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Sample records for selected salmonella serotypes

  1. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Salmonella and human pathogens in unpasteurized milk remains a public health hazard. The study reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes in cow raw milk, cheese and traditional yoghurt marketed for man's consumption in Nigeria. Isolation of Salmonella was done ...

  2. Comprehensive analysis of Salmonella sequence polymorphisms and development of a LDR-UA assay for the detection and characterization of selected serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Andrea; Castiglioni, Bianca; Mariani, Paola

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne disease, and Salmonella enterica subspecies I includes the most clinically relevant serotypes. Salmonella serotype determination is important for the disease etiology assessment and contamination source tracking. This task will be facilitated by the disclosure of Salmonella serotype sequence polymorphisms, here annotated in seven genes (sefA, safA, safC, bigA, invA, fimA, and phsB) from 139 S. enterica strains, of which 109 belonging to 44 serotypes of subsp. I. One hundred nineteen polymorphic sites were scored and associated to single serotypes or to serotype groups belonging to S. enterica subsp. I. A diagnostic tool was constructed based on the Ligation Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the detection of polymorphic sites uniquely associated to serotypes of primary interest (Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Paratyphi B). The implementation of promiscuous probes allowed the diagnosis of ten further serotypes that could be associated to a unique hybridization pattern. Finally, the sensitivity and applicability of the tool was tested on target DNA dilutions and with controlled meat contamination, allowing the detection of one Salmonella CFU in 25 g of meat.

  3. Biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella serotypes at different temperature conditions

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    Karen A. Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Salmonella spp. are one of the most important agents of foodborne disease in several countries, including Brazil. Poultry-derived products are the most common food products, including meat and eggs, involved in outbreaks of human salmonellosis. Salmonella has the capacity to form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. The biofilm formation process depends on an interaction among bacterial cells, the attachment surface and environmental conditions. These structures favor bacterial survival in hostile environments, such as slaughterhouses and food processing plants. Biofilms are also a major problem for public health because breakage of these structures can cause the release of pathogenic microorganisms and, consequently, product contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the biofilm production capacity of Salmonella serotypes at four different temperatures of incubation. Salmonella strains belonging to 11 different serotypes, isolated from poultry or from food involved in salmonellosis outbreaks, were selected for this study. Biofilm formation was investigated under different temperature conditions (37°, 28°, 12° and 3°C using a microtiter plate assay. The tested temperatures are important for the Salmonella life cycle and to the poultry-products process. A total of 92.2% of the analyzed strains were able to produce biofilm on at least one of the tested temperatures. In the testing, 71.6% of the strains produced biofilm at 37°C, 63% at 28°C, 52.3% at 12°C and 39.5% at 3°C, regardless of the serotype. The results indicate that there is a strong influence of temperature on biofilm production, especially for some serotypes, such as S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar and S. Heidelberg. The production of these structures is partially associated with serotype. There were also significant differences within strains of the same serotype, indicating that biofilm production capacity may be strain-dependent.

  4. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P supply chain up to the retail phase.

  5. Bilateral breast abscesses due to Salmonella Enterica serotype typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal infection is an uncommon complication of Salmonella septicemia, particularly in immunocompetent patients. The localization of Salmonella infection to breast tissue is regarded as a rare event. We report a case of bilateral breast abscesses due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in a nonlactating female and highlight the fact that Salmonella spp. should be included in differential diagnosis of abscesses in individuals coming from endemic areas with the history of recent typhoid fever and should be treated accordingly.

  6. Serotype determination of Salmonella by xTAG assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhibei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Haoqiu; Pan, Jincao; Pu, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Currently, no protocols or commercial kits are available to determine the serotypes of Salmonella by using Luminex MAGPIX®. In this study, an xTAG assay for serotype determination of Salmonella suitable for Luminex MAGPIX® is described and 228 Salmonella isolates were serotype determined by this xTAG assay. The xTAG assay consists of two steps: 1) Multiplex PCR to amplify simultaneously O, H and Vi antigen genes of Salmonella, and 2) Magplex-TAG™ microsphere hybridization to identify accurately the specific PCR products of different antigens. Compared with the serotyping results of traditional serum agglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the xTAG assay were 95.1% and 100%, respectively. The agreement rate of these two assays was 95.2%. Compared with Luminex xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) kit, the advantages of this xTAG assay are: First, the magnetic beads make it applicable to both the Luminex®100/200™ and MAGPIX® systems. Second, only primers rather than both primers and probes are needed in the xTAG assay, and the process of coupling antigen-specific oligonucleotide probes to beads is circumvented, which make the xTAG assay convenient to be utilized by other laboratories. The xTAG assay may serve as a rapid alternative or complementary method for traditional Salmonella serotyping tests, especially for laboratories that utilize the MAGPIX® systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct and indirect transmission of four Salmonella enterica serotypes in pigs

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    Österberg Julia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feed-borne spread of Salmonella spp. to pigs has been documented several times in recent years in Sweden. Experiences from the field suggest that feed-associated serotypes might be less transmittable and subsequently easier to eradicate from pig herds than other serotypes more commonly associated to pigs. Four Salmonella serotypes were selected for experimental studies in pigs in order to study transmissibility and compare possible differences between feed-assoociated (S Cubana and S Yoruba and pig-associated serotypes (S Derby and S Typhimurium. Methods Direct contact transmission was studied in four groups of pigs formed by six 10-week-old salmonella negative pigs commingled with two fatteners excreting one of the four salmonella serotypes. Indirect transmission was studied by putting six 10-week-old salmonella negative pigs in each of four salmonella contaminated rooms. Each room had previously housed a group of pigs, excreting one of the four selected serotypes. All pigs were monitored for two weeks with respect to the faecal excretion of salmonella and the presence of serum antibodies. At the end of the trial, eight samples from inner tissues and organs were collected from each pig at necropsy. Results In the four direct transmission groups, one pig shed Salmonella (Cubana at one occasion. At necropsy, S Typhimurium was isolated from one pig. In the indirect transmission groups, two pigs in the Yoruba room and one pig in each of the other rooms were excreting detectable levels of Salmonella once during the study period of two weeks. At necropsy, S Derby was isolated from one of six pigs in the Derby room and S Typhimurium was isolated from four of the six pigs in the Typhimurium room. No significant serological response could be detected in any of the 48 pigs. Conclusions These results show that all four selected serotypes were able to be transmitted in at least one of these field-like trials, but the transmission rate

  8. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  9. Serotype tracking of Salmonella through integrated broiler chicken operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J S; Cox, N A; Craven, S E; Cosby, D E

    2002-05-01

    The widespread presence of Salmonella in all phases of broiler chicken production and processing is well documented. However, little information is available to indicate the identity and movement of specific serotypes of Salmonella through the different phases of an integrated operation. In this study, samples were collected from the breeder farm, from the hatchery, from the previous grow-out flock, from the flock during grow-out, and from carcasses after processing. Salmonella were recovered from 6, 98, 24, 60, and 7% of the samples, respectively, in the first trial and from 7, 98, 26, 22, and 36% of the samples, respectively, in the second trial. Seven different serotypes were identified in the first trial, and 12 different serotypes were identified in the second trial. For both trials there was poor correlation between the serotypes found in the breeder farms and those found in the hatchery. This finding and the fact that similar serotypes were found in the hatchery in both trials suggests that there was an endemic population of Salmonella in the hatchery. An association between the serotypes found in the hatchery and those found on the final processed carcasses was observed in both trials. This study confirms that a successful intervention program for broiler production operations must be multifaceted, with one component being disinfection in the hatchery.

  10. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use...... of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use....

  12. Genetic Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Strains of Salmonella enterica Serotype Weltevreden Isolated in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, K. L.; Goh, Y. L.; Radu, S.; Noorzaleha, S.; Yasin, R.; Koh, Y. T.; Lim, V. K. E.; Rusul, G.; Puthucheary, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of food-borne salmonellosis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden is reported to be on the increase in Malaysia. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping method was used to assess the extent of genetic diversity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden strains from humans and the environment. PFGE of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA from 95 strains of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden gave 39 distinct profiles with a wide range of Dice coefficients (0.2...

  13. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  14. Quantitative comparison of intestinal invasion of zoonotic serotypes of Salmonella enterica in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Christensen, J.P.; Chadfield, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    A. Two serotypes demonstrated intracellular log(10) counts that differed significantly from all other serotypes tested: Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 being 1.5 log(10) colony forming units (CFU) ( 31-fold) higher, and Salmonella Tennessee being 0.7 log(10) CFU (fivefold) lower than the reference strain (P...

  15. Food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden ( S.weltevreden involving 34 students has been reported from a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. The symptoms developed 8-10 hours, after consuming a non- vegetarian dish, probably fish, from an outside caterer. The identity of the organism was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli. This report emphasizes the geographical distribution of this organism in the Coastal Karnataka region. S.Weltevreden may be overlooked due to the biochemical similarity to S. Paratyphi B & S. Typhimurium.

  16. Food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype weltevreden in Mangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, B; Dias, M; Shetty, A K; Rekha, B

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden ( S.weltevreden ) involving 34 students has been reported from a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. The symptoms developed 8-10 hours, after consuming a non- vegetarian dish, probably fish, from an outside caterer. The identity of the organism was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli. This report emphasizes the geographical distribution of this organism in the Coastal Karnataka region. S.Weltevreden may be overlooked due to the biochemical similarity to S. Paratyphi B & S. Typhimurium.

  17. Multidrug resistance among different serotypes of clinical Salmonella isolates in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauderdale, T. L.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Chen, P. C.

    2006-01-01

    (41%) and was highly prevalent in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (72.7%, 176/242) the most common serotype. Additional resistance to trimethoprim was present in 155 (19.4% overall) of the ACSSuT R-type isolates from several serotypes. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone (FQ...... multiresistant to other antimicrobials. Studies are needed to determine the sources of different multidrug-resistant serotypes. Continued national surveillance is underway to monitor changes in resistance trends and to detect further emergence of resistant Salmonella serotypes in Taiwan. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc...

  18. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age.

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    Christian Vinueza-Burgos

    Full Text Available Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9% followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5% and S. Corvallis (1.6%. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole. All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador.

  19. Test results of Salmonella serotyping in the Member States of the European Union. (Collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het

  20. Breast abscess in a man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncic, Nada; Gorup, Lari; Strcic, Miroslav; Abram, Maja; Mustac, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellae can cause breast infection only exceptionally. A case of breast abscess in a 70-year-old man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is reported. The infection was successfully treated with a combination of surgical and antibiotic treatment.

  1. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  2. Development of stable reporter system cloning luxCDABE genes into chromosome of Salmonella enterica serotypes using Tn7 transposon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mark L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis may be a food safety problem when raw food products are mishandled and not fully cooked. In previous work, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella enterica serotypes using a plasmid-based reporting system that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products in short term studies. In this study, we report the use of a Tn7-based transposon system for subcloning of luxCDABE genes into the chromosome of eleven Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from the broiler production continuum. Results We found that the lux operon is constitutively expressed from the chromosome post-transposition and the lux cassette is stable without external pressure, i.e. antibiotic selection, for all Salmonella enterica serotypes used. Bioluminescence expression is based on an active electron transport chain and is directly related with metabolic activity. This relationship was quantified by measuring bioluminescence against a temperature gradient in aqueous solution using a luminometer. In addition, bioluminescent monitoring of two serotypes confirmed that our chicken skin model has the potential to be used to evaluate pathogen mitigation strategies. Conclusions This study demonstrated that our new stable reporting system eliminates bioluminescence variation due to plasmid instability and provides a reliable real-time experimental system to study application of preventive measures for Salmonella on food products in real-time for both short and long term studies.

  3. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...

  4. Multilocus sequence typing as a replacement for serotyping in Salmonella enterica.

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    Mark Achtman

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is traditionally subdivided into serovars by serological and nutritional characteristics. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST to assign 4,257 isolates from 554 serovars to 1092 sequence types (STs. The majority of the isolates and many STs were grouped into 138 genetically closely related clusters called eBurstGroups (eBGs. Many eBGs correspond to a serovar, for example most Typhimurium are in eBG1 and most Enteritidis are in eBG4, but many eBGs contained more than one serovar. Furthermore, most serovars were polyphyletic and are distributed across multiple unrelated eBGs. Thus, serovar designations confounded genetically unrelated isolates and failed to recognize natural evolutionary groupings. An inability of serotyping to correctly group isolates was most apparent for Paratyphi B and its variant Java. Most Paratyphi B were included within a sub-cluster of STs belonging to eBG5, which also encompasses a separate sub-cluster of Java STs. However, diphasic Java variants were also found in two other eBGs and monophasic Java variants were in four other eBGs or STs, one of which is in subspecies salamae and a second of which includes isolates assigned to Enteritidis, Dublin and monophasic Paratyphi B. Similarly, Choleraesuis was found in eBG6 and is closely related to Paratyphi C, which is in eBG20. However, Choleraesuis var. Decatur consists of isolates from seven other, unrelated eBGs or STs. The serological assignment of these Decatur isolates to Choleraesuis likely reflects lateral gene transfer of flagellar genes between unrelated bacteria plus purifying selection. By confounding multiple evolutionary groups, serotyping can be misleading about the disease potential of S. enterica. Unlike serotyping, MLST recognizes evolutionary groupings and we recommend that Salmonella classification by serotyping should be replaced by MLST or its equivalents.

  5. A Descriptive Study of Human Salmonella Serotype Typhimurium Infections Reported in Ontario from 1990 to 1997

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    Michael W Ford

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella infections cause gastrointestinal and systemic diseases worldwide and are the leading causes of food-borne illnesses in North America (1-4. Salmonella serotype typhimurium (ST, in particular, is increasingly becoming a major public health concern because of its ability to acquire multiple resistant genes (5,6.

  6. International Spread of an Epidemic Population of Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky ST198 Resistant to Ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hello, Simon; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Doublet, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    National Salmonella surveillance systems from France, England and Wales, Denmark, and the United States identified the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky displaying high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. A total of 489 human cases were ident...

  7. Genomic fingerprinting and serotyping of Salmonella from Galápagos iguanas demonstrates island differences in strain diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Cann, Isaac K O; Mackie, Roderick I

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella carriage patterns in wild and captive reptiles suggest that both geographical proximity and host ecological differences may determine bacterial diversity among reptile populations. In this study, we explore the relative importance of these factors on Salmonella diversity in free-living Galápagos iguanas. We isolated Salmonella enterica from marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus and C. pallidus) living on two islands (Plaza Sur and Santa Fe). We evaluated Salmonella population patterns using genomic fingerprints, sequence typing and serotyping. Rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed significant grouping of isolates by iguana population. Island residence had the strongest effect on isolate similarity, but a smaller divergence among Salmonella isolates from different iguana ecotypes (land versus marine) was detected within each island. In contrast, sequence typing detected a marginal difference in isolate genotypes between islands. Sequence types corresponded strongly to serotype identity, with both islands hosting a unique serovar pool. Our findings suggest that both geographical location and host ecotype differences (either from within host strain selection or from differences in habitat use) contribute to Salmonella population patterns in the Galápagos Islands. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  9. Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report

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    Gonose Thandubuhle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16 presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa.

  10. Development of a Novel Protein Microarray Method for Serotyping Salmonella enterica Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, H. Y.; Lu, L.; Muckle, C. A.; Prescott, J. F.; Chen, S.

    2005-01-01

    An antibody microarray assay was developed for Salmonella serotyping based on the Kauffmann-White scheme. A model (8 by 15) array was constructed using 35 antibodies for identification of 20 common Salmonella serovars and evaluated using 117 target and 73 nontarget Salmonella strains. The assay allowed complete serovar identification of 86 target strains and partial identification of 30 target strains and allowed exclusion of the 73 nontarget strains from the target serovars.

  11. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

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    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  12. Genetic diversity of clinical and environmental strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden isolated in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, K L; Goh, Y L; Radu, S; Noorzaleha, S; Yasin, R; Koh, Y T; Lim, V K E; Rusul, G; Puthucheary, S D

    2002-07-01

    The incidence of food-borne salmonellosis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden is reported to be on the increase in Malaysia. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping method was used to assess the extent of genetic diversity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden strains from humans and the environment. PFGE of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA from 95 strains of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden gave 39 distinct profiles with a wide range of Dice coefficients (0.27 to 1.00), indicating that PFGE is very discriminative and that multiple clones of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden exist among clinical and environmental isolates. Strains of one dominant pulsotype (pulsotype X1/X2) appeared to be endemic in this region, as they were consistently recovered from humans with salmonellosis between 1996 and 2001 and from raw vegetables. In addition, the sharing of similar PFGE profiles among isolates from humans, vegetables, and beef provides indirect evidence of the possible transmission of salmonellosis from contaminated raw vegetables and meat to humans. Furthermore, the recurrence of PFGE profile X21 among isolates found in samples of vegetables from one wet market indicated the persistence of this clone. The environment in the wet markets may represent a major source of cross-contamination of vegetables with Salmonella serotype Weltevreden. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden remained drug sensitive but that the vegetable isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare clinical and environmental isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden in Malaysia.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Clinical and Environmental Strains of Salmonella enterica Serotype Weltevreden Isolated in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, K. L.; Goh, Y. L.; Radu, S.; Noorzaleha, S.; Yasin, R.; Koh, Y. T.; Lim, V. K. E.; Rusul, G.; Puthucheary, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of food-borne salmonellosis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden is reported to be on the increase in Malaysia. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping method was used to assess the extent of genetic diversity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden strains from humans and the environment. PFGE of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA from 95 strains of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden gave 39 distinct profiles with a wide range of Dice coefficients (0.27 to 1.00), indicating that PFGE is very discriminative and that multiple clones of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden exist among clinical and environmental isolates. Strains of one dominant pulsotype (pulsotype X1/X2) appeared to be endemic in this region, as they were consistently recovered from humans with salmonellosis between 1996 and 2001 and from raw vegetables. In addition, the sharing of similar PFGE profiles among isolates from humans, vegetables, and beef provides indirect evidence of the possible transmission of salmonellosis from contaminated raw vegetables and meat to humans. Furthermore, the recurrence of PFGE profile X21 among isolates found in samples of vegetables from one wet market indicated the persistence of this clone. The environment in the wet markets may represent a major source of cross-contamination of vegetables with Salmonella serotype Weltevreden. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden remained drug sensitive but that the vegetable isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare clinical and environmental isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden in Malaysia. PMID:12089269

  14. Molecular typing, antibiotic resistance, virulence gene and biofilm formation of different Salmonella enterica serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Yousra; Mehr, Ines; Ouzari, Hadda; Khessairi, Amel; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica isolates representing commonly isolated serotypes in Tunisia were analyzed using genotyping and phenotyping methods. ERIC and ITS-PCR applied to 48 Salmonella spp. isolates revealed the presence of 12 and 10 different profiles, respectively. The distribution of profiles among serotypes demonstrated the presence of strains showing an identical fingerprinting pattern. All Salmonella strains used in this study were positive for the sdiA gene. Three Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Enteritidis and Amsterdam were negative for the invA gene. The spvC gene was detected in thirteen isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Gallinarum and Montevideo. Antibiotic resistance was frequent among the recovered Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Zanzibar and Derby. The majority of these isolates exhibited resistance to at least two antibiotic families. Four multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered from food animals and poultry products. These isolates exhibited not only resistance to tetracycline, sulphonamides, and ampicillin, but also have shown resistance to fluoroquinolones. Common resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in two S. Anatum and S. Zanzibar strains isolated from raw meat and poultry was also obtained. Furthermore, wastewater and human isolates exhibited frequent resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Of all isolates, 33.5% were able to form biofilm.

  15. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains of Lomita (6, Derby (4, Senftenberg (2, Javiana and Cannsttat (1 and undeter- mined (5 serotypes. The strains showed a high resistance rate to ampicillin (18/19, carbenicillin (16/19, tetracyclin (13/19, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13/19. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14 isolates. Conclusions. Several Salmonella spp. serotypes of public health significance are circulating in ground beef sold in the major Mexican city. Some of these strains are multi-drug resistance.

  16. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros; María Salud Rubio-Lozano; Enrique Delgado-Suárez; Danilo Méndez-Medina; Diego Braña-Varela; Oscar Rodas-Suárez

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp). The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains o...

