The 4p 5 5p final states have been excited in the 4p 6 5s→4p 5 5p conjugate shakeup process from ground state atoms as well as by direct photoemission from laser excited atoms. The relative intensities differ considerably in these three excitation schemes. The differences in the laser excited spectra could be described well using calculations based on the pure jK-coupling scheme. Thereby it was possible to specify the character of the various final states. Furthermore it has been possible to resolve two of the final states whose energy separation is smaller than the experimental resolution by selectively exciting them in a two step scheme, where the laser selects the spin-orbit coupling in the intermediate state and determines the final state coupling after x-ray photoemission

  19. A New Approach to Deep Desulfurization of Light Cycle Oil over Ni2P Catalysts: Combined Selective Oxidation and Hydrotreating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Nam Yun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic phosphotungstic acid (A-PTA and Ni2P/SBA-15 catalysts were prepared to apply for selective oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds in light cycle oils and hydrotreating of the oxidized S compounds, respectively. Physical properties of the catalyst samples were analyzed by BET, CO uptake chemisorption, and TEM. Structural properties for the supported Ni2P catalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy. The selective oxidation of S compounds in the LCO feed was conducted in a batch reactor at H2O2/S ratio of 10, atmospheric pressure and 353 K and then the products were fed to a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor for hydrotreating at 623 K, 3.0 MPa, and LHSV’s of 0.5–2.0 h−1. A-PTA catalyst showed a high oxidation conversion of 95% for a real LCO feed. The following hydrotreating led to a hydrodesulfurization (HDS conversion of 99.6% and a hydrodenitrogenation (HDN conversion of 94.7% over Ni2P/SBA-15, which were much higher than those of direct hydrotreating results which gave an HDS conversion of 63.5% and an HDN conversion of 17.5% based on the same LHSV of 2.0 h−1. It was revealed that the reduction in refractory nitrogen compounds after oxidative treatment contributed to the increase of the following HDS activity.

  20. Scintigraphy of the heart using sup(99m)Tc diphosphonate in combination with selective coronary perfusion scintigraphy and coronaroangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Trenckmann, H.; Duck, H.J.; Katzschmann, R.; Neugebauerova, A.; Schneider, G.; Gottschild, D.

    1980-01-01

    In 45 patients with ischemic heart disease the results obtained by myocardial scintigraphy using technetium-99m diphosphonate (Tc-99m-DP) were compared with those obtained at selective coronary angiography and selective coronary perfusion scintigraphy. The cumulation of activity in the heart muscle was seen in twelve patients. This group is analyzed in the present paper in more detail. The ventriculographic examination of the left ventricle showed disturbed motility of the wall in six patients, of whom five had a positive myocardial scintigram. In view of this, myocardial scintigraphy using Tc-99m-DP may be considered a complementary, non-invasive method for proving significant disturbances of the motility of the heart wall. Positive myocardial scintigrams were also found in angna pectoris, in a patient after aorto-coronary bypass, in cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. In view of the fact that myocardial scintigraphy using Tc-99m-DP is capable of proving disturbances of cells of the heart muscle taking place at the moment, conclusions can be drawn as to the activity in the heart muscle. It further follows that myocardial scintigraphy may be significant in indicating the aorto-coronary bypass. We failed to prove an unequivocal correlation between myocardial scintigraphy, the number of sclerotically changed coronary vessels and the degree of their narrowing. An immediate relationship could not be proved between the extent of perfusion disturbance and the results of myocardial scintigraphy

  1. Sequential combined test, second trimester maternal serum markers, and circulating fetal cells to select women for invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guanciali Franchi

    Full Text Available From January 1st 2013 to August 31st 2016, 24408 pregnant women received the first trimester Combined test and contingently offered second trimester maternal serum screening to identify those women who would most benefit from invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD. The screening was based on first trimester cut-offs of ≥1:30 (IPD indicated, 1:31 to 1:899 (second trimester screening indicated and ≤1:900 (no further action, and a second trimester cut-off of ≥1:250. From January 2014, analysis of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood was also offered to women with positive screening results. For fetal Down syndrome, the overall detection rate was 96.8% for a false-positive rate of 2.8% resulting in an odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR of 1:11, equivalent to a positive predictive value (PPV of 8.1%. Additional chromosome abnormalities were also identified resulting in an OAPR for any chromosome abnormality of 1:6.6 (PPV 11.9%. For a sub-set of cases with positive contingent test results, FISH analysis of circulating fetal cells in maternal circulation identified 7 abnormal and 39 as normal cases with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. We conclude that contingent screening using conventional Combined and second trimester screening tests is effective but can potentially be considerably enhanced through the addition of fetal cell analysis.

  2. A combined coalescence gene-dropping tool for evaluating genomic selection in complex scenarios (ms2gs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Enciso, M; Legarra, A

    2016-04-01

    We present ms2gs, a combined coalescence - gene dropping (i.e. backward-forward) simulator for complex traits. It therefore aims at combining the advantages of both approaches. It is primarily conceived for very short term, recent scenarios such as those that are of interest in animal and plant breeding. It is very flexible in terms of defining QTL architecture and SNP ascertainment bias, and it allows for easy modelling of alternative markers such as RADs. It can use real sequence or chip data or generate molecular polymorphisms via the coalescence. It can generate QTL conditional on extant molecular information, such as low-density genotyping. It models (simplistically) sequence, imputation or genotyping errors. It requires as input both genotypic data in plink or ms formats, and a pedigree that is used to perform the gene dropping. By default, it compares accuracy for BLUP, SNP ascertained data, sequence, and causal SNPs. It employs VanRaden's linear (GBLUP) and nonlinear method for incorporating molecular information. To illustrate the program, we present a small application in a half-sib population and a multiparental (MAGIC) cross. The program, manual and examples are available at https://github.com/mperezenciso/ms2gs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. A Quantum Hybrid PSO Combined with Fuzzy k-NN Approach to Feature Selection and Cell Classification in Cervical Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Iliyasu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantum hybrid (QH intelligent approach that blends the adaptive search capability of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimisation (QPSO method with the intuitionistic rationality of traditional fuzzy k-nearest neighbours (Fuzzy k-NN algorithm (known simply as the Q-Fuzzy approach is proposed for efficient feature selection and classification of cells in cervical smeared (CS images. From an initial multitude of 17 features describing the geometry, colour, and texture of the CS images, the QPSO stage of our proposed technique is used to select the best subset features (i.e., global best particles that represent a pruned down collection of seven features. Using a dataset of almost 1000 images, performance evaluation of our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach assesses the impact of our feature selection on classification accuracy by way of three experimental scenarios that are compared alongside two other approaches: the All-features (i.e., classification without prior feature selection and another hybrid technique combining the standard PSO algorithm with the Fuzzy k-NN technique (P-Fuzzy approach. In the first and second scenarios, we further divided the assessment criteria in terms of classification accuracy based on the choice of best features and those in terms of the different categories of the cervical cells. In the third scenario, we introduced new QH hybrid techniques, i.e., QPSO combined with other supervised learning methods, and compared the classification accuracy alongside our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach. Furthermore, we employed statistical approaches to establish qualitative agreement with regards to the feature selection in the experimental scenarios 1 and 3. The synergy between the QPSO and Fuzzy k-NN in the proposed Q-Fuzzy approach improves classification accuracy as manifest in the reduction in number cell features, which is crucial for effective cervical cancer detection and diagnosis.

  4. Arc-welding quality assurance by means of embedded fiber sensor and spectral processing combining feature selection and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, J.; García-Allende, P. B.; Cobo, A.; Conde, O.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    A new spectral processing technique designed for its application in the on-line detection and classification of arc-welding defects is presented in this paper. A non-invasive fiber sensor embedded within a TIG torch collects the plasma radiation originated during the welding process. The spectral information is then processed by means of two consecutive stages. A compression algorithm is first applied to the data allowing real-time analysis. The selected spectral bands are then used to feed a classification algorithm, which will be demonstrated to provide an efficient weld defect detection and classification. The results obtained with the proposed technique are compared to a similar processing scheme presented in a previous paper, giving rise to an improvement in the performance of the monitoring system.

  5. Selective Catalytic Synthesis Using the Combination of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen: Catalytic Chess at the Interface of Energy and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klankermayer, Jürgen; Wesselbaum, Sebastian; Beydoun, Kassem; Leitner, Walter

    2016-06-20

    The present Review highlights the challenges and opportunities when using the combination CO2 /H2 as a C1 synthon in catalytic reactions and processes. The transformations are classified according to the reduction level and the bond-forming processes, covering the value chain from high volume basic chemicals to complex molecules, including biologically active substances. Whereas some of these concepts can facilitate the transition of the energy system by harvesting renewable energy into chemical products, others provide options to reduce the environmental impact of chemical production already in today's petrochemical-based industry. Interdisciplinary fundamental research from chemists and chemical engineers can make important contributions to sustainable development at the interface of the energetic and chemical value chain. The present Review invites the reader to enjoy this exciting area of "catalytic chess" and maybe even to start playing some games in her or his laboratory. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Using boolean and fuzzy logic combined with analytic hierarchy process for hazardous waste landfill site selection: A case study from Hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Saadat Foomani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous wastes include numerous kinds of discarded chemicals and other wastes generated from industrial, commercial, and institutional activities. These types of waste present immediate or long-term risks to humans, animals, plants, or the environment and therefore require special handling for safe disposal. Landfills that can accept hazardous wastes are excavated or engineered sites where these special types of waste can be disposed of securely. Since landfills are permanent sites, special attention must be afforded in selecting the location. This paper investigated the use of the Boolean theory and Fuzzy logic in combination with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methods by applying GIS and IDRISI software for the selection of a hazardous waste landfill site in the Iranian province of Hormozgan. The best location was determined via the Fuzzy and the Boolean methodologies. By collating the area selected for the hazardous waste landfill, this study found that Fuzzy logic with an AND operator had the best options for this purpose. In the end, the most suitable area for a hazardous waste landfill was about 1.6 km2 which was obtained by employing Fuzzy in combination with AHP and by using an AND operator. In addition, all the fundamental criteria affecting the landfill location were considered.

  7. A Theoretical and Empirical Integrated Method to Select the Optimal Combined Signals for Geometry-Free and Geometry-Based Three-Carrier Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Lau, Lawrence; Hancock, Craig M; Bai, Ruibin

    2016-11-16

    Twelve GPS Block IIF satellites, out of the current constellation, can transmit on three-frequency signals (L1, L2, L5). Taking advantages of these signals, Three-Carrier Ambiguity Resolution (TCAR) is expected to bring much benefit for ambiguity resolution. One of the research areas is to find the optimal combined signals for a better ambiguity resolution in geometry-free (GF) and geometry-based (GB) mode. However, the existing researches select the signals through either pure theoretical analysis or testing with simulated data, which might be biased as the real observation condition could be different from theoretical prediction or simulation. In this paper, we propose a theoretical and empirical integrated method, which first selects the possible optimal combined signals in theory and then refines these signals with real triple-frequency GPS data, observed at eleven baselines of different lengths. An interpolation technique is also adopted in order to show changes of the AR performance with the increase in baseline length. The results show that the AR success rate can be improved by 3% in GF mode and 8% in GB mode at certain intervals of the baseline length. Therefore, the TCAR can perform better by adopting the combined signals proposed in this paper when the baseline meets the length condition.

  8. Lifecycle comparison of selected Li-ion battery chemistries under grid and electric vehicle duty cycle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alasdair J.; Huang, Qian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Reed, David M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon

    2018-03-01

    Li-ion batteries are expected to play a vital role in stabilizing the electrical grid as solar and wind generation capacity becomes increasingly integrated into the electric infrastructure. This article describes how two different commercial Li-ion batteries based on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiFePO4 (LFP) chemistries were tested under grid duty cycles recently developed for two specific grid services: (1) frequency regulation (FR) and (2) peak shaving (PS) with and without being subjected to electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles. The lifecycle comparison derived from the capacity, round-trip efficiency (RTE), resistance, charge/discharge energy, and total used energy of the two battery chemistries are discussed. The LFP chemistry shows better stability for the energy-intensive PS service, while the NCA chemistry is more conducive to the FR service under the operating regimes investigated. The results can be used as a guideline for selection, deployment, operation, and cost analyses of Li-ion batteries used for different applications.

  9. Selection experiments for the optimum combination of AMF-plant-substrate for the restoration of coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li-ping Wang; Wei-wei Zhang; Guang-xia Guo; Kui-mei Qian; Xiao-pei Huang [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Environment and Spatial Informatics

    2009-07-15

    A complex substrate consisting of fly ash, coal gangue and excess sludge was used as an experimental soil in pot culture experiments. Different soil compositions were tested by observing the growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculated white clover, rye grass or corn. The biomass of the host plants, the mycorrhizal colonization (MC) rate and the mycorrhizal dependency (MD) were measured. The research addresses the preferable AMF-plant-substrate combination appropriate for restoration of coal mines. We used two inoculation methods: single-inoculation with Glomus versiforme or Glomus mosseae and a dual inoculation with both G.v and G.m. The results show that G.m is the preferable fungi and that dual inoculation does not show advantages for the restoration of coal mines. White clover inoculated with AM fungi is the most suitable condition for restoration of coal mines. The best weight ratio of fly ash, coal gangue and excess sludge was found to be 20:60:20. The optimum treatment conditions of AMF-plant-activated-substrate are described. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. [Arthroscopy-guided core decompression and bone grafting combined with selective arterial infusion for treatment of early stage avascular necrosis of femoral head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao-Shan; Tian, Yi-Jun; Liu, Gang; An, Long; Zhou, Zhan-Guo; Liu, Huan-Zhen

    2018-01-25

    To observe the clinical effects of arthroscopy-guided core decompression and bone grafting combined with selective arterial infusion for early stage avascular necrosis of femoral head. From January 2010 to December 2014, 76 patients(76 hips) diagnosed as Ficat II stage avascular necrosis of femoral head were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. In the experimental group, there were 27 males and 8 females aged from 24 to 55 years old with an average of (43.96±6.81) years, treated with arthroscopic-guided core decompression and bone grafting combined with selective arterial infusion. Along the direction of the femoral neck, an 8 mm-diameter tunnel to necrotic areas was drilled, then curettage of necrotic bone was performed under arthroscope, and the iliac bone was grafted. In the control group, there were 29 males and 12 females aged from 26 to 56 years old with an average of (44.62±7.33) years, treated with percutaneous core decompression combined with selective arterial infusion. The preoperative and postoperative Harris scores were recorded and the changes of X-rays were analyzed. All the patients were followed up with an average of 30 months. Postoperative follow-up at 12 months showed that there was significant difference in imaging outcome between two groups( P 0.05), but there was significant difference in postoperative Harris score( P necrosis are effective. Using arthroscopic-guided core decompression method, the necrotic bone can be positioned and scraped more accurately, and can obtain better results. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  11. Preparation of n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thermoelectric materials by non-contact dispenser printing combined with selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Keping; Yan, Yonggao; Zhang, Jian; Mao, Yu; Xie, Hongyao; Zhang, Qingjie; Tang, Xinfeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yang, Jihui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Uher, Ctirad [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The manufacturing cost has been a bottle neck for broader applications of thermoelectric (TE) modules. We have developed a rapid, facile, and low cost method that combines non-contact dispenser printing with selective laser melting (SLM) and we demonstrate it on n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-based materials. Using this approach, single phase n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.7}Se{sub 0.3} thin layers with the Seebeck coefficient of -152 μV K{sup -1} at 300 K have been prepared. Assembling such thin layers on top of each other, the performance of thus prepared bulk sample is comparable to Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-based materials fabricated by the conventional techniques. Dispenser printing combined with SLM is a promising manufacturing process for TE materials. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Combined inhibition of glycolysis, the pentose cycle, and thioredoxin metabolism selectively increases cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG, 20 mM, 24–48 h combined with inhibition of the pentose cycle using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 300 µM, 24–48 h increased clonogenic cell killing in both human prostate (PC-3 and DU145 and human breast (MDA-MB231 cancer cells via a mechanism involving thiol-mediated oxidative stress. Surprisingly, when 2DG+DHEA treatment was combined with an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH synthesis (l-buthionine sulfoximine; BSO, 1 mM that depleted GSH>90% of control, no further increase in cell killing was observed during 48 h exposures. In contrast, when an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity (Auranofin; Au, 1 µM, was combined with 2DG+DHEA or DHEA-alone for 24 h, clonogenic cell killing was significantly increased in all three human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, enhanced clonogenic cell killing seen with the combination of DHEA+Au was nearly completely inhibited using the thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 20 mM. Redox Western blot analysis of PC-3 cells also supported the conclusion that thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 oxidation was enhanced by treatment DHEA+Au and inhibited by NAC. Importantly, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC were not as sensitive to 2DG, DHEA, and Au combinations as their cancer cell counterparts (MDA-MB-231. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that inhibition of glycolysis and pentose cycle activity, combined with inhibition of Trx metabolism, may provide a promising strategy for selectively sensitizing human cancer cells to oxidative stress-induced cell killing.

  13. Selection of the optimal combination of water vapor absorption lines for detection of temperature in combustion zones of mixing supersonic gas flows by diode laser absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironenko, V.R.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Bolshov, M.A.; Liger, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of a gas medium temperature by diode laser absorption spectrometry (DLAS) is based on the measurement of integral intensities of the absorption lines of a test molecule (generally water vapor molecule). In case of local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature is inferred from the ratio of the integral intensities of two lines with different low energy levels. For the total gas pressure above 1 atm the absorption lines are broadened and one cannot find isolated well resolved water vapor absorption lines within relatively narrow spectral interval of fast diode laser (DL) tuning range (about 3 cm"−"1). For diagnostics of a gas object in the case of high temperature and pressure DLAS technique can be realized with two diode lasers working in different spectral regions with strong absorption lines. In such situation the criteria of the optimal line selection differs significantly from the case of narrow lines. These criteria are discussed in our work. The software for selection the optimal spectral regions using the HITRAN-2012 and HITEMP data bases is developed. The program selects spectral regions of DL tuning, minimizing the error of temperature determination δT/T, basing on the attainable experimental error of line intensity measurement δS. Two combinations of optimal spectral regions were selected – (1.392 & 1.343 μm) and (1.392 & 1.339 μm). Different algorithms of experimental data processing are discussed.

  14. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers in herbal medicines using molecularly imprinted polymers based on a mimic template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Yan, Huijiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Mu, Yan; Guo, Lanping; Wang, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    We describe a solid-phase extraction adsorbent based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared with use of a mimic template. The MIPs were used for the selective extraction and determination of three chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers for Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The morphologies and surface groups of the MIPs were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and selectivity of the MIPs were systematically compared with those of non-molecularly imprinted polymers. The MIPs showed high selectivity toward three structurally similar chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid). A procedure using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of three chlorogenic acids from Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The recoveries of the chlorogenic acids ranged from 93.1% to 101.4%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three chlorogenic acids were 0.003 mg g -1 and 0.01 mg g -1 , respectively. The newly developed method is thus a promising technique for the enrichment and determination of chlorogenic acids from herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract Mimic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of chlorogenic acids.

  15. Augmented growth inhibition of B16-BL6 melanoma by combined treatment with a selective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMI-166, and cytotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Kanji; Maki, Hideo; Sawada, Takuko Yamada; Maekawa, Ryuji; Yoshioka, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    MMI-166 is a selective matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of the combined treatment of MMI-166 with paclitaxel or carboplatin. Mice bearing B16-BL6 melanoma were treated p.o. with MMI-166 from 1 day after tumor inoculation. The mice were administered i.v. with either paclitaxel or carboplatin at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). MMI-166 monotherapy inhibited in vivo growth of the B16-BL6 tumor to an extent similar to that of paclitaxel or carboplatin monotherapy. When MMI-166 was combined with paclitaxel or carboplatin, the antitumor efficacy was significantly (p B16-BL6 tumor cells nor does it augment the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel or carboplatin. These results indicate that augmented antitumor activity of the combination treatment was not simply due to the augmentation of direct cytotoxic activity, but was rather an additive effect of the antitumor activities of different mechanisms. They suggest the effectiveness of a combination therapy of MMI-166 with paclitaxel or carboplatin in clinical therapy.

  16. Selection for high oridonin yield in the Chinese medicinal plant Isodon (Lamiaceae using a combined phylogenetics and population genetics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S J Harris

    Full Text Available Oridonin is a diterpenoid with anti-cancer activity that occurs in the Chinese medicinal plant Isodon rubescens and some related species. While the bioactivity of oridonin has been well studied, the extent of natural variation in the production of this compound is poorly known. This study characterizes natural variation in oridonin production in order to guide selection of populations of Isodon with highest oridonin yield. Different populations of I. rubescens and related species were collected in China, and their offspring were grown in a greenhouse. Samples were examined for oridonin content, genotyped using 11 microsatellites, and representatives were sequenced for three phylogenetic markers (ITS, rps16, trnL-trnF. Oridonin production was mapped on a molecular phylogeny of the genus Isodon using samples from each population as well as previously published Genbank sequences. Oridonin has been reported in 12 out of 74 species of Isodon examined for diterpenoids, and the phylogeny indicates that oridonin production has arisen at least three times in the genus. Oridonin production was surprisingly consistent between wild-collected parents and greenhouse-grown offspring, despite evidence of gene flow between oridonin-producing and non-producing populations of Isodon. Additionally, microsatellite genetic distance between individuals was significantly correlated with chemical distance in both parents and offspring. Neither heritability nor correlation with genetic distance were significant when the comparison was restricted to only populations of I. rubescens, but this result should be corroborated using additional samples. Based on these results, future screening of Isodon populations for oridonin yield should initially prioritize a broad survey of all species known to produce oridonin, rather than focusing on multiple populations of one species, such as I. rubescens. Of the samples examined here, I. rubescens or I. japonicus from Henan province

  17. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power.

  18. Nanosized As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia selectively target liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yu; Song, Jian; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2009-06-28

    To study the methods of preparing the magnetic nano-microspheres of Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) complexes and their therapeutic effects with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). Nanospheres were prepared by chemical co-precipitation and their shape and diameter were observed. Hemolysis, micronucleus, cell viability, and LD(50) along with other in vivo tests were performed to evaluate the Fe(2)O(3) microsphere biocompatibility. The inhibition ratio of tumors after Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) injections combined with induced hyperthermia in xenograft human hepatocarcinoma was calculated. Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) particles were round with an average diameter of 20 nm and 100 nm as observed under transmission electron microscope. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), the temperature of the suspension of magnetic particles increased to 41-51 degrees C, depending on different particle concentrations, and remained stable thereafter. Nanosized Fe(2)O(3) microspheres are a new kind of biomaterial without cytotoxic effects. The LD(50) of both Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) in mice was higher than 5 g/kg. One to four weeks after Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) complex injections into healthy pig livers, no significant differences were found in serum AST, ALT, BUN and Cr levels among the pigs of all groups (P > 0.05), and no obvious pathological alterations were observed. After exposure to alternating magnetic fields, the inhibition ratio of the tumors was significantly different from controls in the Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) groups (68.74% and 82.79%, respectively; P < 0.01). Tumors of mice in treatment groups showed obvious necrosis, while normal tissues adjoining the tumor and internal organs did not. Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) complexes exerted radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia and drug toxicity on tumors without any liver or kidney damage. Therefore, nanospheres are ideal carriers for tumor-targeted therapy.

  19. Synergy of CuO and CeO2 combination for mercury oxidation under low-temperature selective catalytic reduction atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hailong

    2016-07-19

    Synergy for low temperature Hg0 oxidation under selective catalytic reduction (SCR) atmosphere was achieved when copper oxides and cerium oxides were combined in a CuO-CeO2/TiO2 (CuCeTi) catalyst. Hg0 oxidation efficiency as high as 99.0% was observed on the CuCeTi catalyst at 200 °C, even the gas hourly space velocity was extremely high. To analyze the synergistic effect, comparisons of catalyst performance in the presence of different SCR reaction gases were systematically conducted over CuO/TiO2 (CuTi), CeO2/TiO2 (CeTi) and CuCeTi catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. The interactions between copper oxides and cerium oxides in CuCeTi catalyst yielded more surface chemisorbed oxygen, and facilitated the conversion of gas-phase O2 to surface oxygen, which are favorable for Hg0 oxidation. Copper oxides in the combination interacted with NO forming more chemisorbed oxygen for Hg0 oxidation in the absence of gas-phase O2. Cerium oxides in the combination promoted Hg0 oxidation through enhancing the transformations of NO to NO2. In the absence of NO, NH3 exhibited no inhibitive effect on Hg0 oxidation, because enough Lewis acid sites due to the combination of copper oxides and cerium oxides scavenged the competitive adsorption between NH3 and Hg0. In the presence of NO, although NH3 lowered Hg0 oxidation rate through inducing reduction of oxidized mercury, complete recovery of Hg0 oxidation activity over the CuCeTi catalyst was quickly achieved after cutting off NH3. This study revealed the synergistic effect of the combination of copper oxides and cerium oxides on Hg0 oxidation, and explored the involved mechanisms. Such knowledge would help obtaining maximum Hg0 oxidation co-benefit from SCR units in coal-fired power plants.