  17. Development of a real-time multiplex PCR assay for the detection of multiple Salmonella serotypes in chicken samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whyte Paul

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A real-time multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of multiple Salmonella serotypes in chicken samples. Poultry-associated serotypes detected in the assay include Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Typhimurium, Kentucky and Dublin. The traditional cultural method according to EN ISO 6579:2002 for the detection of Salmonella in food was performed in parallel. The real-time PCR based method comprised a pre-enrichment step in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW overnight, followed by a shortened selective enrichment in Rappaport Vasilliadis Soya Broth (RVS for 6 hours and subsequent DNA extraction. Results The real-time multiplex PCR assay and traditional cultural method showed 100% inclusivity and 100% exclusivity on all strains tested. The real-time multiplex PCR assay was as sensitive as the traditional cultural method in detecting Salmonella in artificially contaminated chicken samples and correctly identified the serotype. Artificially contaminated chicken samples resulted in a detection limit of between 1 and 10 CFU per 25 g sample for both methods. A total of sixty-three naturally contaminated chicken samples were investigated by both methods and relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the real-time PCR method were determined to be 89, 94 and 87%, respectively. Thirty cultures blind tested were correctly identified by the real-time multiplex PCR method. Conclusion Real-time PCR methodology can contribute to meet the need for rapid identification and detection methods in food testing laboratories.

  18. Test results of serotyping Salmonella strains in the Member States of the European Union (A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella uit 14 van de 15 lidstaten van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het doel was te

  19. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  20. Salmonella fecal shedding and immune responses are dose- and serotype- dependent in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ivanek

    Full Text Available Despite the public health importance of Salmonella infection in pigs, little is known about the associated dynamics of fecal shedding and immunity. In this study, we investigated the transitions of pigs through the states of Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response post-Salmonella inoculation as affected by the challenge dose and serotype. Continuous-time multistate Markov models were developed using published experimental data. The model for shedding had four transient states, of which two were shedding (continuous and intermittent shedding and two non-shedding (latency and intermittent non-shedding, and one absorbing state representing permanent cessation of shedding. The immune response model had two transient states representing responses below and above the seroconversion level. The effects of two doses [low (0.65×10(6 CFU/pig and high (0.65×10(9 CFU/pig] and four serotypes (Salmonella Yoruba, Salmonella Cubana, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Derby on the models' transition intensities were evaluated using a proportional intensities model. Results indicated statistically significant effects of the challenge dose and serotype on the dynamics of shedding and immune response. The time spent in the specific states was also estimated. Continuous shedding was on average 10-26 days longer, while intermittent non-shedding was 2-4 days shorter, in pigs challenged with the high compared to low dose. Interestingly, among pigs challenged with the high dose, the continuous and intermittent shedding states were on average up to 10-17 and 3-4 days longer, respectively, in pigs infected with S. Cubana compared to the other three serotypes. Pigs challenged with the high dose of S. Typhimurium or S. Derby seroconverted on average up to 8-11 days faster compared to the low dose. These findings highlight that Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response following Salmonella challenge are dose- and serotype-dependent and that the detection of

  1. High prevalence of Salmonella in tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae), and susceptibility of the serotypes to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, B M; Argôlo Filho, R C; Nogueira, S S C; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2010-12-01

    Species of tegu (Tupinambis) are the largest lizards in South America. Large numbers of these lizards are hunted; there is a vigorous trade in their skins and the meat is consumed by rural and native peoples. The animals are also bred in captivity, an economic activity for rural populations which can help in the animals' conservation. Faecal samples from 30 captive-born tegus were analysed for the presence of Salmonella in two separate samplings. In the first analysis, samples from 26 animals (87%) yielded Salmonella enterica of which 23% were of Rubislaw serotype; 20% Carrau and Agona serotypes; 7% Infantis and Saint-Paul serotypes; 3% Panama and Brandenburg serotypes; 10% were S. enterica subsp. enterica and 7% were rough form. In the second analysis, four tegus (13%) which had been negative in the first sampling were positive, thus, 100% of the animals studied carried the bacterium. Antibiotic susceptibility showed resistance to sulfonamide in 82% of the isolates, streptomycin in 64%, tetracycline in 6% and Chloramphenicol in 20%. Two animals carried strains of the same serotype with different patterns of antibiotic susceptibility. Although it is well known that reptiles are a significant source of Salmonella, to our knowledge, its prevalence in tegu has not been studied previously.

  2. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  3. Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ study, Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998- 2008.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/9/2013.

  4. DNA sequence analysis of plasmids from multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is among the most detected serovars in swine and poultry, ranks among the top five serotypes associated with human salmonellosis and is disproportionately associated with invasive infections and mortality in humans. Salmonella are known to carry plasmids associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence. To identify plasmid-associated genes in multidrug resistant S. enterica serovar Heidelberg, antimicrobial resistance plasmids from five isolates were sequenced using the 454 LifeSciences pyrosequencing technology. Four of the isolates contained incompatibility group (Inc A/C multidrug resistance plasmids harboring at least eight antimicrobial resistance genes. Each of these strains also carried a second resistance plasmid including two IncFIB, an IncHI2 and a plasmid lacking an identified Inc group. The fifth isolate contained an IncI1 plasmid, encoding resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin and sulfonamides. Some of the IncA/C plasmids lacked the full concert of transfer genes and yet were able to be conjugally transferred, likely due to the transfer genes carried on the companion plasmids in the strains. Several non-IncA/C resistance plasmids also carried putative virulence genes. When the sequences were compared to previously sequenced plasmids, it was found that while all plasmids demonstrated some similarity to other plasmids, they were unique, often due to differences in mobile genetic elements in the plasmids. Our study suggests that Salmonella Heidelberg isolates harbor plasmids that co-select for antimicrobial resistance and virulence, along with genes that can mediate the transfer of plasmids within and among other bacterial isolates. Prevalence of such plasmids can complicate efforts to control the spread of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg in food animal and human populations.

  5. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Farm Animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837, pigs (n = 930, and dairy cows (n = 418 in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces in 2010–2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in unhealthy pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%, nalidixic acid (39.17%, doxycycline (28.22%, and tetracycline (27.58%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25% to 7.44% and 19.04% to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health

  6. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant, quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbak, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Background Food-borne salmonella infections have become a major problem in industrialized countries. The strain of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium known as definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is usually resistant to five drugs: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides......, and tetracycline. An increasing proportion of DT104 isolates also have reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Methods The Danish salmonella surveillance program determines the phage types of all typhimurium strains from the food chain, and in the case of suspected outbreaks, five-drug-resistant strains...... are characterized by molecular methods. All patients infected with five-drug-resistant typhimurium are interviewed to obtain clinical and epidemiologic data. In 1998, an outbreak of salmonella occurred, in which the strain of typhimurium DT104 was new to Denmark. We investigated this outbreak and report our...

  7. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  8. Isolation, serotype diversity and antibiogram of Salmonella enterica isolated from different species of poultry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad Mir

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Occurrence of high proportion of serovars in our study which can cause serious gastroenteritis in humans is a matter of concern. Salmonella Altona has been detected for the first time in India from poultry. This serotype is known to cause serious outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans. Multidrug resistant isolates were recovered at high percentage which can be attributed to non-judicious use of antibiotics both in prophylaxis and treatment regimen. This observation draws serious attention as poultry serves as an important source of transmission of these multidrug resistant Salmonella serovars to humans.

  9. Broad-range (pan) Salmonella and Salmonella serotype typhi-specific real-time PCR assays: potential tools for the clinical microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John J; Doyle, Laura J; Addison, Rachel M; Reller, L Barth; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W

    2005-03-01

    We describe broad-range salmonellae (ie, Salmonella) and Salmonella serotype Typhi-specific LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. We validated these with a battery of 280 bacteria, 108 of which were salmonellae representing 20 serotypes. In addition, 298 isolates from 170 clinical specimens that were suspected to possibly represent Salmonella were tested with the pan- Salmonella assay. Finally, the pan-Salmonella assay also was used to test DNA extracts from 101 archived, frozen stool specimens, 55 of which were culture-positive for salmonellae. Both assays were 100% sensitive and specific when cultured isolates of the battery were tested. The pan- Salmonella assay also characterized correctly all salmonellae on the primary isolation agar and was 96% sensitive (53/55) and 96% specific (49/51) when nucleic acid extracts from direct stool specimens were tested. These assays represent potential tools the clinical microbiologist could use to screen suspect isolates or stool specimens for Salmonella.

  10. Towards the development of a DNA-sequence based approach to serotyping of Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Julie MJ

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fliC and fljB genes in Salmonella code for the phase 1 (H1 and phase 2 (H2 flagellin respectively, the rfb cluster encodes the majority of enzymes for polysaccharide (O antigen biosynthesis, together they determine the antigenic profile by which Salmonella are identified. Sequencing and characterisation of fliC was performed in the development of a molecular serotyping technique. Results FliC sequencing of 106 strains revealed two groups; the g-complex included those exhibiting "g" or "m,t" antigenic factors, and the non-g strains which formed a second more diverse group. Variation in fliC was characterised and sero-specific motifs identified. Furthermore, it was possible to identify differences in certain H antigens that are not detected by traditional serotyping. A rapid short sequencing assay was developed to target serotype-specific sequence motifs in fliC. The assay was evaluated for identification of H1 antigens with a panel of 55 strains. Conclusion FliC sequences were obtained for more than 100 strains comprising 29 different H1 alleles. Unique pyrosequencing profiles corresponding to the H1 component of the serotype were generated reproducibly for the 23 alleles represented in the evaluation panel. Short read sequence assays can now be used to identify fliC alleles in approximately 97% of the 50 medically most important Salmonella in England and Wales. Capability for high throughput testing and automation give these assays considerable advantages over traditional methods.

  11. Identification and characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Albert isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folster, Jason P; Campbell, Davina; Grass, Julian; Brown, Allison C; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Joseph, Lavin A; Plumblee, Jodie R; Walker, Carrie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Whichard, Jean M

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment of invasive salmonellosis is critical. The primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and resistance to these antimicrobial drugs may complicate treatment. At present, S. enterica is composed of more than 2,600 unique serotypes, which vary greatly in geographic prevalence, ecological niche, and the ability to cause human disease, and it is important to understand and mitigate the source of human infection, particularly when antimicrobial resistance is found. In this study, we identified and characterized 19 S. enterica serotype Albert isolates collected from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States during 2005 to 2013. All five isolates from nonhuman sources were obtained from turkeys or ground turkey, and epidemiologic data suggest poultry consumption or live-poultry exposure as the probable source of infection. S. enterica serotype Albert also appears to be geographically localized to the midwestern United States. All 19 isolates displayed multidrug resistance, including decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Turkeys are a likely source of multidrug-resistant S. enterica serotype Albert, and circulation of resistance plasmids, as opposed to the expansion of a single resistant strain, is playing a role. More work is needed to understand why these resistance plasmids spread and how their presence and the serotype they reside in contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis, broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee, water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;, and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus found in the litter (S. Tennessee. Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris, and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata. Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150 were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi. The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi.

  13. Frequency, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella from feces and lymph nodes of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B.P. Guerra Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Salmonellosis is a foodborne disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella, being pigs and pork-products potentially important for its occurrence. In recent decades, some serovars of Salmonella have shown increase of resistance to conventional antimicrobials used in human and animal therapy, with serious risks for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate feces (n=50, mediastinal (n=50, mesenteric (n=50 and mandibular (n=50 lymph nodes obtained from slaughter houses for Salmonella spp. Positive samples were serotyped and subjected to an in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production. Salmonella species were identified in 10% (20/200 of total samples. From these, 20% (10/50 were identified in the submandibular lymph nodes, 18% (9/50 in the mesenteric lymph nodes, 2% (1/50 in feces and 0% (0/50 in the mediastinal lymph nodes. The serotypes found were Salonella Typhimurium (55%, S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12: i: - (35%, S. Brandenburg and S. Derby with 5% (5% each. All strains showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial; 90% were resistant to four or more antimicrobials, and 15% were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid was particularly prevalent amongst the tested serovars. Here, we highlighted the impact of pigs in the epidemiological chain of salmonellosis in domestic animals and humans, as well as the high antimicrobial resistance rates of Salmonella strains, reinforcing the necessity for responsible use of antimicrobials for animals as an emergent One Health issue, and to keep these drugs for human therapy approaches.

  14. Seagulls (Larus spp.) as vectors of salmonellae: an investigation into the range of serotypes and numbers of salmonellae in gull faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, D R

    1981-04-01

    Of 1241 samples of seagulls faeces examined, 12.9% were found to contain salmonellae. The number of positive samples was significantly higher (17-21%) near sewage outfalls. Twenty-seven serotypes were isolated, including a new serotype named Salmonella grampian. The range and frequency of serotypes carried by gulls was similar to those in the human population, suggesting sewage as a possible source of gull infection. The number of salmonellae found in positive samples was low (0.18-191 g-1 faeces). This was similar to the numbers found in sewage, 10-80 1-1, suggesting gulls may only carry infected material without infecting themselves. Antibiotic resistance in the isolates was low, only 21 showing resistance to the antibiotics tested, although most of these were determined by resistance transfer plasmids.

  15. Salmonella serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility in apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiflu, Bitsu; Alemayehu, Haile; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Negash, Yohannes; Eguale, Tadesse

    2017-05-19

    The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Of the total 360 dogs examined, 42 (11.7%; 95% Confidence limit of 8.5%-15.4%) were positive for Salmonella. Fourteen serotypes were detected and the predominant ones were S. Bronx (n = 7; 16.7%), S. Newport (n = 6; 14.3%), followed by S. Typhimurium, S. Indiana, S. Kentucky, S. Saintpaul and S. Virchow (n = 4; 9.5%) each. Salmonella infection status was significantly associated with history of symptom of diarrhea during the past 60 days (OR = 3.78; CI = 1.76-8.13; p = 0). Highest resistance rates were found for oxytetracycline (59.5%), neomycin (50%), streptomycin (38.1%), cephalothin (33.3%), doxycycline (30.9%), ampicillin (30.9%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (26.2%). Thirty eight (90.5%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials was detected in 30 (71.4%) of the isolates. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 19 (45.2%) of the isolates. This study demonstrated high carriage rate of Salmonella serotypes known for causing human salmonellosis and large proportion of them were resistant to antimicrobials used in public and veterinary medicine for management of various bacterial infections, suggesting the possible risk of infection of human population in close contact with these dogs by drug resistant pathogens. Therefore, it is vital to work on raising public awareness on zoonotic canine diseases prevention measures and good hygienic practices.

  16. Genetic characterisation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from poultry in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdel-Maksoud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-borne diseases pose serious health problems, affecting public health and economic development worldwide. Methods: Salmonella was isolated from samples of chicken parts, skin samples of whole chicken carcasses, raw egg yolks, eggshells and chicken faeces. Resulting isolates were characterised by serogrouping, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL production. Antibiotic resistance genes and integrons were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The detection rates of Salmonella were 60%, 64% and 62% in chicken parts, skin, and faeces, respectively, whereas the egg yolks and eggshells were uniformly negative. Salmonella Kentucky and S. Enteritidis serotypes comprised 43.6% and 2.6% of the isolates, respectively, whilst S. Typhimurium was absent. Variable resistance rates were observed against 16 antibiotics; 97% were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, 96% to nalidixic acid and tetracycline and 76% to ampicillin. Multidrug resistance was detected in 82% (64/78 of the isolates and ESBL production was detected in 8% (6/78. The β-lactamase blaTEM-1 gene was detected in 57.6% and blaSHV-1 in 6.8% of the isolates, whilst the blaOXA gene was absent. The sul1gene was detected in 97.3% and the sul2 gene in 5.3% of the isolates. Sixty-four of the 78 isolates (82% were positive for the integrase gene (int I from class 1 integrons, whilst int II was absent. Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of an alarming number of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates in the local poultry markets in Cairo. The high levels of drug resistance suggest an emerging problem that could impact negatively on efforts to prevent and treat poultry and poultry-transmitted human diseases in Egypt.

  17. High occurrence and unusual serotype diversity of non-typhoidal Salmonella in non-clinical niches, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Campos, J; Mourão, J; Ribeiro, T G; Novais, C; Peixe, L

    2017-04-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella is an important burden, particularly in developing countries of the African region. We report for the first time in Angola, a sub-Saharan African country with commercial/travel relationships with Europe, an unexpectedly high occurrence of Salmonella (n = 12/63, 19%) from a high diversity of sources, particularly farm and wild animals. The detection of diverse serotypes (n = 12), involving putative new S. enterica subsp. salamae serotypes, is also of note, reinforcing the need for a comprehensive surveillance in Angola critical to identify animal/food/environmental sources of salmonellosis with impact on animal health, local people, tourists and exported products.

  18. Rapid Emergence and Clonal Dissemination of CTX-M-15-Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-Yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kim, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the bla(CTX-M-15) extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea.

  19. Selective and genetic constraints on pneumococcal serotype switching.

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    Nicholas J Croucher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates typically express one of over 90 immunologically distinguishable polysaccharide capsules (serotypes, which can be classified into "serogroups" based on cross-reactivity with certain antibodies. Pneumococci can alter their serotype through recombinations affecting the capsule polysaccharide synthesis (cps locus. Twenty such "serotype switching" events were fully characterised using a collection of 616 whole genome sequences from systematic surveys of pneumococcal carriage. Eleven of these were within-serogroup switches, representing a highly significant (p < 0.0001 enrichment based on the observed serotype distribution. Whereas the recombinations resulting in between-serogroup switches all spanned the entire cps locus, some of those that caused within-serogroup switches did not. However, higher rates of within-serogroup switching could not be fully explained by either more frequent, shorter recombinations, nor by genetic linkage to genes involved in β-lactam resistance. This suggested the observed pattern was a consequence of selection for preserving serogroup. Phenotyping of strains constructed to express different serotypes in common genetic backgrounds was used to test whether genotypes were physiologically adapted to particular serogroups. These data were consistent with epistatic interactions between the cps locus and the rest of the genome that were specific to serotype, but not serogroup, meaning they were unlikely to account for the observed distribution of capsule types. Exclusion of these genetic and physiological hypotheses suggested future work should focus on alternative mechanisms, such as host immunity spanning multiple serotypes within the same serogroup, which might explain the observed pattern.

  20. CRISPR is an optimal target for the design of specific PCR assays for salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A.

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    Laetitia Fabre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotype-specific PCR assays targeting Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, the causal agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, are required to accelerate formal diagnosis and to overcome the lack of typing sera and, in some situations, the need for culture. However, the sensitivity and specificity of such assays must be demonstrated on large collections of strains representative of the targeted serotypes and all other bacterial populations producing similar clinical symptoms. METHODOLOGY: Using a new family of repeated DNA sequences, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, as a serotype-specific target, we developed a conventional multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A from cultured isolates. We also developed EvaGreen-based real-time singleplex PCR assays with the same two sets of primers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity for each protocol after validation of the assays on 188 serotype Typhi and 74 serotype Paratyphi A strains from diverse genetic groups, geographic origins and time periods and on 70 strains of bacteria frequently encountered in bloodstream infections, including 29 other Salmonella serotypes and 42 strains from 38 other bacterial species. CONCLUSIONS: The performance and convenience of our serotype-specific PCR assays should facilitate the rapid and accurate identification of these two major serotypes in a large range of clinical and public health laboratories with access to PCR technology. These assays were developed for use with DNA from cultured isolates, but with modifications to the assay, the CRISPR targets could be used in the development of assays for use with clinical and other samples.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children with typhoid fever and serotype of Salmonella typhi in Jakarta

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    Mirari Prasadajudio, Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Lia Waslia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indonesia is known for high incidence of typhoid fever especially in children. This study aimed to observe antibiotic susceptibility in circulating Salmonella typhi serotypes in children with typhoid. Methods: A cross sectional study design was conducted. A total of 142 blood samples from children between 1-18 years old clinically diagnosed with suspected typhoid fever were recruited between January 2012 and July 2013 from six health centers in Jakarta. Confirmed cases were retrieved based on S. typhi isolate finding in blood culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated and PCR was used to detect S. typhi serotypes using fliB, fliC and aroC genes. Results: The prevalence of confirmed typhoid case based on isolate finding was 22 (15.5%. Twenty of S. typhi isolates expressed fliC gene carrying H:d allele, the other two expressed j allele, while only two samples expressed fliB, all showed no difference in pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions: Circulating serotypes found in typhoid children in Jakarta, Indonesia are still susceptible even to the firstline antimicrobials. Thus, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole are still recommended. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 29-35

  2. The global establishment of a highly-fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198 strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hello, Simon; Bekhit, Amany; Granier, Sophie A.

    2013-01-01

    While the spread of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin across Africa and the Middle-East has been described recently, the presence of this strain in humans, food, various animal species (livestock, pets, and wildlife) and in environment is suspected in other countrie...

  3. Direct PCR - A rapid method for multiplexed detection of different serotypes of Salmonella in enriched pork meat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Wai Hoe; Sun, Yi; Høgberg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    , in this study, we developed a multiplex Direct PCR method for rapid detection of different Salmonella serotypes directly from pork meat samples without any DNA purification steps. An inhibitor-resistant Phusion Pfu DNA polymerase was used to overcome PCR inhibition. Four pairs of primers including a pair...