  20. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  1. Full evaporation dynamic headspace in combination with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of suspected fragrance allergens in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Christophe; Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2012-09-14

    Suspected fragrance allergens were determined in cosmetic products using a combination of full evaporation-dynamic headspace (FEDHS) with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional GC-MS. The full evaporation dynamic headspace approach allows the non-discriminating extraction and injection of both apolar and polar fragrance compounds, without contamination of the analytical system by high molecular weight non-volatile matrix compounds. The method can be applied to all classes of cosmetic samples, including water containing matrices such as shower gels or body creams. In combination with selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS, consisting of a dedicated heart-cutting GC-MS configuration using capillary flow technology (CFT) and low thermal mass GC (LTM-GC), a highly flexible and easy-to-use analytical solution is offered. Depending on the complexity of the perfume fraction, analyses can be performed in one-dimensional GC-MS mode or in heart-cutting two-dimensional GC-MS mode, without the need of hardware reconfiguration. The two-dimensional mode with independent temperature control of the first and second dimension column is especially useful to confirm the presence of detected allergen compounds when mass spectral deconvolution is not possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Field application. Selective stimulation of reservoirs or perforated intervals with use of coiled tubing equipped with real-time data communication system in combination with straddle packer assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberascher, R.; Breimer, G. [GDF SUEZ E and P Deutschland GmbH, Lingen (Germany); Jonge, R.M. de [Baker Hughes (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    In two German gas wells a decline in production and wellhead pressures had been observed. Production logging data obtained by PLT surveys were evaluated, which showed that certain intervals within the reservoir section did not contribute, or showed a restricted contribution to the overall gas production. The restricted contribution was suspected to be caused by near-wellbore damage. To restore or enhance the production of the perforated intervals an acid treatment was considered in these wells in order to remove skin damage. To restore or enhance the production of the wells, an acid treatment of the perforated intervals was designed. For obtaining the required selective placement of the acid across the zones of interest, the use of coiled tubing (CT) in combination with a resettable straddle packer assembly was selected. The accuracy of the setting depth of the straddle packer was a critical issue for the execution of the well intervention operations. In order to obtain the required depth accuracy, the CT string was equipped with an intelligent CT communication system, which transfers real-time downhole data to surface. For the first time, a reservoir stimulation project was executed by combining CT equipped with a real-time data communication system (TeleCoil) and the Inflatable Straddle Acidizing Packer (ISAP) assembly. Inside the CT an encapsulated monoconductor cable was installed to transmit real-time data from the CT Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) to surface. The BHA consists of a Casing Collar Locator (CCL) and downhole pressure and temperature gauges. Due to the protective jacket of the monoconductor cable, there are no restrictions in the use of different fluids in combination with the system. Information provided by the CCL monitoring tool ensures accurate depth correlations, whereas differential pressure measurements from the down-hole pressure gauges provide positive information about the setting and sealing conditions of the straddle packer assembly. The

  3. Effect of Selective Temporary Anaesthesia in Combination with Sensory Re-Education on Improvement of Hand Sensibility after Median and Ulnar Nerve Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Hasan-Zadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The results of sensory improvement from nerve repair in adult are often poor. To confirm with previous results and this hypothesis that forearm deafferentation would enhance the sensory outcome by increasing the cortical hand representation, this study is aimed to investigate the effect of repeated sessions of cutaneous forearm anaesthesia of the injured limb, in combination with sensory re-education on the sensory outcome in the hand after median or ulnar nerve repair. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was designed as a double-blind randomized clinical trial. 13 patients that they had been undergoing surgery of hand nerves repaire were selected probability and assigned to examination (n=6 and control (n=7 group. During a 2 week period, a topical anaesthetic cream (Lidocaine for examination group and a placebo for control group was applied repeatedly (twice a week for 1 hour onto the flexor aspect of the forearm of injured hand and combined with sensory re-education. Assessments of sensory function were performed prior to the experiment and after the fourth application of Lidocaine/placebo. For analysis of data, Wilcoxon singed rank and Mann - Whitney U-tests were used. Results: Perception of touch that was measured with SWMs, had been improved significantly in the Lidocaine group in comparison with placebo group (P=0/03. Conclusion: This finding suggests that forearm deafferentation of injured limb, in combination with sensory re-education, can enhance sensory reover after nerve repair.

  4. Monte Carlo modeling of time-resolved fluorescence for depth-selective interrogation of layered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefer, T Joshua; Wang, Quanzeng; Drezek, Rebekah A

    2011-11-01

    Computational approaches for simulation of light-tissue interactions have provided extensive insight into biophotonic procedures for diagnosis and therapy. However, few studies have addressed simulation of time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) in tissue and none have combined Monte Carlo simulations with standard TRF processing algorithms to elucidate approaches for cancer detection in layered biological tissue. In this study, we investigate how illumination-collection parameters (e.g., collection angle and source-detector separation) influence the ability to measure fluorophore lifetime and tissue layer thickness. Decay curves are simulated with a Monte Carlo TRF light propagation model. Multi-exponential iterative deconvolution is used to determine lifetimes and fractional signal contributions. The ability to detect changes in mucosal thickness is optimized by probes that selectively interrogate regions superficial to the mucosal-submucosal boundary. Optimal accuracy in simultaneous determination of lifetimes in both layers is achieved when each layer contributes 40-60% of the signal. These results indicate that depth-selective approaches to TRF have the potential to enhance disease detection in layered biological tissue and that modeling can play an important role in probe design optimization. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Monolithic Integration of Sampled Grating DBR with Electroabsorption Modulator by Combining Selective-Area-Growth MOCVD and Quantum-Well Intermixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Bo, Liu; Ling-Juan, Zhao; Jiao-Qing, Pan; Hong-Liang, Zhu; Fan, Zhou; Bao-Jun, Wang; Wei, Wang

    2008-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser with a quantum-well electroabsorption modulator (QW-EAM) by combining ultra-low-pressure (55mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and quantum-well intermixing (QWI) for the first time. The QW-EAM and the gain section can be grown simultaneously by using SAG MOCVD technology. Meanwhile, the QWI technology offers an abrupt band-gap change between two functional sections, which reduces internal absorption loss. The experimental results show that the threshold current Ith = 62 mA, and output power reaches 3.6mW. The wavelength tuning range covers 30nm, and all the corresponding side mode suppression ratios are over 30 dB. The extinction ratios at available wavelength channels can reach more than 14 dB with bias of -5 V

  6. A New Assay for Measurement of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase in Canine Whole Blood Combining Specific Substrates and Ethopropazine Hydrochloride as a Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tecles, A Tvarijonaviciute and JJ Cerón*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a new assay combining specific substrates and a selective BChE inhibitor (ethopropazine hydrochloride was used to measure both AChE and BChE in canine whole blood samples. Acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCI and butyrylthiocholine iodide (BTCI were used as substrates, whereas 2,2’-dithiodipiridine was used as chromophore. Ethopropazine concentration inhibiting over 95% BChE with minimum AChE inhibition was fixed at 0.3mM. The results confirmed that whole blood cholinesterase activity measured with BTCI in absence of ethopropazine corresponded with serum BChE, whereas whole blood cholinesterase analysed with ATCI in presence of ethopropazine reflected mainly erythrocytes and plasma AChE activity. This procedure showed good repeatability, it was easy and fast, and can be routinely used in veterinary laboratories.

  7. Feature Selection for Object-Based Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Combination of a Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In object-based image analysis of high-resolution images, the number of features can reach hundreds, so it is necessary to perform feature reduction prior to classification. In this paper, a feature selection method based on the combination of a genetic algorithm (GA and tabu search (TS is presented. The proposed GATS method aims to reduce the premature convergence of the GA by the use of TS. A prematurity index is first defined to judge the convergence situation during the search. When premature convergence does take place, an improved mutation operator is executed, in which TS is performed on individuals with higher fitness values. As for the other individuals with lower fitness values, mutation with a higher probability is carried out. Experiments using the proposed GATS feature selection method and three other methods, a standard GA, the multistart TS method, and ReliefF, were conducted on WorldView-2 and QuickBird images. The experimental results showed that the proposed method outperforms the other methods in terms of the final classification accuracy.

  8. Feature Selection for Object-Based Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Combination of a Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wan, Youchuan; Gao, Xianjun

    2018-01-01

    In object-based image analysis of high-resolution images, the number of features can reach hundreds, so it is necessary to perform feature reduction prior to classification. In this paper, a feature selection method based on the combination of a genetic algorithm (GA) and tabu search (TS) is presented. The proposed GATS method aims to reduce the premature convergence of the GA by the use of TS. A prematurity index is first defined to judge the convergence situation during the search. When premature convergence does take place, an improved mutation operator is executed, in which TS is performed on individuals with higher fitness values. As for the other individuals with lower fitness values, mutation with a higher probability is carried out. Experiments using the proposed GATS feature selection method and three other methods, a standard GA, the multistart TS method, and ReliefF, were conducted on WorldView-2 and QuickBird images. The experimental results showed that the proposed method outperforms the other methods in terms of the final classification accuracy. PMID:29581721

  9. Combination of Pharmacophore Matching, 2D Similarity Search, and In Vitro Biological Assays in the Selection of Potential 5-HT6 Antagonists from Large Commercial Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krisztina; Flachner, Beáta; Pukáncsik, Mária; Máthé, Enikő; Bognár, Melinda; Szaszkó, Mária; Magyar, Csaba; Hajdú, István; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Simon, István; Fülöp, Ferenc; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2015-10-01

    Rapid in silico selection of target-focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost-effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available, rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases, but the generated library requires further focusing. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with pharmacophore matching which was used for selecting 5-HT6 antagonists. In the first screening round, 12 compounds showed >85% antagonist efficacy of the 91 screened. For the second-round (hit validation) screening phase, pharmacophore models were built, applied, and compared with the routine 2D similarity search. Three pharmacophore models were created based on the structure of the reference compounds and the first-round hit compounds. The pharmacophore search resulted in a high hit rate (40%) and led to novel chemotypes, while 2D similarity search had slightly better hit rate (51%), but lacking the novelty. To demonstrate the power of the virtual screening cascade, ligand efficiency indices were also calculated and their steady improvement was confirmed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. The Effect of Acepromazine Alone or in Combination with Methadone, Morphine, or Tramadol on Sedation and Selected Cardiopulmonary Variables in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Toshiko Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedative and selected cardiopulmonary effects of acepromazine alone or in combination with methadone, morphine, or tramadol were compared in sheep. Six ewes were randomly assigned to treatments: A (0.05 mg/kg acepromazine, AM (A plus 0.5 mg/kg methadone, AMO (A plus 0.5 mg/kg morphine, and AT (A plus 5 mg/kg tramadol. Parameters were assessed before sedative drug administration (baseline and every 15 minutes thereafter, for two hours. Treatments A and AM were associated with increases in sedation score for 60 minutes and treatments AMO and AT for 30 minutes; however, there were no significant differences between treatments. There was a decrease in mean arterial pressure compared to baseline values in treatment A at 15, 45, 60, and 90 minutes, in treatment AM at 15 minutes, and in treatment AT from 45 to 120 minutes. Arterial blood carbon dioxide pressure increased at all time points in all treatments. Arterial oxygen pressure decreased in treatment AMO at 15, 30, and 120 minutes and in treatment AT at 15–45, 105, and 120 minutes, compared to baseline. Acepromazine alone causes a level of sedation similar to that observed when it is coadministered with opioids methadone, morphine, and tramadol. These combinations did not cause clinical cardiopulmonary changes.

  11. Chemical shift-selective snapshot FLASH MR imaging in combination with inversion-recovery T1 contrast at different field strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaei, D.; Haase, A.; Henrich, D.; Duhmke, E.

    1991-01-01

    With fast MR imaging, chemical shift contract becomes available to the clinician in seconds. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the combination of chemical shift selective (CHESS) MR imaging using the snapshot FLASH MR method with the inversion-recovery technique and to obtain information concerning the signal-to-noise and chemical shift with the presaturation method at different field strengths. Investigations with volunteers and experimental animals were done at 2 and 3 T (whole body) and in a 4.7-T animal image. For the inversion-recovery experiments, saturation was done before every snapshot FLASH image. With increasing field strength due to signal-to-noise and chemical shift advantages, the method performs better. Increasing T1 values are also important at high field strengths. The combined technique is useful only for T1 water images with fat saturation. It also allows fast quantification of T1 in water-containing organs and pathologic processes. At high field strengths, fast CHESS and T1 imaging promise fast quantitative information. This is a possible argument for clinical high-field-strength MR imagining along with MR spectroscopy

  12. Cations form sequence selective motifs within DNA grooves via a combination of cation-pi and ion-dipole/hydrogen bond interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mikaela; Dunlap, Tori; Dourlain, Elizabeth; Grant, Bryce; McFail-Isom, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The fine conformational subtleties of DNA structure modulate many fundamental cellular processes including gene activation/repression, cellular division, and DNA repair. Most of these cellular processes rely on the conformational heterogeneity of specific DNA sequences. Factors including those structural characteristics inherent in the particular base sequence as well as those induced through interaction with solvent components combine to produce fine DNA structural variation including helical flexibility and conformation. Cation-pi interactions between solvent cations or their first hydration shell waters and the faces of DNA bases form sequence selectively and contribute to DNA structural heterogeneity. In this paper, we detect and characterize the binding patterns found in cation-pi interactions between solvent cations and DNA bases in a set of high resolution x-ray crystal structures. Specifically, we found that monovalent cations (Tl⁺) and the polarized first hydration shell waters of divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺) form cation-pi interactions with DNA bases stabilizing unstacked conformations. When these cation-pi interactions are combined with electrostatic interactions a pattern of specific binding motifs is formed within the grooves.

  13. Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Wei-Lung, E-mail: tsengwl@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China); Center for Stem Cell Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive and selective system was developed for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles as an efficient quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate and as a recognition element for adenosine. - Highlights: • The proposed method can detect adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity. • The analysis of adenosine is rapid (∼6 min) using the proposed method. • This method provided better sensitivity for adenosine as compared to aptamer-based sensors. • This method can be applied for the determination of adenosine in urine. - Abstract: This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60 nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the

  14. Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive and selective system was developed for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles as an efficient quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate and as a recognition element for adenosine. - Highlights: • The proposed method can detect adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity. • The analysis of adenosine is rapid (∼6 min) using the proposed method. • This method provided better sensitivity for adenosine as compared to aptamer-based sensors. • This method can be applied for the determination of adenosine in urine. - Abstract: This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5′-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60 nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the

  15. Programa computacional para o dimensionamento de colhedoras considerando a pontualidade na colheita de soja Computer model to select combine harvesters considering the timeliness of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iackson O. Borges

    2006-04-01

    profit, which is called indirect costs. The problem of selecting the agricultural machinery is the commitment between adjusting the cost of the invested extra capital in the machine capacity in order to finish the work in the optimum date and the cost of losses by delaying the operation, seeking to maximize the net profit. Due to the crop importance and the indirect cost caused by the delay in the harvest, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influences suffered because of the delay in the fleet planning and harvest operation costs. For this purpose, a computer model in Borland Delphi 5.0 language was developed where the characteristics of the agro climatic region, the combine harvesters and the soy cultivars are included in the data entrance. The net profit is the result and it works as the indicator for the indirect cost in the operation for the selected combine harvester. The program was used in order to simulate scenarios in a property of Ponta Grossa (PR region and the values showed that the obtained net profit is below the potential because the combine harvesters of the property work in a lower capacity.

  16. Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced CT combined with 18-FDG PET in patients selected for cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Antonio; Evangelista, Laura; Pintacuda, Giovanna; Cervino, Anna Rita; Ramondo, Gaetano; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo

    2018-05-01

    Aim of the study is to assess the reliability and correlation with surgical peritoneal cancer index (PCI) of combined PET/CT and ceCT scans (PET/ceCT) performed in a session in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis candidates for cytoreductive surgery (CS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). We retrospectively analyzed data collected from 27 patients with different types of peritoneal carcinomatosis candidates to CS + HIPEC who underwent FDG PET/ceCT in a single session. Two nuclear medicine physicians and two radiologists independently and blindly evaluated PET/CT and ceCT imaging, respectively. In the case of discordance, the consensus was reached by a discussion between the specialists. Moreover, the combined images were evaluated by all the specialists in consensus. The PCIs obtained from surgical look, PET/CT, ceCT, and PET/ceCT were compared with each other. The coefficients of correlation (r) were calculated. The study was conducted after approval of local ethics committee. Surgical PCI was available in 21 patients. The coefficient of correlation between PCI of PET/CT and surgery was 0.528, while it resulted higher between PET/ceCT and surgery (r = 0.878), very similar to ceCT and surgery (r = 0.876). The r coefficient between surgical PCI and PET/CT was higher in patients with a non-mucinous cancer (n = 12) than the counterpart (0.601 vs. 0.303) and the addition of ceCT significantly increases the correlation (r = 0.863), which is anyway similar to ceCT alone (r = 0.856). PET/ceCT as single examination is more accurate than PET/CT but not than ceCT alone for the definition of PCI in a selected group of patients candidates to CS + HIPEC.

  17. Selected Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Combined with Target Drugs 
for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Multiple Brain Metastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinduo LI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of selected arterial infusion chemotherapy in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with multiple brain metastases and corresponding factors to influencing prognosis. Methods From September 2008 to October 2011, a total of 31 patients of NSCLC with multiple brain metastases (≥3 received selected incranial, bronchial and corresponding target arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with EGFR-TKIs. Interventional treatment was performed every four weeks, two-six cycles with synchronized or sequential targeted drugs (erlotinib, gefitinib or icotinib. Follow-up CT and MRI were regularly finished at interval of four weeks after two cycles of interventional treatment were finished or during taking targeted drugs in order to evaluate efficacy of the therapy. The procedure was stopped for the tumor disease was worse or the patient could not tolerate the toxity of drugs any longer. Results 31 patients was performed two to six cycles of interventional therapy, 3cycles at average. Response assessment showed that 5 (16.1% patients got a complete response (CR, 7 (22.6% had a partial response (PR, 11 (35.5% had a stable disease (SD and 8 (25.8% had a progressive disease (PD. The objective response rate (ORR was 38.7%, and the disease control rate was 74.2%. The median progression free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were 13.1 months and 15.1 months. The 6-month survival rate, one-year survival rate and two-year survival rate were 79%, 61.1%, and 31.1%, respectively. The patients’ OS and PFS were influenced by smoking state, tumor pathology, extracranial metastases, period of targeted drug taking and performance status, not by sex, age, before therapy and the total of brain metastases. Conclusion Selected arterial infusion chemotherapy with targeted drugs is one of the most effective and safe treatment to NSCLC with multiple brain metastases. Smoking status, tumor

  18. The Effect of 8 Weeks of the Selected Combined Exercises on Balance and Pain of Patients Suffering from Arthritis of Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Karimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is considered as the most common joint disease of humans and one of the most common causes of chronic disability among elderly people in the developed countries. The main objective of the present research was to determine the impact of 8 weeks of the combined exercises on the balance and the amount of pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis. 15 patients with knee arthritis were selected purposefully and in form of convenience and they participated in this research. The patients implemented the Training Protocol of walking in water and land and the knee locking and the front thigh exercises for 8 weeks. Dynamic balance (Y test and pain (McGill questionnaire of patients with knee arthritis were measured and evaluated before and after eight weeks of combined exercises. The data were analyzed by use of the t-dependent (P˂0.05. In the dynamic balance of patients with knee arthritis, there was significant difference regarding the anterior side between before-exercises (39.9 7.2 and after-exercises (50.76.8, regarding the internal posterior side between before-exercises (28.8 9.2 and after-exercises (38.0 8.7, regarding the external posterior direction between before-exercises (37.5 7.2 and after-exercises (44.4 7.4. (P˂0.05. Regarding sense perception of pain by patients, there was significant difference between before-exercises (2.2 0.6 and after-exercises (1.8 0.5, regarding the emotional perception of pain by patients between beforeexercises (1.5 0.3 and after-exercises (1.2 0.3 and on perceiving variety of pain by patients between before- (2.10.8 and after-practices (1.8 0.7 (P˂0.05. From the findings of the present research we can conclude that the hydrotherapy exercises combined with exercises on land can cause to improve the dynamic balance and the pain of patients with knee arthritis; therefore we can recommend it as a modality for these patients.

  19. Generation of Murine Cardiac Pacemaker Cell Aggregates Based on ES-Cell-Programming in Combination with Myh6-Promoter-Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmbach, Christian; Jung, Julia J.; David, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of the “sick sinus syndrome” is based on artificial pacemakers. These bear hazards such as battery failure and infections. Moreover, they lack hormone responsiveness and the overall procedure is cost-intensive. “Biological pacemakers” generated from PSCs may become an alternative, yet the typical content of pacemaker cells in Embryoid Bodies (EBs) is extremely low. The described protocol combines “forward programming” of murine PSCs via the sinus node inducer TBX3 with Myh6-promoter based antibiotic selection. This yields cardiomyocyte aggregates consistent of >80% physiologically functional pacemaker cells. These “induced-sinoatrial-bodies” (“iSABs”) are spontaneously contracting at yet unreached frequencies (400-500 bpm) corresponding to nodal cells isolated from mouse hearts and are able to pace murine myocardium ex vivo. Using the described protocol highly pure sinus nodal single cells can be generated which e.g. can be used for in vitro drug testing. Furthermore, the iSABs generated according to this protocol may become a crucial step towards heart tissue engineering. PMID:25742394

  20. Selective and Irreversible Induction of Necroptotic Cell Death in Lung Tumorspheres by Short-Term Exposure to Verapamil in Combination with Sorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastian Yakisich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of highly resistant cancer cells and the toxicity to normal cells are key factors that limit chemotherapy. Here, we used two models of highly resistant lung cancer cells: (1 adherent cells growing under prolonged periods of serum starvation (PPSS and (2 cells growing as floating tumorspheres (FTs to evaluate the effect of Verapamil (VP in combination with Sorafenib (SF. Compared to cells growing under routine culture conditions (RCCs, PPPS cells or FTs were highly sensitive to short-term exposure (24 h to VP 100 μM + SF 5 μM (VP100 + SF5. Recovery experiments exposing cells to VP100 + SF5 for 24 h followed by incubation in drug-free media for 48 h demonstrated that while PPSS as well as FT cells were unable to recover, cancer cells and the noncancerous cell line Beas-2B growing under RCCs were less sensitive and were also able to recover significantly. VP100 + SF5 induced significant changes in the expression of protein associated with apoptosis, autophagy, and to a lesser extent necroptosis. Coincubation experiments with z-VAD-FMK, necrostatin 1, or chloroquine showed evidence that necroptosis played a central role. Our data demonstrates that highly resistant cancer cells can be selectively eliminated by VP + SF and that necroptosis plays a central role.

  1. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  2. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  3. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  4. Effects of flunixin and florfenicol combined with vitamins E and/or C on selected immune mechanisms in cattle under conditions of adaptive stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Chmiel Renata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin and florfenicol administered in combination with vitamin E or C on selected leukocyte immune mechanisms and on the inflammatory process during the first few weeks in the feedlot. Fifty calves divided into 5 groups (n = 10 received florfenicol and flunixin with vitamin E or C. Blood was collected on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th d of the experiment. Intracellular metabolism (NBT, apoptosis, chemotaxis, susceptibility to M. haemolytica leukotoxin, and expression of β2-integrins were determined in leukocytes. The symptoms of respiratory tract infection were observed in 40% of calves in control group, while in the other groups the morbidity rate ranged from 10% to 20%. Leukocytes showed decreased NBT, and the mean values for apoptosis ranged from 14% to 24%. The lowest percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in the calves that received florfenicol with flunixin and vitamins E and C. The chemotactic activity confirmed the significant inhibitory effect of the preparations on migration of the cells. A significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 in the susceptibility of leukocytes to leukotoxin was noted in the group that received florfenicol and flunixin with vitamin E. Expression of β2-integrin receptors was the lowest in calves receiving florfenicol with flunixin and vitamin E or C. The application of an antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with antioxidants protected the leukocytes involved in defence against M. haemolytica virulence factors and effectively limited oxidative stress in the calves.