  4. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella serotypes isolated from chicken carcasses in Turkey

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    Zafer Ata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinolones have been extensively used for treatment of a variety of invasive and systemic infections of salmonellosis. Widespread use of these agents has been associated with the emergence and dissemination of quinolone-resistant pathogens. The quinolone resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6’-Ib-cr of 85 Salmonella isolates from chicken carcasses were investigated in this study. Isolates were serotyped according to the Kauffman-White-Le Minor scheme, and broth microdilution method was used to determine quinolone resistance. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were investigated by real-time PCR and positive results were confirmed by sequencing. Among the Salmonella isolates, 30/85 (35% and 18/85 (21% were found to be resistant to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/ml, and danofloxacin (MIC ≥ 2 mg/ml, respectively. All the isolates were negative for qnrA, qnrB and aac(6’-Ib-cr genes, nevertheless 2% (S. Brandenburg and S. Dabou were positive for qnrS (qnrS1 determinant. This study is the first and unique investigating the plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance determinants of Salmonella isolated from chicken carcasses in Turkey.

  5. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG5-PCR and ERIC-PCR

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    F. Fardsanei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7% was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1–P7 were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin.

  6. Proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Tyhimurium Grown in Low Mg2+/pH Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-09-04

    To determine the impact of a low Mg2+/pH defined growth medium (MgM) on the proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, we cultured S. Typhimurium cells in the medium under two different conditions termed MgM Shock and MgM Dilution and then comparatively analyzed the bacterial cells harvested from these conditions by a global proteomic approach. Proteomic results showed that MgM Shock and MgM Dilution differentially affected the S. Typhimurium proteome. MgM Shock induced a group of proteins whose induction usually occurred at low O2 level, while MgM Dilution induced those related to the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) and those involved in thiamine or biotin biosynthesis. The metabolic state of the S. Typhimurium cells grown under MgM Shock condition also differed significantly from that under MgM Dilution condition. Western blot analysis not only confirmed the proteomic results, but also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after S. Typhimurium infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the bacterial ability to replicate inside the macrophages, suggesting a biotin-limited environment encountered by S. Typhimurium within RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  7. Dissemination of Zoonotic Antibiotic Resistant Serotypes of Salmonella by Caspian Pond Turtles, Golestan and Mazandaran Provinces, Iran

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    Somayeh Namroodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella spp. are widespread zoonotic pathogens with economic importance for both humans and animals. They are categorized as the natural flora of the gastrointestinal tract of many reptiles. Human salmonellosis acquired from contact with reptiles is a well-recognized medical problem. Objective: The frequency of Salmonella contamination in Caspian pond turtles was surveyed to evaluate the danger of exposure or disease risk for humans as these species are abundant around the villages in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from Caspian pond turtles were tested by standard bacteriological methods and positive samples were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests on isolated Salmonella strains were also performed. Results: Out of 150 samples, 54 turtles were detected to be contaminated with Salmonella. Of the 54 Salmonella isolates, 38.8% (21/54 were serotyped as S. typhimurium; 35.1% (19/54 as S. enterica subsp. enterica; 9.2% (5/54 as S. enterica subsp. salamae; 9.2% (5/54 as S. enterica subsp. arizona; and 7.4% (4/54 as S. enterica subsp. houtenae. Female (28/80, 35% and male (26/74, 35.1% turtles showed equal incidence of Salmonella spp. contamination. Resistance was mostly observed against ampicillin (37% followed by tetracycline (33.3%, nalidixic acid (7.4%, ciprofloxacin (5.5%, and cotrimoxazole (3.7%. The highest susceptibility was observed against gentamicin (100% and trimethoprim (98.1%. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that people who are in close exposure to Caspian pond turtles and their feces are at the risk of Salmonella contamination. Accordingly, fundamental principles of hygiene should be applied in human contact with Caspian pond turtles. Furthermore, people should be educated about the Salmonella contamination which may occur through Caspian pond turtles.

  8. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  9. In vivo expression of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi genes in the blood of patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

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    Alaullah Sheikh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans.We applied an RNA capture and amplification technique, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS, and microarray hybridization to identify S. Typhi transcripts expressed in the blood of five humans infected with S. Typhi in Bangladesh. In total, we detected the expression of mRNAs for 2,046 S. Typhi genes (44% of the S. Typhi genome in human blood; expression of 912 genes was detected in all 5 patients, and expression of 1,100 genes was detected in 4 or more patients. Identified transcripts were associated with the virulence-associated PhoP regulon, Salmonella pathogenicity islands, the use of alternative carbon and energy sources, synthesis and transport of iron, thiamine, and biotin, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides and oxidative stress. The most highly represented group were genes currently annotated as encoding proteins designated as hypothetical, unknown, or unclassified. Of the 2,046 detected transcripts, 1,320 (29% of the S. Typhi genome had significantly different levels of detection in human blood compared to in vitro cultures; detection of 141 transcripts was significantly different in all 5 patients, and detection of 331 transcripts varied in at least 4 patients. These mRNAs encode proteins of unknown function, those involved in energy metabolism, transport and binding, cell envelope, cellular processes, and pathogenesis. We confirmed increased expression of a subset of identified mRNAs by quantitative-PCR.We report the first characterization of bacterial transcriptional profiles in the blood of patients with typhoid fever. S. Typhi is an important global pathogen whose restricted host range has greatly inhibited laboratory studies. Our results suggest that S. Typhi uses a largely uncharacterized genetic repertoire to survive within cells and utilize alternate

  10. The global establishment of a highly-fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198 strain

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    Simon eLe Hello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While the spread of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin across Africa and the Middle-East has been described recently, the presence of this strain in humans, food, various animal species (livestock, pets, and wildlife and in environment is suspected in other countries of different continents. Here, we report results of an in-depth molecular epidemiological study on a global human and non-human collection of S. Kentucky (n=70.We performed XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, assessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions, detected β-lactam resistance mechanisms, and screened the presence of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1. In this study, we highlight the rapid and extensive worldwide dissemination of the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198-X1-SGI1 strain since the mid-2000s in an increasingly large number of contaminated sources, including the environment. This strain has accumulated an increasing number of chromosomal and plasmid resistance determinants and has been identified in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Europe since 2010. The second substitution at position 87 in GyrA (replacing the amino acid Asp appeared helpful for epidemiological studies to track the origin of contamination.This global study provides evidence leading to the conclusion that high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. Kentucky is a simple microbiological trait that facilitates the identification of the epidemic clone of interest, ST198-X1-SGI1. Taking this into account is essential in order to detect and monitor it easily and to take rapid measures in livestock to ensure control of this infection.

  11. An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutrosa subgutrosa) and a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Tiffany M; Wünschmann, Arno; Morningstar-Shaw, Brenda; Pantlin, Gayle C; Rasmussen, James M; Thompson, Rachel L

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis enteritis occurred in two juvenile goitered gazelles and an adult Malayan tapir over a period of 5 wk at the Minnesota Zoo. Diagnosis was made postmortem on one gazelle and one tapir, and a second gazelle was diagnosed via fecal culture. The death of the tapir was attributed to S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis septicemia, while salmonellosis was considered to be a contributing factor besides ostertagiasis for the death of one goitered gazelle and for the diarrhea of another goitered gazelle. A third gazelle became ill in the same time period, but Salmonella infection was not confirmed by culture. All exhibited the clinical signs of profuse, watery diarrhea. The gazelles developed a protein-losing enteropathy, and the tapir showed signs of sepsis and endotoxemia. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the Salmonella isolates to be indistinguishable from each other. One year prior to this outbreak, Salmonella sp. was cultured from a Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) housed in the same building as the tapir. After further investigation into the outbreak, spread of this pathogen was speculated to be associated with human movement across animal areas.

  12. Differential induction of total IgE by two Salmonella enterica serotypes

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    Zhanna eKtsoyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to establish how the inflammation caused by infection with two different Salmonella enterica serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, may lead to the predisposition to allergy as measured by total IgE level in the blood. Infection by S. Typhimurium did not affect the systemic IgE concentration while in S. Enteritidis-infected patients there was a significant 3.5-fold increase. This effect was especially profound in patients >4 years old, with up to the eight-fold increase above the norm. The degree of dysbiosis in these two infections measured with the comparative counts of cultivated bacteria showed an inverse relationship with the IgE concentration. Earlier we reported the elevated level of IL-17 in patients infected by S. Enteritidis. In the current study a significant correlation was found between the concentrations of IL-17 and IgE suggesting a possible role played by this cytokine in triggering the production of IgE in response to S. Enteritidis infection.

  13. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile

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    Patricio eRetamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Results of phenotypic assays showed diversity of survival capabilities among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans.

  14. Comparative genomic analysis uncovers 3 novel loci encoding type six secretion systems differentially distributed in Salmonella serotypes

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    Santiviago Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently described Type VI Secretion System (T6SS represents a new paradigm of protein secretion in bacteria. A number of bioinformatic studies have been conducted to identify T6SS gene clusters in the available bacterial genome sequences. According to these studies, Salmonella harbors a unique T6SS encoded in the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 6 (SPI-6. Since these studies only considered few Salmonella genomes, the present work aimed to identify novel T6SS loci by in silico analysis of every genome sequence of Salmonella available. Results The analysis of sequencing data from 44 completed or in progress Salmonella genome projects allowed the identification of 3 novel T6SS loci. These clusters are located in differentially-distributed genomic islands we designated SPI-19, SPI-20 and SPI-21, respectively. SPI-19 was identified in a subset of S. enterica serotypes including Dublin, Weltevreden, Agona, Gallinarum and Enteritidis. In the later, an internal deletion eliminated most of the island. On the other hand, SPI-20 and SPI-21 were restricted to S. enterica subspecies arizonae (IIIa serotype 62:z4,z23:-. Remarkably, SPI-21 encodes a VgrG protein containing a C-terminal extension similar to S-type pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is not only the first evolved VgrG described in Salmonella, but also the first evolved VgrG including a pyocin domain described so far in the literature. In addition, the data indicate that SPI-6 T6SS is widely distributed in S. enterica and absent in serotypes Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Agona, Javiana, Paratyphi B, Virchow, IIIa 62:z4,z23:- and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Interestingly, while some serotypes harbor multiple T6SS (Dublin, Weltvreden and IIIa 62:z4,z23:- others do not encode for any (Enteritidis, Paratyphi B, Javiana, Virchow and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 4 T6SS loci in Salmonella have a distinct evolutionary history. Finally, we

  15. Polyphyletic Nature of Salmonella enterica Serotype Derby and Lineage-Specific Host-Association Revealed by Genome-Wide Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévellec, Yann; Vignaud, Marie-Léone; Granier, Sophie A.; Lailler, Renaud; Feurer, Carole; Le Hello, Simon; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Cadel-Six, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    In France, Salmonella Derby is one of the most prevalent serotypes in pork and poultry meat. Since 2006, it has ranked among the 10 most frequent Salmonella serotypes isolated in humans. In previous publications, Salmonella Derby isolates have been characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles revealing the existence of different pulsotypes and AMR phenotypic groups. However, these results suffer from the low discriminatory power of these typing methods. In the present study, we built a collection of 140 strains of S. Derby collected in France from 2014 to 2015 representative of the pork and poultry food sectors. The whole collection was characterized using whole genome sequencing (WGS), providing a significant contribution to the knowledge of this underrepresented serotype, with few genomes available in public databases. The genetic diversity of the S. Derby strains was analyzed by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We also investigated AMR by both genome and phenotype, the main Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) and the fimH gene sequences. Our results show that this S. Derby collection is spread across four different lineages genetically distant by an average of 15k SNPs. These lineages correspond to four multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types (ST39, ST40, ST71, and ST682), which were found to be associated with specific animal hosts: pork and poultry. While the ST71 and ST682 strains are pansusceptible, ST40 isolates are characterized by the multidrug resistant profile STR-SSS-TET. Considering virulence determinants, only ST39 and ST40 present the SPI-23, which has previously been associated with pork enterocyte invasion. Furthermore, the pork ST682 isolates were found to carry mutations in the fimH sequence that could participate in the host tropism of this group. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the polyphyletic nature of the Salmonella serotype Derby and provides an opportunity to identify

  16. Polyphyletic Nature of Salmonella enterica Serotype Derby and Lineage-Specific Host-Association Revealed by Genome-Wide Analysis

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    Yann Sévellec

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In France, Salmonella Derby is one of the most prevalent serotypes in pork and poultry meat. Since 2006, it has ranked among the 10 most frequent Salmonella serotypes isolated in humans. In previous publications, Salmonella Derby isolates have been characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and antimicrobial resistance (AMR profiles revealing the existence of different pulsotypes and AMR phenotypic groups. However, these results suffer from the low discriminatory power of these typing methods. In the present study, we built a collection of 140 strains of S. Derby collected in France from 2014 to 2015 representative of the pork and poultry food sectors. The whole collection was characterized using whole genome sequencing (WGS, providing a significant contribution to the knowledge of this underrepresented serotype, with few genomes available in public databases. The genetic diversity of the S. Derby strains was analyzed by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. We also investigated AMR by both genome and phenotype, the main Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI and the fimH gene sequences. Our results show that this S. Derby collection is spread across four different lineages genetically distant by an average of 15k SNPs. These lineages correspond to four multilocus sequence typing (MLST types (ST39, ST40, ST71, and ST682, which were found to be associated with specific animal hosts: pork and poultry. While the ST71 and ST682 strains are pansusceptible, ST40 isolates are characterized by the multidrug resistant profile STR-SSS-TET. Considering virulence determinants, only ST39 and ST40 present the SPI-23, which has previously been associated with pork enterocyte invasion. Furthermore, the pork ST682 isolates were found to carry mutations in the fimH sequence that could participate in the host tropism of this group. Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the polyphyletic nature of the Salmonella serotype Derby and provides an opportunity

  17. Salmonella serotypeTyphi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Yitayew, Gashaw; Amare, Hiwot

    2016-02-28

    Food handlers play a major role in the transmission of Salmonella serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), Shigella, and intestinal parasites. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Stool samples from 410 food handlers were examined for bacterial pathogens and parasites. Pearson's Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used where appropriate. The prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers was 11 (2.7%), 5 (1.2%), and 53 (12.9%), respectively. Among eight intestinal parasites identified, the two most prevalent intestinal parasites were hookworm 26 (6.3%) and G. lamblia 13 (3.1%). Male food handlers were more likely to be positive than were female food handlers for S. Typhi and intestinal parasites. Furthermore, food handlers who had a history of regular medical checkups were less infected with intestinal parasites. Being male (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4) and not attending medical checkups (AOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection in food handlers. Male food handlers were reluctant to have regular parasitological examinations. There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures.

  18. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-2-Producing Salmonella Serotypes from Clinical and Nonhuman Isolates in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sueli Aparecida; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Francisco, Gabriela Rodrigues; Bueno, Maria Fernanda Campagnari; Garcia, Doroti Oliveira; Doi, Yohei; Casas, Monique Ribeiro Tiba

    2017-07-01

    We characterized extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) enzymes among Salmonella strains isolated in Brazil from 2009 to 2014. Salmonella recovered from both clinical and nonhuman (food, poultry, and environment) sources were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. β-lactamases genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction/sequencing; plasmid profiles and transferability were assessed by S1-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genetic diversity was evaluated by XbaI-PFGE. Out of 630 Salmonella strains screened, 46 displayed ESBL phenotype, distributed across 11 different serotypes. bla CTX-M-8 and bla CTX-M-2 genes were detected at frequencies of 47% and 41%, respectively. bla SHV-5 and bla SHV-2 were also detected but in lower frequencies (4%, 2%). bla TEM-1 gene was detected in 22% of the strains. Most of the ESBL genes were transferable by conjugation, and the respective bla ESBL gene was detected in the recipient strain, indicating the location of ESBL determinants on transferable plasmids. XbaI-PFGE revealed genomic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium bearing bla CTX-M-2 , bla CTX-M-8 , bla TEM-1 , and bla SHV-2 genes. Salmonella Muenchen (harboring bla CTX-M-2 ) and Salmonella Corvallis (bla CTX-M-8 and bla SHV-5 ) showed clonal relatedness within respective serotypes. Our findings underscore the occurrence of diverse ESBL genes in several Salmonella serotypes, reinforcing the need for continuous surveillance of resistance genes circulating in human and nonhuman sources.

  19. Complete Sequences of Six IncA/C Plasmids of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serotype Newport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Muruvanda, Tim; Luo, Yan; Payne, Justin; Rump, Lydia; Meng, Kevin; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F; Brown, Eric W; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-02-26

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Newport has been a long-standing public health concern in the United States. We present the complete sequences of six IncA/C plasmids from animal-derived MDR S. Newport ranging from 80.1 to 158.5 kb. They shared a genetic backbone with S. Newport IncA/C plasmids pSN254 and pAM04528. Copyright © 2015 Cao et al.

  20. Analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A gene expression in the blood of bacteremic patients in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaullah Sheikh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is a human-restricted cause of paratyphoid fever, accounting for up to a fifth of all cases of enteric fever in Asia.In this work, we applied an RNA analysis method, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS, and cDNA hybridization-microarray technology to identify S. Paratyphi A transcripts expressed by bacteria in the blood of three patients in Bangladesh. In total, we detected 1,798 S. Paratyphi A mRNAs expressed in the blood of infected humans (43.9% of the ORFeome. Of these, we identified 868 in at least two patients, and 315 in all three patients. S. Paratyphi A transcripts identified in at least two patients encode proteins involved in energy metabolism, nutrient and iron acquisition, vitamin biosynthesis, stress responses, oxidative stress resistance, and pathogenesis. A number of detected transcripts are expressed from PhoP and SlyA-regulated genes associated with intra-macrophage survival, genes contained within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs 1-4, 6, 10, 13, and 16, as well as RpoS-regulated genes. The largest category of identified transcripts is that of encoding proteins with unknown function. When comparing levels of bacterial mRNA using in vivo samples collected from infected patients to samples from in vitro grown organisms, we found significant differences for 347, 391, and 456 S. Paratyphi A transcripts in each of three individual patients (approximately 9.7% of the ORFeome. Of these, expression of 194 transcripts (4.7% of ORFs was concordant in two or more patients, and 41 in all patients. Genes encoding these transcripts are contained within SPI-1, 3, 6 and 10, PhoP-regulated genes, involved in energy metabolism, nutrient acquisition, drug resistance, or uncharacterized genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed increased gene expression in vivo for a subset of these genes.To our knowledge, we describe the first microarray-based transcriptional analysis of a pathogen

  1. Potential public health significance of faecal contamination and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes in a lake in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhirosh, C; Sherin, V; Thomas, A P; Hatha, A A M; Mazumder, A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of faecal coliform bacteria and multiple drug resistance among Escherichia coli and Salmonella serotypes from Vembanadu Lake. Systematic microbiological testing. Monthly collection of water samples were made from ten stations on the southern and northern parts of a salt water regulator constructed in Vembanadu Lake in order to prevent incursion of seawater during certain periods of the year. Density of faecal colifrom bacteria was estimated. E. coli and Salmonella were isolated and their different serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance analysis of E. coli and Salmonella serotypes was done and the MAR index of individual isolates was calculated. Density of faecal coliform bacteria ranged from mean MPN value 2900 -7100/100ml. Results showed multiple drug resistance pattern among the bacterial isolates. E. coli showed more than 50% resistance to amickacin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and kanamycin while Salmonella showed high resistance to oxytetracycline, streptomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. The MAR indexing of the isolates showed that they have originated from high risk source such as humans, poultry and dairy cows. The high density of faecal coliform bacteria and prevalence of multi drug resistant E. coli and Salmonella serotypes in the lake may pose severe public health risk through related water borne and food borne outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence and persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of spray-irrigated parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisluk, Guy; Yaron, Sima

    2012-06-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the major food-borne pathogens associated with ready-to-eat fresh foods. Although polluted water might be a significant source of contamination in the field, factors that influence the transfer of Salmonella from water to the crops are not well understood, especially under conditions of low pathogen levels in water. The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term (1 h to 28 days) persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere of parsley following spray irrigation with contaminated water. Plate counting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based methods were implemented for the quantification. By applying qRT-PCR with enrichment, we were able to show that even irrigation with water containing as little as ∼300 CFU/ml resulted in the persistence of S. Typhimurium on the plants for 48 h. Irrigation with water containing 8.5 log CFU/ml resulted in persistence of the bacteria in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere for at least 4 weeks, but the population steadily declined with a major reduction in bacterial counts, of ∼2 log CFU/g, during the first 2 days. Higher levels of Salmonella were detected in the phyllosphere when plants were irrigated during the night compared to irrigation during the morning and during winter compared to the other seasons. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated water to crops, as well as its persistence over time, will enable the implementation of effective irrigation and control strategies.

  3. Combined effect of water activity, radiation dose, and temperature during irradiation on the survival of three Salmonella serotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Stationary-phase cells of S. typhimurium, S. thompson and S. senftenberg were irradiated at room temperature with 10 MeV electrons, either in water or in glucose, glyzerine, NaCl, CaCl 2 , or LiCl solutions of different concentrations. Furhter experimental parameters, i.e. the temperatures O 0 C and 50 0 C, were investigated in samples whose water activity had been adjusted to certain asub(W) values. Using the sorption isotherm method, different water activities were obtained in egg powder at temperatures of 5 0 C, 25 0 C, and 45 0 C. In all experiments, the survival of Salmonellae was investigated by determining the number of surface germs. In saccharose, glucose, glyzerine, and NaCl, the radioresistance of Salmonellae increases with decreasing water activity. There is a linear relation at different temperatures between D 10 values and asub(W) values in saccharose and glucose. In glyzerine solutions, the D 10 values show a steep rise with decreasing asub(W) = 1.0 and 0.9 and a less steep rise below 0.9. Below asub(W) = 0.5, they do not change any further. At asub(W) values below 0,90, CaCl 2 and LiCl show a strong cytotoxic effect, independent of irradiation. The higher the temperature on irradiation, the lower will be the radioresistance of Salmonellae. Irradiation at a temperature of 50 0 C showed a synergistic effect. The radioresistance of Salmonellae in egg powder increased with decreasing asub(W) value of the egg powder. When egg powder was irradiated at 45 0 C, there was a strong synergistic effect which is important for practical applications of irradiation in egg powder sterilisation. The radioresistance of Salmonellae in egg powder was independent of the serotype. (orig./MG) [de

  4. What’s in a Name? Species-Wide Whole-Genome Sequencing Resolves Invasive and Noninvasive Lineages of Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Connor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For 100 years, it has been obvious that Salmonella enterica strains sharing the serotype with the formula 1,4,[5],12:b:1,2—now known as Paratyphi B—can cause diseases ranging from serious systemic infections to self-limiting gastroenteritis. Despite considerable predicted diversity between strains carrying the common Paratyphi B serotype, there remain few methods that subdivide the group into groups that are congruent with their disease phenotypes. Paratyphi B therefore represents one of the canonical examples in Salmonella where serotyping combined with classical microbiological tests fails to provide clinically informative information. Here, we use genomics to provide the first high-resolution view of this serotype, placing it into a wider genomic context of the Salmonella enterica species. These analyses reveal why it has been impossible to subdivide this serotype based upon phenotypic and limited molecular approaches. By examining the genomic data in detail, we are able to identify common features that correlate with strains of clinical importance. The results presented here provide new diagnostic targets, as well as posing important new questions about the basis for the invasive disease phenotype observed in a subset of strains.

  5. Failure of oral antibiotic therapy, including azithromycin, in the treatment of a recurrent breast abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shelanah; Molland, Janice Gail; Gottlieb, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    We report a case of recurrent, multifocal Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A breast abscesses, resistant to ciprofloxacin, which relapsed despite surgery, aspiration and multiple courses of antibiotics, including co-trimoxazole and azithromycin. The patient was cured after a prolonged course of intravenous ceftriaxone.

  6. Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Presenting as a Primary Psoas Abscess: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, William A.; Davie, Daniel; Tonnerre, Claude; Rubin, Michael A.; Strong, Michael; Petti, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess. The isolate tested susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to nalidixic acid in vitro, a pattern associated with fluoroquinolone therapeutic failures. We review the literature for serovar Typhi psoas abscess in the absence of bacteremia and discuss the importance of identifying isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMID:15695728

  7. Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, William A; Davie, Daniel; Tonnerre, Claude; Rubin, Michael A; Strong, Michael; Petti, Cathy A

    2005-02-01

    We report an unusual case of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess. The isolate tested susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to nalidixic acid in vitro, a pattern associated with fluoroquinolone therapeutic failures. We review the literature for serovar Typhi psoas abscess in the absence of bacteremia and discuss the importance of identifying isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.

  8. Prevalence, serotype diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in imported shipments of spice offered for entry to the United States, FY2007-FY2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jane M; Kleinmeier, Daria; Hammack, Thomas S; Westerman, Ann

    2013-06-01

    In response to increased concerns about spice safety, the U.S. FDA initiated research to characterize the prevalence of Salmonella in imported spices. Shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United Sates were sampled during the fiscal years 2007-2009. The mean shipment prevalence for Salmonella was 0.066 (95% CI 0.057-0.076). A wide diversity of Salmonella serotypes was isolated from spices; no single serotype constituted more than 7% of the isolates. A small percentage of spice shipments were contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains (8.3%). Trends in shipment prevalence for Salmonella associated with spice properties, extent of processing, and export country, were examined. A larger proportion of shipments of spices derived from fruit/seeds or leaves of plants were contaminated than those derived from the bark/flower of spice plants. Salmonella prevalence was larger for shipments of ground/cracked capsicum and coriander than for shipments of their whole spice counterparts. No difference in prevalence was observed between shipments of spice blends and non-blended spices. Some shipments reported to have been subjected to a pathogen reduction treatment prior to being offered for U.S. entry were found contaminated. Statistical differences in Salmonella shipment prevalence were also identified on the basis of export country. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. WHO global salm-surv external quality assurance system (EQAS): an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Angulo, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    % of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 92% of the results were in agreement with the expected results. However, only 78% of the performed tests with the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain were within the quality control range specified by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards...... susceptibility testing through international training courses and an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS). In 2000, 44 WHO Global Salm-Surv member laboratories from 35 countries determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for eight "blinded" Salmonella isolates. For serotyping, 73...... (NCCLS) guidelines. These EQAS results demonstrate the need for further training to improve the performance of some of the laboratories. WHO Global Salm-Surv activities, including international training courses and EQAS, represent an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping...

  10. Serovariedades y patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de Salmonella aisladas de alimentos en Cuba Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella strains isolated from food in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Puig Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los serotipos de 178 cepas de Salmonella enterica aisladas de alimentos en diferentes regiones de Cuba entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009, y el patrón de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de 100 aislados seleccionados mediante muestreo por estratos. Se identificaron 20 serovariedades de Salmonella entre las que predominaron S. Enteritidis (23%; S. Agona (13,5% y S. London (11,2%. Del total, 75% de las cepas fueron resistentes o presentaron resistencia intermedia a al menos uno de los fármacos probados, en el siguiente orden, según su frecuencia: tetraciclina (70,7%; ampicilina (22,7% y ácido nalidíxico (14,7%. Se identificaron 10 patrones de resistencia diferentes y predominaron las cepas resistentes o conresistencia intermedia a un fármaco (89,3%. Tres cepas (S. Infantis, S. Derby y S. Enteritidis fueron multirresistentes y una, de S. Enteritidis, dio un resultado no sensible al ácido nalidíxico y la ciprofloxacina. Se destaca la necesidad de extremar la vigilancia sanitaria integrada en el país para el control de la salmonelosis.The serotypes of 178 isolates of Salmonella enterica taken from food in different regions of Cuba between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 selected isolates was determined by strata sampling. A total of 20 Salmonella serotypes were identified, with a predominance of S. Enteritidis (23%, S. Agona (13.5%, and S. London (11.2%. Of all the strains, 75% were resistant or presented intermediate resistance to at least one of the drugs tested, in the following order: tetracycline (70.7%, ampicillin (22.7%, and nalidixic acid (14.7%. Ten different resistance patterns were identified. The most frequent patterns corresponded to strains that were either drugresistant or had intermediate resistance (89.3%. Three strains (identified as S. Infantis, S. Derby, and S. Enteritidis were multiresistant, and one of them, S. Enteritidis, was

  11. In vitro selection of RNA aptamer specific to Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Ryul; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2013-06-28

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that causes a variety of human diseases. Development of ligands directly and specifically binding to the Salmonella will be crucial for the rapid detection of, and thus for efficient protection from, the virulent bacteria. In this study, we identified a RNA aptamer-based ligand that can specifically recognize Salmonella Typhimurium through SELEX technology. To this end, we isolated and characterized an RNase-resistant RNA aptamer that bound to the OmpC protein of Salmonella Typhimurium with high specificity and affinity (Kd ~ 20 nM). Of note, the selected aptamer was found to specifically bind to Salmonella Typhimurium, but neither to Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) nor to other Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7). This was evinced by aptamer-immobilized ELISA and aptamer-linked precipitation experiments. This Salmonella species-specific aptamer could be useful as a diagnostic ligand against pathogen-caused foodborne sickness.

  12. A multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting virulence and resistance genes in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisabois Anne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typhimurium is the main serotype of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica implicated in food-borne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of ten markers combined in a macro-array based on multiplex real-time PCR. We targeted characteristic determinants located on pathogenicity islands (SPI-2 to -5, virulence plasmid pSLT and Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1 as well as a specific 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequence of definitive type 104 (DT104. To investigate antimicrobial resistance, the study also targeted the presence of genes involved in sulfonamide (sul1 and beta-lactam (blaTEM resistance. Finally, the intI1 determinant encoding integrase from class 1 integron was also investigated. Results A total of 538 unrelated S. Typhimurium strains isolated between 1999 and 2009 from various sources, including food animals, food products, human and environmental samples were studied. Based on the combined presence or absence of these markers, we distinguished 34 different genotypes, including three major genotypes encountered in 75% of the studied strains, Although SPI determinants were almost always detected, SGI1, intI1, sul1 and blaTEM determinants were found 47%, 52%, 54% and 12% of the time respectively, varying according to isolation source. Low-marker patterns were most often detected in poultry sources whereas full-marker patterns were observed in pig, cattle and human sources. Conclusion The GeneDisc® assay developed in this study madeit easier to explore variability within serotype Typhimurium by analyzing ten relevant gene determinants in a large collection of strains. This real-time multiplex method constitutes a valuable tool for strains characterization on epidemiological purposes.

  13. Postharvest transfer and survival of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis on living lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, J A; Kuhn, D D; Welbaum, G E; Ponder, M A

    2014-02-01

    The potential for postharvest transfer of Salmonella to 'living lettuce' is not well understood. In this study, the transfer of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (6 log CFU g(-1) ) from worker hands or contaminated roots to leaves of living lettuce was quantified. Transfer rates of Salmonella from contaminated gloves to sequentially handled lettuce heads ranged from 94% to head 1, 82% to head 2 and 69% to head 3. On average, 2.9 ± 0.1 log CFU g(-1) (64%) Salmonella was transferred from inoculated roots to leaves resulting from typical postharvest handling activities for living lettuce. Salmonella persisted on leaves stored at recommended storage temperatures (4°C) and increased 0.5 log CFU g(-1) when stored at temperature abuse conditions (12°C). Salmonella increased 1.6 log CFU g(-1) on roots after 18-day storage at 12°C, emphasizing the need to maintain temperature control to reduce the risk of human illness. Hydroponically grown lettuce packaged in plastic clamshells with intact roots, marketed as 'living lettuce', is increasing in popularity due to its extended shelf life. This study demonstrates the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated worker hands and contaminated roots to leaves where it persisted at 4°C for 18 day. Temperature abuse (12°C) increased Salmonella on roots and leaves. These findings suggest that failure to maintain temperatures below 12°C can pose a risk for consumers purchasing living lettuce at markets where recommended storage temperatures are not maintained. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.

    2014-01-01

    serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains...

  15. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    Full Text Available Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana, which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs, suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts

  16. Population Dynamics of Salmonella enterica Serotypes in Commercial Egg and Poultry Production ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Steven L.; Nayak, Rajesh; Hanning, Irene B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Han, Jing; Ricke, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh and processed poultry have been frequently implicated in cases of human salmonellosis. Furthermore, increased consumption of meat and poultry has increased the potential for exposure to Salmonella enterica. While advances have been made in reducing the prevalence and frequency of Salmonella contamination in processed poultry, there is mounting pressure on commercial growers to prevent and/or eliminate these human pathogens in preharvest production facilities. Several factors contribute to Salmonella colonization in commercial poultry, including the serovar and the infectious dose. In the early 1900s, Salmonella enterica serovars Pullorum and Gallinarum caused widespread diseases in poultry, but vaccination and other voluntary programs helped eradicate pullorum disease and fowl typhoid from commercial flocks. However, the niche created by the eradication of these serovars was likely filled by S. Enteritidis, which proliferated in the bird populations. While this pathogen remains a significant problem in commercial egg and poultry production, its prevalence among poultry has been declining since the 1990s. Coinciding with the decrease of S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Kentucky have emerged as the predominant serovars in commercial broilers. In this review, we have highlighted bacterial genetic and host-related factors that may contribute to such shifts in Salmonella populations in commercial poultry and intervention strategies that could limit their colonization. PMID:21571882

  17. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Compartir Find out about Salmonella infections linked to Kellogg’s Honey Smacks Cereal Find out about Salmonella infections ... Outbreaks Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Linked to Kellogg’s Honey Smacks Cereal Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Adelaide ...

  18. Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of salmonella species from selected vegetables sold in a north-central ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... of the pure isolates testing positive as being pathogenic after biochemical analysis.

  19. Systemic and local cytokine response of young piglets to oral infection with salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trebichavský, Ilja; Šplíchal, Igor; Šplíchalová, Alla; Muneta, Y.; Mori, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 403-407 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0917; GA ČR GA524/02/1217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : salmonella * enterica Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  20. SEROTYPES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SSP IN CENTRAL THAILAND, 2001-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantip, Sirichote; Aroon, B.; Kanokwan, Tienmanee

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to elucidate the epidemiological trends and antimicrobial susceptibilities against Salmonella serovars among Thai patients and asymptomatic carriers during 2001-2006 in central Thailand. A total of 1,401 human and 260 non-human isolates from various sources were include...

  1. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis vector delivering SaoA antigen confers protection against Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 7 in mice and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-An; Ji, Zhenying; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shifeng; Shi, Huoying

    2017-12-21

    Streptococcus suis is one of the major pathogens that cause economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. However, current bacterins only provide limited prophylactic protection in the field. An ideal vaccine against S. suis should protect pigs against the clinical diseases caused by multiple serotypes, or at least protect against the dominant serotype in a given geographic region. A new recombinant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis vaccine vector, rSC0011, that is based on the regulated delayed attenuation system and regulated delayed antigen synthesis system, was developed recently. In this study, an improved recombinant attenuated Salmonella Choleraesuis vector, rSC0016, was developed by incorporating a sopB mutation to ensure adequate safety and maximal immunogenicity. In the spleens of mice, rSC0016 colonized less than rSC0011. rSC0016 and rSC0011 colonized similarly in Peyer's patches of mice. The recombinant vaccine rSC0016(pS-SaoA) induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses in mice and swine against SaoA, a conserved surface protein that is present in many S. suis serotypes, than did rSC0011(pS-SaoA) without sopB or rSC0018(pS-SaoA), which is an avirulent, chemically attenuated vaccine strain. rSC0016(pS-SaoA) provided 100% protection against S. suis serotype 2 in mice and pigs, and full cross-protection against SS7 in pigs. This new vaccine vector provides a foundation for the development of a universal vaccine against multiple serotypes of S. suis in pigs.

  2. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and co-infection with parasites among patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal complaints in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, Tadesse; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Asrat, Daniel; Alemayehu, Haile; Gunn, John S; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2015-11-04

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important public health problem worldwide. Consumption of animal-derived food products and direct and/or indirect contact with animals are the major routes of acquiring infection with NTS. Published information, particularly on the serotype distribution of NTS among human patients with gastroenteritis and associated risk factors, is scarce in Ethiopia. This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella species among diarrheic out-patients attending health centers in Addis Ababa and patients with various gastrointestinal complaints at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Stool samples were cultured for Salmonella species according to the WHO Global Foodborne Infections Network laboratory protocol. Salmonella serotyping was conducted using slide agglutination and microplate agglutination techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 59 (6.2 %) stool samples, out of 957 were culture positive for Salmonella species. Fifty-five (7.2 %) of 765 diarrheic patients from health centers and 4 (2.1 %) of 192 patients from TASH were culture positive for Salmonella species. Multivariable logistic regression analysis after adjusting for all other variables revealed statistically significant association of Salmonella infection with consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95 % CI = 1.29-2.83, χ(2) = 4.74, p = 0.025) and symptom of watery diarrhea (OR = 3.3, 95 % CI = 1.23-8.88, χ(2) = 10.54, p = 0.005). Eleven serotypes were detected, and the most prominent were S. Typhimurium (37.3 %), S. Virchow (34 %), and S. Kottbus (10.2 %). Other serotypes were S. Miami, S. Kentucky, S. Newport, S. Enteritidis, S. Braenderup, S. Saintpaul, S. Concord and S. V:ROUGH-O. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 27 (40.3 %) of the

  3. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium Std fimbriae bind terminal α (1,2)fucose residues in the cecal mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Daniela; Winter, Maria G.; Jakomin, Marcello; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The std operon encodes a fimbrial adhesin of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium that is required for attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and for cecal colonization in the mouse. To study the mechanism by which this virulence factor contributes to colonization we characterized its binding specificity. Std-mediated binding to human colonic epithelial (Caco-2) cells could be abrogated by removing N-linked glycans. Adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium to Caco-2 cells could be blocked by co-incubation with H type 2 oligosaccharide (Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc) or by pretreatment of cells with α1-2 fucosidase. In contrast, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with neuraminidase or co-incubation with the type 2 disaccharide precursor (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) did not reduce adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium. Binding of purified Std fimbriae to Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc in a solid phase binding assay was competitively inhibited by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), a lectin specific for Fucα1-2 moieties. Purified Std fimbriae and UEA both bound to a receptor localized in the mucus layer of the murine cecum. These data suggest that the std operon encodes an adhesin that binds an α1-2 fucosylated receptor(s) present in the cecal mucosa. PMID:19183274

  4. Added value of a household-level study during an outbreak investigation of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections, New Mexico 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, A L; Jungk, J; Russo, E T; Redd, J T; Angulo, F J; Williams, I T; Cheek, J E; Gould, L H

    2013-10-01

    In 2008, nationwide investigations of a Salmonella serotype Saintpaul outbreak led first to consumer warnings for Roma and red round tomatoes, then later for jalapeño and serrano peppers. In New Mexico, where there were a large number of cases but no restaurant-based clusters, the NM Department of Health and the Indian Health Service participated with CDC in individual-level and household-level case-control studies of infections in New Mexico and the Navajo Nation. No food item was associated in the individual-level study. In the household-level study, households with an ill member were more likely to have had jalapeño peppers present during the exposure period and to have reported ever having serrano peppers in the household. This report illustrates the complexity of this investigation, the limitations of traditional individual-level case-control studies when vehicles of infection are ingredients or commonly eaten with other foods, and the added value of a household-level study.

  5. Study of the role of efflux pump in ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are increasing reports on failure of clinical response to ciprofloxacin in typhoid fever despite the strain being sensitive to drug in in-vitro using standard guidelines and showing mutations in DNA gyrase. But this increased MIC and clinical failures with ciprofloxacin are not always co-related with mutations presently identified in gyrA and parC genes. This shows that there may be other mechanisms such as an active drug efflux pump responsible as has been shown in other Enterobacteriaceae. This study was carried out to determine the role of efflux pump in Salmonella Typhi isolates. Materials and Methods : Total 25 already characterized nalidixic acid sensitive and nalidixic acid resistant S. Typhi strains with different range of ciprofloxacin MIC were included to study the role of efflux pump in the presence of CCCP (efflux pump inhibitor. For genotypic characterization, the entire acrR gene was sequenced to confirm the presence of any mutation in the gene. Results: The MIC of ciprofloxacin remained same in the presence and absence of CCCP in the studied strains and no significant mutations were found in the acrR gene in any of the isolates studied. Conclusions: No role of efflux pump in ciprofloxacin resistance was found in strains studied. There is a need to explore further mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella Typhi.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Indu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de alho (Allium sativum, noz-moscada (Mysritica frangrans, gengibre (Zingiber officinale cebola (Allium cepa e pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum sobre 20 sorotipos de Escherichia coli, 8 sorotipos de Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila. O alho apresentou atividade antimicrobiana excelente sobre todos os microrganismos testados, excepto L. monocytogenes. A noz-moscada apresentou boa atividade antilisteria, emboara atividade sobre E. coli e Salmonella tenha sido sorotipo-dependente. Tanto alho como noz-moscada foram eficientes contra A. hydrophila. O extrato de gengibre apresentou atividade inibitória sobre dois sorotipos de E. coli: 08 (enterotoxigenico e 088. Os extratos de cebola e pimenta do reino não apresentaram nenhuma atividade contra os microrganismos testados.