  5. Chlorobenzene degeradation by non-thermal plasma combined with EG-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO as a photocatalyst: Effect of photocatalyst on CO{sub 2} selectivity and byproducts reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health and Research Center for Health Science, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Iraj; Yarahmadi, Rassuol [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, Babak; Gandomi, Mastaneh [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Hossein, E-mail: hossein.ebrahimi@yahoo.com [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ad-Din Abedi, Kamal [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} and ZnO Nano particles were coated on the surface of expanded graphite. • Expanded graphite-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nano composite under UV light was placed downstream non-thermal plasma reactor. • Chlorobenzene removal and selectivity of CO{sub 2} were enhanced in combined system. • Produced harmful byproducts from plasma reactor were reduced dramatically in combined system. - Abstract: The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO{sub 2} and byproducts formation were investigated. The results showed that the combined system enhanced both the removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity. The output gas of the NTP reactor contained chlorobenzene, phosgene, O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HCL and CL. The bulk of these byproducts was oxidized on the surface of the nanocomposite; as a result, the content of the byproducts in the output gas of the combined system decreased dramatically. The removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity increased by rising the applied voltage and residence time because the collision between active species and pollutant molecules increases. Based on these results, the combined system is preferred due to a higher performance and lower formation of harmful byproducts.

  6. Quantitative real-time PCR combined with propidium monoazide for the selective quantification of viable periodontal pathogens in an in vitro subgingival biofilm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Marín, M J; Figuero, E; Llama-Palacios, A; León, R; Blanc, V; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2014-02-01

    Differentiation of live and dead cells is an important challenge when using molecular diagnosis for microbial identification. This is particularly relevant when bacteria have been exposed to antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to test a method using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide (PMA), developed for the selective quantification of viable P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum and total bacteria in an in vitro biofilm model after antimicrobial treatment. PMA-qPCR method was tested in an in vitro biofilm model, using isopropyl alcohol as the antimicrobial agent. Matured biofilms were exposed for 1, 5, 10 and 30 min to isopropyl alcohol by immersion. Biofilms were disrupted and PMA added (final concentration of 100 μm). After DNA isolation, qPCR was carried out using specific primers and probes for the target bacteria. The differentiation of live and dead cells was tested by analysis of variance. When PMA was used in the presence of viable target bacterial cells, no statistically significant inhibition of qPCR amplification was detected (p > 0.05 in all cases). Conversely, after immersion in isopropyl alcohol of the biofilm, PMA resulted in a significant total reduction of qPCR amplification of about 4 log10 . P. gingivalis showed a vitality reduction in the biofilm of 3 log10 , while A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum showed a 2 log10 reduction. These results demonstrate the efficiency of PMA for differentiating viable and dead P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum cells, as well as total bacteria, in an in vitro biofilm model, after being exposed to an antimicrobial agent. Hence, this PMA-qPCR method may be useful for studying the effect of antimicrobial agents aimed at oral biofilms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of cytomegalovirus co-infection on normalization of selected T-cell subsets in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanovic, Suad; Aaron, Lisa; Montepiedra, Grace; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Pahwa, Savita; Burchett, Sandra; Weinberg, Adriana; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection and viremia on reconstitution of selected CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) children ≥ 1-year old who participated in a partially randomized, open-label, 96-week combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-algorithm study. Participants were categorized as CMV-naïve, CMV-positive (CMV+) viremic, and CMV+ aviremic, based on blood, urine, or throat culture, CMV IgG and DNA polymerase chain reaction measured at baseline. At weeks 0, 12, 20 and 40, T-cell subsets including naïve (CD62L+CD45RA+; CD95-CD28+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+) and terminally differentiated (CD62L-CD45RA+; CD95+CD28-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were measured by flow cytometry. Of the 107 participants included in the analysis, 14% were CMV+ viremic; 49% CMV+ aviremic; 37% CMV-naïve. In longitudinal adjusted models, compared with CMV+ status, baseline CMV-naïve status was significantly associated with faster recovery of CD8+CD62L+CD45RA+% and CD8+CD95-CD28+% and faster decrease of CD8+CD95+CD28-%, independent of HIV VL response to treatment, cART regimen and baseline CD4%. Surprisingly, CMV status did not have a significant impact on longitudinal trends in CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+%. CMV status did not have a significant impact on any CD4+ T-cell subsets. In this cohort of PHIV+ children, the normalization of naïve and terminally differentiated CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to cART was detrimentally affected by the presence of CMV co-infection. These findings may have implications for adjunctive treatment strategies targeting CMV co-infection in PHIV+ children, especially those that are now adults or reaching young adulthood and may have accelerated immunologic aging, increased opportunistic infections and aging diseases of the immune system.

  8. Effect of cytomegalovirus co-infection on normalization of selected T-cell subsets in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Kapetanovic

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV co-infection and viremia on reconstitution of selected CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+ children ≥ 1-year old who participated in a partially randomized, open-label, 96-week combination antiretroviral therapy (cART-algorithm study.Participants were categorized as CMV-naïve, CMV-positive (CMV+ viremic, and CMV+ aviremic, based on blood, urine, or throat culture, CMV IgG and DNA polymerase chain reaction measured at baseline. At weeks 0, 12, 20 and 40, T-cell subsets including naïve (CD62L+CD45RA+; CD95-CD28+, activated (CD38+HLA-DR+ and terminally differentiated (CD62L-CD45RA+; CD95+CD28- CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were measured by flow cytometry.Of the 107 participants included in the analysis, 14% were CMV+ viremic; 49% CMV+ aviremic; 37% CMV-naïve. In longitudinal adjusted models, compared with CMV+ status, baseline CMV-naïve status was significantly associated with faster recovery of CD8+CD62L+CD45RA+% and CD8+CD95-CD28+% and faster decrease of CD8+CD95+CD28-%, independent of HIV VL response to treatment, cART regimen and baseline CD4%. Surprisingly, CMV status did not have a significant impact on longitudinal trends in CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+%. CMV status did not have a significant impact on any CD4+ T-cell subsets.In this cohort of PHIV+ children, the normalization of naïve and terminally differentiated CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to cART was detrimentally affected by the presence of CMV co-infection. These findings may have implications for adjunctive treatment strategies targeting CMV co-infection in PHIV+ children, especially those that are now adults or reaching young adulthood and may have accelerated immunologic aging, increased opportunistic infections and aging diseases of the immune system.

  9. Chlorobenzene degeradation by non-thermal plasma combined with EG-TiO2/ZnO as a photocatalyst: Effect of photocatalyst on CO2 selectivity and byproducts reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Alimohammadi, Iraj; Yarahmadi, Rassuol; Jaleh, Babak; Gandomi, Mastaneh; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ad-Din Abedi, Kamal

    2017-02-15

    The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO 2 and H 2 O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO 2 and byproducts formation were investigated. The results showed that the combined system enhanced both the removal efficiency and CO 2 selectivity. The output gas of the NTP reactor contained chlorobenzene, phosgene, O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, CO 2 , HCL and CL. The bulk of these byproducts was oxidized on the surface of the nanocomposite; as a result, the content of the byproducts in the output gas of the combined system decreased dramatically. The removal efficiency and CO 2 selectivity increased by rising the applied voltage and residence time because the collision between active species and pollutant molecules increases. Based on these results, the combined system is preferred due to a higher performance and lower formation of harmful byproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of Co and In combinational or individual doping on the structural, optical and selective sensing properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maswanganye, MW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available , is found to increase the response to all stimuli to higher values than undoped or singly doped ZnO sensors at the expense of selectivity where In-Co-ZnO as well as undoped ZnO and Co-ZnO sensors have similar selectivity value of below 44% to CO. In-doped Zn...

  11. Selective enzymatic degradation of self-assembled particles from amphiphilic block copolymers obtained by the combination of N-carboxyanhydride and nitroxide-mediated polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, G.J.M.; Peeters, M.; Thornton, P.D.; Koning, C.E.; Heise, A.

    2011-01-01

    Combining controlled radical polymerizations and a controlled polypeptide synthetic technique, such as N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) ring-opening polymerization, enables the generation of well-defined block copolymers to be easily accessible. Here we combine NCA polymerization with the nitroxide-mediated

  12. A Combined In Vivo HSC Transduction/Selection Approach Results in Efficient and Stable Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Cells in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported on an in vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy approach. It involves the subcutaneous injections of G-CSF/AMD3100 to mobilize HSCs from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream and the intravenous injection of an integrating helper-dependent adenovirus vector system. HSCs transduced in the periphery homed back to the bone marrow, where they persisted long-term. However, high transgene marking rates found in primitive bone marrow HSCs were not reflected in peripheral blood cells. Here, we tested small-molecule drugs to achieve selective mobilization and transduction of HSCs. We found more efficient GFP marking in bone marrow HSCs but no increased marking in the peripheral blood cells. We then used an in vivo HSC chemo-selection based on a mutant of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (mgmtP140K gene that confers resistance to O6-BG/BCNU and should give stably transduced HSCs a proliferation stimulus and allow for the selective survival and expansion of progeny cells. Short-term exposure of G-CSF/AMD3100-mobilized, in vivo-transduced mice to relatively low selection drug doses resulted in stable GFP expression in up to 80% of peripheral blood cells. Overall, the further improvement of our in vivo HSC transduction approach creates the basis for a simpler HSC gene therapy.

  13. Mixed complex combinations with a new schiff base used as membranes ion-selective for copper and nickel ions, analytical applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitu, L.; Tigae, C.

    2009-01-01

    Four electrodes with liquid membrane, Cu/sup 2+/ -selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective, not previously described in the literature, were prepared and characterized. Electrodes 1 and 2 are based on mixed complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with isonicotinoylhydrazone-2-aldehyde pyrrole (INH2AP= HL/sup 1/) as ligand and electrodes 3 and 4 are based on the mixed complexes with isonicotinoyl- hydrazone-2-hydroxy-l-naphthaldehyde (INH2HNA = H/sub 2/L/sup 2/ ) Cu/sup 2+/. selective and Ni/sup 2+/ -selective electrodes have been used to determine the copper and nickel ions in aqueous solutions, by both direct potentiometric and potentiometric titration with EDTA. They have also been used for determining the Cu/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ ions in industrial waters by direct potentiometry. The analytical results obtained have been checked by the standard addition method and by comparison with determinations through atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  14. A combined MRI and MRSI based multiclass system for brain tumour recognition using LS-SVMs with class probabilities and feature selection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luts, J.; Heerschap, A.; Suykens, J.A.; Huffel, S. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the use of automated pattern recognition methods on magnetic resonance data with the ultimate goal to assist clinicians in the diagnosis of brain tumours. Recently, the combined use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

  15. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  16. Combined two-photon excitation and d → f energy-transfer in Ir/lanthanide dyads with time-gated selection from a two-component emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edkins, Robert M; Sykes, Daniel; Beeby, Andrew; Ward, Michael D

    2012-10-14

    In a pair of Ir/Eu and Ir/Tb dyads, two-photon excitation of the Ir-phenylpyridine chromophore at 780 nm is followed by partial d → f energy-transfer to give a combination of short-lived Ir-based (blue) and long-lived lanthanide-based (red or green) emission; these components can be selected separately by time-gated detection.

  17. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355: Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below.

  18. Paskibraka Member Selection Using A Combination Of AHP and TOPSIS Methods On The Office Of Youth And Sports Of Kutai Kartanegara Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Septya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paskibraka as troops whose job is to flap the heritage duplicates flag. To become a Paskibraka a selection that participants are high school students are made. Because the number of participants of the selection of many support systems to facilitate the assessment process is made. This system uses Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to determine the weight value criteria that comprise the value of the interview, health, physical, .height and value rules for marching as well as using Technique For Others Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS methods to seek best alternative participants. The calculation results of 21 alternative names best male and female of the participants and their school origin. The system has also been tested by performing the calculations manually using Microsoft Excel (Ms.Excel to calculate the calculation of the system using AHP and TOPSIS.

  19. Paskibraka Member Selection Using A Combination Of AHP and TOPSIS Methods On The Office Of Youth And Sports Of Kutai Kartanegara Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, Septya; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania; Anzhari, Afif Nur; Khairina, Dyna Marisa

    2018-02-01

    Paskibraka as troops whose job is to flap the heritage duplicates flag. To become a Paskibraka a selection that participants are high school students are made. Because the number of participants of the selection of many support systems to facilitate the assessment process is made. This system uses Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine the weight value criteria that comprise the value of the interview, health, physical, .height and value rules for marching as well as using Technique For Others Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods to seek best alternative participants. The calculation results of 21 alternative names best male and female of the participants and their school origin. The system has also been tested by performing the calculations manually using Microsoft Excel (Ms.Excel) to calculate the calculation of the system using AHP and TOPSIS.

  20. Placement of replace select Ti-Unite-coated type implants using a combination of immediate and submerge techniques after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The high success rate of immediate implant placement both in the anterior and posterior regions were reported by many authors, therefore applying this techniques can be considered as a safe surgical procedure and minimizing the dental office visit for patient satisfaction. This paper reports the outcome of immediate placement of implants following extraction of anterior maxillary teeth. Combination technique of immediate and submerge implant placements including bone grafting procedure were used. Four implants with TiUnite surface type were placed immediately in two patients with the short-term result indicated that this technique may serve as a simple and safe procedure for immediate implant placement. It was concluded that immediate implant placement technique combined with TiUnite implant surface was successful in treating region directly after tooth extraction therefore this technique can be use as an alternative surgical method for dental implant rehabilitation.

  1. Studying the ability of mutation and selection of promising lines of Brassia Verrucosa Lindl. by gamma irradiation in combination with in vitro technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thi Thuy Linh; Le Van Thuc; Dang Thi Dien; Han Huynh Dien; Le Thi Bich Thy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to induce mutation in Warty Brassia (Brassia verrucosa Lindl.) through in vitro mutagenesis by treating the bud clusters with gamma irradiation, aiming to select the valuable varieties of Warty Brassia. The following contents were conducted: detecting of genetic polymorphism of the variants by applying RAPD analysis; evaluating the growth of variation forms of Warty Brassia obtaining after irradiation in the nursery stage; selecting desired variations. The results revealed that 9 variants were examined genetic diversity, 8 variants there were genetic differences among 8 variants and original variety. There were differences in the growth potential among morphological variants under nursery condition. The mutants having large pseudobulb, dark green leaves and the mutants having pseudobulb round in shape, short leaves promise to develop mutants strains. Types of mutation were selected and multiply rapidly from generation M_1V_1 - M_1V_3, they retained 100% morphological features of their parents. The study is being conducting to assess the flower color and shape of the mutants derived from Warty Brassia. (author)

  2. Facile and green preparation of novel adsorption materials by combining sol-gel with ion imprinting technology for selective removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongqi; Zhu, Xinyan; Du, Jian; Kong, Delong; Wang, Nian; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Qi; Liu, Wei; Li, Qunsheng; Zhou, Zhiyong

    2018-03-01

    A novel green adsorption polymer was prepared by ion imprinted technology in conjunction with sol-gel process under mild conditions for the selective removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. Effects of preparation conditions on adsorption performance of prepared polymers were studied. The ion-imprinted polymer was prepared using Cu(II) ion as template, N-[3-(2-aminoethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (AAPTMS) as functional monomer and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as cross-linker. Water was used as solvent in the whole preparation process. The imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and zeta potential. Three-dimensional network structure was formed and functional monomer was successfully cross-linked into the network structure of polymers. Effects of adsorption conditions on adsorption performance of prepared polymers were studied too. The pH value is of great influence on adsorption behavior. Adsorption by ion-imprinted polymer was fast (adsorption equilibrium was reached within 60 min). The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) ion-imprinted polymer was always larger than that of non-imprinted polymer. Pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Freundlich isotherm model fitted well with adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cu(II) ion-imprinted polymer was 39.82 mg·g-1. However, the preparation conditions used in this work are much milder than those reported in literatures. The Cu(II) ion-imprinted polymer showed high selectivity and relative selectivity coefficients for Pb(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Co(II). In addition, the prepared ion-imprinted polymer could be reused several times without significant loss of adsorption capacity.

  3. Utilization of a selective tumour artery catheterization technique for the intra-arterial delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and radiopharmaceuticals in a combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy clinical research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, A.L. Jr.; Wirtanen, G.W.; Holden, J.E.; Polcyn, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Combined intra-arterial chemotherapeutic agents (principally actinomycin-D) and radiation therapy has been utilized in the treatment of 35 patients with massive unresectable malignancies. The goals may be separated into three distinct categories. An attempt has been made to convert unresectable malignancies to surgical resectability, to provide a definitive therapy for massive tumours in patients who either refuse surgery or are not surgery candidates, and to provide palliation. Twelve of 15 initially unresectable tumours treated with actinomycin-D became surgically resectable (no resection was attempted in the other four because they either developed metastasis during therapy or did not complete the therapy), 4 of 6 massive tumours treated definitively have remained locally controlled from 18 to 108 months, and 7 of 9 patients treated palliatively were significantly benefited by the therapy. Impressive responses were also achieved in several patients treated with intra-arterial 5-fluorouracil and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The authors therefore consider combined, concurrent radiation therapy and intra-arterially administered chemotherapeutic agents worthy of further clinical investigation as a means of treating massive malignancies. They also suggest that the best chance of optimizing the therapeutic ratio of such therapy is dependent primarily on a proper understanding of clinical tumour vascularity and of its subsequent effect on drug and oxygen distributions within the radiation treatment volume. Accordingly, tumour vascularity has been clinically evaluated by the use of intra-arterially administered radiopharmaceuticals. Such clinical data, in conjunction with radiobiological data, might in the future be utilized to optimize both low and high LET combined therapy by allowing for correction of the physical isodose for drug and oxygen concentration variations. (author)

  4. Optical ridge waveguides preserving the thermo-optic features in LiNbO3 crystals fabricated by combination of proton implantation and selective wet etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Chen, Feng

    2010-05-24

    We report on a new, simple method to fabricate optical ridge waveguides in a z-cut LiNbO3 wafer by using proton implantation and selective wet etching. The measured modal field is well confined in the ridge waveguide region, which is also confirmed by the numerical simulation. With thermal annealing treatment at 400 degrees C, the propagation loss of the ridge waveguides is determined to be as low as approximately 0.9 dB/cm. In addition, the measured thermo-optic coefficients of the waveguides are in good agreement with those of the bulk, suggesting potential applications in integrated photonics.

  5. Prioritizing the effective factors on projectile performance by combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and design of experiment of Taguchi Case study: selected aerospace industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saberreza bahrami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to prioritize the effective factors in projectile performance. Prioritizing of these factors whit combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and design of experiment Of Taguchi help designers to develop the performance of projectile structure. According to this that since now, researcher tried to increase the performance of projectile whit change in every factors separately, so in this paper tried whit combination of AHP method and design of experiment of Taguchi , analyzed and prioritized all the effective factors in projectile performance simultaneously. For this purpose first by design of experiment Of Taguchi the influence of every these factors on two criteria of range and drift were calculated and then by AHP method these factors were prioritized. By considering of equal weight for both range and drift, the result shows between 11 factors, Firing Angle whit value of 0.3398, Muzzle Velocity whit value of 0.2918 and Burning Time whit value of 0.1257 were the most influenced factors in projectile performance respectively. Propellant Weight and Wind Velocity factors whit value of 0.0104 and 0.00092 were ranked in tenth and eleventh priority respectively.

  6. Combined atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence imaging to select single InAs/GaAs quantum dots for quantum photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Luca; Liu, Jin; Song, Jin Dong; Fält, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2017-07-24

    We report on a combined photoluminescence imaging and atomic force microscopy study of single, isolated self-assembled InAs quantum dots. The motivation of this work is to determine an approach that allows to assess single quantum dots as candidates for quantum nanophotonic devices. By combining optical and scanning probe characterization techniques, we find that single quantum dots often appear in the vicinity of comparatively large topographic features. Despite this, the quantum dots generally do not exhibit significant differences in their non-resonantly pumped emission spectra in comparison to quantum dots appearing in defect-free regions, and this behavior is observed across multiple wafers produced in different growth chambers. Such large surface features are nevertheless a detriment to applications in which single quantum dots are embedded within nanofabricated photonic devices: they are likely to cause large spectral shifts in the wavelength of cavity modes designed to resonantly enhance the quantum dot emission, thereby resulting in a nominally perfectly-fabricated single quantum dot device failing to behave in accordance with design. We anticipate that the approach of screening quantum dots not only based on their optical properties, but also their surrounding surface topographies, will be necessary to improve the yield of single quantum dot nanophotonic devices.

  7. NHC-Ag/Pd-Catalyzed Reductive Carboxylation of Terminal Alkynes with CO2 and H2 : A Combined Experimental and Computational Study for Fine-Tuned Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingyi; Zhou, Feng; Lim, Diane S W; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2017-03-09

    Reductive carboxylation of terminal alkynes utilizing CO 2 and H 2 as reactants is an interesting and challenging transformation. Theoretical calculations indicated it would be kinetically possible to obtain cinnamic acid, the reductive carboxylation product, from phenylacetylene in a CO 2 /H 2 system with an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-supported Ag/Pd bimetallic catalysts through competitive carboxylation/hydrogenation cascade reactions in one step. These calculations were verified experimentally with a poly-NHC-supported Ag/Pd catalyst. By tuning the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, phenylacetylene was selectively converted to cinnamic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, or phenylpropiolic acid in excellent yields. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mineralocorticoid hypertension: clinical and laboratory studies with special reference to selective percutaneous venography combined with aldosterone assay in the adrenal venous blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajchenberg, B.L.; Liberman, B.; Novaes, M.

    1977-01-01

    With the purpose of demonstrating the presence of hypertension, hypokalemia and alkalosis were studied. The presence of daily aldosteronism was verified in five patients; the sixth one presented no daily aldosteronism but an increase of 18-OH-DOCA production, an ACTH dependente mineralocorticoid. The presence of tumor (less than 0.9cm) could not be shown in two patients by bilateral selective adrenal venography. The aldosterone assay during catherization of adrenal vein of those patients permitted to determine the tumoral side. Attention must be given to the fact that the blood collection of adrenal vein must always be made during adrenal venography to demonstrate the presence of short unilateral tumor or bilateral disease [pt

  9. Simultaneous grouping and ranking with combination of SOM and TOPSIS for selection of preferable analytical procedure for furan determination in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Tsakovski, Stefan; Lavenu, Aurore; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Novel methodology for grouping and ranking with application of self-organizing maps and multicriteria decision analysis is presented. The dataset consists of 22 objects that are analytical procedures applied to furan determination in food samples. They are described by 10 variables, referred to their analytical performance, environmental and economic aspects. Multivariate statistics analysis allows to limit the amount of input data for ranking analysis. Assessment results show that the most beneficial procedures are based on microextraction techniques with GC-MS final determination. It is presented how the information obtained from both tools complement each other. The applicability of combination of grouping and ranking is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Island biology and morphological divergence of the Skyros wall lizard Podarcis gaigeae: a combined role for local selection and genetic drift on color morph frequency divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runemark Anna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of spatial variation in discrete phenotypic traits can be used to draw inferences about the adaptive significance of traits and evolutionary processes, especially when compared to patterns of neutral genetic variation. Population divergence in adaptive traits such as color morphs can be influenced by both local ecology and stochastic factors such as genetic drift or founder events. Here, we use quantitative color measurements of males and females of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae, to demonstrate that this species is polymorphic with respect to throat color, and the morphs form discrete phenotypic clusters with limited overlap between categories. We use divergence in throat color morph frequencies and compare that to neutral genetic variation to infer the evolutionary processes acting on islet- and mainland populations. Results Geographically close islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard exhibit strong divergence in throat color morph frequencies. Population variation in throat color morph frequencies between islets was higher than that between mainland populations, and the effective population sizes on the islets were small (Ne:s ST for throat color morph frequencies fell within the neutral FST-distribution estimated from microsatellite markers, and genetic drift could thus not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern. Moreover, for both comparisons among mainland-mainland population pairs and between mainland-islet population pairs, morph frequency divergence was significantly correlated with neutral divergence, further pointing to some role for genetic drift in divergence also at the phenotypic level of throat color morphs. Conclusions Genetic drift could not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern of population divergence in morph frequencies. In spite of an expected stabilising selection, throat color frequencies diverged in the islet populations. These results suggest that

  11. Optimized slice-selective 1H NMR experiments combined with highly accurate quantitative 13C NMR using an internal reference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jézéquel, Tangi; Silvestre, Virginie; Dinis, Katy; Giraudeau, Patrick; Akoka, Serge

    2018-04-01

    Isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry (irm-13C NMR) provides the complete 13C intramolecular position-specific composition at natural abundance. It represents a powerful tool to track the (bio)chemical pathway which has led to the synthesis of targeted molecules, since it allows Position-specific Isotope Analysis (PSIA). Due to the very small composition range (which represents the range of variation of the isotopic composition of a given nuclei) of 13C natural abundance values (50‰), irm-13C NMR requires a 1‰ accuracy and thus highly quantitative analysis by 13C NMR. Until now, the conventional strategy to determine the position-specific abundance xi relies on the combination of irm-MS (isotopic ratio monitoring Mass Spectrometry) and 13C quantitative NMR. However this approach presents a serious drawback since it relies on two different techniques and requires to measure separately the signal of all the carbons of the analyzed compound, which is not always possible. To circumvent this constraint, we recently proposed a new methodology to perform 13C isotopic analysis using an internal reference method and relying on NMR only. The method combines a highly quantitative 1H NMR pulse sequence (named DWET) with a 13C isotopic NMR measurement. However, the recently published DWET sequence is unsuited for samples with short T1, which forms a serious limitation for irm-13C NMR experiments where a relaxing agent is added. In this context, we suggest two variants of the DWET called Multi-WET and Profiled-WET, developed and optimized to reach the same accuracy of 1‰ with a better immunity towards T1 variations. Their performance is evaluated on the determination of the 13C isotopic profile of vanillin. Both pulse sequences show a 1‰ accuracy with an increased robustness to pulse miscalibrations compared to the initial DWET method. This constitutes a major advance in the context of irm-13C NMR since it is now possible to perform isotopic analysis with high

  12. Extraction and reliable determination of acrylamide from thermally processed foods using ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted selective microextraction combined with spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Elik, Adil; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2018-02-01

    Acrylamide (AAm) is a carcinogenic chemical that can form in thermally processed foods by the Maillard reaction of glucose with asparagine. AAm can easily be formed especially in frequently consumed chips and cereal-based foods depending on processing conditions. Considering these properties of AAm, a new, simple and green method is proposed for the extraction of AAm from thermally processed food samples. In this study, an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Bmim][BF 4 ]) as extractant was used in the presence of a cationic phenazine group dye, 3,7-diamino-5-phenylphenazinium chloride (PSH + , phenosafranine) at pH 7.5 for the extraction of AAm as an ion-pair complex from selected samples. Under optimum conditions, the analytical features obtained for the proposed method were as follows; linear working range, the limits of detection (LOD, 3S b /m) and quantification (LOQ, 10S b /m), preconcentration factor, sensitivity enhancement factor, sample volume and recovery% were 2.2-350 µg kg -1 , 0.7 µg kg -1 , 2.3 µg kg -1 , 120, 95, 60 mL and 94.1-102.7%, respectively. The validity of the method was tested by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs) and intra-day and inter-day precision studies. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of AAm levels in thermally processed foods using the standard addition method.

  13. Information for the diagnosis of broncho-pulmonary diseases obtained by the combined use of perfusion lung scintigraphy and selective bronchial arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouamba Foning, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    Our study is limited to perfusion lung scintigraphy and deals with the following in turn: - radioisotopes and their conditioning, - detection and recording equipment, - results and limits of the method. The tracers used here were radioiodine-labelled human albumin macro-aggregates and more especially technetium-labelled microspheres. Scintigraphy, which visualizes or charts the local distribution of radioactive indicators, is carried out with two kinds of apparatus, scanners and scintillation cameras. The information acquired may be accurately analysed at the same time owing to modern data processing systems. The interpretation of radiotracer lung transit curves made by several authors is not very useful for our work, consequently we have kept to the analysis of images obtained by the Anger camera or similar instruments. The Anger scintillation camera seems to be well suited to isotopic lung exploration providing morphological and functional data simultaneously. Perfusion lung scintigraphy, which reflects the quality of lung circulation at the capillary level, appears to be a valuable asset in the diagnostic approach to certain chest X-ray images. The technique is fast, painless, neat, harmless and almost never contra-indicated. However like other techniques it cannot solve every problem on its own. Under these conditions, we must admit, on weighing up the results of this study, that perfusion lung scintigraphy had to be followed in most cases by selective bronchial arteriography [fr

  14. Combining selection valve and mixing chamber for nanoflow gradient generation: Toward developing a liquid chromatography cartridge coupled with mass spectrometer for protein and peptide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Gu, Congying; Zhang, Min; Lynch, Kyle B; Liu, Shaorong

    2015-08-05

    Toward developing a micro HPLC cartridge, we have recently built a high-pressure electroosmotic pump (EOP). However, we do not recommend people to use this pump to deliver an organic solvent directly, because it often makes the pump rate unstable. We have experimented several approaches to address this issue, but none of them are satisfactory. Here, we develop an innovative approach to address this issue. We first create an abruption (a dead-volume) within a fluid conduit. We then utilize an EOP to withdraw, via a selection valve, a train of eluent solutions having decreasing eluting power into the fluid conduit. When these solutions are further aspirated through the dead-volume, these solutions are partially mixed, smoothening concentration transitions between two adjacent eluent solutions. As these solutions are pushed back, through the dead-volume again, a smooth gradient profile is formed. In this work, we characterize this scheme for gradient formation, and we incorporate this approach with a high-pressure EOP, a nanoliter injection valve, and a capillary column, yielding a micro HPLC system. We then couple this micro HPLC with an electrospray ionization - mass spectrometer for peptide and protein separations and identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination of size selective binding ability of 18-crown-6 dissolved in aqueous phase and extractive properties of an amic acid; toward enhancement of rare earths separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarbali, Reyhaneh; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanloo, Massomeh [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). PhaseEquilibria Research Lab.; Zamani, Abbasali [Zanjan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Science Research Lab.

    2016-11-15

    The separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions by an amic acid, N,N-dioctyldiglycolamic acid (HL), dissolved in carbon tetrachloride has been improved in the presence of 18-crown-6 (18C6) in aqueous phase as a selective masking agent. The interaction between the studied metal ions and 18C6 resulted a shift in the extraction curve of the studied metal ions versus pH toward higher pH region. The displacement of the extraction curves was more pronounced for lanthanum ions and was varied as La(III) > Eu(III) > Er(III). This order of complexing ability of 18C6 toward the studied ions was attributed to the size adaptation of the ions and that of the crown ether cavity. The stability constants of the lanthanide-crown ether complexes in aqueous phase were evaluated. The influence of temperature on the extraction of studied metal ions from aqueous phase in the absence and the presence of 18C6 was tested in the range 298-308 K. This investigation allowed evaluating the thermodynamic parameters associated with the extraction process and those of the complexation of cations by 18C6 in the aqueous phase.

  16. Quantitation of deuterated and non-deuterated phenylalanine and tyrosine in human plasma using the selective ion monitoring method with combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagalak, M.-J.; Curtius, H.-Ch.; Leimbacher, W.; Redweik, U.

    1977-01-01

    A specific method is described for the quantitative analysis of deutarated and non-deuterated phenylalanine and tyrosine in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selective ion monitoring. From the several derivatives investigated, the N- or N,O-trifluoroacetyl methyl esters were found to be the most suitable for our purposes. DL-Phenylalanine-4-d 1 and L-tyrosine-d 7 were used as internal standards. The sensitivity of this method permits the measurement of amounts as small as ca. 2.5 ng/ml in plasma for both phenylalanine and tyrosine. The coefficients of variation were found to be ca. 1.6% (n=12) for phenylalanine and 3.0% (n=12) for tyrosine. Using this method, an in vivo determination of phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase activity in humans is possible by loading the subjects with deuterated L-phenylalanine-d 5 (accepted as substrate by phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase E.C. 1.14.16.1) and the subsequent measuring of deuterated L-tyrosine-d 4 formed and residual L-phenylalanine-d 5

  17. Combining MOSCED with molecular simulation free energy calculations or electronic structure calculations to develop an efficient tool for solvent formulation and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Courtney E.; Phifer, Jeremy R.; Ferreira da Silva, Larissa; Gonçalves Nogueira, Gabriel; Ley, Ryan T.; O'Loughlin, Elizabeth J.; Pereira Barbosa, Ana Karolyne; Rygelski, Brett T.; Paluch, Andrew S.

    2017-02-01

    Solubility parameter based methods have long been a valuable tool for solvent formulation and selection. Of these methods, the MOdified Separation of Cohesive Energy Density (MOSCED) has recently been shown to correlate well the equilibrium solubility of multifunctional non-electrolyte solids. However, before it can be applied to a novel solute, a limited amount of reference solubility data is required to regress the necessary MOSCED parameters. Here we demonstrate for the solutes methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, lidocaine and ephedrine how conventional molecular simulation free energy calculations or electronic structure calculations in a continuum solvent, here the SMD or SM8 solvation model, can instead be used to generate the necessary reference data, resulting in a predictive flavor of MOSCED. Adopting the melting point temperature and enthalpy of fusion of these compounds from experiment, we are able to predict equilibrium solubilities. We find the method is able to well correlate the (mole fraction) equilibrium solubility in non-aqueous solvents over four orders of magnitude with good quantitative agreement.

  18. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combine Use of Selected Schizosaccharomyces pombe andLachancea thermotolerans Yeast Strains as an Alternative to theTraditional Malolactic Fermentation in Red Wine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Benito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most red wines commercialized in the market use the malolactic fermentationprocess in order to ensure stability from a microbiological point of view. In this secondfermentation, malic acid is converted into L-lactic acid under controlled setups. Howeverthis process is not free from possible collateral effects that on some occasions produceoff-flavors, wine quality loss and human health problems. In warm viticulture regions suchas the south of Spain, the risk of suffering a deviation during the malolactic fermentationprocess increases due to the high must pH. This contributes to produce wines with highvolatile acidity and biogenic amine values. This manuscript develops a new red winemakingmethodology that consists of combining the use of two non-Saccharomyces yeast strains asan alternative to the traditional malolactic fermentation. In this method, malic acid is totallyconsumed by Schizosaccharomyces pombe, thus achieving the microbiological stabilizationobjective, while Lachancea thermotolerans produces lactic acid in order not to reduce andeven increase the acidity of wines produced from low acidity musts. This technique reducesthe risks inherent to the malolactic fermentation process when performed in warm regions.The result is more fruity wines that contain less acetic acid and biogenic amines than thetraditional controls that have undergone the classical malolactic fermentation.

  20. Combining NMR and X-ray crystallography in fragment-based drug discovery: discovery of highly potent and selective BACE-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Daniel F; Wang, Yu-Sen; Eaton, Hugh L; Strickland, Corey; Voigt, Johannes H; Zhu, Zhaoning; Stamford, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become increasingly popular over the last decade. We review here how we have used highly structure-driven fragment-based approaches to complement more traditional lead discovery to tackle high priority targets and those struggling for leads. Combining biomolecular nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling with structure-assisted chemistry and innovative biology as an integrated approach for FBDD can solve very difficult problems, as illustrated in this chapter. Here, a successful FBDD campaign is described that has allowed the development of a clinical candidate for BACE-1, a challenging CNS drug target. Crucial to this achievement were the initial identification of a ligand-efficient isothiourea fragment through target-based NMR screening and the determination of its X-ray crystal structure in complex with BACE-1, which revealed an extensive H-bond network with the two active site aspartate residues. This detailed 3D structural information then enabled the design and validation of novel, chemically stable and accessible heterocyclic acylguanidines as aspartic acid protease inhibitor cores. Structure-assisted fragment hit-to-lead optimization yielded iminoheterocyclic BACE-1 inhibitors that possess desirable molecular properties as potential therapeutic agents to test the amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease in a clinical setting.

  1. Fumigant Activity of 6 Selected Essential Oil Compounds and Combined Effect of Methyl Salicylate And Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Against Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Bin; Feng, Jun-Tao; Jiang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Xing

    2014-09-01

    We studied the knockdown activity and lethal toxicity of 6 essential oil compounds-methyl salicylate, linalool, 2-phenethyl alcohol, eugenol, β-citronellol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde-as fumigants against adult female Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory. Of the 6 products tested, trans-cinnamaldehyde was the most toxic (LC50  =  0.26 µl/l air, 24 h) with a slow knockdown time (KT95  =  176.5 min at 0.5 µl/l air). Methyl salicylate displayed a lower toxicity (LC50  =  1.17 µl/l air, 24 h) but the fastest knockdown activity (KT95  =  16.8 min) at the sublethal concentration 0.5 µl/l air. Furthermore, the binary mixture of methyl salicylate and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited a combined effect of fast knockdown activity and high toxicity against Cx. p. pallens adults, showing potential for development as natural fumigants for mosquito control.

  2. Combining selective sequential extractions, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and X-Ray Powder Diffraction for Cu (II speciation in soil and mineral phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Minkina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of Cu (II ions with the matrix of soil and mineral phases of layered silicates was assessed by the Miller method of selective sequential fractionation and a set of synchrotron X-ray methods, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES. It was shown that the input of Cu into Calcic Chernozem in the form of monoxide (CuO and salt (Cu(NO32 affected the transformation of Cu compounds and their affinity for metal-bearing phases. It was found that the contamination of soil with a soluble Cu(II salt increased the bioavailability of the metal and the role of organic matter and Fe oxides in the fixation and retention of Cu. During the incubation of soil with Cu monoxide, the content of the metal in the residual fractions increased, which was related to the possible entry of Cu in the form of isomorphic impurities into silicates, as well as to the incomplete dissolution of exogenic compounds at the high level of their input into the soil. A mechanism for the structural transformation of minerals was revealed, which showed that ion exchange processes result in the sorption of Cu (II ions from the saturated solution by active sites on the internal surface of the lattice of dioctahedral aluminosilicates. Surface hydroxyls at the octahedral aluminum atom play the main role. X-ray diagnostics revealed that excess Cu(II ions are removed from the system due to the formation and precipitation of coarsely crystalline Cu(NO3(OH3.

  3. Selection and validation of potato candidate genes for maturity corrected resistance to Phytophthora infestans based on differential expression combined with SNP association and linkage mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meki Shehabu Muktar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, is one of the most important bottlenecks of potato production worldwide. Cultivars with high levels of durable, race unspecific, quantitative resistance are part of a solution to this problem. However, breeding for quantitative resistance is hampered by the correlation between resistance and late plant maturity, which is an undesirable agricultural attribute. The objectives of our research are (i the identification of genes that condition quantitative resistance to P. infestans not compromised by late plant maturity and (ii the discovery of diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to be used as molecular tools to increase efficiency and precision of resistance breeding. Twenty two novel candidate genes were selected based on comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression in groups of plants with contrasting levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR. Reproducibility of differential expression was tested by quantitative real time PCR and allele specific pyrosequencing in four new sets of genotype pools with contrasting late blight resistance levels, at three infection time points and in three independent infection experiments. Reproducibility of expression patterns ranged from 28% to 97%. Association mapping in a panel of 184 tetraploid cultivars identified SNPs in five candidate genes that were associated with MCR. These SNPs can be used in marker-assisted resistance breeding. Linkage mapping in two half-sib families (n = 111 identified SNPs in three candidate genes that were linked with MCR. The differentially expressed genes that showed association and/or linkage with MCR putatively function in phytosterol synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, asparagine synthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, cell wall modification and in the response to pathogen elicitors.

  4. A combined spectroscopic and molecular docking study on site selective binding interaction of Toluidine blue O with Human and Bovine serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva Sharma, Arumugam [Department of Chemistry, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Anandakumar, Shanmugam [Department of Bioinformatics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ilanchelian, Malaichamy, E-mail: chelian73@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation the interaction of a biologically active photodynamic therapeutic agent Toluidine blue O (TBO) with Serum albumins viz Human serum albumin (HSA) and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied using absorption, emission, circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular docking experiments. The emission titration experiments between HSA/BSA and TBO revealed the existence of strong interactions between TBO and the proteins. The site competitive experiment of HSA and BSA showed that the primary binding site of TBO is located in site I of HSA/BSA involving hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction. To ascertain the results of site competitive experiments, molecular docking was utilized to characterize the binding models of TBO–HSA/BSA complexes. From the molecular docking studies, free energy calculations were undertaken to examine the energy contributions and the role of various amino acid residues of HSA/BSA in TBO binding. The existence of Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between the ligand and the protein was utilized to calculate the donor–acceptor distance of TBO and protein. The TBO induced conformational changes of HSA/BSA was established using synchronous emission, three dimensional emission and circular dichroism studies. - Highlights: • Site selective binding interaction of TBO with HSA and BSA were investigated. • TBO quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA/BSA by static quenching process. • Computational studies of TBO with HSA/BSA substantiate the experimental findings. • 3D and CD spectral studies of TBO–HSA/BSA revealed structural changes in protein. • The distance (r) between TBO and HSA/BSA were estimated from FRET theory.

  5. Combustion, performance, and selective catalytic reduction of NOx for a diesel engine operated with combined tri fuel (H_2, CH_4, and conventional diesel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jrai, Ahmad M.; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H.; Hasan, Ahmad O.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of tri fuel (ULSD, H_2, and CH_4) operation under real exhaust gas conditions with different gaseous fuel compositions on the combustion characteristics, engine emissions, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) after treatment was examined at low, medium, and high engine loads. Pt/Al_2O_3-SCR reactor was used and operated at different exhaust gas temperatures. Results revealed that at low load, the two gaseous fuels (H_2 and CH_4) have the same trend on combustion proccess, where both reduce the in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. At the high engine load there was a considerable influence appeared as an increase of the premixed combustion phase and a significant decrease of the total combustion duration. In terms of emissions, it was observed that at high engine load, fuels with high CH_4 content tend to reduce NOx formation, whereas, fuels with high H_2 content tend to reduce PM formation, moreover, combustion of tri fuel with 50:50 fuel mixture resulted in lower BSFC compared to the other ratios and hence, the best engine efficiency. The hydrocarbon-SCR catalyst has shown satisfactory performance in NOx reduction under real diesel exhaust gas in a temperature window of 180–280 °C for all engine loads. - Highlights: • Effect of tri fuel (ULSD, H_2, CH_4) on combustion and engine emissions was examined. • Fuel with high CH_4 content (H50-M50 and H25-M75) tend to reduce NOx formation. • Fuel with high H_2 content (H75-M25 and H50-M50) tend to reduce PM formation. • Increasing the percentage of H_2 in the feed gas improved the NO_x reduction. • The hydrocarbon-SCR catalyst has shown satisfactory performance in NO_x reduction.

  6. ALMACAL - III. A combined ALMA and MUSE survey for neutral, molecular, and ionized gas in an H I-absorption-selected system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitsch, A.; Péroux, C.; Zwaan, M. A.; Smail, I.; Oteo, I.; Biggs, A. D.; Popping, G.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    Studying the flow of baryons into and out of galaxies is an important part of understanding the evolution of galaxies over time. We present a detailed case study of the environment around an intervening Ly α absorption line system at zabs = 0.633, seen towards the quasar J0423-0130 (zQSO = 0.915). We detect with ALMA the 12CO(2-1), 12CO(3-2), and 1.2 mm continuum emission from a galaxy at the redshift of the Ly α absorber at a projected distance of 135 kpc. From the ALMA detections, we infer interstellar medium conditions similar to those in low-redshift luminous infrared galaxies. Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field unit observations reveal the optical counterpart of the 12CO emission line source and three additional emission line galaxies at the absorber redshift, which together form a galaxy group. The 12CO emission line detections originate from the most massive galaxy in this group. While we cannot exclude that we miss a fainter host, we reach a dust-uncorrected star formation rate (SFR) limit of >0.3 M⊙yr-1 within 100 kpc from the sightline to the background quasar. We measure the dust-corrected SFR (ranging from 3 to 50 M⊙ yr-1), the morpho-kinematics and the metallicities of the four group galaxies to understand the relation between the group and the neutral gas probed in absorption. We find that the Ly α absorber traces either an outflow from the most massive galaxy or intragroup gas. This case study illustrates the power of combining ALMA and MUSE to obtain a census of the cool baryons in a bounded structure at intermediate redshift.

  7. Selective binding of pyrene in subdomain IB of human serum albumin: Combining energy transfer spectroscopy and molecular modelling to understand protein binding flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Irene; Taha, Mohamed; Al-Sharji, Nada A.; Abou-Zied, Osama K.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of human serum albumin (HSA) to bind medium-sized hydrophobic molecules is important for the distribution, metabolism, and efficacy of many drugs. Herein, the interaction between pyrene, a hydrophobic fluorescent probe, and HSA was thoroughly investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A slight quenching of the fluorescence signal from Trp214 (the sole tryptophan residue in the protein) in the presence of pyrene was used to determine the ligand binding site in the protein, using Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory. The estimated FRET apparent distance between pyrene and Trp214 was 27 Å, which was closely reproduced by the docking analysis (29 Å) and MD simulation (32 Å). The highest affinity site for pyrene was found to be in subdomain IB from the docking results. The calculated equilibrium structure of the complex using MD simulation shows that the ligand is largely stabilized by hydrophobic interaction with Phe165, Phe127, and the nonpolar moieties of Tyr138 and Tyr161. The fluorescence vibronic peak ratio I1/I3 of bound pyrene inside HSA indicates the presence of polar effect in the local environment of pyrene which is less than that of free pyrene in buffer. This was clarified by the MD simulation results in which an average of 5.7 water molecules were found within 0.5 nm of pyrene in the binding site. Comparing the fluorescence signals and lifetimes of pyrene inside HSA to that free in buffer, the high tendency of pyrene to form dimer was almost completely suppressed inside HSA, indicating a high selectivity of the binding pocket toward pyrene monomer. The current results emphasize the ability of HSA, as a major carrier of several drugs and ligands in blood, to bind hydrophobic molecules in cavities other than subdomain IIA which is known to bind most hydrophobic drugs. This ability stems from the nature of the amino acids forming the binding

  8. Recruiter Selection Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halstead, John B

    2006-01-01

    .... The research uses a combination of statistical learning, feature selection methods, and multivariate statistics to determine the better prediction function approximation with features obtained...

  9. Combinations of ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors ablate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) mRNA induction. Evidence for selective destabilization of TNF-alpha transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutault, K; Hazzalin, C A; Mahadevan, L C

    2001-03-02

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine whose synthesis and secretion are implicated in diverse pathologies. Hence, inhibition of TNF-alpha transcription or translation and neutralization of its protein product represent major pharmaceutical strategies to control inflammation. We have studied the role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in controlling TNF-alpha mRNA levels in differentiated THP-1 cells and in freshly purified human monocytes. We show here that it is possible to produce virtually complete inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation by using a combination of ERK and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, substantial inhibition is achievable using combinations of 1 microm of each inhibitor, whereas inhibitors used individually are incapable of producing complete inhibition even at high concentrations. Finally, addressing mechanisms involved, we show that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase selectively destabilizes TNF-alpha transcripts but does not affect degradation of c-jun transcripts. These results impinge on the controversy in the literature surrounding the mode of action of MAP kinase inhibitors on TNF-alpha mRNA and suggest the use of combinations of MAP kinase inhibitors as an effective anti-inflammatory strategy.

  10. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  11. 结合重心法和层次分析法研究垃圾转运站选址%Location Selection of Waste Transfer Station Based on Combining Gravity Method and AHP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇锋; 荣宏伟; 张可方; 张朝升

    2012-01-01

    Gravity method was combined with AHP model to study the location selection of rural waste transfer station. Based on analysis of rural household yield and distribution, gravity method was used for initial selection of primary locations, then using AHP model to screen out standby locations to obtain the optimal location. Compared with traditional methods of location selection, the method not only takes costs into account, but also the impact location of environmental benefits, basic conditions as well as laws and regulations. The result is closer to reality. The method is used and verified in a southern rural area, with satisfactory location selection plan.%将重心法和层次分析法结合起来研究农村生活垃圾转运站选址问题,首先分析农村生活垃圾产生量及分布,采用重心法对转运站进行初始选址,得出备选地址,然后运用层次分析法对备选地址进行筛选,得到最佳选址方案.与传统选址方法相比,该方法不仅考虑了费用,还综合考虑了影响选址的环境效益、基础条件、法律法规等因素,因此得到的结果更贴近实际.将该方法应用于南方某农村,得到了满意的选址方案.