  7. Prevalence, serotypes and resistance patterns of Salmonella in Danish pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arguello, Hector; Sørensen, Gitte; Carvajal, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Typhimurium in finishers and Salmonella Derby in breeding herds while the most prevalent phage types of the S. Typhimurium isolates were DT 12 and DT 120. The antimicrobial resistance analysis yielded a 35.2% of the isolates from the slaughter pigs resistant to one or more antimicrobials while 19.3% were...... resistant to four or more antimicrobials. A significantly higher percentage of resistance to antimicrobials was found in the S. Typhimurium isolates (χ2=4.72, p=0.029), where 42.9% presented resistance to one or more compounds. In breeding herds, just S. Typhimurium and S. 4,5],12:i: – isolates were tested......The objective of this paper is to analyse in further detail the Danish results of the EFSA baseline studies in slaughter pigs and breeding herds, and compare them with the results obtained in (1) the pre-implementation study that was carried out to establish the initial prevalence values...

  8. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Biofilm Formation Ability of Clinically Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serotype typhimurium

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    Hadi Ghasemmahdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria with biofilm formation ability may be a major threat to public health and food safety and sanitation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and biofilm production characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium isolated from different species of birds. Materials and Methods: The antibiotic resistance patterns of 38 pre-identified isolates were screened by standard Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method performed on Mueller–Hinton agar to a panel of 17 antibiotics. The extent of biofilm formation was measured by Microtiter plate (MTP-based systems. Results: The highest antimicrobial resistance was detected against nalidixic acid (97%, followed by doxycycline (86%, colistin (84%, streptomycin (84% and tetracycline (84%. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin (100% and 97% and 95% of the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Twenty one different antibiotic resistance patterns were observed among S. typhimurium isolates. According to the results of the microtitre plate biofilm assay, there was a wide variation in biofilm forming ability among S. typhimurium isolates. Most of the isolates (60.52% were not capable of producing biofilm, while 26.31%, 7.89%, and 5.26% isolates were weak, strong and moderate biofilm producers, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that nearly all S. typhimurium isolates revealed a high multiple antibiotic resistant with low biofilm forming capabilities which proposed low association between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance of a major food important pathogen.

  9. Early diagnosis of typhoid fever by nested PCR for flagellin gene of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Harish, B N; Menezes, G A; Acharya, N S; Parija, S C

    2012-11-01

    Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi continues to be a major health problem in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Inability to make an early laboratory diagnosis and resort to empirical therapy, often lead to increased morbidity and mortality in cases of typhoid fever. This study was aimed to optimize a nested PCR for early diagnosis of typhoid fever and using it as a diagnostic tool in culture negative cases of suspected typhoid fever. Eighty patients with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and 40 controls were included in the study. The blood samples collected were subjected to culture, Widal and nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene of S. Typhi. The sensitivity of PCR on blood was found to be 100 per cent whereas the specificity was 76.9 per cent. The positive predictive value (PPV) of PCR was calculated to be 76.9 per cent with an accuracy of 86 per cent. None of the 40 control samples gave a positive PCR. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity nested PCR can be used as a useful tool to diagnose clinically suspected, culture negative cases of typhoid fever.

  10. Identification of immunogenic Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antigens expressed in chronic biliary carriers of S. Typhi in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle C Charles

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi can colonize and persist in the biliary tract of infected individuals, resulting in a state of asymptomatic chronic carriage. Chronic carriers may act as persistent reservoirs of infection within a community and may introduce infection to susceptible individuals and new communities. Little is known about the interaction between the host and pathogen in the biliary tract of chronic carriers, and there is currently no reliable diagnostic assay to identify asymptomatic S. Typhi carriage.To study host-pathogen interactions in the biliary tract during S. Typhi carriage, we applied an immunoscreening technique called in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT, to identify potential biomarkers unique to carriers. IVIAT identifies humorally immunogenic bacterial antigens expressed uniquely in the in vivo environment, and we hypothesized that S. Typhi surviving in the biliary tract of humans may express a distinct antigenic profile. Thirteen S. Typhi antigens that were immunoreactive in carriers, but not in healthy individuals from a typhoid endemic area, were identified. The identified antigens included a number of putative membrane proteins, lipoproteins, and hemolysin-related proteins. YncE (STY1479, an uncharacterized protein with an ATP-binding motif, gave prominent responses in our screen. The response to YncE in patients whose biliary tract contained S. Typhi was compared to responses in patients whose biliary tract did not contain S. Typhi, patients with acute typhoid fever, and healthy controls residing in a typhoid endemic area. Seven of 10 (70% chronic carriers, 0 of 8 bile culture-negative controls (0%, 0 of 8 healthy Bangladeshis (0%, and 1 of 8 (12.5% Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever had detectable anti-YncE IgG in blood. IgA responses were also present.Further evaluation of YncE and other antigens identified by IVIAT could lead to the development of improved diagnostic assays to identify asymptomatic

  11. An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. PMID:26621565

  12. Protection of gnotobiotic pigs against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium by rough mutant of the same serotype is accompanied by the change of local and systemic cytokine response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Trebichavský, Ilja; Šplíchalová, Alla; Barrow, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 103, - (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 0165-2427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : salmonella typhimurium * gnotobiotic pig * cytokine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.626, year: 2005

  13. Protection of gnotobiotic pigs against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium by rough mutant of the same serotype is accompanied by the change of local and systemic cytokine response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Trebichavský, Ilja; Šplíchalová, Alla; Barrow, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 103, - (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 0165-2427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0917; GA MŠk ME 580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : salmonella typhymurium * gnotobiotic pig * cytokine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.626, year: 2005

  14. Relative survival of four serotypes of Salmonella enterica in low-water activity whey protein powder held at 36 and 70°C at various water activity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of health burdens in the United States. Although the pathogen is not able to grow at aw levels below 0.94, it can survive in low-moisture foods for long periods of time. Temperature, aw, substrate and serotype affect its persistence. The aim of this study was...

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Serotype Infantis Strains Isolated from a Captive Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a Cohabitant Black and White Tegu (Tupinambis merianae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Coura, Fernanda M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Pessanha, Angela T; Pereira, Felipe L; Leal, Carlos A G; Heinemann, Marcos B; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Santos, Renato L

    2016-01-21

    The draft genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis isolates are reported here. One of the strains was isolated from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with colitis. The second strain was isolated from a reptile that inhabited the same premises. Whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that these isolates were not clonal. Copyright © 2016 Paixão et al.

  16. Sorotipos de Salmonella isolados de processos entéricos humanos em Recife-Pernambuco, durante o triênio 1978-1980 Salmonella serotypes isolated from enteric human cases in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, during 1978-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Cintra Leal

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available De 13.196 coproculturas realizadas durante o triênio 1978-1980 em Recife, Pernambuco, foram isoladas 1.720 salmonelas, das quais 1.387 foram caracterizadas sorologicamente. O estudo global possibilitou o reconhecimento de 63 sorotipos concentrados em primeiro plano no grupo sorológico B (73,18% e identificando-se como tipos mais incidentes: S. typhimurium, S. saint-paul, S. poona, S. derby, S. agona, S. newport, S. oranienburg, S. infantis, S. tshiongwe e S. ndolo, que representaram 1.231 amostras ou 88,75% do total de isolamentos. Algumas considerações de ordem epidemiológica e bacteriológica são discutidas em relação aos quatros sorotipos mais freqüentes.From 13,196 faecal cultures made in Recife-Pernambuco during the period form 1978 to 1980, 1,720 strains of Salmonella were isolated. Serological typing on 1,387 of the isolates recognized 63 serotypes, 73,18% of which belonged to group B. The prevalent serotypes adding up to 1,231 strains (88,75% of the total of the isolats were: S. typhimurium, S. saint-paul, S. poona, S. derby, S. agona, S. newport, S. oraniengurg, S. infantis, S. tshiongwe and S. ndolo. Some epidemiological and bacteriological aspects are discussed regarding the four commonest serotypes.

  17. Simultaneous detection and serotyping of Salmonellae by immunomagnetic separation and label-free surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp. are one of the leading causes of foodborne outbreaks in the United States and globally. Current detection and characterization techniques for Salmonellae are time consuming and costly, and rapid methods could greatly benefit outbreak investigation, new case prevention and disease tre...

  18. Application of molecular methods for identification of strains classified as Salmonella enterica serovar 6, 7/-/- by conventional serotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadfield, M. S.; Christensen, J. P.; Madsen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    analysis for the phase 2 gene fljB demonstrated variants of Salmonella Infantis (6, 7: r: z(49)) expressing the R-phase antigen (Rz(49)) and possessing the gene for normal phase 2 antigen H: 1, 5. One of the two undefined strains demonstrated genotypic identity with a Salmonella Livingstone reference...

  19. A severe Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi B infection in a child related to a pet turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Noriyuki; Oana, Shinji; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2006-04-01

    Our report highlights a case of severe childhood salmonellosis related to a pet turtle, a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). A 6-year-old girl had gastroenteritis complicated with sepsis caused by serotype Paratyphi B, which shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles with the organism isolated from a pet turtle. Based on our literature survey on childhood invasive salmonellosis acquired from reptiles, this case is the first documented reptile-associated salmonellosis including sepsis caused by this serotype.

  20. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in environmental water by molecular technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Shen, Tsung Yu; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The taxonomy of Salmonella is very complicated and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. The detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time consuming. To overcome this drawback, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using molecular technology and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 70 environmental water samples in Taiwan. The analytical procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella. After that, we isolated Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. Both selective enrichment and culture plates were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally, the serovars of Salmonella were confirmed by using biochemical tests and serological assay. In this study, 15 water samples (21.4%) were identified as Salmonella by PCR. The positive water samples will further identify their serotypes by culture method. The presence of Salmonella in environmental water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed. Consequently, the authorities need to provide sufficient source protection and to maintain the system for disease prevention. Keywords: Salmonella spp., serological assay, PCR

  1. Dissemination of plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases in antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, pigs and the swine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the inter-serovar exchange of AmpC β-lactamase conferring plasmids isolated from humans, pigs and the swine environment. Plasmids isolated from a total of 21 antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella isolates representing human clinical cases (n=6), pigs (n=6) and the swine farm environment (n=9) were characterized by replicon typing and restriction digestion, inter-serovar transferability by conjugation, and presence of AmpC β-lactamase enzyme encoding gene blaCMY-2 by southern hybridization. Based on replicon typing, the majority (17/21, 81%) of the plasmids belonged to the I1-Iγ Inc group and were between 70 and 103kb. The potential for inter-serovar plasmid transfer was further confirmed by the PCR detection of AMR genes on the plasmids isolated from trans-conjugants. Plasmids from Salmonella serovars Anatum, Ouakam, Johannesburg and Typhimurium isolated from the same cohort of pigs and their environment and S. Heidelberg from a single human clinical isolate had identical plasmids based on digestion with multiple restriction enzymes (EcoRI, HindIII and PstI) and southern blotting. We demonstrated likely horizontal inter-serovar exchange of plasmid-encoding AmpC β-lactamases resistance among MDR Salmonella serotypes isolated from pigs, swine farm environment and clinical human cases. This study provides valuable information on the role of the swine farm environment and by extension other livestock farm environments, as a potential reservoir of resistant bacterial strains that potentially transmit resistance determinants to livestock, in this case, swine, humans and possibly other hosts by horizontal exchange of plasmids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a zoo education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydeskov, H B; Guardabassi, L; Aalbaek, B; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, S S; Bertelsen, M F

    2013-06-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were detected. Ten serotypes were isolated from more than one specimen and four from more than one species. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Eastbourne was the predominant serotype (32%, 22/69) and was also the serotype isolated from most reptile species (n = 7). Transmission of serotypes from one department to another was very limited indicated by the serotype distribution. Despite the relative high prevalence observed among the reptiles in the Zoo's Education Department compared to the reptiles in the Zoo's main reptile collection, no Salmonella cases have been linked to the Zoo, and Salmonella ser. Eastbourne is very rarely isolated from humans in Denmark. Simple hygienic procedures such as hand washing which is consistently carried out following handling of reptiles at the Education Department may reduce the risk and therefore contribute to this low prevalence. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Comparison of SNP-based subtyping workflows for bacterial isolates using WGS data, applied to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, Assia; Wuyts, Véronique; Mattheus, Wesley; Bertrand, Sophie; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; Marchal, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing represents a promising new technology for subtyping of bacterial pathogens. Besides the technological advances which have pushed the approach forward, the last years have been marked by considerable evolution of the whole genome sequencing data analysis methods. Prior to application of the technology as a routine epidemiological typing tool, however, reliable and efficient data analysis strategies need to be identified among the wide variety of the emerged methodologies. In this work, we have compared three existing SNP-based subtyping workflows using a benchmark dataset of 32 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates including five isolates from a confirmed outbreak and three isolates obtained from the same patient at different time points. The analysis was carried out using the original (high-coverage) and a down-sampled (low-coverage) datasets and two different reference genomes. All three tested workflows, namely CSI Phylogeny-based workflow, CFSAN-based workflow and PHEnix-based workflow, were able to correctly group the confirmed outbreak isolates and isolates from the same patient with all combinations of reference genomes and datasets. However, the workflows differed strongly with respect to the SNP distances between isolates and sensitivity towards sequencing coverage, which could be linked to the specific data analysis strategies used therein. To demonstrate the effect of particular data analysis steps, several modifications of the existing workflows were also tested. This allowed us to propose data analysis schemes most suitable for routine SNP-based subtyping applied to S. Typhimurium and S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-. Results presented in this study illustrate the importance of using correct data analysis strategies and to define benchmark and fine-tune parameters applied within routine data analysis pipelines to obtain optimal results. PMID:29408896

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harichandran D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Harichandran, Kavitha Radhakrishnan Dinesh Department of Microbiology, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India Background/purpose: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology: All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results: A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%, followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64% and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%. Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%, ampicillin (77.21%, cotrimoxazole (75.94% and azithromycin (78.48%. For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth

  5. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Su, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng; Kao, Po-Min

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: → A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. → Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. → A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  6. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  7. Recombinant plasmid-based quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis of Salmonella enterica serotypes and its application to milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokduman, Kurtulus; Avsaroglu, M Dilek; Cakiris, Aris; Ustek, Duran; Gurakan, G Candan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop, a new, rapid, sensitive and quantitative Salmonella detection method using a Real-Time PCR technique based on an inexpensive, easy to produce, convenient and standardized recombinant plasmid positive control. To achieve this, two recombinant plasmids were constructed as reference molecules by cloning the two most commonly used Salmonella-specific target gene regions, invA and ttrRSBC. The more rapid detection enabled by the developed method (21 h) compared to the traditional culture method (90 h) allows the quantitative evaluation of Salmonella (quantification limits of 10(1)CFU/ml and 10(0)CFU/ml for the invA target and the ttrRSBC target, respectively), as illustrated using milk samples. Three advantages illustrated by the current study demonstrate the potential of the newly developed method to be used in routine analyses in the medical, veterinary, food and water/environmental sectors: I--The method provides fast analyses including the simultaneous detection and determination of correct pathogen counts; II--The method is applicable to challenging samples, such as milk; III--The method's positive controls (recombinant plasmids) are reproducible in large quantities without the need to construct new calibration curves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tiny Turtles Purchased at Pet Stores are a Potential High Risk for Salmonella Human Infection in the Valencian Region, Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Clara; Vega, Santiago; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Turtles may be considered unsafe pets, particularly in households with children. This study aimed to assess Salmonella carriage by turtles in pet stores and in private ownership to inform the public of the potential health risk, enabling informed choices around pet selection. During the period between September and October 2013, 24 pet stores and 96 private owners were sampled in the Valencian Region (Eastern Spain). Salmonella identification procedure was based on ISO 6579: 2002 recommendations (Annex D). Salmonella strains were serotyped in accordance with Kauffman-White-Le-Minor technique. The rate of isolation of Salmonella was very high from pet store samples (75.0% ± 8.8%) and moderate for private owners (29.0% ± 4.6%). Serotyping revealed 18 different serotypes among two Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae. Most frequently isolated serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium (39.5%, 17/43) and Salmonella Pomona (9.3%, 4/43). Serotypes identified have previously been reported in turtles, and child Salmonella infections associate with pet turtle exposure. The present study clearly demonstrates that turtles in pet stores, as well as in private owners, could be a direct or indirect source of a high risk of human Salmonella infections. In addition, pet stores should advise their customers of the potential risks associated with reptile ownership.

  9. Interferon-γ and proliferation responses to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi proteins in patients with S. Typhi Bacteremia in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaullah Sheikh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human-restricted intracellular pathogen and the cause of typhoid fever. Cellular immune responses are required to control and clear Salmonella infection. Despite this, there are limited data on cellular immune responses in humans infected with wild type S. Typhi.For this work, we used an automated approach to purify a subset of S. Typhi proteins identified in previous antibody-based immuno-affinity screens and antigens known to be expressed in vivo, including StaF-putative fimbrial protein-STY0202, StbB-fimbrial chaperone-STY0372, CsgF-involved in curli production-STY1177, CsgD- putative regulatory protein-STY1179, OppA-periplasmic oligopeptide binding protein precursor-STY1304, PagC-outer membrane invasion protein-STY1878, and conserved hypothetical protein-STY2195; we also generated and analyzed a crude membrane preparation of S. Typhi (MP. In comparison to samples collected from uninfected Bangladeshi and North American participants, we detected significant interferon-γ responses in PBMCs stimulated with MP, StaF, StbB, CsgF, CsgD, OppA, STY2195, and PagC in patients bacteremic with S. Typhi in Bangladesh. The majority of interferon-γ expressing T cells were CD4 cells, although CD8 responses also occurred. We also assessed cellular proliferation responses in bacteremic patients, and confirmed increased responses in infected individuals to MP, StaF, STY2195, and PagC in convalescent compared to acute phase samples and compared to controls. StaF is a fimbrial protein homologous to E. coli YadK, and contains a Pfam motif thought to be involved in cellular adhesion. PagC is expressed in vivo under the control of the virulence-associated PhoP-regulon required for intra-macrophage survival of Salmonella. STY2195 is a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function.This is the first analysis of cellular immune responses to purified S. Typhi antigens in patients with typhoid fever. These results indicate

  10. Metal tolerance in emerging clinically relevant multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype 4,[5],12:i:- clones circulating in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Joana; Novais, Carla; Machado, Jorge; Peixe, Luísa; Antunes, Patrícia

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of acquired metal tolerance genes in emerging MDR Salmonella enterica serotype 4,[5],12:i:- clones was assessed and their associated platforms and tolerance phenotype were characterised. Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- from different sources belonging to European, Spanish and Southern European clones were studied. Screening for copper (pcoA-pcoD/tcrB), silver/copper (silA-silE), mercury (merA), arsenic (arsB) and tellurite (terF) tolerance genes was performed by PCR/sequencing. CuSO(4)/AgNO(3) MICs were determined in aerobic/anaerobic atmospheres by agar dilution. Conjugation assays, genomic location and plasmid analysis were performed by standard procedures. Most isolates from European (98%) and Spanish (74%) clones carried silA-silE, contrasting with the Southern European clone (26%). merA/62% (European and Spanish clones) and pcoA-pcoD/50% (European clone) were also detected. merA±pco+sil were chromosomally located in the European clone, whereas in Spanish and Southern European clones sil±merA were within plasmids, both with antibiotic resistance genes. The pcoA-pcoD/silA-silE(+) isolates showed higher MICCuSO(4) in anaerobiosis than those without these genes (MIC(50)=24-28 vs. 2 mM). Different MICAgNO(3) of silA-silE(+) (MIC(50)=0.25 mM) and silA-silE(-)(MIC(50)=0.16 mM) isolates were observed in both atmospheres, with an MIC increment after prior exposure to silver (>3 vs. 0.08-0.125 mM) in aerobiosis. A high frequency of copper and silver tolerance, particularly among the two major Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- MDR clones (European/Spanish) circulating in Europe and causing human infections, might facilitate adaptation/expansion of these strains in metal-contaminated environments, particularly copper in anaerobiosis. Furthermore, metal toxic concentrations in food-animal environments can contribute to persistence of genetic platforms carrying metal/antibiotic resistance genes in this foodborne zoonotic pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the

  11. Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteric serotype typhi infection presenting with sub-intestinal obstruction and mesenteric adenitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khuwaitir, Tarig S.; Al-Zuhair, Amin A.; Al-Ghamdi, Ali G.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhi NARST infections increase minimal inhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones, due to chromosomal mutations in the gene encoding DNA gyrase, and can lead to a delayed treatment response. This in turn alters the course of the disease allowing for a protracted period of illness and the occurrence of complications. In this case report, we present a patient from the Indian sub-continent, who was diagnosed with NARST complicated by sub-intestinal obstruction, her diagnosis, treatment and subsequent recovery. (author)

  12. Salmonella prevalence among reptiles in a Zoo education setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hydeskov, H. B.; Guardabassi, Luca; Aalbæk, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Clinically healthy reptiles may shed Salmonella and therefore act as a potential zoonotic threat. Most people in Northern European countries are rarely exposed to reptiles, but many zoos have education departments where children have direct contact with this group of animals. The objectives...... of this study were to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of Salmonella among reptiles in the Education Department (n = 55) at Copenhagen Zoo and compare it to the Zoo's main reptile collection (n = 145) to evaluate the zoonotic risk. Salmonella was isolated from cloacal swabs by selective...... enrichment, and a single isolate from each positive sample was further identified by biochemical tests and serotyped. The overall prevalence was 35% (69/200) with significant difference between the Education Department (64%, 35/55) and the main reptile collection (23%, 34/145). A total of 28 serotypes were...