  12. Feature selection based classifier combination approach for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ved for the isolated English text, but for the handwritten Devanagari script it is not ... characters, lack of standard benchmarking and ground truth dataset, lack of ..... theory, proposed by Glen Shafer as a way to represent cognitive knowledge.

  13. Combination of 2D/3D ligand-based similarity search in rapid virtual screening from multimillion compound repositories. Selection and biological evaluation of potential PDE4 and PDE5 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krisztina; Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Fabó, Gabriella; Szaszkó, Mária; Bognár, Melinda; Magyar, Csaba; Simon, István; Szisz, Dániel; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2014-05-28

    Rapid in silico selection of target focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases but the generated library requires further focusing by various 2D/3D chemoinformatics tools. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with a ligand-based 3D method (Screen3D) which applies flexible matching to align reference and target compounds in a dynamic manner and thus to assess their structural and conformational similarity. In the first case study we compared the 2D and 3D similarity scores on an existing dataset derived from the biological evaluation of a PDE5 focused library. Based on the obtained similarity metrices a fusion score was proposed. The fusion score was applied to refine the 2D similarity search in a second case study where we aimed at selecting and evaluating a PDE4B focused library. The application of this fused 2D/3D similarity measure led to an increase of the hit rate from 8.5% (1st round, 47% inhibition at 10 µM) to 28.5% (2nd round at 50% inhibition at 10 µM) and the best two hits had 53 nM inhibitory activities.

  14. Ultra-preconcentration and determination of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products in different water matrices by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Rita; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campone, Luca; Rastrelli, Luca

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are one of the most important classes of emerging contaminants. The potential of ecological and environmental impacts associated with PPCPs are of particular concern because they continually penetrate the aquatic environment. This work describes a novel ultra-preconcentration technique for the rapid and highly sensitive analysis of selected PPCPs in environmental water matrices at ppt levels. Selected PPCPs were rapidly extracted and concentrated from large volumes of aqueous solutions (500 and 250mL) by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME) and then analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS. Experimental parameters were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best SPE-DLLME efficiency and higher enrichment factors. The best results were obtained using the ternary mixture acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane 3:3:4, v/v/v, both as SPE eluent and DLLME extractant/dispersive mixture. DLLME aqueous solution (5% NaCl, 10mgL(-1) TBAB) was also modified to improve the extraction efficiency of more hydrophilic PPCPs. Under the optimal conditions, an exhaustive extraction for most of the investigated analytes (recoveries >70%), with a precision (RSD drinking, sea, river and wastewater). Method detection and quantification limits were at very low ppt levels and below 1 and 3ngL(-1), respectively, for 15 of selected PPCPs. The proposed analytical procedure offers numerous advantages such as the simplicity of operation, rapidity, a high enrichment factor and sensitivity. So it is suitable for monitoring and studies of occurrence of PPCPs in different environmental compartments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  16. PUVA combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, W L

    1985-08-01

    Various adjunctive treatments are now frequently used in combination with PUVA therapy with the aims of limiting adverse effects, improving efficacy and decreasing the cost of treatment. In the management of psoriasis, PUVA plus retinoids, PUVA plus methotrexate and PUVA plus UVB phototherapy are the most frequently used combinations. PUVA plus topical corticosteroids and PUVA plus anthralin are also efficacious but adverse effects and poor acceptance by patients are limiting factors. Combinations of PUVA plus nitrogen mustard and ionizing radiation are used in mycosis fungoides to treat tumors and residual disease in secluded sites. In the management of photodermatoses with PUVA therapy, prednisone is often required to prevent exacerbation of disease. A combination of prednisone and PUVA therapy can also be useful in lichen planus and atopic eczema. The selection of a suitable combination treatment, will depend upon the preferences of the clinician, the disease being treated, and the characteristics of the patient.

  17. combination Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    of the idiomatic expression as a whole" (Crystal 2003: 225-226). Idiomatic .... nations and idioms.11 Nonetheless, free combinations of words have not been .... those who thronged Emmett place last night wanted to see the film, and they.

  18. Winning Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscuolo, Paola; Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke

    2018-01-01

    examine the effectiveness of different combinations of knowledge sources for achieving innovative performance. We suggest that combinations involving integrative search strategies – combining internal and external knowledge – are the most likely to generate product and process innovation. In this context......, we present the idea that cognitively distant knowledge sources are helpful for innovation only when used in conjunction with knowledge sources that are closer to the focal firm. We also find important differences between product and process innovation, with the former associated with broader searches......Searching for the most rewarding sources of innovative ideas remains a key challenge in management of technological innovation. Yet, little is known about which combinations of internal and external knowledge sources are triggers for innovation. Extending theories about searching for innovation, we...

  19. Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Diamond, Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of phenotypic selection document directional selection in many natural populations. What factors reduce total directional selection and the cumulative evolutionary responses to selection? We combine two data sets for phenotypic selection, representing more than 4,600 distinct estimates of selection from 143 studies, to evaluate the potential roles of fitness trade-offs, indirect (correlated) selection, temporally varying selection, and stabilizing selection for reducing net directional selection and cumulative responses to selection. We detected little evidence that trade-offs among different fitness components reduced total directional selection in most study systems. Comparisons of selection gradients and selection differentials suggest that correlated selection frequently reduced total selection on size but not on other types of traits. The direction of selection on a trait often changes over time in many temporally replicated studies, but these fluctuations have limited impact in reducing cumulative directional selection in most study systems. Analyses of quadratic selection gradients indicated stabilizing selection on body size in at least some studies but provided little evidence that stabilizing selection is more common than disruptive selection for most traits or study systems. Our analyses provide little evidence that fitness trade-offs, correlated selection, or stabilizing selection strongly constrains the directional selection reported for most quantitative traits.

  20. Restaurant Selection in Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to investigate the selection process used by consumers when choosing a restaurant to dine. This study examined literature on consumer behaviour, restaurant selection, and decision-making, underpinning the contention that service quality is linked to the consumer’s selection of a restaurant. It supports the utility theories that consumers buy bundles of attributes that simultaneously combined represent a certain level of service quality at a certain p...

  1. Forecast combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Aiolfi, Marco; Capistrán, Carlos; Timmermann, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinations of subjective survey forecasts and model-based forecasts from linear and non-linear univariate specifications as well as multivariate factor-augmented models. Empirical results suggest that a simple equal-weighted average of survey forecasts outperform the best model-based forecasts for a majority of macroeconomic variables and forecast horizons. Additional improvements can in some cases be gained by using a simple equal-weighted average of survey and model-based fore...

  2. First-line selective internal radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global): a combined analysis of three multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Harpreet S; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Navesh K; Taieb, Julien; Heinemann, Volker; Ricke, Jens; Peeters, Marc; Findlay, Michael; Weaver, Andrew; Mills, Jamie; Wilson, Charles; Adams, Richard; Francis, Anne; Moschandreas, Joanna; Virdee, Pradeep S; Dutton, Peter; Love, Sharon; Gebski, Val; Gray, Alastair; van Hazel, Guy; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-09-01

    Data suggest selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) in third-line or subsequent therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer has clinical benefit in patients with colorectal liver metastases with liver-dominant disease after chemotherapy. The FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global randomised studies evaluated the efficacy of combining first-line chemotherapy with SIRT using yttrium-90 resin microspheres in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with liver metastases. The studies were designed for combined analysis of overall survival. FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global were randomised, phase 3 trials done in hospitals and specialist liver centres in 14 countries worldwide (Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Portugal, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (WHO performance status 0 or 1) with liver metastases not suitable for curative resection or ablation were randomly assigned (1:1) to either oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (FOLFOX: leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) or FOLFOX plus single treatment SIRT concurrent with cycle 1 or 2 of chemotherapy. In FOXFIRE, FOLFOX chemotherapy was OxMdG (oxaliplatin modified de Gramont chemotherapy; 85 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, L-leucovorin 175 mg or D,L-leucovorin 350 mg infusion over 2 h, and 400 mg/m 2 bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m 2 continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). In SIRFLOX and FOXFIRE-Global, FOLFOX chemotherapy was modified FOLFOX6 (85 mg/m 2 oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, 200 mg leucovorin, and 400 mg/m 2 bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m 2 continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). Randomisation was done by central minimisation with four factors: presence of extrahepatic metastases, tumour involvement of the liver, planned use of a biological agent, and investigational centre. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment. The primary

  3. Combined homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slović Živana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Combined homicide is a combination of two or more different modes of killing. These homicides occur when multiple perpetrators have different mode of killing, to hide the true manner of death, or when an initially unsuccessful attack with one weapon is abandoned and changed by another mode which is more successful, or due to availability of weapons at the scene of homicide, or unexpected appearance of possible eyewitness, or else. Case report: This case report is about 65-year old woman who was found in her residence on the floor next to the bed lying on her back with two kitchen knives in her neck. Autopsy revealed an abrasion on the frontal part of the neck and a bruise of the soft tissues of the neck with a double fracture of both greater horns of the hyoid bone and a fracture of both superior horns of the thyroid cartilage. The cause of death was exsanguination into right half of the thoracic cavity from the left subclavian artery which was cut, on the spot of stab wound in the neck. Conclusion: Hemorrhage in the soft tissue near broken hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage indicate that the victim was first strangulated and then stabbed with kitchen knives. Combined homicides are caused by one or more killers in order to accelerate the killing, or to be sure to provide the fatal outcome. This case is also interesting because the killer left weapon in the victim's neck.

  4. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  5. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  6. Materials selection in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M.F.; Cebon, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape. (orig.)

  7. Materials selection in mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby , M.; Cebon , D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape.

  8. Combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the clinically confirmed benefits of combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy. They have been found in a small group of diseases that respond to chemotherapy alone. According to the author, only when a drug or drug combination has the ability to eradicate occult disease or substantially to reduce the size of objectively measurable disease is there likely to be an demonstrable benefit from its use in conjunction with radiotherapy. It is the author's belief that the immediate future lies in selecting drugs and patients in which a good chemotherapeutic response can be expected, avoiding drugs that seriously enhance radiation damage to normal tissues and keeping drug and radiation treatments far enough apart in time to minimize interactions

  9. Efficacy and safety of K-877, a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα), in combination with statin treatment: Two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients with dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hidenori; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yokote, Koutaro; Araki, Eiichi; Suganami, Hideki; Ishibashi, Shun

    2017-06-01

    Substantial residual cardiovascular risks remain despite intensive statin treatment. Residual risks with high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are not the primary targets of statins. K-877 (pemafibrate) demonstrated robust efficacy on triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a good safety profile as a monotherapy. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of K-877 add-on therapy to treat residual hypertriglyceridaemia during statin treatment. The objectives were investigated in two, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group comparison clinical trials: (A) K-877 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/day in combination with pitavastatin for 12 weeks in 188 patients, (B) K-877 0.2 (fixed dose) and 0.2 (0.4) (conditional up-titration) mg/day in combination with any statin for 24 weeks in 423 patients. In both studies, we found a robust reduction in fasting triglyceride levels by approximately 50% in all combination therapy groups, which was significant compared to the statin-monotherapy (placebo) groups (p statin-monotherapy groups without any noteworthy event in both studies. These results strongly support the favourable benefit-to-risk ratio of K-877 add-on therapy in combination with statin treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  11. Selecting Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djang, Philipp A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Approach for the selection of personal computers that combines the capabilities of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Integer Goal Programing. An example of how decision makers can use this approach to determine what kind of personal computers and how many of each type to purchase is given. (nine…

  12. A refined atomic scale model of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K+-translocation protein Trk1p combined with experimental evidence confirms the role of selectivity filter glycines and other key residues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zayats, Vasilina; Stockner, T.; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar; Woerz, K.; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Ludwig, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1848, č. 5 (2015), s. 1183-1195 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21053S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : molecular-dynamics simulations * potassium-transport * vibrio-alginolyticus * high-affinity * ion-channel * system * ktrab * prediction * symporters * currents * K+-translocation * Eukaryotic Trk * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * Homology modeling * Molecular dynamics * Selectivity filter Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.687, year: 2015

  13. The Correction of a Secondary Bilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity Using Refined Open Rhinoplasty with Reverse-U Incision, V-Y Plasty, and Selective Combination with Composite Grafting: Long-term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chae Cho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis article presents long-term outcomes after correcting secondary bilateral cleft lip nasal deformities using a refined reverse-U incision and V-Y plasty or in combination with a composite graft in order to elongate the short columella.MethodsA total of forty-six patients underwent surgery between September 1996 and December 2008. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 19 years of age. A bilateral reverse-U incision and V-Y plasty were used in 24 patients. A composite graft from the helical root was combined with a bilateral reverse-U incision in the 22 patients who possessed a severely shortened columella. The follow-up period ranged between 2 and 10 years.ResultsA total of 32 patients out of 46 were evaluated postoperatively. The average columella length was significantly improved from an average of 3.7 mm preoperatively to 8.5 mm postoperatively. The average ratio of the columella height to the alar base width was 0.18 preoperatively and 0.29 postoperatively. The postoperative basal and lateral views revealed a better shape of the nostrils and columella. The elongated columella, combined with a composite graft, presented good maintenance of the corrected position with no growth disturbance. A composite graft showed color mismatching in several patients. Twenty-six patients demonstrated no alar-columella web deformity and satisfactory symmetry of the nostrils. Four patients experienced a drooping and overhanging of the corrected alar-columella web.ConclusionsA bilateral reverse-U incision with V-Y plasty or in combination with a composite graft was effective in correcting secondary bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity.

  14. [Selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytzhak, A; Doron, Y; Lahat, E; Livne, A

    2012-10-01

    Selective mutism is an uncommon disorder in young children, in which they selectively don't speak in certain social situations, while being capable of speaking easily in other social situations. Many etiologies were proposed for selective mutism including psychodynamic, behavioral and familial etc. A developmental etiology that includes insights from all the above is gaining support. Accordingly, mild language impairment in a child with an anxiety trait may be at the root of developing selective mutism. The behavior will be reinforced by an avoidant pattern in the family. Early treatment and followup for children with selective mutism is important. The treatment includes non-pharmacological therapy (psychodynamic, behavioral and familial) and pharmacologic therapy--mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).

  15. Highly Sensitive and Selective Uranium Detection in Natural Water Systems Using a Luminescent Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework Equipped with Abundant Lewis Basic Sites: A Combined Batch, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and First Principles Simulation Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Dai, Xing; Bai, Zhuanling; Wang, Yanlong; Yang, Zaixing; Zhang, Linjuan; Xu, Lin; Chen, Lanhua; Li, Yuxiang; Gui, Daxiang; Diwu, Juan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhou, Ruhong; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

    2017-04-04

    Uranium is not only a strategic resource for the nuclear industry but also a global contaminant with high toxicity. Although several strategies have been established for detecting uranyl ions in water, searching for new uranium sensor material with great sensitivity, selectivity, and stability remains a challenge. We introduce here a hydrolytically stable mesoporous terbium(III)-based MOF material compound 1, whose channels are as large as 27 Å × 23 Å and are equipped with abundant exposed Lewis basic sites, the luminescence intensity of which can be efficiently and selectively quenched by uranyl ions. The detection limit in deionized water reaches 0.9 μg/L, far below the maximum contamination standard of 30 μg/L in drinking water defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, making compound 1 currently the only MOF material that can achieve this goal. More importantly, this material exhibits great capability in detecting uranyl ions in natural water systems such as lake water and seawater with pH being adjusted to 4, where huge excesses of competing ions are present. The uranyl detection limits in Dushu Lake water and in seawater were calculated to be 14.0 and 3.5 μg/L, respectively. This great detection capability originates from the selective binding of uranyl ions onto the Lewis basic sites of the MOF material, as demonstrated by synchrotron radiation extended X-ray adsorption fine structure, X-ray adsorption near edge structure, and first principles calculations, further leading to an effective energy transfer between the uranyl ions and the MOF skeleton.

  16. The Correction of a Secondary Bilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity Using Refined Open Rhinoplasty with Reverse-U Incision, V-Y Plasty, and Selective Combination with Composite Grafting: Long-term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chae Cho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This article presents long-term outcomes after correcting secondary bilateralcleft lip nasal deformities using a refined reverse-U incision and V-Y plasty or in combinationwith a composite graft in order to elongate the short columella.Methods A total of forty-six patients underwent surgery between September 1996 andDecember 2008. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 19 years of age. A bilateral reverse-Uincision and V-Y plasty were used in 24 patients. A composite graft from the helical rootwas combined with a bilateral reverse-U incision in the 22 patients who possessed a severelyshortened columella. The follow-up period ranged between 2 and 10 years.Results A total of 32 patients out of 46 were evaluated postoperatively. The average columellalength was significantly improved from an average of 3.7 mm preoperatively to 8.5 mmpostoperatively. The average ratio of the columella height to the alar base width was 0.18preoperatively and 0.29 postoperatively. The postoperative basal and lateral views revealed abetter shape of the nostrils and columella. The elongated columella, combined with a compositegraft, presented good maintenance of the corrected position with no growth disturbance. Acomposite graft showed color mismatching in several patients. Twenty-six patients demonstratedno alar-columella web deformity and satisfactory symmetry of the nostrils. Four patientsexperienced a drooping and overhanging of the corrected alar-columella web.Conclusions A bilateral reverse-U incision with V-Y plasty or in combination with acomposite graft was effective in correcting secondary bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity.

  17. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  18. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  19. High current density and nonlinearity combination of selection device based on TaO(x)/TiO2/TaO(x) structure for one selector-one resistor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wootae; Park, Jubong; Kim, Seonghyun; Woo, Jiyong; Shin, Jungho; Choi, Godeuni; Park, Sangsu; Lee, Daeseok; Cha, Euijun; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a high-performance selection device by utilizing the concept of crested oxide barrier to suppress the sneak current in bipolar resistive memory arrays. Using a TaO(x)/TiO(2)/TaO(x) structure, high current density over 10(7) A cm(-2) and excellent nonlinear characteristics up to 10(4) were successfully demonstrated. On the basis of the defect chemistry and SIMS depth profile result, we found that some Ta atoms gradually diffused into TiO(2) film, and consequently, the energy band of the TiO(2) film was symmetrically bent at the top and bottom TaO(x)/TiO(2) interfaces and modified as a crested oxide barrier. Furthermore, the one selector-one resistor device exhibited significant suppression of the leakage current, indicating excellent selector characteristics.

  20. Frequency of Natural Resistance within NS5a Replication Complex Domain in Hepatitis C Genotypes 1a, 1b: Possible Implication of Subtype-Specific Resistance Selection in Multiple Direct Acting Antivirals Drugs Combination Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bagaglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different HCV subtypes may naturally harbor different resistance selection to anti-NS5a inhibitors. 2761 sequences retrieved from the Los Alamos HCV database were analyzed in the NS5a domain 1, the target of NS5a inhibitors. The NS5a resistance-associated polymorphisms (RAPs were more frequently detected in HCV G1b compared to G1a. The prevalence of polymorphisms associated with cross-resistance to compounds in clinical use (daclatasvir, DCV, ledipasvir, LDV, ombitasvir, and OMV or scheduled to come into clinical use in the near future (IDX719, elbasvir, and ELV was higher in G1b compared to G1a (37/1552 (2.4% in 1b sequences and 15/1209 (1.2% in 1a isolates, p = 0.040. Interestingly, on the basis of the genotype-specific resistance pattern, 95 (6.1% G1b sequences had L31M RAP to DCV/IDX719, while 6 sequences of G1a (0.5% harbored L31M RAP, conferring resistance to DCV/LDV/IDX719/ELV (p < 0.0001. Finally, 28 (2.3% G1a and none of G1b isolates harbored M28V RAP to OMV (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the pattern of subtype-specific resistance selection in the naturally occurring strains may guide the treatment option in association with direct acting antivirals (DAAs targeting different regions, particularly in patients that are difficult to cure, such as those with advanced liver disease or individuals who have failed previous DAAs.

  1. Phase II Trial of Combined Modality Therapy With Concurrent Topotecan Plus Radiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy for Unresectable Stage III and Selected Stage IV Non-Small-Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung, Steven K.; Ross, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) and the role of consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown. Topotecan is active against NSCLC, can safely be combined with RT at effective systemic doses, and can be given by continuous infusion, making it an attractive study agent against locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: In this pilot study, 20 patients were treated with infusion topotecan 0.4 mg/m 2 /d with three-dimensional conformal RT to 63 Gy both delivered Monday through Friday for 7 weeks. Patients without progression underwent consolidation chemotherapy with etoposide and a platinum agent for one cycle followed by two cycles of docetaxel. The study endpoints were treatment response, time to progression, survival, and toxicity. Results: Of the 20 patients, 19 completed induction chemoradiotherapy and 13 completed consolidation. Of the 20 patients, 18 had a partial response and 1 had stable disease after induction chemoradiotherapy. The 3-year overall survival rate was 32% (median, 18 months). The local and distant progression-free survival rate was 30% (median, 21 months) and 58% (median, not reached), respectively. Three patients developed central nervous system metastases, 1 within 228 days, 1 within 252 days, and 1 within 588 days. Three patients had pulmonary emboli. Therapy was well tolerated with 1 of 20 developing Grade 4 lymphopenia. Grade 3 hematologic toxicity was seen in 17 of 20 patients but was not clinically significant. Other Grade 3 toxicities included esophagitis in 3, esophageal stricture in 2, fatigue in 8, and weight loss in 1. Grade 3 pneumonitis occurred in 6 of 20 patients. Conclusion: Continuous infusion topotecan with RT was well tolerated and active in the treatment of poor-risk patients with unresectable Stage III NSCLC

  2. Selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Alexandra; Major, Nili

    2016-02-01

    Selective mutism is a disorder in which an individual fails to speak in certain social situations though speaks normally in other settings. Most commonly, this disorder initially manifests when children fail to speak in school. Selective mutism results in significant social and academic impairment in those affected by it. This review will summarize the current understanding of selective mutism with regard to diagnosis, epidemiology, cause, prognosis, and treatment. Studies over the past 20 years have consistently demonstrated a strong relationship between selective mutism and anxiety, most notably social phobia. These findings have led to the recent reclassification of selective mutism as an anxiety disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. In addition to anxiety, several other factors have been implicated in the development of selective mutism, including communication delays and immigration/bilingualism, adding to the complexity of the disorder. In the past few years, several randomized studies have supported the efficacy of psychosocial interventions based on a graduated exposure to situations requiring verbal communication. Less data are available regarding the use of pharmacologic treatment, though there are some studies that suggest a potential benefit. Selective mutism is a disorder that typically emerges in early childhood and is currently conceptualized as an anxiety disorder. The development of selective mutism appears to result from the interplay of a variety of genetic, temperamental, environmental, and developmental factors. Although little has been published about selective mutism in the general pediatric literature, pediatric clinicians are in a position to play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating condition.

  3. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  4. An Open-Label Pilot Study of Combined Augmentation With Creatine Monohydrate and 5-Hydroxytryptophan for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor- or Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression in Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kious, Brent M; Sabic, Hana; Sung, Young-Hoon; Kondo, Douglas G; Renshaw, Perry

    2017-10-01

    Many women with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond inadequately to standard treatments. Augmentation of conventional antidepressants with creatine monohydrate and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) could correct deficits in serotonin production and brain bioenergetics associated with depression in women, yielding synergistic benefit. We describe an open-label study of 5-HTP and creatine augmentation in women with MDD who had failed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy. Fifteen women who were adequately adherent to an SSRI or SNRI and currently experiencing MDD, with a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score of 16 or higher, were treated with 5 g of creatine monohydrate daily and 100 mg of 5-HTP twice daily for 8 weeks, with 4 weeks of posttreatment follow-up. The primary outcome was change in mean HAM-D scores. Mean HAM-D scores declined from 18.9 (SD, 2.5) at pretreatment visits to 7.5 (SD, 4.4) (P creatine and 5-HTP may represent an effective augmentation strategy for women with SSRI- or SNRI-resistant depression. Given the limitations of this small, open-label trial, future study in randomized, placebo-controlled trials is warranted.