  13. Initially unrecognized distribution of a commercially cooked meat product contaminated over several months with Salmonella serotype Infantis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, K S; Farley, T A

    2000-12-01

    An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among 63 wedding participants. The outbreak was investigated through cohort, laboratory, and environmental studies. Consumption of rice-dressing made from a commercially cooked, meat-based, rice-dressing mix was strongly associated with illness. Nineteen patient isolates, six company/grocery store isolates cultured from the rice-dressing mix, and one environmental isolate from a pump in the production line were of an identical outbreak strain of Salmonella Infantis characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In the production line, cooked rice-dressing mix tested negative for S. Infantis before and positive after contact with the contaminated pump. The dressing-mix had an estimated 200 colony-forming units of salmonella per gram of product, and > 180,000 pounds were distributed in 9 states for > or = 2 months before contamination was recognized. Food manufacturers should be required to use systematic, hazard analysis critical control point risk management practices for all processed meat products, validated by periodic microbiologic monitoring of the end product.

  14. Affinity-Selected Filamentous Bacteriophage as a Probe for Acoustic Wave Biodetectors of Salmonella typhimurium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Eric V; Sorokulova, Iryna B; Petrenko, Valery A; Chen, I-Hsuan; Barbaree, James M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2005-01-01

    Proof-in-concept biosensors were prepared for the rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium in solution, based on affinity-selected filamentous phage prepared as probes physically adsorbed to piezoelectric transducers...

  15. Genetic and antigenic characterization of serotype O FMD viruses from East Africa for the selection of suitable vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Katie; Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Paton, David J; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya

    2017-12-14

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eastern Africa with circulation of multiple serotypes of the virus in the region. Most of the outbreaks are caused by serotype O followed by serotype A. The lack of concerted FMD control programmes in Africa has provided little incentive for vaccine producers to select vaccines that are tailored to circulating regional isolates creating further negative feedback to deter the introduction of vaccine-based control schemes. In this study a total of 80 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 1993 to 2012 from East and North Africa were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using bovine antisera to three existing (O/KEN/77/78, O/Manisa and O/PanAsia-2) and three putative (O/EA/2002, O/EA/2009 and O/EA/2010) vaccine strains and by capsid sequencing. Genetically, these viruses were grouped as either of East African origin with subdivision into four topotypes (EA-1, 2, 3 and 4) or of Middle-East South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Egypt and Libya reflecting the trade links with the Middle East countries. There was good serological cross-reactivity between the vaccine strains and most of the field isolates analysed, indicating that vaccine selection should not be a major constraint for control of serotype O FMD by vaccination, and that both local and internationally available commercial vaccines could be used. The O/KEN/77/78 vaccine, commonly used in the region, exhibited comparatively lower percent in vitro match against the predominant topotypes (EA-2 and EA-3) circulating in the region whereas O/PanAsia-2 and O/Manisa vaccines revealed broader protection against East African serotype O viruses, even though they genetically belong to the ME-SA topotype. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteome of Salmonella Enterica SerotypeTyphimurium Grown in a Low Mg2+/pH Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-09-01

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) must replicate within host macrophages in order to establish systemic infection in susceptible mice. In an effort to identify new STM proteins that help the bacterium colonize macrophages, we have cultured STM cells with a low pH/low magnesium medium (MgM) under two different conditions termed MgM-Shock and MgM-Dilution and investigated the impacts of these culturing conditions on the STM proteome by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics. LC-MS/MS results showed that alteration of culturing conditions affected a group of STM proteins differently. Compared to MgM-Shock, MgM-Dilution induced more proteins of the Salmonella-pathogenecity island 2-type III secretion system (SPI2-T3SS). The abundances of the proteins used for cobalamin biosynthesis increased under MgM-Shock condition but decreased under MgM-Dilution condition, while those proteins used for thiamine or biotin biosynthesis were not affected under the former condition but increased under the latter condition. Western-blot (WB) analysis confirmed the LC-MS/MS results. Because cobalamin, thiamine and biotin play different roles in STM metabolism, differential induction of the proteins involved in their biosyntheses suggests that the metabolic states of STM cells under these conditions differ considerably. WB analysis also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after STM infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the ability of STM to replicate inside the macrophages, demonstrating for the first time the involvement of a biotin synthesis protein in STM colonization of macrophages.

  17. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  18. Meta-analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprints based on a constructed Salmonella database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zou

    Full Text Available A database was constructed consisting of 45,923 Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE patterns. The patterns, randomly selected from all submissions to CDC PulseNet during 2005 to 2010, included the 20 most frequent serotypes and 12 less frequent serotypes. Meta-analysis was applied to all of the PFGE patterns in the database. In the range of 20 to 1100 kb, serotype Enteritidis averaged the fewest bands at 12 bands and Paratyphi A the most with 19, with most serotypes in the 13-15 range among the 32 serptypes. The 10 most frequent bands for each of the 32 serotypes were sorted and distinguished, and the results were in concordance with those from distance matrix and two-way hierarchical cluster analyses of the patterns in the database. The hierarchical cluster analysis divided the 32 serotypes into three major groups according to dissimilarity measures, and revealed for the first time the similarities among the PFGE patterns of serotype Saintpaul to serotypes Typhimurium, Typhimurium var. 5-, and I 4,[5],12:i:-; of serotype Hadar to serotype Infantis; and of serotype Muenchen to serotype Newport. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the pattern similarities/dissimilarities determined the serotype discrimination of PFGE method, and that the possible PFGE markers may have utility for serotype identification. The presence of distinct, serotype specific patterns may provide useful information to aid in the distribution of serotypes in the population and potentially reduce the need for laborious analyses, such as traditional serotyping.

  19. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in drinking water, streams, and swine wastewater by molecular techniques in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.

  20. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  1. A previously uncharacterized gene stm0551 plays a repressive role in the regulation of type 1 fimbriae in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ke-Chuan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium produces surface-associated fimbriae that facilitate adherence of the bacteria to a variety of cells and tissues. Type 1 fimbriae with binding specificity to mannose residues are the most commonly found fimbrial type. In vitro, static-broth culture favors the growth of S. Typhimurium with type 1 fimbriae, whereas non-type 1 fimbriate bacteria are obtained by culture on solid-agar media. Previous studies demonstrated that the phenotypic expression of type 1 fimbriae is the result of the interaction and cooperation of the regulatory genes fimZ, fimY, fimW, and fimU within the fim gene cluster. Genome sequencing revealed a novel gene, stm0551, located between fimY and fimW that encodes an 11.4-kDa putative phosphodiesterase specific for the bacterial second messenger cyclic-diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP. The role of stm0551 in the regulation of type 1 fimbriae in S. Typhimurium remains unclear. Results A stm0551-deleted stain constructed by allelic exchange constitutively produced type 1 fimbriae in both static-broth and solid-agar medium conditions. Quantative RT-PCR revealed that expression of the fimbrial major subunit gene, fimA, and one of the regulatory genes, fimZ, were comparably increased in the stm0551-deleted strain compared with those of the parental strain when grown on the solid-agar medium, a condition that normally inhibits expression of type 1 fimbriae. Following transformation with a plasmid possessing the coding sequence of stm0551, expression of fimA and fimZ decreased in the stm0551 mutant strain in both culture conditions, whereas transformation with the control vector pACYC184 relieved this repression. A purified STM0551 protein exhibited a phosphodiesterase activity in vitro while a point mutation in the putative EAL domain, substituting glutamic acid (E with alanine (A, of STM0551 or a FimY protein abolished this activity. Conclusions The finding that the

  2. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus), avian influenza virus, and Salmonella spp. in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic Coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Arsnoe, Dustin M; Afonso, Claudio L; Bevins, Sarah N; Miller, Patti J; Randall, Adam R; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-03-01

    Since their introduction to the United States in the late 19th century, mute swans (Cygnus olor) have become a nuisance species by causing damage to aquatic habitats, acting aggressively toward humans, competing with native waterfowl, and potentially transmitting or serving as a reservoir of infectious diseases to humans and poultry. In an effort to investigate their potential role as a disease reservoir and to establish avian health baselines for pathogens that threaten agricultural species or human health, we collected samples from 858 mute swans and tested them for avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), and Salmonella spp. when possible. Our results indicate that exposure to APMV-1 and AIV is common (60%, n = 771, and 45%, n = 344, antibody prevalence, respectively) in mute swans, but detection of active viral shedding is less common (8.7%, n = 414, and 0.8%, n = 390, respectively). Salmonella was isolated from three mute swans (0.6%, n = 459), and although the serovars identified have been implicated in previous human outbreaks, it does not appear that Salmonella is commonly carried by mute swans.

  3. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Salmonella enterica Ituri is an uncommon serotype associated with poultry disease. One of the serotype isolated from a poultry disease in Nigeria was characterized by serotyping and screening for the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1(SGI1) as a possible factor responsible for its involvement.

  4. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Ituri isolated from diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Ituri is an uncommon serotype associated with poultry disease. One of the serotype isolated from a poultry disease in Nigeria was characterized by serotyping and screening for the presence of Salmonella genomic island 1(SGI1) as a possible factor responsible for its involvement in a poultry disease ...

  5. Recovery rates, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonellae isolated from cloacal swabs of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Hangartner, P.; West, K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples from the cloaca and the ventral skin surface of 67 Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) captured in four uninhabited areas at Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, were cultured for Salmonella. All the skin samples tested negative for Salmonella, whereas 18 of 67 (26.9%) cloacal samples grew Salmonell...

  6. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2007-01-01

    range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results: In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated...... from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14...... range of 12 Danish Campylobacter phages. Due to their ability to infect the majority of the common serotypes in Denmark we suggest the phages can become an effective agent in the effort to reduce the incidence of campylobacteriosis in Denmark. This study provides the basis for future experiments...

  7. Detection of Salmonella spp. in veterinary samples by combining selective enrichment and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Laura B; McDonough, Patrick L; Anderson, Renee R; Franklin-Guild, Rebecca J; Ryan, James R; Perkins, Gillian A; Thachil, Anil J; Glaser, Amy L; Thompson, Belinda S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid screening for enteric bacterial pathogens in clinical environments is essential for biosecurity. Salmonella found in veterinary hospitals, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, can pose unique challenges for culture and testing because of its poor growth. Multiple Salmonella serovars including Dublin are emerging threats to public health given increasing prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. We adapted an automated food testing method to veterinary samples and evaluated the performance of the method in a variety of matrices including environmental samples ( n = 81), tissues ( n = 52), feces ( n = 148), and feed ( n = 29). A commercial kit was chosen as the basis for this approach in view of extensive performance characterizations published by multiple independent organizations. A workflow was established for efficiently and accurately testing veterinary matrices and environmental samples by use of real-time PCR after selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya (RVS) medium. Using this method, the detection limit for S. Dublin improved by 100-fold over subculture on selective agars (eosin-methylene blue, brilliant green, and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate). Overall, the procedure was effective in detecting Salmonella spp. and provided next-day results.

  8. Serotyping, PCR, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of Salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, D.R.; Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Tishyadhigama, P.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To study the occurrence and diversity of Salmonella serovars in urban water supply systems of Nepal. Methods and Results: Occurrence of Salmonella was detected in 42 out of 300 water samples by enrichment culture technique in selenite F broth followed by plating on Salmonella Shigella agar...... isolates of Salm. Enteritidis indicated the presence of one of the ESBL genes, blaSHV, whereas the genes blaTEM and blaCTX were absent. Conclusions: The microbiological quality of the urban water supply is poor and indicates possibility of fatal outbreaks of enteric fever and related infections in Nepal....... Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study will be useful in water borne disease control and prevention strategy formulation in Nepal and in the global context....

  9. Neural network model for survival and growth of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in ground chicken thigh meat during cold storage: extrapolation to other serotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical models that predict behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting behavior of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how...

  10. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella.

  11. Profile of selected bacterial counts and Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in a poultry slaughter establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W O; Williams, W O; Prucha, J C; Johnston, R; Christensen, W

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service determined populations of bacteria on poultry during processing at a slaughter plant in Puerto Rico in November and December 1987. The plant was selected because of its management's willingness to support important changes in equipment and processing procedures. The plant was representative of modern slaughter facilities. Eight-hundred samples were collected over 20 consecutive 8-hour days of operation from 5 sites in the processing plant. Results indicated that slaughter, dressing, and chilling practices significantly decreased the bacterial contamination on poultry carcasses, as determined by counts of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli. Salmonella was not enumerated; rather, it was determined to be present or absent by culturing almost the entire rinse. The prevalence of Salmonella in the study decreased during evisceration, then increased during immersion chilling.

  12. A RT-PCR method for selective amplification and phenotypic characterization of all three serotypes of Sabin-related polioviruses from viral mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Veiga da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses are challenging the final eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis. Therefore, the surveillance of the acute flaccid paralysis cases based on poliovirus isolation and characterization remains an essential activity. Due to the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV, mixtures containing more than one serotype of Sabin-related polioviruses are frequently isolated from clinical samples. Because each poliovirus isolate needs to be individually analyzed, we designed polymerase chain reaction primers that can selectively distinguish and amplify a genomic segment of the three Sabin-related poliovirus serotypes present in mixtures, thus, optimizing the diagnosis and providing prompt information to support epidemiologic actions.

  13. The Selective Advantage of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Brandis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic code in mRNA is redundant, with 61 sense codons translated into 20 different amino acids. Individual amino acids are encoded by up to six different codons but within codon families some are used more frequently than others. This phenomenon is referred to as synonymous codon usage bias. The genomes of free-living unicellular organisms such as bacteria have an extreme codon usage bias and the degree of bias differs between genes within the same genome. The strong positive correlation between codon usage bias and gene expression levels in many microorganisms is attributed to selection for translational efficiency. However, this putative selective advantage has never been measured in bacteria and theoretical estimates vary widely. By systematically exchanging optimal codons for synonymous codons in the tuf genes we quantified the selective advantage of biased codon usage in highly expressed genes to be in the range 0.2-4.2 x 10-4 per codon per generation. These data quantify for the first time the potential for selection on synonymous codon choice to drive genome-wide sequence evolution in bacteria, and in particular to optimize the sequences of highly expressed genes. This quantification may have predictive applications in the design of synthetic genes and for heterologous gene expression in biotechnology.

  14. Prevalence and Characterization of Motile Salmonella in Commercial Layer Poultry Farms in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Christensen, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty isolates were randomly selected, from the ninety obtained from the survey, for serotyping and characterized further by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results of the survey showed that the prevalence of motile Salmonella at layer farm level was 18% (95% confidence interval 15–21%), and Salmonella Kentucky was identified to be the only serovar circulating in the study population. Plasmid analysis of the S. Kentucky and non-serotyped isolates revealed two distinct profiles with a variation of two different sizes (2.7 and 4.8 kb). PFGE of the 30 S. Kentucky and 30 non-serotyped isolates showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh. PMID:22558269

  15. Molecular characterization of Salmonella strains in individuals with acute diarrhea syndrome in the State of Sucre, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodulfo, Hectorina; De Donato, Marcos; Luiggi, Jesús; Michelli, Elvia; Millán, Adriana; Michelli, Miriam

    2012-06-01

    In Venezuela, acute diarrheic syndrome (ADS) is a primary cause of morbi-mortality, often involving the Salmonella genus. Salmonella infections are associated with acute gastroenteritis, one of the most common alimentary intoxications, and caused by the consumption of contaminated water and food, especially meat. Conventional and molecular methods were used to detect Salmonella strains from 330 fecal samples from individuals of different ages and both sexes with ADS. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the molecular characterization of Salmonella, using invA, sefA, and fliC genes for the identification of this genus and the serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium, respectively. The highest frequency of individuals with ADS was found in children 0-2 years old (39.4%), and the overall frequency of positive coprocultures was 76.9%. A total of 14 (4.2%) strains were biochemically and immunologically identified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, of which 7 were classified as belonging to the Enteritidis serotype, 4 to the Typhimurium serotype, and 3 to other serotypes. The S. enterica strains were distributed more frequently in the age groups 3-4 and 9-10 years old. The molecular characterization method used proved to be highly specific for the typing of S. enterica strains using DNA extracted from both the isolated colonies and selective enrichment broths directly inoculated with fecal samples, thus representing a complementary tool for the detection and identification of ADS-causing bacteria.

  16. [Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler whole production process in four provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W W; Bai, L; Zhang, X L; Xu, X J; Tang, Z; Bi, Z W; Guo, Y C

    2018-04-06

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler production process in 4 provinces of China. Methods: Using convenience sampling method, 238 sample sites from broiler whole production process were chosen in Henan, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang and Shandong provinces in 2012. A total of 11 592 samples were collected and detected to analyze prevalence baseline, including 2 090 samples from breeding chicken farms and hatcheries, 1 421 samples from broiler farms, 5 610 samples from slaughterhouses and 2 471 samples from distribution and retail stores. All Salmonella strains were isolated through selective enrichment, and were serotyped according to Kauffmann-White scheme. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of selected Salmonella strains were determined by the broth microdilution method and fourteen antimicrobial agents were examined. Results: During incubation course, the average prevalence of Salmonella was 5.5% in feces of breeding hens, feces of chicks, and hatching eggs, 123 Salmonella strains were isolated. During cultivation course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 8.0% in feces from broiler farms, soil, feed, and workers, 114 Salmonella strains were isolated. During slaughter course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 24.9% in swabs pre-slaughter, dressed broiler carcasses, pre-cooled broiler carcasses, water from precooling pool, cutter and chipping boards, frozen chicken portions, and workers, 1 438 Salmonella strains were isolated. During distribution and sale course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 20.9% in transport carts, frozen chicken portions, retail chicken portions and workers, 551 Salmonella strains were isolated. The dominant Salmonella serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis ( n= 1 229) and Salmonella Indiana ( n= 621). Among 1 231 examined strains, 97.2% Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 69.9% Salmonella strains were multi-drug resistant isolates. Conclusion: Our

  17. Salmonella isolated from the feces of migrating cranes at the Izumi Plain (2002-2008): serotype, antibiotic sensitivity and PFGE type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Ninomiya, Naoko; Murase, Toshiyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Takase, Kozo

    2010-07-01

    From November 2002 to February 2008, 2,251 crane feces were collected at the Izumi Plain in Kagoshima Prefecture. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 359 feces (15.9%), of which 332 (92.5%) were Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), 9 were S. Hvittingfoss/II, 4 were S. Abaetetuba, 3 were S. Enteritidis, 2 were S. Konstanz, 1 was S. Pakistan and 8 were untyped isolates, respectively. Against 12 antimicrobial agents, no resistant strains were found in 154 isolates examined, but one was found to be resistant to ampicillin. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), all but one of the 68 ST isolates tested showed indistinguishable banding patterns; one had a different pattern. The results suggest that ST strains from the same origin would spread in crane flocks during their stay at Izumi Plain every winter.

  18. Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0 and high bile salt (0.3-1.5% and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7 CFU/chick or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4 CFU/chick next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1. These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10 in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in

  19. Evaluation of 3M molecular detection assay (MDA) Salmonella for the detection of Salmonella in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2013-01-01

    The 3M Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella is used with the 3M Molecular Detection System for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. The assay utilizes loop-mediated isothermal amplification to rapidly amplify Salmonella target DNA with high specificity and sensitivity, combined with bioluminescence to detect the amplification. The 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG 4.05), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the POD of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.04 (-0.16, +0.09). No significant differences were observed in the number of positive

  20. Cross contamination of turkey carcasses by Salmonella species during defeathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nde, C W; McEvoy, J M; Sherwood, J S; Logue, C M

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella present on the feathers of live birds could be a source of contamination to carcass skin during defeathering. In this study, the possibility of transfer of Salmonella from the feathers of live turkeys to carcass tissue during the defeathering process at a commercial turkey processing plant was investigated. The contribution of scald water and the fingers of the picker machines to cross contamination were also examined. Over 4 visits, swab samples were collected from 174 randomly selected tagged birds before and after defeathering. Two swab samples from the fingers of the picker machines and a sample of scald water were also collected during each visit. Detection of Salmonella was carried out following standard cultural and identification methods. The DNA fingerprints obtained from pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella serotypes isolated before and after defeathering, from scald water, and from the fingers of the picker machines were compared to trace cross contamination routes. Salmonella prevalence was similar before and after defeathering during visits 2 and 3 and significantly increased after defeathering during visits 1 and 4. Over the 4 visits, all Salmonella subtypes obtained after defeathering were also isolated before defeathering. The results of this study suggest that Salmonella was transferred from the feathers to carcass skin during each visit. On each visit, the Salmonella subtypes isolated from the fingers of the picker machines were similar to subtypes isolated before and after defeathering, indicating that the fingers facilitate carcass cross contamination during defeathering. Salmonella isolated from scald water during visit 4 was related to isolates obtained before and after defeathering, suggesting that scald water is also a vehicle for cross contamination during defeathering. By using molecular subtyping, this study demonstrated the relationship between Salmonella present on the feathers of live turkeys and carcass skin after

  1. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  2. Optimal serotype compositions for Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination under serotype replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhonen, Markku; Auranen, Kari

    2014-02-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination has proved highly effective in eliminating vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage and disease. However, the potential adverse effects of serotype replacement remain a major concern when implementing routine childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination programmes. Applying a concise predictive model, we present a ready-to-use quantitative tool to investigate the implications of serotype replacement on the net effectiveness of vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and to guide in the selection of optimal vaccine serotype compositions. We utilise pre-vaccination data on pneumococcal carriage and IPD and assume partial or complete elimination of vaccine-type carriage, its replacement by non-vaccine-type carriage, and stable case-to-carrier ratios (probability of IPD per carriage episode). The model predicts that the post-vaccination IPD incidences in Finland for currently available vaccine serotype compositions can eventually decrease among the target age group of children replacement through herd effects, the decrease among the older population is predicted to be much less (20-40%). We introduce a sequential algorithm for the search of optimal serotype compositions and assess the robustness of inferences to uncertainties in data and assumptions about carriage and IPD. The optimal serotype composition depends on the age group of interest and some serotypes may be highly beneficial vaccine types in one age category (e.g. 6B in children), while being disadvantageous in another. The net effectiveness will be improved only if the added serotype has a higher case-to-carrier ratio than the average case-to-carrier ratio of the current non-vaccine types and the degree of improvement in effectiveness depends on the carriage incidence of the serotype. The serotype compositions of currently available pneumococcal vaccines are not optimal and the effectiveness of vaccination in the population at large could be improved by including

  3. Evaluation of the 3M™ Petrifilm™ Salmonella express system for the detection of Salmonella species in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Jechorek, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The 3M™ Petriflm™ Salmonella Express (SALX) System is a simple, ready-to-use chromogenic culture medium system for the rapid qualitative detection and biochemical confirmation of Salmonella spp. in food and food process environmental samples. The 3M Petrifilm SALX System was compared using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 4.07 (2013) Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products and Carcass and Environmental Sponges for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5, Salmonella (2011) reference method for dry dog food following the current AOAC validation guidelines. For this study, a total of 17 laboratories located throughout the continental United States evaluated 1872 test portions. For the 3M Petrifilm SALX System, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and dry dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each inatrix were analyzed. The two matrices were artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). Each inoculation level was statistically analyzed using the probability of detection statistical model. For the raw ground beef and dry dog food test portions, no significant differences at the 95% confidence interval were observed in the number of positive samples detected by the 3M Petrifilm SALX System versus either the USDA/FSIS-MLG or FDA/BAM methods.

  4. Selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from sugary and milk kefir reduce Salmonella infection of epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, L; Golowczyc, M A; van Hoorde, K; Medrano, M; Huys, G; Vandamme, P; Abraham, A G

    2016-09-01

    The isolation of potentially probiotic strains and the subsequent study of their properties are very important steps to gain insight in the health benefits ascribed to sugary and milk kefir. The aim of the present study was to characterise fifteen Lactobacillus strains isolated from these beverages by determining some surface properties and their ability to antagonise enterocyte cell damage after Salmonella infection in vitro. Lactobacillus surface properties were determined by hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation assays with Salmonella. In addition, lactobacilli adhesion to Caco-2/TC-7 cells and the effect on Salmonella invasion were evaluated. Finally, the disassembly of F-actin cytoskeleton on intestinal epithelial cells was assayed in vitro when Salmonella infection was performed in the presence of selected Lactobacillus strains. Ten out of the 15 strains showed a high adhesion capacity to Caco-2/TC-7 cells. Most of the strains were hydrophilic and non-autoaggregating. Strains isolated from sugary kefir were non-coaggregating with Salmonella, while strains Lactobacillus paracasei CIDCA 83120, 83121, 83123, 83124, 8339, 83102 isolated from milk kefir were able to coaggregate after 1 h. L. paracasei CIDCA 8339 and Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 83102 were able to diminish Salmonella invasion to the enterocytes. An antagonistic effect on cytoskeleton disruption elicited by the pathogen was also demonstrated. Our results suggest that both strains isolated from milk kefir could be considered as appropriate probiotic candidates.

  5. Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates from Clinically Diseased Pigs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Ik; Kim, Jong Wan; Chae, Myeongju; Jung, Ji-A; So, Byungjae; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Ha-Young

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from clinically diseased pigs collected from 2008 to 2014 in Korea. Isolates were also characterized according to the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Among 94 Salmonella isolates, 81 (86.2%) were identified as being of the Salmonella Typhimurium serotype, followed by Salmonella Derby (6 of 94, 6.4%), Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- (4 of 94, 4.3%), Salmonella Enteritidis (2 of 94, 2.1%), and Salmonella Brandenburg (1 of 94, 1.1%). The majority of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were resistant to tetracycline (92.6%), followed by streptomycin (88.9%) and ampicillin (80.2%). Overall, 96.3% of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes and commonly harbored the resistance genes bla TEM (64.9%), flo (32.8%), aadA (55.3%), strA (58.5%), strB (58.5%), sulII (53.2%), and tetA (61.7%). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 45 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from individual farms revealed 27 distinct patterns that formed one major and two minor clusters in the dendrogram analysis, suggesting that most of the isolates (91.1%) from diseased pigs were genetically related. These findings can assist veterinarians in the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents to combat Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and genetic status in Salmonella Typhimurium for the detection of emerging resistance trends.

  6. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, B R; Atchley, D H; DeFusco, R P; Ferris, K E; Zicarelli, J C; Lee, J H; Angulo, F J

    1998-07-01

    To determine prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Cohort study. 12 captive green iguanas. Iguanas were isolated in an environmental chamber, and fecal samples were collected weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. Samples were incubated aerobically in tetrathionate broth for 18 to 24 hours. Aliquots were then transferred to Hektoen and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates and incubated for an additional 18 to 24 hours. Isolated colonies were subcultured on nutrient agar slants, and Salmonella isolates were serogrouped and serotyped. All 12 iguanas were found to be shedding Salmonella organisms at least once during the study, and multiple serotypes were isolated from 7 of the 12. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 88 of 106 (83%) fecal samples; 21 samples contained multiple Salmonella serotypes. Overall, 11 Salmonella serotypes were identified. In 74 of 100 instances, when a particular Salmonella serotype was isolated from an individual iguana, the same serotype was also isolated from a subsequent fecal sample from that iguana. Results suggested that most iguanas have a stable mixture of Salmonella serotypes in their intestinal tracts and intermittently or continuously shed Salmonella organisms in their feces. Veterinarians should advise their clients on precautions for reducing the risk of acquiring these organisms from their pets. Public health officials trying to determine whether an iguana is the source of a specific Salmonella serotype that caused infection in human patients should submit at least 3 fecal samples collected from the iguana 1 week apart for bacterial culture.

  7. Assessing the effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate concentration on transfer of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in wash water for production of minimally processed iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, D F; Sant'Ana, A S; Monteiro, G; Schaffner, D W; Franco, B D G M

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 250 mg l(-1) ) in wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from contaminated lettuce to wash water and then to other noncontaminated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water. Experiments were designed mimicking the conditions commonly seen in minimally processed vegetable (MPV) processing plants in Brazil. The scenarios were as follows: (1) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in nonchlorinated water, followed by washing 10 noninoculated portions sequentially. (2) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in chlorinated water followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (3) Washing five inoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (4) Washing five noninoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five inoculated portions sequentially and then by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially in the same water. Salm. Typhimurium transfer from inoculated lettuce to wash water and further dissemination to noninoculated lettuces occurred when nonchlorinated water was used (scenario 1). When chlorinated water was used (scenarios 2, 3 and 4), no measurable Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred if the sanitizer was ≥10 mg l(-1) . Use of sanitizers in correct concentrations is important to minimize the risk of microbial transfer during MPV washing. In this study, the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from inoculated lettuce to wash water and then to other noninoculated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water was evaluated. The use of chlorinated water, at concentration above 10 mg l(-1) , effectively prevented Salm. Typhimurium transfer under several different washing scenarios. Conversely, when nonchlorinated water was used, Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred in

  8. Comparative virulence genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of environmental and clinical Salmonella enterica from Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A; Vijayan, J.; Murali, G.; Chandran, P.

    Salmonella enterica serotype Newport is an important cause of non-typhoidal salmonellosis, a clinically less severe infection than typhoid fever caused by S. enterica serotype Typhi. In this investigation, the virulence genotypes of S. enterica...

  9. Specific and selective target detection of supra-genome 21 Mers Salmonella via silicon nanowires biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Mohammad Razif Bin; Dhahi, Th S.; Ehfaed, Nuri. A. K. H.; Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Noriman, N. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The nano structure based on silicon can be surface modified to be used as label-free biosensors that allow real-time measurements. The silicon nanowire surface was functionalized using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTES), which functions as a facilitator to immobilize biomolecules on the silicon nanowire surface. The process is simple, economical; this will pave the way for point-of-care applications. However, the surface modification and subsequent detection mechanism still not clear. Thus, study proposed step by step process of silicon nano surface modification and its possible in specific and selective target detection of Supra-genome 21 Mers Salmonella. The device captured the molecule with precisely; the approach took the advantages of strong binding chemistry created between APTES and biomolecule. The results indicated how modifications of the nanowires provide sensing capability with strong surface chemistries that can lead to specific and selective target detection.

  10. Diversity of Salmonella isolates from central Florida surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Chandler, Jeffrey C; Goodridge, Lawrence D; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2014-11-01

    Identification of Salmonella serotypes is important for understanding the environmental diversity of the genus Salmonella. This study evaluates the diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from 165 of 202 Central Florida surface water samples and investigates whether the serotype of the environmental Salmonella isolates can be predicted by a previously published multiplex PCR assay (S. Kim, J. G. Frye, J. Hu, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, R. Gautom, and D. S. Boyle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:3608-3615, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00701-06). Multiplex PCR was performed on 562 Salmonella isolates (as many as 36 isolates per water sample) to predict serotypes. Kauffmann-White serogrouping was used to confirm multiplex PCR pattern groupings before isolates were serotyped, analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility. In 41.2% of the Salmonella-positive water samples, all Salmonella isolates had identical multiplex PCR patterns; in the remaining 58.8%, two or more multiplex PCR patterns were identified. Within each sample, isolates with matching multiplex PCR patterns had matching serogroups. The multiplex patterns of 495 isolates (88.1%) did not match any previously reported pattern. The remaining 68 isolates matched reported patterns but did not match the serotypes for those patterns. The use of the multiplex PCR allowed the number of isolates requiring further analysis to be reduced to 223. Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serotypes were identified; the most frequent included serotypes Muenchen, Rubislaw, Anatum, Gaminara, and IV_50:z4,z23:-. A majority (141/223) of Salmonella isolates clustered into one genotypic group. Salmonella isolates in Central Florida surface waters are serotypically, genotypically, and phenotypically (in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility) diverse. While isolates could be grouped as different or potentially the same using multiplex PCR, the multiplex PCR pattern did not predict the Salmonella

  11. Comparison of individual, pooled, and composite fecal sampling methods for detection of Salmonella on U.S. dairy operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella for individual, pooled, and composite fecal samples and to compare culture results from each sample type for determining herd Salmonella infection status and identifying Salmonella serotype(s). The USDA’s National Animal Hea...

  12. Detection of Salmonella typhi agglutinins in sera of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Widal test is frequently applied for the detection of Salmonella agglutinins to diagnose Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection. There are however a number of controversies challenging the diagnostic utility of this test. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella ...

  13. Characterization of a multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica Give is one of the serotypes that have been incriminated in Salmonella infections; sometimes associated with hospitalization and mortalities in humans and animals in some parts of the world. In this work, we characterized one Salmonella Give isolated from cloaca swab of an Agama agama lizard ...

  14. Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual

  15. Web-based surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galanis, E.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Patrick, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonellae are a common cause of foodborne disease worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports international foodborne disease surveillance through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other activities. WHO Global Salm-Surv members annually report the 15 most frequently isolated Salmonella...... serotypes to a Web-based country databank. We describe the global distribution of reported Salmonella serotypes from human and nonhuman sources from 2000 to 2002. Among human isolates, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common serotype, accounting for 65% of all isolates. Among nonhuman...... professionals to explore hypotheses related to the sources and distribution of salmonellae worldwide....

  16. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and typing of Salmonella isolated from street vended foods and associated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukampa; Shagufta, Bi; Sivakumar, M; Kumar, Surender; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Bhilegaonkar, Kiran Narayan; Kumar, Ashok; Dubal, Zunjar Baburao

    2017-07-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the occurrence and types of Salmonella present in street vended foods and associated environment, and their resistance pattern against various antibiotics. About 1075 street vended food and associated environment samples were processed for isolation and confirmation of different Salmonella spp. by targeting gene specific inv A gene and serotype specific Sdf I, Via B and Spy genes by PCR. Selected Salmonella isolates were screened for antibiotic resistance by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion test. Out of 1075 samples, only 31 (2.88%) isolates could be amplified the inv A gene of which 19 could be recovered from meat vendors; 8 from egg vendors while remaining 4 from milk vendors. Though, majority of Salmonella recovered from raw foods the ready-to-eat food like chicken gravy and rasmalai also showed its presence which pose a serious public health threat. Overall, 19, 6 and 1 isolates of S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi could be detected by PCR while remaining 5 isolates could not be amplified suggesting other type of Salmonella. Selected Salmonella isolates were completely resistance to Oxacillin (100%) followed by Cefoxitin (30.43%) and Ampicillin (26.10%). Thus, it is observed that the street vended foods of animal origin and associated environment play an important role in transmission of food borne pathogens including Salmonella .

  18. Serotype Specificity of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Selected Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.

    2010-01-01

    Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non-structural......Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non......-structural proteins and structural proteins. Three hundred and forty-nine cattle sera were collected from seven districts in Uganda, and 65% of these were found positive for antibodies against the non-structural proteins of FMDV. A subset of these samples were analysed for serotype specificity of the identified...... antibodies. High prevalences of antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins of FMDV serotype O were demonstrated in herds with typical visible clinical signs of FMD, while prevalences were low in herds without clinical signs of FMD. Antibody titres were higher against serotype O than...

  19. Impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the broiler crop and ceca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Bourassa, D V; Hinton, A; Fairchild, B D; Ritz, C W

    2017-12-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the crop and ceca following feed withdrawal. In 4 experiments, pens of broilers in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo or Salmonella Heidelberg. Three d post challenge, a 12-hour feed withdrawal was initiated, and one pen of broilers was switched between rooms for each Salmonella serotype. In experiments 3 and 4, non-challenged broilers also were added to the Salmonella challenge pens. The litter of each pen was sampled before and after the feed withdrawal period, the broilers euthanized, and the crop and ceca aseptically removed for Salmonella isolation. Results showed that only the challenge Salmonella serotype was recovered from the litter in challenge pens where broilers were not moved, while both Salmonella serotypes were recovered from the litter of the switched pens. Salmonella was recovered from 56/80 crops and from 66/80 ceca of challenged broilers that remained in the challenge pens. The challenge Salmonella serotype was recovered from 50/80 crops and from 60/80 ceca, and the switched pens' litter Salmonella serotype was recovered from 19/80 crops but not from the ceca in broilers challenged with Salmonella and then switched between pens. For experiments 3 and 4, Salmonella was recovered from 19/40 crops and from only 2/40 ceca from the non-challenged broilers placed into the Salmonella challenge pens. The results from broilers that were switched between Salmonella challenge pens indicate that the recovery of Salmonella from the crop of broilers following feed withdrawal (on Salmonella-contaminated litter) appears to depend mainly on the initial challenge Salmonella (62%) and less on the litter Salmonella (24%) status during the feed withdrawal period. In contrast, only the initial challenge Salmonella was recovered from the ceca (79%) from broilers that remained in challenge pens or

  20. Evaluation of PCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis for differentiation of Salmonella isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidabadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Nili, Hassan; Dadras, Habibollah; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Connolly, Joanne; Valcanis, Mary; Raidal, Shane; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Consumption of poultry products contaminated with Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases worldwide and therefore detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp. in poultry is important. In this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed from hemD gene and a PCR followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for rapid differentiation of Salmonella isolates. Amplicons of 228 bp were generated from 16 different Salmonella reference strains and from 65 clinical field isolates mainly from poultry farms. HRM curve analysis of the amplicons differentiated Salmonella isolates and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from selected isolates revealed that each melting curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The relationship between reference strains and tested specimens was also evaluated using a mathematical model without visual interpretation of HRM curves. In addition, the potential of the PCR-HRM curve analysis was evaluated for genotyping of additional Salmonella isolates from different avian species. The findings indicate that PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping of Salmonella isolates to determine the serovar/serotype.

  1. A Salmonella nanoparticle mimic overcomes multidrug resistance in tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Zhang, Yuanwei; Zhao, Liang; Rossi, Kyle; Wu, Xiang; Zou, Yekui; Castillo, Antonio; Leonard, Jack; Bortell, Rita; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Han, Gang; McCormick, Beth A

    2016-07-25

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen that also selectively grows in tumours and functionally decreases P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a multidrug resistance transporter. Here we report that the Salmonella type III secretion effector, SipA, is responsible for P-gp modulation through a pathway involving caspase-3. Mimicking the ability of Salmonella to reverse multidrug resistance, we constructed a gold nanoparticle system packaged with a SipA corona, and found this bacterial mimic not only accumulates in tumours but also reduces P-gp at a SipA dose significantly lower than free SipA. Moreover, the Salmonella nanoparticle mimic suppresses tumour growth with a concomitant reduction in P-gp when used with an existing chemotherapeutic drug (that is, doxorubicin). On the basis of our finding that the SipA Salmonella effector is fundamental for functionally decreasing P-gp, we engineered a nanoparticle mimic that both overcomes multidrug resistance in cancer cells and increases tumour sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  2. A longitudinal study of Salmonella from snakes used in a public outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Brad A; Trent, Ava M; Bender, Jeff; Olsen, Karen E; Morningstar, Brenda R; Wünschmann, Arno

    2012-12-01

    Snakes are considered to be a source of Salmonella infection for humans, but little is known about the actual serotype prevalence in healthy snakes over time. Twelve snakes involved in a public outreach program, representing seven different species, were tested weekly for shedding of Salmonella sp. over a period of 10 consecutive weeks. The snakes were housed in close proximity but in separate exhibits. Fresh fecal samples (when available) or cloacal swabs were cultured for Salmonella sp., and subsequent Salmonella isolates were serotyped. As representatives of the feed source, the feces of two mice and the intestines of one rat were cultured weekly. Fecal samples from 11 of the 12 snakes were positive for Salmonella at least once. Seven (58%) of 12 snakes were culture positive five times or more. The weekly prevalence of Salmonella shedding varied between 25% and 66%. Two or more different serotypes were isolated from nine snakes over time; however, a predominant serotype was generally isolated from each of these snakes. Altogether 15 different serotypes were identified. Serotypes of public health concern included Newport, Oranienburg, and Muenchen. Two samples from feeder rodents were positive for Salmonella. The results are consistent with previous studies showing high intestinal colonization rates with Salmonella sp. in snakes. Frequent and intermittent shedding of multiple serotypes was evident. Feeder rodents might serve as a source for intestinal colonization. Appropriate handling protocols should be implemented for all reptiles associated with public outreach programs to minimize risk of Salmonella transmission to the public.

  3. PCR-RFLP Analysis of a fliC Gene Fragment in Avian Salmonella Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ebrahimvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella are a genus of zoonotic bacteria of worldwide economic and health importance. Members of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica are mainly associated with warm-blooded vertebrates and are usually transmitted by ingestion of food or watercontaminated by infected feces. Objectives: The aim of this study was to apply a PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene to identify the serotypes of Salmonella isolates from Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Salmonella isolates were serotyped by specific antisera. For the PCR-RFLP method based on the fliC gene, extracted DNA was used as the template for amplifying the fliC gene (1500 bp using specific primers. PCR products were subjected to digestion using HhaI restriction endonuclease. Results: This study determined 30 serotypes as Salmonella durban (56.6%, Salmonella uno (23.3%, Salmonella enteritidis (3.3%, Salmonella tinda (3.3%, Salmonella mjimweme (3.3%, Salmonella Thompson (3.3%, Salmonella sIIO8 (3.3 % and Salmonella sIIO7 (3.3%. Observations indicated that HhaI is able to discriminate Salmonella tinda and Salmonella thompson, yet Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella durban and Salmonella mjimweme had the same pattern with this enzyme. Also Salmonella sIIO8, Salmonella sIIO7 and Salmonella uno showed the same pattern. Thus, regarding the size and the number of resulting fragments from this enzyme, four patterns were obtained for HhaI. Conclusion: A large number of Salmonella serotypes need to be analyzed by the PCR-RFLP method and different enzymes must be used to give reliable results.