  5. Selective method for identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy volunteers ingesting a combination probiotic of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutsiaka, D D; Mahoney, I J; McDermott, L A; Stern, L L; Thorpe, C M; Kane, A V; Baez-Giangreco, C; McKinney, J; Davidson, L E; Leyva, R; Goldin, B; Snydman, D R

    2017-05-01

    To develop a novel validated method for the isolation of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from faecal specimens and apply it to studies of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) recovered from the healthy human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A novel method for isolating and enumerating BB-12 was developed based on its morphologic features of growth on tetracycline-containing agar. The method identified BB-12 correctly from spiked stool close to 100% of the time as validated by PCR confirmation of identity, and resulted in 97-104% recovery of BB-12. The method was then applied in a study of the recovery of BB-12 and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans consuming ProNutrients ® Probiotic powder sachet containing BB-12 and LGG. Viable BB-12 and LGG were recovered from stool after 21 days of probiotic ingestion compared to baseline. In contrast, no organisms were recovered 21 days after baseline in the nonsupplemented control group. We demonstrated recovery of viable BB-12, using a validated novel method specific for the isolation of BB-12, and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans who consumed the probiotic supplement. This method will enable more detailed and specific studies of BB-12 in probiotic supplements, including when in combination with LGG. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. 基于“AHP-IE-PCA”组合赋权法的战略性新兴产业选择模型研究%Research on Selection Model of Strategic Emerging Industries Based on Combination Weights: AHP-IE-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振华; 黎春秋; 熊勇清

    2011-01-01

    The weaknesses of AHP,IE,PCA and other selection theories and methods were analyzed during the application on strategic emerging industries.According to the specificity of selection and evaluation in strategic emerging industries,the corresponding indicator system was built.And then based on the combination weights——″AHP-IE-PCA″,the selection model of regional strategic emerging industries was tentative proposed,which was applied to N county in the selection and evaluation of strategic emerging industries.%分析了层次分析法(AHP)、信息熵法(IE)和主成分分析法(PCA)等现有产业选择与评价方法应用到区域战略性新兴产业中的不足,根据区域战略性新兴产业的选择与评价的特殊性,构建了相应的指标体系,尝试性地提出了基于"AHP-IE-PCA"组合赋权的区域战略性新兴产业选择模型,并将这一方法应用于N县战略性新兴产业的选择与评价中。

  7. Three-phase molecularly imprinted sol-gel based hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for enrichment and selective determination of a tentative lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, the modification of a polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with in situ molecularly imprinted sol-gel process (as a novel and one-step method) was prepared and investigated. 3-(propylmethacrylate)trimethoxysilane (3PMTMOS) as an inorganic precursor was used for preparation of molecularly imprinted sol-gel. The modified molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (MSHM) was used for the liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) of hippuric acid (HA) in human plasma and urine samples. MSHM as a selective, robust, and durable tool was used for at least 50 extractions without significant decrease in the extraction efficiency. The non-molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (NSHM) as blank hollow fiber membrane was prepared by the same process, only without HA. To achieve the best condition, influential parameters on the extraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. The capability of this robust, green, and simple method for extraction of HA was successfully accomplished with LC/MS/MS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in human plasma and urine samples were 0.3 and 1.0nmolL(-1), respectively. The standard calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range 1-2000nmolL(-1) for HA in human plasma and urine. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) were ≥0.998. The obtained data exhibited recoveries were higher than 89% for the extraction of HA in human plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined cation-exchange and solid phase extraction for the selective separation and preconcentration of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury and cobalt among others using azo-dye functionalized resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Srivastava, Bhavya; Barman, Milan K; Mandal, Bhabatosh

    2016-04-01

    A facile synthesis of an ion exchange material (FSG-PAN) has been achieved by functionalizing silica gel with an azo-dye. Its composition and structure are well assessed by systematic analysis. Extractor possesses high BET surface area (617.794m(2)g(-1)), exchange capacity and break-through capacity (BTC) (Q0 Zn(II): 225; Cd(II): 918; Hg(II): 384, Cu(II): 269 and Co(II): 388μMg(-1)). The sorption process was endothermic (+ΔH), entropy-gaining (+ΔS) and spontaneous (-ΔG) in nature. Preconcentration factor has been optimized at 172(Zn(II)); 157.2(Cd(II)); 193.6(Hg(II)); 176(Cu(II)); 172.4(Co(II)). Density functional theory calculation has been performed to analyze the sorption pathway. BTC (μMg(-1)) of FSG-PAN was found to be the product of its frontier orbitals and state of sorbed metal ion species, x (at x=1, mononuclear and x>1, a polynuclear species; i.e., BTC=[amount of HOMO]×x). FSG-PAN is used for the selective separation and preconcentration of Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cu(II),Co(II) from large volume sample (800mL) of low concentration (0.017-0.40mML(-1)) in presence of foreign ions (50-300mML(-1)) at optimum conditions (pH: 7.0±1.5, flow rate: 2.5mLmin(-1), temperature: 27°C, equilibration-time: 5min). The method was found to be effective for real samples also. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  10. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  11. Selective gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üstebay, D.; Castro, R.M.; Rabbat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in compression and distributed transform coding, we propose a new gossip algorithm called Selective Gossip to efficiently compute sparse approximations of network data. We consider running parallel gossip algorithms on the elements of a vector of transform coefficients.

  12. Ricardian selection

    OpenAIRE

    Finicelli, Andrea; Pagano, Patrizio; Sbracia, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the foundations of the relationship between trade and total factor productivity (TFP) in the Ricardian model. Under general assumptions about the autarky distributions of industry productivities, trade openness raises TFP. This is due to the selection effect of international competition � driven by comparative advantages � which makes "some" high- and "many" low-productivity industries exit the market. We derive a model-based measure of this effect that requires only production...

  13. Planned combined radiotherapy and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, C.L.; Marks, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Though the planned combined use of surgery and radiation has been shown to be beneficial for other tumors, the authors feel that the present evidence is far from persuasive in demonstrating a definite superiority of combined therapy over surgery or radiation alone for advanced laryngeal tumors. The actuarial or disease-free survival rates for patients treated with combined therapy have not been significantly increased over those obtained with a single modality in any randomized, well-controlled study, although the trend is toward improved local regional control. Many of the retrospective studies are probably flawed by selection bias; the patients selected for combined treatment generally have more advanced cancers and represent a worse prognostic group. It is clear from this review that the positive value of irradiation for advanced transglottic and supraglottic tumors needs to be documented by a controlled study that compares surgery alone with salvage radiation at time of recurrence to surgery plus adjuvant radiation. The authors feel that such a study is needed to put to rest the present controversy before they can advocate a course of treatment that is expensive, time-consuming, and difficult for the patients to tolerate owing to severe acute side effects and potentially morbid late effects (xerostomia, necrosis) that can greatly lessen the quality of life for these patients

  14. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  15. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  16. Selective Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    seen by a ten- fold increase for the first two types of instances. This phenomenon can perhaps be explained by the combinatorial nature of CKVLP, which...consists of a combination of person types t ∈ T , e.g., child , adult, or elderly. A vaccination policy v ∈ V is a delivery of vaccine to certain types of...forb(P,X1) ∩ forb(P,X2) for any partition (X1, X2) of X . Proposition 7 generalizes the main result of [12] regarding cropped cubes. Moreover, the

  17. Clinical application of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    In clinical application of radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy, it is important to gain the maximal therapeutic benefit. At present we have no agents that improve the therapeutic ratio by enhancing the effect of radiation on the tumor cell selectively. Therefore, it is necessary to use combining some or all of following procedures: (1) the intraarterial infusion of the agents, (2) the selective localization by reason of the biological affinity of the agents, (3) the surgical removal of the non-sensitized tumor residue and (4) the selective sensitization of the tumor due to its shorter cell cycle. (author)

  18. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  19. Selections of appropriate regimen of high-dose chemotherapy combined with adoptive cellular therapy with dendritic and cytokine-induced killer cells improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer: reargument of such contentious therapeutic preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Di, Lijun; Song, Guohong; Yu, Jing; Jia, Jun; Zhu, Yuling; Yan, Ying; Jiang, Hanfang; Liang, Xu; Che, Li; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Fengling; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xinna; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that combination of dendritic cell (DC) with autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) immunotherapy in setting of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) would be effective for selected metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Our previous work showed thiotepa could eradicate breast cancer stem cells. From 2004 to 2009, 79 patients received standard dose chemotherapy (SDC) of 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel and 75 mg/m(2) thiotepa versus 87 patients of HDC + DC/CIK: 120 mg/m(2) docetaxel to mobilize peripheral CD34(+) progenitor cells, a sequence of HDC (120 mg/m(2) docetaxel, plus 175 mg/m(2) thiotepa) + DC/CIK, with or without 400 mg/m(2) carboplatin depending upon bone marrow function. The endpoints were response rates (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Compared with SDC, PFS and OS were improved in HDC + DC/CIK (median PFS 10.2 vs. 3.7 months, P < 0.001; median OS 33.1 vs. 15.2 months, P < 0.001). Patients of pre-menopausal, HDC as first-line treatment after metastasis, or with visceral metastasis showed prolonged PFS and OS. SDC group also achieved the similar response as previous reports. Our study demonstrated the novel combination of HDC with DC/CIK to be an effective choice for the selected MBC population, in which choosing appropriate chemo regimens played important roles, and also specific HDC regimen plus DC/CIK immunotherapy showed the clinical benefits compared with chemotherapy alone.

  20. Selected writings

    CERN Document Server

    Galilei, Galileo

    2012-01-01

    'Philosophy is written in this great book which is continually open before our eyes - I mean the universe...' Galileo's astronomical discoveries changed the way we look at the world, and our place in the universe. Threatened by the Inquisition for daring to contradict the literal truth of the Bible, Galileo ignited a scientific revolution when he asserted that the Earth moves. This generous selection from his writings contains all the essential texts for a reader to appreciate his lasting significance. Mark Davie's new translation renders Galileo's vigorous Italian prose into clear modern English, while William R. Shea's version of the Latin Sidereal Message makes accessible the book that created a sensation in 1610 with its account of Galileo's observations using the newly invented telescope. All Galileo's contributions to the debate on science and religion are included, as well as key documents from his trial before the Inquisition in 1633. A lively introduction and clear notes give an overview of Galileo's...

  1. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  2. Selective shielding device for scintiphotography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.W.; Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A selective shielding device to be used in combination with a scintillation camera is described. The shielding device is a substantially oval-shaped configuration removably secured to the scintillation camera. As a result of this combination scanning of preselected areas of a patient can be rapidly and accurately performed without the requirement of mounting any type of shielding paraphernalia on the patient. 1 claim, 2 drawing figures

  3. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-03-03

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene

  4. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Elgot, Calvin C

    1982-01-01

    Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi­ nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena­ as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...

  5. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  6. Modifiable Combining Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Paul; Shafer, Glenn; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Modifiable combining functions are a synthesis of two common approaches to combining evidence. They offer many of the advantages of these approaches and avoid some disadvantages. Because they facilitate the acquisition, representation, explanation, and modification of knowledge about combinations of evidence, they are proposed as a tool for knowledge engineers who build systems that reason under uncertainty, not as a normative theory of evidence.

  7. Uso combinado da laserterapia de baixa potência e da inibição da ciclooxigenase-2 na reepitelização de ferida incisional em pele de camundongos: um estudo pré-clínico Combined use of low level laser therapy and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibition on skin incisional wound reepithelialization in mice: a preclinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Helena Santuzzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A laserterapia de baixa potência e os inibidores seletivos da ciclooxigenase-2 (ICOX2 vem sendo muito utilizados para modular a resposta inflamatória, entretanto, os seus efeitos na reepitelização de feridas não são bem compreendidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos isolados e combinados da laserterapia de baixa potência e da ICOX2 na reepitelização de ferida incisional na pele de camundongos. MÉTODO: Foi induzida uma ferida de 1 cm no dorso de cada camundongo, que foram divididos em quatro grupos (N=20: Controle, Laserterapia, Tratados com celecoxib e Terapia conjugada. Os animais dos grupos celecoxib e Terapia conjugada foram tratados com celecoxib por 10 dias antes da incisão cutânea. As feridas experimentais foram irradiadas com laserterapia de baixa potência He-Ne (632nm, dose: 4J/cm2 em varredura, por 12 segundos durante três dias consecutivos nos grupos Laserterapia e Terapia conjugada. Os animais foram sacrificados no 3º dia de pós-operatório. Amostras das feridas foram coletadas e coradas (Tricromio de Masson para análise histomorfométrica. RESULTADOS: Tanto o grupo Laserterapia, quanto o grupo celecoxib, mostrou aumento da reepitelização cutânea em relação ao grupo Controle, entretanto, o grupo Terapia conjugada não apresentou diferenças. Quanto à queratinização o grupo Laserterapia e Terapia conjugada apresentaram redução dos queratinócitos, comparados com o grupo Controle. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que o uso da laserterapia de baixa potência e da ICOX2 isoladamente aumentam as células epiteliais, mas somente a laserterapia de baixa potência reduziu os queratinócitos cutâneos. O tratamento conjugado restabelece a reepitelização inata e dimunui a queratinização, embora ocorra uma acelerada contração da ferida com melhora na organização da ferida na pele de camundongos.BACKGROUND: Low level laser therapy and cyclooxygenase-2 (ICOX2 selective inhibitors have been widely used

  8. Combined Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanov Y.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of gynecomastia could present unique challenges for the plastic surgeon. Achieving a good balance between effectiveness of the selected approach and the satisfactory aesthetic outcome often is a difficult endeavor. Optimal surgical treatment involves a combination of liposuction and direct excision. In the present study the charts of 11 patients treated with suction-assisted liposuction and direct surgical excision were retrospectively reviewed; a special emphasis is placed on the surgical technique. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 11.6 months. No infection, hematoma, nipple-areola complex necrosis and nipple retraction was encountered in this series. The combined surgical treatment of gynecomastia has shown to be a reliable technique in both small and moderate breast enlargement including those with skin excess.

  9. Selective Mutism: Causes and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic criteria, causes, assessment, and treatment of selective mutism in school-age children. The most successful treatments have included various forms or combinations of behavior modification, though these may not address the underlying problem. (Author/DB)

  10. First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Deutsch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed.

  11. First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Maxime; Gillon, Béatrice; Claiser, Nicolas; Gillet, Jean-Michel; Lecomte, Claude; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density) and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed.

  12. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  13. Practical, general parser combinators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Izmaylova (Anastasia); A. Afroozeh (Ali); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractParser combinators are a popular approach to parsing where contextfree grammars are represented as executable code. However, conventional parser combinators do not support left recursion, and can have worst-case exponential runtime. These limitations hinder the expressivity and

  14. Trendwatch combining expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.; Kornelis, M.; Pegge, S.M.; Galen, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, focus is on a systematic way to detect future changes in trends that may effect the dynamics in the agro-food sector, and on the combination of opinions of experts. For the combination of expert opinions, the usefulness of multilevel models is investigated. Bayesian data analysis is

  15. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  16. Secondary combined suicide pact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanth, S H; Girish Chandra, Y P; Hugar, Basappa S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar

    2014-03-01

    This article reports a combined suicide pact, where in a young couple; a 26 year old male and a 20 year old female committed suicide by using two methods. The couple had resorted to hanging and self-immolation to prevent failure of single method alone. In secondary combined suicides, several other methods of suicide are tried after the first method chosen has failed. It is primary combined suicide only when two or more methods are used simultaneously. Both types of combined suicide by one individual is well reported in the literature whereas the same by two persons together is rare. In this report, the deceased were disappointed lovers, poor and the family members were against their marriage. The investigation of scene, methods employed to commit suicide, autopsy findings and the interview with their relatives altogether suggested that it was a secondary combined suicide pact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of Acupoint Selection in Treating Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chao-rong; ZHANG Yan; GU Hong; ZHOU Yun; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of acupoint selection in the treatment of apoplexy. Method:This paper reviews and analyzes the ancient and current medical literature, and then summarizes the characteris -tics of acupoint selection in treating apoplexy. Results:Four characteristics are presented: the acupoints on the head are mostly used; the acupoints are principally selected according to the course of nerves; the acupoints of the yang meridians are usually selected; the special acupoints and empirical acupoints are often combined.Conclusion: Above principles may be adopted in the selection of acupoints to treat apoplexy.

  18. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  19. Development Activities on Airbreathing Combined Cycle Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J. Craig; Lyles, Garry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: Advanced reusable transportation(ART); aerojet and rocketdyne tests, RBCC focused concept flowpaths,fabricate flight weigh, test select components, document ART project, Istar (Integrated system test of an airbreathing rocket); combined cycle propulsion testbed;hydrocarbon demonstrator tracebility; Istar engine system and vehicle system closure study; and Istar project planning.

  20. Update of X ray and gamma ray decay data standards for detector calibration and other applications. V. 2: Data selection, assessment and evaluation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Various factors such as source preparation and source detector geometry may affect the quality of measurements made with intrinsic germanium and other γ ray spectrometers. However, the accuracy of such measurements invariably depends on the accuracy of the efficiency versus energy calibration curve and hence on the accuracy of the decay data for the radionuclides from which calibration standard sources are prepared. Both half-lives and X and γ ray emission probabilities need to be known to good accuracy. The recommendations and report of this work are published in two volumes: Volume 1 - Recommended Decay Data, High Energy Gamma Ray Standards and Angular Correlation Coefficients; Volume 2 - Data Selection, Assessment and Evaluation Procedures. Volume 1 is a self-contained assembly of the recommended decay data covering half-lives and the X ray and γ ray emission probabilities of the selected radionuclides, and listings of various high energy γ ray standards and a set of angular correlation coefficients; these data are presented in a concise manner for rapid and easy access. More detailed technical features of the CRP are described in Volume 2, including the evaluation procedures adopted and extensive traceable explanations of the origins of the nuclear data used to produce the recommended values listed in Volume 1. This detail was judged to be essential in order to record and demonstrate the quality of the resulting data files and allow the reader to trace the origins of the nuclear data used to determine the recommended values. All evaluations were based on the available experimental data, supplemented with the judicious use of well established theory. Three types of data (half-lives, energies and emission probabilities) were compiled and evaluated (Annex II). Consideration was also given to the adoption of a number of prompt high energy γ rays from specific nuclear reactions (Annex III), as well as to using the γ-γ coincidence technique for efficiency

  1. Limb-segment selection in drawing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, R G; Rosenbaum, D A; Thomassen, A.J.W.M.; Schomaker, L R

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  2. LIMB-SEGMENT SELECTION IN DRAWING BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEULENBROEK, RGJ; ROSENBAUM, DA; THOMASSEN, AJWM; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  3. Users want simple control over device selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misker, J.M.V.; Lindenberg, J.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    When users want to combine various resources in an ambient intelligent environment in an ad hoc manner, they need to be able to identify and select these resources. We conducted an experiment to study various user interaction styles for combining input and output devices in an ambient intelligent

  4. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Diverse cost-estimating techniques and data combined into single program. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM 1.0) is interactive accounting software tool providing means for combining several independent cost-estimating programs into fully-integrated mathematical model capable of assessing costs, analyzing benefits, providing file-handling utilities, and putting out information in text and graphical forms to screen, printer, or plotter. Program based on Lotus 1-2-3, version 2.0. Developed to provide clear, concise traceability and visibility into methodology and rationale for estimating costs and benefits of operations of Space Station tether deployer system.

  5. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  6. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  7. Performance of Genomic Selection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Legarra, Andrés; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Manfredi, Eduardo; Elsen, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    Selection plans in plant and animal breeding are driven by genetic evaluation. Recent developments suggest using massive genetic marker information, known as “genomic selection.” There is little evidence of its performance, though. We empirically compared three strategies for selection: (1) use of pedigree and phenotypic information, (2) use of genomewide markers and phenotypic information, and (3) the combination of both. We analyzed four traits from a heterogeneous mouse population (http://...

  8. Sexual Selection and Adaptation to Novel Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain

    2017-01-01

    The work included in this thesis aims at exploring the environmental sensitivity of benefits and costs of sexual selection through a combined empirical and theoretical effort, to increase our understanding of the impact of environmental change on sexually reproducing populations.Can sexual selection promote adaptation to novel environments? Sexual selection for good genes should accelerate adaptation by granting higher reproductive success to individuals of high genetic quality. However, sexu...

  9. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  10. Imprinting of molecular recognition sites combined with π-donor-acceptor interactions using bis-aniline-crosslinked Au-CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles array on electrodes: Development of electrochemiluminescence sensor for the ultrasensitive and selective detection of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yukun; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Guiyang; Wang, Shuo

    2016-03-15

    A novel strategy is reported for the fabrication of bis-aniline-crosslinked Au nanoparticles (NPs)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) array composite by facil one-step co-electropolymerization of thioaniline-functionalized AuNPs and thioaniline-functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs onto thioaniline-functionalized Au elctrodes (AuE). Stable and enhanced cathodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of CdSe/ZnS QDs is observed on the modified electrode in neutral solution, suggesting promising applications in ECL sensing. An advanced ECL sensor is explored for detection of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) which quenches the ECL signal through electron-transfer pathway. The sensitive determination of MCPA with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 nmolL(-1) (S/N=3) is achieved by π-donor-acceptor interactions between MCPA and the bis-aniline bridging units. Impressively, the imprinting of molecular recognition sites into the bis-aniline-crosslinked AuNPs-CdSe/ZnS QDs array yields a functionalized electrode with an extremely sensitive response to MCPA in a linear range of 10 pmolL(-1)-50 μmolL(-1) with a LOD of 4.3 pmolL(-1 ()S/N=3). The proposed ECL sensor with high sensitivity, good selectivity, reproducibility and stability has been successfully applied for the determination of MCPA in real samples with satisfactory recoveries. In this study, ECL sensor combined the merits of QDs-ECL and molecularly imprinting technology is reported for the first time. The developed ECL sensor holds great promise for the fabrication of QDs-based ECL sensors with improved sensitivity and furthermore opens the door to wide applications of QDs-based ECL in food safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining in Theory Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uolevi Lehtinen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article strive to describe the idea and rationale of combining i.e. why, when and how to develop theoretically new combined approaches. Then business administration, especially marketing is used as a theoretical and empirical illustrative area. Methodology is inductive and deductive logic and in the empirical examples surveys, case analysis and utilization of secondary data. This article introduce a new promising way, in the long run, to develop new comprehensive approaches and even paradigms for different disciplines, subdisciplines and branches of subdiciplines. Therefore, the ultimate message of the article is to challenge the researchers to put the idea and rationale for combing to the test in their own research field and to build new combined and comprehensive approaches if possible in the field. This message is rather multidisciplinary concerning for example economics, social sciences and political sciences in addition to business administration.

  12. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity...

  13. Advances in combination therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lan; Leng, Donglei; Cun, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy......, including small molecule drugs and biopharmaceuticals, which make the optimization of dosing and administration schedule challenging. This article reviews the recent advances in the design and development of combinations of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lung cancer. Focus is primarily on rationales...... for the selection of specific combination therapies for lung cancer treatment, and state of the art of delivery technologies and dosage regimens for the combinations, tested in preclinical and clinical trials....

  14. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...

  15. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  16. ILSE combiner study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.

    1994-03-01

    In a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF) driver, the beam energy and current are increased several orders of magnitude from the injector to the final focus system. At low and high energy stages of the driver, electrostatic and magnetic focusing transport channels, respectively, can be used. At the electric-to-magnetic transition point, the beams may be combined to reduce the transverse dimensions of the system, which could have significant impact on the driver cost. In a presently envisioned combiner, four beams are brought together transversely into a single transport channel. A matching section follows the combiner in order to provide a smooth transition to the subsequent magnetic transport channel. This report summarizes a conceptual design study of possible combiner configurations for the proposed Introduction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE). The conceptual design study includes subjects such as the expected technical difficulties, predicted emittance growth, particle loss, effect of geometric and chromatic aberrations, and the sensitivity of emittance growth on the initial beam position and angle errors

  17. Combined-cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as tougher emissions standards take hold throughout the industrialized world, manufacturers such as GE, Siemens, Foster Wheeler, and Asea Brown Boveri are designing advanced combined-cycle equipment that offers improved environmental performance without sacrificing power efficiency

  18. Combined effects Na and SO{sub 2} in flue gas on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH{sub 3} simulated by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Aiyi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yu, Danqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Yang, Liu [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing 210023 (China); Sheng, Zhongyi, E-mail: 09377@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was deposited on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst to simulate the co-existing of sodium and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. • Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} had strong and fluctuant influence on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst’s performance in SCR of NOx with NH{sub 3}, due to the combined effect of the deactivation of sodium salts and the enhanced performance of ceria with surface sulfation. • The changes of the surface chemical species and acid sites on the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} deposited catalysts could be considered as the main reasons for the fluctuation changes with the catalytic activity. - Abstract: A series of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were synthesized through an impregnation method and used for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH{sub 3}). Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was added into the catalyst to simulate the combined effects of alkali metal and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. Experimental results showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} had strong and fluctuant influence on the activity of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2}, because the effect of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} included pore occlusion and sulfation effect simultaneously. When Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} loading content increased from 0 to 1 wt.%, the SCR activities of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-doped catalysts decreased greatly. With further increasing amount of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, however, the catalytic activity increased gradually. XRD results showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping could induce the crystallization of MnOx phases, which were also confirmed by TEM and SEM results. BET results showed that the surface areas decreased and a new bimodal mesoporous structure formed gradually with the increasing amount of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. XPS results indicated that part of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 3+} were transferred to Ce{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} due to the sulfation after Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} deposition on the surface of the catalysts. When the doped amounts of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} increased, NH{sub 3

  19. Strategies for combinational cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khleif, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The countless pre-clinical studies and many clinical trials that have applied tumor antigen-based therapies for the cancer treatment, and although the necessary tumor-specific immune response may be elicited in tumor-bearing hosts, this was not sufficient for the positive therapeutic outcome since there are multiple mechanisms that tumors develop to escape immune surveillance. The tumor-mediated inhibitory mechanisms involve co-inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions, such as PD-1/ PD-L1, secretion of inhibitory molecules, such as TGFb, and recruitment of suppressive cells, such as regulatory T cells (Treg), myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), etc. Therefore, we hypothesized that successful cancer immunotherapy requires not only induction and enhancement of effector immune response but also simultaneous targeting of suppressor arm of immune system, thus in addition to enhancing antigen-specific immunity using vaccines or radiation therapy, one should also target tumor-mediated immune suppression to improve the overall efficacy of therapy. We developed multiple strategies to target various tumor-mediated immune inhibitory mechanisms that can enhance anti-tumor immunity and restructure tumor microenvironment to allow effector cells generated due to vaccination or radiation therapy to function potently. We evaluated the immune and therapeutic efficacy of multiple combinational therapies, including blocking and agonist antibodies to co-inhibitory/co-stimulatory molecules, such as PD-1, PD-L1, OX40, CTLA-4, GITR, inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies to inhibitory cytokines/molecules, such as IL-10, TGFb, IDO, and small molecules for selective inhibition of Tregs. In addition to evaluation of anti-tumor efficacy we are also investigated cellular and molecular mechanisms of action for these agents when combined with vaccine or radiation therapy and exploring the interactions between compounds within combinational therapies in animal tumor models. We are

  20. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  1. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...

  2. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  3. Combined XRD and XAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, S.N.; Hanson, J.C.; Lopez Camara, A.; Barrio, L.; Estrella, M.; Zhou, G.; Si, R.; Khalid, S.; Wang, Q.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) are complementary techniques for investigating the structure of materials. XRD probes long range order and XAFS probes short range order. We have combined the two techniques at one synchrotron beamline, X18A at the NSLS, allowing samples to be studied in a single experiment. This beamline will allow for coordinated measurements of local and long range structural changes in chemical transformations and phase transitions using both techniques.

  4. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  5. Stirling Engine Configuration Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Egas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike internal combustion engines, Stirling engines can be designed to work with many drive mechanisms based on the three primary configurations, alpha, beta and gamma. Hundreds of different combinations of configuration and mechanical drives have been proposed. Few succeed beyond prototypes. A reason for poor success is the use of inappropriate configuration and drive mechanisms, which leads to low power to weight ratio and reduced economic viability. The large number of options, the lack of an objective comparison method, and the absence of a selection criteria force designers to make random choices. In this article, the pressure—volume diagrams and compression ratios of machines of equal dimensions, using the main (alpha, beta and gamma crank based configurations as well as rhombic drive and Ross yoke mechanisms, are obtained. The existence of a direct relation between the optimum compression ratio and the temperature ratio is derived from the ideal Stirling cycle, and the usability of an empirical low temperature difference compression ratio equation for high temperature difference applications is tested using experimental data. It is shown that each machine has a different compression ratio, making it more or less suitable for a specific application, depending on the temperature difference reachable.

  6. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang; Schott, Mathias; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  9. Natural Selection in Large Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to the evolutionary dynamics and population genetics of natural selection in large populations. In these populations, many mutations are often present simultaneously, and because recombination is limited, selection cannot act on them all independently. Rather, it can only affect whole combinations of mutations linked together on the same chromosome. Methods common in theoretical population genetics have been of limited utility in analyzing this coupling between the fates of different mutations. In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that this is a crucial gap in our understanding, as sequence data has begun to show that selection appears to act pervasively on many linked sites in a wide range of populations, including viruses, microbes, Drosophila, and humans. I will describe approaches that combine analytical tools drawn from statistical physics and dynamical systems with traditional methods in theoretical population genetics to address this problem, and describe how experiments in budding yeast can help us directly observe these evolutionary dynamics.

  10. Natural Selection in the Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-12-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnatal® Elixir (as a combination product containing Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, Scopolamine) ... PB Hyos® Elixir (as a combination product containing Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, Scopolamine)

  12. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  13. Combined radiochemotherapy. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konecny, M; Mechl, Z [Onkologicky Ustav, Brno (Czechoslovakia). Betatronove Pracoviste

    1978-09-01

    Physical, chemical, biochemical and biological modifications are described of the radiation reaction. The biochemical modification with antimetabolites has so far been the one most frequently used in clinical oncology. It has not yet been clarified whether treatment should begin with irradiation or chemotherapy. Conclusions are presented of the study of simultaneous chemotherapy and radiotherapy applications, ie., the attempt at synchronization of the tumor population. The present-time existence of a great number of combined treatment plans is more a consequence of empirical data which have not yet been clinically confirmed.

  14. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and controld esign. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  15. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2000-01-01

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and control design. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  16. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  17. Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection

  18. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  19. Combining Boosted Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szidónia Lefkovits

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The domain of object detection presents a wide range of interest due to its numerous application possibilities especially real time applications. All of them require high detection rate correlated with short processing time. One of the most efficient systems, working with visual information, were presented in the publication of Viola et al. [1], [2].This detection system uses classifiers based on Haar-like separating features combined with the AdaBoost learning algorithm. The most important bottleneck of the system is the big number of false detections at high hit rate. In this paper we propose to overcome this disadvantage by using specialized parts classifiers. This aim comes from the observation that the target object does not resemble the false detections at all.The reason of this fact is the coding manner of Haar-like features which attend to handle image patches and neglect the edges and contours. In order to obtain a more robust classifier, a global aspect method is combined with a part-based method, having the goal to improve the performance of the detector without significant increase of the detection time.

  20. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  1. Officer Selection (la Selection des officiers)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The theme of this workshop, officer selection, is an issue of central importance to the military forces of all countries, since it determines which individuals, with what characteristics, will...

  2. Behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, M. R.; Davis, H. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Weiss, J. F.

    1992-10-01

    Effective radioprotection with minimal behavioral disruption is essential for the selection of protective agents to be used in manned spaceflight. This overview summarizes the studies on the behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors classified as phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-3689), bioactive lipids (16, 16 dimethylprostaglandin E2(DiPGE2), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4), and immunomodulators (glucan, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, and interleukin-1). Behavioral toxicity was examined in laboratory mice using a locomotor activity test. For all compounds tested, there was a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor behavior that paralleled the dose-dependent increase in radioprotection. While combinations of radioprotective compounds (DiPGE2 plus WR-2721) increased radioprotection, they also decreased locomotor activity. The central nervous system stimulant, caffeine, was able to mitigate the locomotor decrement produced by WR-3689 or PAF.

  3. Soil treatment technologies combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.J.; Russell, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) presents a legislative mandate to select effective and long-term remediation options. SARA has spurred the development of innovative technologies and other remedial alternatives that can be applied to the diverse contaminated media at hazardous waste sites. Even though many treatment technologies have been investigated for use at hazardous waste sites, only a few have been used successfully. Soil vapor extraction and soil composting have achieved cleanup goals at sites with soils contaminated with solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum derivatives. With the increased use of innovative on-site technologies, the integration of multiple technologies to remediate sites with complex contaminants becomes a viable and cost-effective remedial alternative. Soil vapor extraction and composting have been applied successfully as individual technologies at hazardous waste sites. An integration of these two technologies also has been used to remediate a complex contaminated site

  4. Combined Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    At their 2007 Summit in Heiligendamm, G8 leaders called on countries to 'adopt instruments and measures to significantly increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) in the generation of electricity.' As a result, energy, economic, environmental and utility regulators are looking for tools and information to understand the potential of CHP and to identify appropriate policies for their national circumstances. This report forms the first part of the response. It includes answers to policy makers' questions about the potential economic, energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to CHP. It also includes for the first time integrated IEA data on global CHP installations, and analyses the benefits of increased CHP investment in the G8+5 countries. A companion report will be produced later in 2008 to document best practice policy approaches that have been used to expand the use of CHP in a variety of countries.

  5. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  6. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  7. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    for initiation. Most of the research on project selection is normative, suggesting new methods, but available empirical studies indicate that many methods are seldom used in practice. This paper addresses the issue by providing increased understanding of IT project selection practice, thereby facilitating...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project......-selection methods, and these findings point to new areas for developing new methodological support for IT project selection....

  8. Bifuel coal-gas combined cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Kotowicz, Janusz; Lyczko, Jacek

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes basic ways of realization of bi fuel cool-gas combined cycles. The criterion of classification of the systems specification is a joint of the gas pail with the steam part: a) The gas turbine flue gases are introduced into the steam boiler combustion chamber (the serial, hot wind box). b) Bypass of the beat exchangers at the steam turbine unit and/or the steam boiler, by use the waste heat exchangers, or waste boiler at the gas turbine unit (the parallel-coupled). c) The mixed, it's a combination of the two upper. The analysis of the parallel system has been specially presented. In derived formulas for the total efficiency of the bi fuel parallel combined cycle balance equations have been used. This formulas can be used for planning new combined cycle power plants and for modernization existing steam power plants. It was made a discussion about influence of the ratio the gas and the steam turbine electric power on the cycle efficiency in care of the full and the part load of the bi fuel combined cycle power plant. The various systems of the joint of the gas part with the steam part have been examined. The selected results of the calculations have been attached. The models and the numerical simulations have been based on data from the existing steam power plants and real gas turbine units. (Author)

  9. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    House, Clarissa M.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on ...

  10. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  11. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  12. Combined approach for gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Patients and methods: Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. Results: All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues. Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2 opinion.

  13. Combined approach for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction) to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues). Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first 3 patients showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2(nd) opinion.

  14. Challenges of Combining Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvall, Maria; Titelman, David; Bäärnhielm, Sofie

    2018-02-23

    Asylum seekers have increased risk of suicide and suicidal behavior, with differences related to origin, gender, and age. There are barriers to communication in clinical encounters between asylum seekers and clinicians. There is insufficient knowledge about how communication in the clinical encounter affects the suicide risk in female asylum seekers. To explore the documented communication between female asylum-seeking suicide attempters and clinicians and how it affects treatment. The medical records of 18 asylum-seeking women who had attempted suicide were analyzed with content analysis. Communication between patients and clinicians was affected by: the unbearable realities of the women; difficulties for clinicians in decoding languages of distress, and understanding trauma and subjective meanings of suicide; challenges of combining patients' and clinicians' perspectives; and a sense of shared powerlessness. The medical records did not give direct access to the patient's experience, only to the patient as documented by the clinician. The results suggest that clinicians working with asylum seekers who have attempted suicide need to develop an understanding of social and cultural factors and of trauma issues. A question for further study is how an enhanced integration of context and subjectivity in psychiatric practice would equip clinicians for the specific challenges encountered.

  15. Psychosocial Factors Impacting STEM Career Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Vallett, David; Firestone, Jonah; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Walker, Heather; Deviller, Nicole; Hoston, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    Attention on P-20 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has increased tremendously in recent years. Many efforts are underway to promote STEM major and career selection across the nation; specifically, in engineering and computer science. The authors' purpose was to examine an underlying profile combinations of latent…

  16. Natural and sexual selection against hybrid flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svedin, Nina; Wiley, Chris; Veen, Thor; Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnstrom, Anna

    2008-01-01

    While sexual selection is generally assumed to quickly cause or strengthen prezygotic barriers between sister species, its role in causing postzygotic isolation, through the unattractiveness of intermediate hybrids, is less often examined. Combining 24 years of pedigree data and recently developed

  17. [XIGDUO - fixed combination of the active ingredients dapagliflozin and metformin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelsberger, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    Fixed dose combination of two different drugs in the same or related indications are successfully used in various medical fields including diabetology. This article deals with the combination therapy comprising metformin and dapagliflozin in a single preparation, molecules affecting different pathophysiological mechanisms of type 2 diabetes, particularly insulin resistance and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Most patients with type 2 diabetes does not achieve target glycemic control when treated with single antidiabetics and need for proper control of diabetes combination of several different drugs. Using the fixed combination leads to improved patients adherence and utilization of the full therapeutic potential of selected drugs.

  18. Radix-16 Combined Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Division and square root, based on the digitrecurrence algorithm, can be implemented in a combined unit. Several implementations of combined division/square root units have been presented mostly for radices 2 and 4. Here, we present a combined radix-16 unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4...... result digit selection functions, as it is normally done for division only units. The latency of the unit is reduced by retiming and low power methods are applied as well. The proposed unit is compared to a radix-4 combined division/square root unit, and to a radix-16 unit, obtained by cascading two...

  19. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  20. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Geometric mean for subspace selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.

  2. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  3. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Selective surfaces have wavelength dependent emissivity/absorption. These surfaces can be designed to reflect solar radiation, while maximizing infrared emittance,...

  4. Asbestos: selected cancers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    ...: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Asbestos...

  5. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  6. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer; Haller, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik; Haller, Johannes [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik

    2009-01-15

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Generator of combined logical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviron, Andre; Berard, Claude.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a generator of combined logical signals to form combinations of two outputs at logical level 1 and N-2 outputs at logical level 0, among N generator outputs. This generator is characterized in that it includes a set of N means for storing combinations. Means enable the N storage means to be loaded with the logical levels corresponding to a pre-set starting combination, to control the operations for shifting the contents of the storage means and to control, by transfer facilities, the transfers of contents between these storage means. Controls enable the storage means to be actuated in order to obtain combinations of logical levels 1 and 0. The generation of combinations can be stopped after another pre-set combination. Application is for testing of safety circuits for nuclear power stations [fr

  9. Interactions between working memory and selective attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) was used to examine the interactions between working memory and selective attention. We combined two unrelated tasks, one requiring working memory and the other selective attention, which were performed by some undergraduates. The ERP results revealed that both congruent and incongruent stimuli in the selective attention task evoked an N400 component, reaching the peak point at around 500 ms. The N400 evoked by incongruent stimuli was more negative than that of congruent, which indicated the difference of semantic N400. Furthermore, working memory load had a significant influence on the N400 evoked by selective attention task in parietal region. And working memory load showed difference in the ERPs of working memory retrieval in central and parietal regions. The ERPs of probe under high working memory load were more positive from 350 to 550 ms post-stimulus; however, stimulus type of selective attention had no influence on working memory retrieval. The present study shows that working memory does not play a major role in the selective attention, especially in ignoring distracter, but it influences the performance of the selective attention as the background. The congruency of target and distracter in the selective attention task does not influence the working memory retrieval.

  10. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  11. Sexual selection in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is an important factor that drives evolution, in which fitness is increased, not by increasing survival or viability, but by acquiring more or better mates. Sexual selection favours traits that increase the ability of an individual to obtain more matings than other individuals

  12. Selection and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgobba, T.; Landon, L.B.; Marciacq, J.B.; Groen, E.L.; Tikhonov, N.; Torchia, F.

    2018-01-01

    Selection and training represent two means of ensuring flight crew members are qualified and prepared to perform safely and effectively in space. The first part of the chapter looks at astronaut selection beginning with the evolutionary changes in the US and Russian programs. A discussion of the

  13. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  14. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  15. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  16. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana. ... In the event of shortages in petroleum products, these power plants will have ... Layers of these criteria setting were combined using the overlay function in a GIS environment.

  17. Context-Aware HCI Service Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context-awareness has become a key issue in Human-Computer Interaction(HCI to provide better user experience under multi-device and multi-modal environment. With this intuition, we have proposed a web service based framework, which associates interactions with services, and provided service selection mechanism using context knowledge to achieve smart interaction migration [1]. A fundamental problem of such a service-oriented framework for interaction migration is to design an effective while scalable algorithm for service selection. In this paper, we propose a service selection algorithm considering not only context information and user preferences but also inter-service relations such as relative location. Our algorithm detects interaction hot spots within user active scope and presents the best service combination based on evaluation of interaction effectiveness. We also conduct simulation and the results illustrate that our algorithm is effective and scalable for interaction service selection.

  18. Rational Density Functional Selection Using Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnanama-Brereton, Suzanne; Waller, Mark P

    2018-01-22

    Theoretical chemistry has a paradox of choice due to the availability of a myriad of density functionals and basis sets. Traditionally, a particular density functional is chosen on the basis of the level of user expertise (i.e., subjective experiences). Herein we circumvent the user-centric selection procedure by describing a novel approach for objectively selecting a particular functional for a given application. We achieve this by employing game theory to identify optimal functional/basis set combinations. A three-player (accuracy, complexity, and similarity) game is devised, through which Nash equilibrium solutions can be obtained. This approach has the advantage that results can be systematically improved by enlarging the underlying knowledge base, and the deterministic selection procedure mathematically justifies the density functional and basis set selections.

  19. Simulation of selected genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, P F

    2000-02-01

    Algorithms for generating genealogies with selection conditional on the sample configuration of n genes in one-locus, two-allele haploid and diploid models are presented. Enhanced integro-recursions using the ancestral selection graph, introduced by S. M. Krone and C. Neuhauser (1997, Theor. Popul. Biol. 51, 210-237), which is the non-neutral analogue of the coalescent, enables accessible simulation of the embedded genealogy. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme based on that of R. C. Griffiths and S. Tavaré (1996, Math. Comput. Modelling 23, 141-158), is adopted to consider the estimation of ancestral times under selection. Simulations show that selection alters the expected depth of the conditional ancestral trees, depending on a mutation-selection balance. As a consequence, branch lengths are shown to be an ineffective criterion for detecting the presence of selection. Several examples are given which quantify the effects of selection on the conditional expected time to the most recent common ancestor. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  1. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  2. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  3. Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing

  4. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed......Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Findings – Our research suggests that generally held assumption that endorsers being selected and thoroughly vetted by a creative agency may not be universally valid. A normative model to illustrate the continuum of the selection process in practise is suggested and the two polar case studies (Swiss brand...

  5. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. Selective information sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. F. Fraser-Mackenzie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the amount and valence of information selected during single item evaluation. One hundred and thirty-five participants evaluated a cell phone by reading hypothetical customers reports. Some participants were first asked to provide a preliminary rating based on a picture of the phone and some technical specifications. The participants who were given the customer reports only after they made a preliminary rating exhibited valence bias in their selection of customers reports. In contrast, the participants that did not make an initial rating sought subsequent information in a more balanced, albeit still selective, manner. The preliminary raters used the least amount of information in their final decision, resulting in faster decision times. The study appears to support the notion that selective exposure is utilized in order to develop cognitive coherence.

  7. Supplier Selection by Coupling-Attribute Combinatorial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reliance on outsourcing has made supplier selection a critical success factor for a supply chain/network. In addition to cost, the synergy among product components and supplier selection criteria should be considered holistically during the supplier selection process. This paper shows this synergy using coupled-attribute analysis. The key coupling attributes, including total cost, quality, delivery reliability, and delivery lead time of the final product, are identified and formulated. A max-max model is designed to assist the selection of the optional combination of suppliers. The results are compared with the individual supplier selection. Management insights are also discussed.

  8. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  9. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  11. Selection in artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study envisages the analysis of the specific aspects of the selection process in artistic gymnastics, focusing particularly onthe selection of Romania’s recent years. In our opinion, the shift to a cone of darkness of the artistic gymnastics, an extremelypopular sport in our country 20 years ago, is also based on and the orientation of children to other fields – unfortunately manyof them outside sports and physical activities in general. In the present study, we shall present the stages of the artisticgymnastics, as its importance in the subsequent performances has been proven a long time ago. The plethora of qualities andskills which are necessary to select a child for gymnastics and those that this sport develops when performed as a spare timeactivity. The case studied in this endeavour is the one of the main centers for gymnast recruitment in Romania; the attentionpaid by the trainers to the selection for this sport makes the data regarding the number of children involved to increase oncemore. This is a satisfactory fact as it is a well-known fact that a wide range primary selection sets a serious basis for thesecondary selection, and the third, respectively, envisaging the future performance and concurrently ensures the involvementof more children in a physical activity that will prepare them, both physically and mentally for a healthy life.

  12. Increasing Verbal Behavior of a Student Who Is Selectively Mute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Paul; Torgerson, Colleen; Creviston, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    "Selective mutism" is the term used to describe a disorder in which a person speaks only in restricted stimulus situations. Examination of single-subject research concerning selective mutism reveals the most popular and successful interventions to instate speech involve a combination of behavior modification procedures. The present research…

  13. Symbol Stream Combining Versus Baseband Combining for Telemetry Arraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, D.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to investigate and analyze the problem of combining symbol streams from many Deep Space Network stations to enhance bit signal-to-noise ratio and to compare the performance of this combining technique with baseband combining. Symbol stream combining (SSC) has some advantages and some disadvantages over baseband combining (BBC). The SSC suffers almost no loss in combining the digital data and no loss due to the transmission of the digital data by microwave links between the stations. The BBC suffers 0.2 dB loss due to alignment and combining the IF signals and 0.2 dB loss due to transmission of signals by microwave links. On the other hand, the losses in the subcarrier demodulation assembly (SDA) and in the symbol synchronization assembly (SSA) for SSC are more than the losses in the SDA and SSA for BBC. It is shown that SSC outperforms BBC by about 0.35 dB (in terms of the required bit energy-to-noise spectral density for a bit error rate of 1,000) for an array of three DSN antennas, namely 64 m, 34m(T/R) and 34m(R).

  14. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  15. [Genomic selection and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-De; Bao, Zhen-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2011-12-01

    Selective breeding is very important in agricultural production and breeding value estimation is the core of selective breeding. With the development of genetic markers, especially high throughput genotyping technology, it becomes available to estimate breeding value at genome level, i.e. genomic selection (GS). In this review, the methods of GS was categorized into two groups: one is to predict genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) based on the allele effect, such as least squares, random regression - best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP), Bayes and principle component analysis, etc; the other is to predict GEBV with genetic relationship matrix, which constructs genetic relationship matrix via high throughput genetic markers and then predicts GEBV through linear mixed model, i.e. GBLUP. The basic principles of these methods were also introduced according to the above two classifications. Factors affecting GS accuracy include markers of type and density, length of haplotype, the size of reference population, the extent between marker-QTL and so on. Among the methods of GS, Bayes and GBLUP are usually more accurate than the others and least squares is the worst. GBLUP is time-efficient and can combine pedigree with genotypic information, hence it is superior to other methods. Although progress was made in GS, there are still some challenges, for examples, united breeding, long-term genetic gain with GS, and disentangling markers with and without contribution to the traits. GS has been applied in animal and plant breeding practice and also has the potential to predict genetic predisposition in humans and study evolutionary dynamics. GS, which is more precise than the traditional method, is a breakthrough at measuring genetic relationship. Therefore, GS will be a revolutionary event in the history of animal and plant breeding.