  4. Comparação da eficiência dos caldos de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella Dublin Comparison of the efficiency of selective enrichment broths for Salmonella Dublin isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare three different selective enrichment broths: Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV, selenite cystine (SC and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate (MKT for Salmonella Dublin isolation from faecal samples of calf experimentally infected. The bacteriological procedure involved pre-enrichment stages in Hajna-GN broth (only for the samples inoculated in RV broth, selective enrichment, culture in modified brilliant green agar (BGA, presumptive biochemistry tests (using triple-sugar-iron agar and lysine-agar and slide agglutination test with poli-O and poli-H Salmonella antiserum. The effects of enrichment temperatures using RV broth were also evaluated (37ºC and 42ºC. SC broth was significantly more efficient in the isolation of Salmonella Dublin (P<0,05, whereas RV broth incubated at 42ºC had a lower efficiency in the microbiological isolation.

  5. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we

  6. Characterization of a Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Enterica Give

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    more than 535 cases of laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections ... Serotyping of the isolate: The isolate was sub cultured into. TSA agar and ... Electrophoresis unit (Life Technologies). Determination of .... raw minced meat. (Girardin et al.

  7. A novel method of selective removal of human DNA improves PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Pollard, Andrew J

    2012-07-27

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem, causing an estimated 21million new cases and 216,000 or more deaths every year. Current diagnosis of the disease is inadequate. Blood culture only identifies 45 to 70% of the cases and is time-consuming. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity. Clinical samples obtained for diagnosis of enteric fever in the field generally have blood, so that even PCR-based methods, widely used for detection of other infectious diseases, are not a straightforward option in typhoid diagnosis. We developed a novel method to enrich target bacterial DNA by selective removal of human DNA from blood samples, enhancing the sensitivity of PCR tests. This method offers the possibility of improving PCR assays directly using clinical specimens for diagnosis of this globally important infectious disease. Blood samples were mixed with ox bile for selective lysis of human blood cells and the released human DNA was then digested with addition of bile resistant micrococcal nuclease. The intact Salmonella Typhi bacteria were collected from the specimen by centrifugation and the DNA extracted with QIAamp DNA mini kit. The presence of Salmonella Typhi bacteria in blood samples was detected by PCR with the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi as the target. Micrococcal nuclease retained activity against human blood DNA in the presence of up to 9% ox bile. Background human DNA was dramatically removed from blood samples through the use of ox bile lysis and micrococcal nuclease for removal of mammalian DNA. Consequently target Salmonella Typhi DNA was enriched in DNA preparations and the PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in spiked blood samples was enhanced by 1,000 fold. Use of a combination of selective ox-bile blood cell lysis and removal of human DNA with micrococcal nuclease significantly improves PCR sensitivity and offers a better option for improved typhoid PCR assays directly using clinical specimens in diagnosis of

  8. Evaluation of the 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) 2 - Salmonella for the Detection of Salmonella spp. in Select Foods and Environmental Surfaces: Collaborative Study, First Action 2016.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James R; Goins, David; Monteroso, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    The 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) 2 - Salmonella uses real-time isothermal technology for the rapid and accurate detection of Salmonella spp. from enriched select food, feed, and food-process environmental samples. The 3M MDA 2 - Salmonella was evaluated in a multilaboratory collaborative study using an unpaired study design. The 3M MDA 2 - Salmonella was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual Chapter 5 reference method for the detection of Salmonella in creamy peanut butter, and to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook Chapter 4.08 reference method "Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products and Carcass and Environmental Samples" for the detection of Salmonella in raw ground beef (73% lean). Technicians from 16 laboratories located within the continental United States participated. Each matrix was evaluated at three levels of contamination: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD) statistical model. Results obtained for the low inoculum level test portions produced difference in collaborator POD values of 0.03 (95% confidence interval, -0.10 to 0.16) for raw ground beef and 0.06 (95% confidence interval, -0.06 to 0.18) for creamy peanut butter, indicating no statistically significant difference between the candidate and reference methods.

  9. Evaluation of cross-protection of bluetongue virus serotype 4 with other serotypes in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcwalisile B. Zulu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is a non-contagious disease of sheep and other domestic and wild ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV. Currently 26 serotypes of the virus have been identified. In South Africa, 22 serotypes have been identified and BT is controlled mainly by annual vaccinations using a freeze-dried live attenuated polyvalent BTV vaccine. The vaccine is constituted of 15 BTV serotypes divided into three separate bottles and the aim is to develop a vaccine using fewer serotypes without compromising the immunity against the disease. This study is based on previously reported cross-neutralisation of specific BTV serotypes in in vitro studies. Bluetongue virus serotype 4 was selected for this trial and was tested for cross-protection against serotype 4 (control, 1 (unrelated serotype, 9, 10 and 11 in sheep using the serum neutralisation test. The purpose of the study was to determine possible cross-protection of different serotypes in sheep. Of those vaccinated with BTV-4 and challenged with BTV-1, which is not directly related to BTV-4, 20% were completely protected and 80% showed clinical signs, but the reaction was not as severe as amongst the unvaccinated animals. In the group challenged with BTV-10, some showed good protection and some became very sick. Those challenged with BTV-9 and BTV-11 had good protection. The results showed that BTV-4 does not only elicit a specific immune response but can also protect against other serotypes.

  10. Detection and Identification of Salmonella spp. in Surface Water by Molecular Technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, S. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tsai, H. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is classified to gram-negative bacterium and is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The genus of Salmonella comprises more than 2,500 serotypes and its taxonomy is also very complicated. In tradition, the detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time and labor consuming. To overcome this disadvantage, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using novel procedures of detection method and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 157 surface water samples in Taiwan. The procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella, and then isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. The selective enrichment and culture plates were both detected by PCR. Finally, we used biochemical tests and serological assay to confirm the serovars of Salmonella and also used Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify their sarovar catagories by the genetic pattern. In this study, 44 water samples (28%) were indentified as Salmonella. The 44 positive water samples by culture method were further identified as S. Agona(1/44), S. Albany (10/44), S. Bareilly (13/44),S. Choleraesuis (2/44),S. Derby (4/44),S. Isangi (3/44),S.Kedougou(3/44),S. Mbandaka(1/44),S.Newport (3/44), S. Oranienburg(1/44), S. Potsdam (1/44),S. Typhimurium (1/44), andS. Weltevreden(1/44) by PFGE. The presence of Salmonella in surface water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed if water is not adequately treated. Therefore, the authorities need to have operating systems that currently provide adequate source

  11. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  12. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  13. Spatial surveillance during control of infectious diseases – Salmonella Dublin in Denmark 2002-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is the most commonly isolated Salmonella serotype in Danish cattle and leads to economic and welfare losses in infected herds. Furthermore, it leads to high mortality in human cases. A national surveillance program for Salmonella Dublin was initiated in Denmark in October 2002. ...

  14. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Swanenburg, M.

    2003-01-01

    from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was isolated from 5.3% of 3485 samples of pork and from 13.8% of 3573 environmental samples from the seven...

  15. Prevalence of salmonella in captive reptiles from Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-01-01

    from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13...

  16. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods...... for stabilization and methods for further treatment of sludge and organic waste has been investigated. The most common methods for stabilization, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic stabilization, only reduce the indicator organisms by approximately 1 logarithmic decade. Methods for further treatment of sludge and organic......) significant reductions of Salmonella were found, while the die out at low temperatures (below 10°C) was limited. FS was not reduced systematically during storage, and therefore, FS is not usable as indicator organism for the hygienic properties of sludge during storage....

  17. Specificity tests of an oligonucleotide probe against food-outbreak salmonella for biosensor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-H.; Horikawa, S.; Xi, J.; Wikle, H. C.; Barbaree, J. M.; Chin, B. A.

    2017-05-01

    Phage based magneto-elastic (ME) biosensors have been shown to be able to rapidly detect Salmonella in various food systems to serve food pathogen monitoring purposes. In this ME biosensor platform, the free-standing strip-shaped magneto-elastic sensor is the transducer and the phage probe that recognizes Salmonella in food serves as the bio-recognition element. According to Sorokulova et al. at 2005, a developed oligonucleotide probe E2 was reported to have high specificity to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. In the report, the specificity tests were focused in most of Enterobacterace groups outside of Salmonella family. Here, to understand the specificity of phage E2 to different Salmonella enterica serotypes within Salmonella Family, we further tested the specificity of the phage probe to thirty-two Salmonella serotypes that were present in the major foodborne outbreaks during the past ten years (according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The tests were conducted through an Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) format. This assay can mimic probe immobilized conditions on the magnetoelastic biosensor platform and also enable to study the binding specificity of oligonucleotide probes toward different Salmonella while avoiding phage/ sensor lot variations. Test results confirmed that this oligonucleotide probe E2 was high specific to Salmonella Typhimurium cells but showed cross reactivity to Salmonella Tennessee and four other serotypes among the thirty-two tested Salmonella serotypes.

  18. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Evaluation of Modification of the 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella Method (2013.09) for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Foods: Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Boyle, Megan; Huffman, Travis; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bedinghaus, Paige; Flannery, Jonathon; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Benesh, DeAnn; David, John

    2014-01-01

    The 3M(™) Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) Salmonella utilizes isothermal amplification of nucleic acid sequences with high specificity, efficiency, rapidity and bioluminescence to detect amplification of Salmonella spp. in food, food-related, and environmental samples after enrichment. A method modification and matrix extension study of the previously approved AOAC Official Method(SM) 2013.09 was conducted, and approval of the modification was received on March 20, 2014. Using an unpaired study design in a multilaboratory collaborative study, the 3M MDA Salmonella method was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 4.05 (2011), Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg, and Catfish Products for raw ground beef and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapter 5, Salmonella reference method for wet dog food following the current AOAC guidelines. A total of 20 laboratories participated. For the 3M MDA Salmonella method, raw ground beef was analyzed using 25 g test portions, and wet dog food was analyzed using 375 g test portions. For the reference methods, 25 g test portions of each matrix were analyzed. Each matrix was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). In this study, 1512 unpaired replicate samples were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD). For the low-level raw ground beef test portions, the following dLPOD (difference between the LPODs of the reference and candidate method) values with 95% confidence intervals were obtained: -0.01 (-0.14, +0.12). For the low-level wet dog food test portions, the following dLPOD with 95% confidence intervals were

  20. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SmartCare in milk replacer and Original XPC in calf starter, on the performance and health of preweaned Holstein calves challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare™ (SC) in milk replacer and Original XPC™(XPC) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein...

  1. Genomic Characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Serotypes and Development of a Multiplex PCR-Based Serotyping Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rochat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of salmonids reared in freshwater worldwide. So far, serological diversity between isolates has been described but the underlying molecular factors remain unknown. By combining complete genome sequence analysis and the serotyping method proposed by Lorenzen and Olesen (1997 for a set of 34 strains, we identified key molecular determinants of the serotypes. This knowledge allowed us to develop a robust multiplex PCR-based serotyping scheme, which was applied to 244 bacterial isolates. The results revealed a striking association between PCR-serotype and fish host species and illustrate the use of this approach as a simple and cost-effective method for the determination of F. psychrophilum serogroups. PCR-based serotyping could be a useful tool in a range of applications such as disease surveillance, selection of salmonids for bacterial coldwater disease resistance and future vaccine formulation.

  2. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  3. External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) of the WHO Global Salmonella Surveillance and Laboratory Support Project (Global Salm-Surv) Results from 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Evans, M.C.

    An international collaborative study on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv to conduct Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial suscept...... of the quality control range specified by NCCLS guidelines....

  4. Selection of Potential Therapeutic Bacteriophages that Lyse a CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strain from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elene Kakabadze

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a Salmonella Typhi isolate producing CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was isolated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We have selected bacteriophages that show strong lytic activity against this isolate and have potential for phage-based treatment of S. Typhi, and Salmonella in general.

  5. Real-time PCR Detection of Food-borne Pathogenic Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Mäde, D.; Löfström, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    Infections by Salmonella enterica are a significant public health concern worldwide. Salmonellae form a complex group of bacteria consisting of two species, six subspecies and more than 2500 serovars (serotypes). Mainly through ingestion of contaminated food or feed, they cause self-limiting gast......Infections by Salmonella enterica are a significant public health concern worldwide. Salmonellae form a complex group of bacteria consisting of two species, six subspecies and more than 2500 serovars (serotypes). Mainly through ingestion of contaminated food or feed, they cause self...

  6. Analysis of triclosan-selected Salmonella enterica mutants of eight serovars revealed increased aminoglycoside susceptibility and reduced growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rensch

    Full Text Available The biocide triclosan (TRC is used in a wide range of household, personal care, veterinary, industrial and medical products to control microbial growth. This extended use raises concerns about a possible association between the application of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance. In the present study we determined triclosan mutant prevention concentrations (MPC for Salmonella enterica isolates of eight serovars and investigated selected mutants for their mechanisms mediating decreased susceptibility to triclosan. MPCTRC values were 8-64-fold higher than MIC values and ranged between 1-16 µg/ml. The frequencies at which mutants were selected varied between 1.3 x 10(-10-9.9 x 10(-11. Even if MIC values of mutants decreased by 3-7 dilution steps in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide, only minor changes were observed in the expression of genes encoding efflux components or regulators, indicating that neither the major multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC nor AcrEF are up-regulated in triclosan-selected mutants. Nucleotide sequence comparisons confirmed the absence of alterations in the regulatory regions acrRA, soxRS, marORAB, acrSE and ramRA of selected mutants. Single bp and deduced Gly93→Val amino acid exchanges were present in fabI, the target gene of triclosan, starting from a concentration of 1 µg/ml TRC used for MPC determinations. The fabI genes were up to 12.4-fold up-regulated. Complementation experiments confirmed the contribution of Gly93→Val exchanges and fabI overexpression to decreased triclosan susceptibility. MIC values of mutants compared to parent strains were even equal or resulted in a more susceptible phenotype (1-2 dilution steps for the aminoglycoside antibiotics kanamycin and gentamicin as well as for the biocide chlorhexidine. Growth rates of selected mutants were significantly lower and hence, might partly explain the rare occurrence of Salmonella field isolates exhibiting

  7. Incidence of Salmonella contamination in broiler chickens in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, K K; O'Neil, J B; Prior, M G; Dunkelgod, K E

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7.

  8. Salmonella osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection can cause four predominant clinical syndromes: enteric fever, acute gastroenteritis, bacteraemia with or without metastatic infection, and the asymptomatic carrier state. Salmonella as an aetiological agent in osteomyelitis is essentially rare and salmonella osteomyelitis in itself is predominantly seen in patients with haemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia. There are very few cases reported in the literature in which salmonella osteomyelitis is s...

  9. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  10. The possible involvement of seagulls (Larus sp) in the transmission of salmonella in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W S; MacLachlan, G K; Hopkins, G F

    1979-12-08

    A series of infections in a herd of dairy cows by different salmonella serotypes over a seven year period is described. The source of infection appeared to be the private water supply contaminated by seagulls.

  11. Drug resistant Salmonella in broiler chicken sold at local market in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Key words: Antibiogram, Salmonellosis, PCR, broiler chicken, drug resistance. ... of zoonotic origin and have gained their resistance in an animal host ..... dynamics of Salmonella enterica serotypes in commercial egg and.

  12. Salmonella Species' Persistence and Their High Level of Antimicrobial Resistance in Flooded Man-Made Rivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qifa; Zhang, Danyang; Gao, Hong; Wu, Junhua

    2018-05-11

    Man-made rivers, owing to proximity to human habitats, facilitate transmission of salmonellosis to humans. To determine the contamination situation by Salmonella in flooded man-made rivers and thereafter the exposure risk to public health, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella species and their antimicrobial resistance in such rivers, as well as the relationship between the incidence of local infectious diarrhea cases and the number of Salmonella isolates from patients. After a heavy flood, 95 isolates of 13 Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 80 river water samples. The two most prevalent serotypes were Typhimurium and Derby. Eight Salmonella serotypes were newly detected after the flood. Overall, 50 isolates were resistant to ampicillin and/or cefotaxime and carried at least bla TEM . Twelve isolates of serotypes Typhimurium, Derby, Rissen, and Indiana were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing and carried at least one of bla OXA and bla CTX-M-like genes. Twelve isolates of serotypes Typhimurium, Derby, Agona, Rissen, and Indiana were resistant to ciprofloxacin and had gyrA mutations. Isolates of Typhimurium, Derby, and Indiana were concurrently ciprofloxacin resistant and ESBL producing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis illustrates the circulation of two dominant clones of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates among patients, river, and food. High prevalence of various highly pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serotypes shows that man-made rivers are prone to heavy contamination with Salmonella, and as a result put public health at greater risk.

  13. Salmonella in Wastes Produced at Commercial Poultry Farms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D. J.; Olechowski-Gerhardt, Carolyn; Berkowitz, J.; Finstein, M. S.

    1969-01-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study. PMID:5370457

  14. Salmonella in wastes produced at commercial poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D J; Olechowski-Gerhardt, C; Berkowitz, J; Finstein, M S

    1969-11-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study.

  15. Dual targeting of gene delivery by genetic modification of adenovirus serotype 5 fibers and cell-selective transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, L M; Ritchie, N; Nicklin, S A; Reynolds, P N; Baker, A H

    2004-08-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene delivery is a promising approach for genetic manipulation of the vasculature and is being used in both preclinical models and clinical trials. However, safety concerns relating to infection of nontarget tissue and the poor infectivity of vascular cells compared to other cell types necessitates Ad vector refinement. Here, we combine a transductional targeting approach to improve vascular cell infectivity through RGD peptide insertion into adenovirus fibers, combined with transcriptional targeting to endothelial cells using a approximately 1 kb fragment of the fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (FLT-1) promoter. Single- and double-modified vectors were characterized in human cell lines that either support or have silenced FLT-1 expression. In rat hepatocytes and endothelial cells, the double modification substantially shifted transduction profiles toward vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, in intact aortae derived from spontaneously hypertensive rats that display enhanced alphav integrin expression on dysfunctional endothelium, enhanced levels of transduction were observed using the double-modified vector but not in aortae derived from normotensive control rats. Our data indicate that Ad-mediated transduction can be beneficially modified in vitro and in vivo by combining fiber modification and a cell-selective promoter within a single-component vector system.

  16. Detection of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and Antimicrobial Residues in Raw and Processed Cow Milk from Selected Smallholder Farms of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tryness Anastazia Mhone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and antimicrobial residues in raw milk (n=120 and processed cow milk (n=20 from smallholder dairy farms from three sites in Zimbabwe. Culture and isolation of Salmonella spp., C. albicans, and Aspergillus spp. were performed using selective media, while antimicrobial residues were detected by a dye reduction test. No Salmonella, but C. albicans (17.5%; 21/120, Aspergillus spp. (0.8%; 1/120, and antimicrobial residues (2.5%; 3/120 were detected from raw milk. C. albicans was isolated from all three sites, while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were detected from sites 1 and 3, respectively. From processed milk, only C. albicans (5% was isolated while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were not detected. These results suggested low prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus spp. and a relatively high prevalence of C. albicans in raw milk from the smallholder farms. The potential public health risks of C. albicans and the detected antimicrobial residues need to be considered. Thus, educating farmers on improving milking hygiene and storage of milk and establishing programmes for monitoring antimicrobial residues may help to improve the safety of milk from smallholder farms.

  17. Frequency of parasites and Salmonella infection in captive maned-wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, kept in Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilioli R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815 from 11 Zoos at the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened to investigate the presence of parasites and Salmonella infection by parasitological diagnostic methods and fecal selective culture. The most frequent ecto and endoparasites found were Ctenocephalides felis (56.2%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (12.5%, Ancylostoma caninum (45.1%, Strongyloides sp. (29.0%, Uncinaria stenocephala (3.2%, Capillaria sp. (3.2%, Entamoeba sp. (22.9%, Sarcocystis sp. (29.0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (19.3%, Eimeria sp. (19.3%, Giardia sp. (9.6% and Isospora sp. (3.2%. Four different serotypes of Salmonella were identified in six animals (25%. Only one infected animal showed clinical signs of diarrhea. The ability to harbor Salmonella spp. as normal nonpathogenic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract may be a physiological adaptation of this specie.

  18. Prevalence and molecular profiles of Salmonella collected at a commercial turkey processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nde, Chantal W; Sherwood, Julie S; Doetkott, Curt; Logue, Catherine M

    2006-08-01

    In this study, whole carcasses were sampled at eight