  16. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  17. When to Intervene in Selective Mutism: The Multimodal Treatment of a Case of Persistent Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Shawn; Dalley, Mahlono

    1995-01-01

    An identification and treatment model differentiating transient mutism from persistent selective mutism is proposed. The case study of a six-year-old girl is presented, who was treated with a multimodal approach combining behavioral techniques with play therapy and family involvement. At posttreatment and follow-up, she was talking in a manner…

  18. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  19. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  20. Evaluation of the combining ability of mutant maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study shows the results of a preliminary evaluation of the combining ability for grain yield of 17 mutant maize lines. For the purpose the top cross method for early testing and the mathematical model of Savchenko for analysis of the general and the specific combining ability were used. The lines were tested on three testers with high general combining ability that belong to two genetic groups: K 46 52 and XM 552 from SSS and N 192 – Lancaster. For the purposes of evaluation of the productive abilities of the received top cross two preliminary varietal experiments were carried out at the experimental field of Maize Research Institute, Knezha As a result of the conducted experimental work and the analysis it was found that the highest general combining ability have lines XM 11 6 and XM 12 1. These lines can be included as components of high-yielding synthetics or as testers in analyzing crosses to determine general combining ability in early stages of the selection process. The above lines with high specific combining ability – XM 11 13 and XM 11 46 are suitable for inclusion in combinations to develop high-yielding hybrids. Three of the tested lines XM 11 7 11 XM 10 and XM 11 11 have both high GCA and SCA. These lines can be used in corresponding breeding in the selection programs.

  1. Superwetting nanowire membranes for selective absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jikang; Liu, Xiaogang; Akbulut, Ozge; Hu, Junqing; Suib, Steven L; Kong, Jing; Stellacci, Francesco

    2008-06-01

    The construction of nanoporous membranes is of great technological importance for various applications, including catalyst supports, filters for biomolecule purification, environmental remediation and seawater desalination. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with the desirable combination of good thermal stability, high selectivity and excellent recyclability. Here we present a self-assembly method for constructing thermally stable, free-standing nanowire membranes that exhibit controlled wetting behaviour ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. These membranes can selectively absorb oils up to 20 times the material's weight in preference to water, through a combination of superhydrophobicity and capillary action. Moreover, the nanowires that form the membrane structure can be re-suspended in solutions and subsequently re-form the original paper-like morphology over many cycles. Our results suggest an innovative material that should find practical applications in the removal of organics, particularly in the field of oil spill cleanup.

  2. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  3. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  4. Combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons with the objective to evaluate the combining ability for maize grain yield and other agronomic characters in 10 open pollinated maize varieties, which have been selected for high yield and stress ...

  5. Combining Conflicting Environmental and Task Requirements in Evolutionary Robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasdijk, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    The MONEE framework endows collective adaptive robotic systems with the ability to combine environment- and task-driven selection pressures: it enables distributed online algorithms for learning behaviours that ensure both survival and accomplishment of user-defined tasks. This paper explores the

  6. Elotuzumab in combination with thalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Granell, Miguel; Oriol, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Elotuzumab is an immunostimulatory, humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that selectively targets and kills signalling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7-expressing myeloma cells. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of elotuzumab 10 mg/kg combined with thalidomide 50-...

  7. Combination of Flow Injection and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Nielsen, Steffen

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the advantages gained by exploiting this combination, FI-ETAAS. Emphasis is placed on illlustrating various avenues to perform on-line preconcentration of metal ions in order to obtain very low limits of detection of the measurand, and ways and means to enhance the selectivity...

  8. The Majority Wins: a Method for Combining Speaker Diarization Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Jong, F.M.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for combining multiple diarization systems into one single system by applying a majority voting scheme. The voting scheme selects the best segmentation purely on basis of the output of each system. On our development set of NIST Rich Transcription evaluation

  9. Optimal materials selection for bimaterial piezoelectric microactuators

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, P.; Spearing, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuation is one of the commonly employed actuation schemes in microsystems. This paper focuses on identifying and ranking promising active material/substrate combinations for bimaterial piezoelectric (BPE) microactuators based on their performance. The mechanics of BPE structures following simple beam theory assumptions available in the literature are applied to evolve critical performance metrics which govern the materials selection process. Contours of equal performance are p...

  10. Selection of refractory materials for pyrochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axler, K.M.; DePoorter, G.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Several pyrochemical processing operations require containment materials that exhibit minimal chemical interactions with the system, good thermal shock resistance, and reusability. One example is Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR). DOR involves the conversion of PuO 2 to metal by an oxidation/reduction reaction with Ca metal. The reaction proceeds within a molten salt flux at temperatures above 800C. A combination of thermodynamics, system thermodynamic modeling, and experimental investigations are in use to select and evaluate potential containment materials

  11. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  12. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  13. Antecedent Selection for Sluicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Pranav; Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sluicing is an elliptical process where the majority of a question can go unpronounced as long as there is a salient antecedent in previous discourse. This paper considers the task of antecedent selection: finding the correct antecedent for a given case of sluicing. We argue that both syntactic...... and discourse relationships are important in antecedent selection, and we construct linguistically sophisticated features that describe the relevant relationships. We also define features that describe the relation of the content of the antecedent and the sluice type. We develop a linear model which achieves...... accuracy of 72.4%, a substantial improvement over a strong manually constructed baseline. Feature analysis confirms that both syntactic and discourse features are important in antecedent selection....

  14. Selective retina therapy (SRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Birngruber, R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Luebeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced. (orig.)

  15. Uniportal anatomic combined unusual segmentectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivas, Diego; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, sublobar anatomic resections are gaining momentum as a valid alternative for early stage lung cancer. Despite being technically demanding, anatomic segmentectomies can be performed by uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach to combine the benefits of minimally invasiveness with the maximum lung sparing. This procedure can be even more complex if a combined resection of multiple segments from different lobes has to be done. Here we report five cases of combined and unusual segmentectomies done by the same experienced surgeon in high volume institutions to show uniportal VATS is a feasible approach for these complex resections and to share an excellent educational resource.

  16. Combination contraceptives: effects on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A; Carayon, Florence; Schulz, Kenneth F; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2014-01-29

    Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find

  17. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  18. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  19. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx and N{sub 2}O by NH{sub 3} over Fe-FER; Developpement d'un traitement catalytique combine des NOx et de N{sub 2}O par NH{sub 3} sur Fe-Fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieger, St. [Grande Paroisse, 76 - Grand-Quevilly (France); Navascues, L.; Gry, Ph. [Grande Paroisse, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

    2001-07-01

    The emission of nitrogen oxides from anthropogenic activities is a major environmental issue. N{sub 2}O is taking part to the global warming and depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and NOx to acid rains. At the Kyoto Conference in 1997, the European Union committed itself to reduce by 8% the release of greenhouse gases at the horizon 2010. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH{sub 3} is nowadays the main control technology for the emissions from nitric acid plant. Therefore, Grande Paroisse and IRMA have developed a new catalyst (Fe-FER) for the SCR of N{sub 2}O by NH{sub 3}. The catalyst was evaluated in a pilot plant and in the same operating conditions than a DeNOx catalyst. At a space velocity of 9000 to 12000 h{sup -1}, a decomposition of 50% of N{sub 2}O was achieved at 440 deg C. Moreover for the same decomposition level, the temperature could be shifted to 390 deg C by adding ammonia, and the complete reduction of NOx was also observed. This new catalyst is rather bi-functional. Also after months of using, the catalyst did not show major loss of activity nor mechanical strength. (authors)

  20. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  1. Ion-selective electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  2. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  3. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  4. Prediction of a service demand using combined forecasting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting facilitates cutting down operational and management costs while ensuring service level for a logistics service provider. Our case study here is to investigate how to forecast short-term logistic demand for a LTL carrier. Combined approach depends on several forecasting methods simultaneously, instead of a single method. It can offset the weakness of a forecasting method with the strength of another, which could improve the precision performance of prediction. Main issues of combined forecast modeling are how to select methods for combination, and how to find out weight coefficients among methods. The principles of method selection include that each method should apply to the problem of forecasting itself, also methods should differ in categorical feature as much as possible. Based on these principles, exponential smoothing, ARIMA and Neural Network are chosen to form the combined approach. Besides, least square technique is employed to settle the optimal weight coefficients among forecasting methods. Simulation results show the advantage of combined approach over the three single methods. The work done in the paper helps manager to select prediction method in practice.

  5. Combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, U; Hinzpeter, E N

    1977-04-01

    A short film showing our technique of combined penetrating keratoplasty and intracapsular cataract extraction was shown, and the postoperative results in 72 eyes after an average of 3 years were reported.

  6. Atypical combinations and scientific impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzi, Brian; Mukherjee, Satyam; Stringer, Michael; Jones, Ben

    2013-10-25

    Novelty is an essential feature of creative ideas, yet the building blocks of new ideas are often embodied in existing knowledge. From this perspective, balancing atypical knowledge with conventional knowledge may be critical to the link between innovativeness and impact. Our analysis of 17.9 million papers spanning all scientific fields suggests that science follows a nearly universal pattern: The highest-impact science is primarily grounded in exceptionally conventional combinations of prior work yet simultaneously features an intrusion of unusual combinations. Papers of this type were twice as likely to be highly cited works. Novel combinations of prior work are rare, yet teams are 37.7% more likely than solo authors to insert novel combinations into familiar knowledge domains.

  7. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Petkau - Milroy, K.; Brunsveld, L.

    2010-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic

  8. Optimal Combinations of Diagnostic Tests Based on AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Qin, Gengsheng; Fang, Yixin

    2011-06-01

    When several diagnostic tests are available, one can combine them to achieve better diagnostic accuracy. This article considers the optimal linear combination that maximizes the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC); the estimates of the combination's coefficients can be obtained via a nonparametric procedure. However, for estimating the AUC associated with the estimated coefficients, the apparent estimation by re-substitution is too optimistic. To adjust for the upward bias, several methods are proposed. Among them the cross-validation approach is especially advocated, and an approximated cross-validation is developed to reduce the computational cost. Furthermore, these proposed methods can be applied for variable selection to select important diagnostic tests. The proposed methods are examined through simulation studies and applications to three real examples. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Tariff Model for Combined Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Kolar

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By analysing the cwTen.t situation on the Croatian transportationmarket, and considering all parameters needed forthe development of combined transport, measures are suggestedin order to improve and stimulate its development. Oneof the first measures is the standardisation and introduction ofunique tariffs for combined transport, and then government incentivefor the organisation and development of combinedtransport means and equipment. A significant role in thisshould be set on adequately defined transport policy.

  10. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the probl...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  11. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard

    2017-08-01

    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  12. Impact of selective genotyping in the training population on accuracy and bias of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-08-01

    Estimating marker effects based on routinely generated phenotypic data of breeding programs is a cost-effective strategy to implement genomic selection. Truncation selection in breeding populations, however, could have a strong impact on the accuracy to predict genomic breeding values. The main objective of our study was to investigate the influence of phenotypic selection on the accuracy and bias of genomic selection. We used experimental data of 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The testcross progenies were evaluated in unreplicated field trials in ten environments and fingerprinted with 857 SNP markers. Random regression best linear unbiased prediction method was used in combination with fivefold cross-validation based on genotypic sampling. We observed a substantial loss in the accuracy to predict genomic breeding values in unidirectional selected populations. In contrast, estimating marker effects based on bidirectional selected populations led to only a marginal decrease in the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values. We concluded that bidirectional selection is a valuable approach to efficiently implement genomic selection in applied plant breeding programs.

  13. Selecting a digital camera for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricoski, Chris; Ferguson, A Stewart

    2009-06-01

    The digital camera is an essential component of store-and-forward telemedicine (electronic consultation). There are numerous makes and models of digital cameras on the market, and selecting a suitable consumer-grade camera can be complicated. Evaluation of digital cameras includes investigating the features and analyzing image quality. Important features include the camera settings, ease of use, macro capabilities, method of image transfer, and power recharging. Consideration needs to be given to image quality, especially as it relates to color (skin tones) and detail. It is important to know the level of the photographer and the intended application. The goal is to match the characteristics of the camera with the telemedicine program requirements. In the end, selecting a digital camera is a combination of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) analysis. For the telemedicine program in Alaska in 2008, the camera evaluation and decision process resulted in a specific selection based on the criteria developed for our environment.

  14. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  15. Biologically inspired water purification through selective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, E C; Soncini, R M; Weiland, L M

    2013-01-01

    Biologically inspired systems based on cellular mechanics demonstrate the ability to selectively transport ions across a bilayer membrane. These systems may be observed in nature in plant roots, which remove select nutrients from the surrounding soil against significant concentration gradients. Using biomimetic principles in the design of tailored active materials allows for the development of selective membranes for capturing and filtering targeted ions. Combining this biomimetic transport system with a method for reclaiming the captured ions will allow for increased removal potential. To illustrate this concept, a device for removing nutrients from waterways to aid in reducing eutrophication is outlined and discussed. Presented is a feasibility study of various cellular configurations designed for this purpose, focusing on maximizing nutrient uptake. The results enable a better understanding of the benefits and obstacles when developing these cellularly inspired systems. (paper)

  16. Relay selection from an effective capacity perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we consider a cooperative network where multiple relay nodes having different modulation capabilities assist the end-to-end communication between a source and its destination. Firstly, we evaluate the effective capacity (EC) performance of the network under study. According to the analysis, an EC-based relay selection criterion is proposed. Based on the proposed selection rule and half-duplex decode-and-forward protocol, the activated relays cooperatively help with the packet transmission from the source. At the destination, packet combining is taken into account to improve the quality of service. Compared to the popular scheme, opportunistic relay selection, numerical results are provided to prove the validity and advantages of our proposed scheme in certain scenarios. Moreover, the analysis presented herein offers a convenient tool to the relaying transmission design, specifically on which relay selection scheme should be used as well as how to choose the receiving strategy between with and without packet combining at the destination. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  18. Reinventing Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Caspar L.; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2006-01-01

    Although many research studies report students' Lamarckian misconceptions, only a few studies present learning and teaching strategies that focus on the successful development of the concept of natural selection. The learning and teaching strategy for upper secondary students (aged 15-16) presented in this study conducted in The Netherlands is…

  19. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  20. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  1. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  2. Selective Mutism: Phenomenological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary Ann; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Carlson, John; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    To explore factors related to selective mutism (SM), a survey of persons (N=153, including 135 children) with SM was undertaken. Three theoretical assumptions are supported: (1) variant talking behaviors prior to identification of SM; (2) link between SM and social anxiety; (3) potential link between temperament and SM. (EMK)

  3. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  4. Monitoring selected arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Chris Stanton; David J. Horn; Foster F. Purrington; John W. Peacock; Eric H. Metzler

    2003-01-01

    Arthropod populations were sampled in four study areas in southern Ohio in 1995 to document patterns of arthropod diversity and establish a baseline dataset for long-term monitoring in mixed-oak forests. Pitfall, Malaise, and blacklight traps were operated in 12 treatment units from May through September. Several insect groups were selected for detailed study due to...

  5. Selecting a silvicultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a name creates a problem. The name of a silvicultural system usually refers to the way a stand is cut to get regeneration-"single tree selection"-for example. Trouble is, the name suggests that the regeneration cut will be the first treatment applied to the stand. Not so. We are now mostly making "intermediate" cuts in our Lake States...

  6. Selecting and evoking innovators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    prepared for and conducted selection of and collaboration with innovators. The outcome was successful in the sense that the innovators produced excellent foundation for conceptual interaction design by creating mock-ups and explanations incarnating their preferences, attitudes and habits. By referring...

  7. Selecting the Right Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  8. Logic and Natural selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  10. The mathematics of random mutation and natural selection for multiple simultaneous selection pressures and the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2016-12-20

    The random mutation and natural selection phenomenon act in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures when treating infections and cancers. The underlying principle to impair the random mutation and natural selection phenomenon is to use combination therapy, which forces the population to evolve to multiple selection pressures simultaneously that invoke the multiplication rule of probabilities simultaneously as well. Recently, it has been seen that combination therapy for the treatment of malaria has failed to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Using this empirical example and the principles of probability theory, the derivation of the equations describing this treatment failure is carried out. These equations give guidance as to how to use combination therapy for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases and prevent the emergence of drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Intratumor heterogeneity alters most effective drugs in designed combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Boyang; Hemann, Michael T; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2014-07-22

    The substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity observed in patient tumors poses considerable challenges for the design of effective drug combinations with predictable outcomes. Currently, the implications of tissue heterogeneity and sampling bias during diagnosis are unclear for selection and subsequent performance of potential combination therapies. Here, we apply a multiobjective computational optimization approach integrated with empirical information on efficacy and toxicity for individual drugs with respect to a spectrum of genetic perturbations, enabling derivation of optimal drug combinations for heterogeneous tumors comprising distributions of subpopulations possessing these perturbations. Analysis across probabilistic samplings from the spectrum of various possible distributions reveals that the most beneficial (considering both efficacy and toxicity) set of drugs changes as the complexity of genetic heterogeneity increases. Importantly, a significant likelihood arises that a drug selected as the most beneficial single agent with respect to the predominant subpopulation in fact does not reside within the most broadly useful drug combinations for heterogeneous tumors. The underlying explanation appears to be that heterogeneity essentially homogenizes the benefit of drug combinations, reducing the special advantage of a particular drug on a specific subpopulation. Thus, this study underscores the importance of considering heterogeneity in choosing drug combinations and offers a principled approach toward designing the most likely beneficial set, even if the subpopulation distribution is not precisely known.

  12. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2007-02-22

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species.

  13. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  14. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  15. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  16. Uruguay; 2011 Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation—Selected Issues paper focuses on estimating potential output and the output gap and spillovers from agriculture in the case of Uruguay. It introduces additional economic information and theory to estimate potential output, shedding some light on the discussion of current monetary and fiscal policies. The objective is to take advantage of economic data to disentangle the most recent economic performance by introducing multivariate techniques. The paper also pr...

  17. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  18. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  19. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  20. Automatic LOD selection

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method to automatically generate transition distances for LOD, improving image stability and performance is presented. Three different methods were tested all measuring the change between two level of details using the spatial frequency. The methods were implemented as an optional pre-processing step in order to determine the transition distances from multiple view directions. During run-time both view direction based selection and the furthest distance for each direction was ...

  1. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  2. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  3. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  4. Selection, Training and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    most Neck training, Altitudetehamber, PBG, Gas nixtures, Trampoline , important in flying. In years to come we will have a Statoergometer, Raling...superagile world, are mentioned neck, more if X-tra head worn equipment is used put below. a lot of stress to this system. In addition stress will 6-6 be...acceleration Pilot selection criteria like body-type, heart-cerebral forces, mainly head to foot (Gz). The heart itself is distance, vagal and sympathetic nerve

  5. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  6. Decommissioning strategy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of their useful life nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned. The strategy selection on how to decommission a facility is a highly important decision at the very beginning of decommissioning planning. Basically, a facility may be subject to (a) immediate dismantling; (b) deferred dismantling after a period of ''safe enclosure'' or (c) entombment where a facility is turned into a near surface disposal facility. The first two strategies are normally applied. The third one may be accepted in countries without significant nuclear activities and hence without disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A large number of factors has to be taken into account when a decision on the decommissioning strategy is being made. Many of the factors cannot be quantified. They may be qualitative or subject to public opinion which may change with time. At present, a trend can be observed towards immediate dismantling of nuclear facilities, mainly because it is associated with less uncertainty, less local impact, a better public acceptance, and the availability of operational expertise and know how. A detailed evaluation of the various factors relevant to strategy selection and a few examples showing the situation regarding decommissioning strategy in a number of selected countries are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  7. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined [fr

  8. Food irradiation and combination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Platt, G.; Grandison, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    International approval of food irradiation is being given for the use of low and medium doses. Uses are being permitted for different categories of foods with maximum levels being set between 1 and 10 kGy. To maximize the effectiveness of these mild irradiation treatments while minimizing any organoleptic quality changes, combination processes of other technologies with irradiation will be useful. Combinations most likely to be exploited in optimal food processing include the use of heat, low temperature, and modified-atmosphere packaging. Because irradiation does not have a residual effect, the food packaging itself becomes an important component of a successful process. These combination processes provide promising alternatives to the use of chemical preservatives or harsher processing techniques. (author)

  9. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  10. Synthesis and catalytic applications of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarian Vernimmen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, research concerning nanoporous siliceous materials has been focused on mesoporous materials with intrinsic zeolitic features. These materials are thought to be superior, because they are able to combine (i the enhanced diffusion and accessibility for larger molecules and viscous fluids typical of mesoporous materials with (ii the remarkable stability, catalytic activity and selectivity of zeolites. This review gives an overview of the state of the art concerning combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. Focus is put on the synthesis and the applications of the combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. The different synthesis approaches and formation mechanisms leading to these materials are comprehensively discussed and compared. Moreover, Ti-containing nanoporous materials as redox catalysts are discussed to illustrate a potential implementation of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials.

  11. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudagov, R.; Uljanova, L.; Makarov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  12. Innovative Approach for IBS Vendor Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohd Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management in Industrialised Building System (IBS construction management has significantly determined the successful of company and project performance. Due to the wide variety of criteria and vendor available, the vendor selection process for a specific project needs is becoming more difficult. The need of decision aid for vendor selection in other areas is widely discussed in previous research. However, study on vendor selection for IBS project is largely neglected. Decision Support System (DSS is proposed for this purpose. Yet, most of the DSS models are impractical since they are complicated and difficult for a layman such as project managers to use. Research indicates that the rapid development of ICT has highly potential towards simple and effective DSS. Thus, this paper highlights the importance and research approach for vendor selection in IBS project management. The study is based on Design Science Research Methodology with combination of case studies. It is anticipates that this study will yield an effective value-for-money decision making platform to manage vendor selection process.

  13. Junction detection and pathway selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alex N.; Lim, Willie Y.; Breul, Harry T.

    1992-02-01

    The ability to detect junctions and make choices among the possible pathways is important for autonomous navigation. In our script-based navigation approach where a journey is specified as a script of high-level instructions, actions are frequently referenced to junctions, e.g., `turn left at the intersection.' In order for the robot to carry out these kind of instructions, it must be able (1) to detect an intersection (i.e., an intersection of pathways), (2) know that there are several possible pathways it can take, and (3) pick the pathway consistent with the high level instruction. In this paper we describe our implementation of the ability to detect junctions in an indoor environment, such as corners, T-junctions and intersections, using sonar. Our approach uses a combination of partial scan of the local environment and recognition of sonar signatures of certain features of the junctions. In the case where the environment is known, we use additional sensor information (such as compass bearings) to help recognize the specific junction. In general, once a junction is detected and its type known, the number of possible pathways can be deduced and the correct pathway selected. Then the appropriate behavior for negotiating the junction is activated.

  14. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION A combined Electrochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DELL

    A combined Electrochemical and Theoretical study of pyridine-based Schiff bases as novel corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium. PARUL DOHAREa, M A QURAISHIb* and I B OBOTb. aDepartment of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar. Pradesh 221 ...

  15. Combination Chemoprevention with Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandra K.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resver...

  16. Combining Paraconsistent Logic with Argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooters, Diana; Prakken, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    One tradition in the logical study of argumentation is to allow for arguments that combine strict and defeasible inference rules, and to derive the strict inference rules from a logic at least as strong as classical logic. An unsolved problem in this tradition is how the trivialising effect of the

  17. Combination treatment of neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Jakob Vormstrup; Jung, Anne; Jonsson, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current Danish treatment algorithms for pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain (NeP) are tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), gabapentin and pregabalin as first-line treatment for the most common NeP conditions. Many patients have insufficient pain relief on monotherapy, but combin...

  18. Methodology for combining dynamic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudlin, R.; Hosford, S.; Mattu, R.; Wichman, K.

    1978-09-01

    The NRC has historically required that the structural/mechanical responses due to various accident loads and loads caused by natural phenomena, (such as earthquakes) be combined when analyzing structures, systems, and components important to safety. Several approaches to account for the potential interaction of loads resulting from accidents and natural phenomena have been used. One approach, the so-called absolute or linear summation (ABS) method, linearly adds the peak structural responses due to the individual dynamic loads. In general, the ABS method has also reflected the staff's conservative preference for the combination of dynamic load responses. A second approach, referred to as SRSS, yields a combined response equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the peak responses due to the individual dynamic loads. The lack of a physical relationship between some of the loads has raised questions as to the proper methodology to be used in the design of nuclear power plants. An NRR Working Group was constituted to examine load combination methodologies and to develop a recommendation concerning criteria or conditions for their application. Evaluations of and recommendations on the use of the ABS and SRSS methods are provided in the report

  19. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  20. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec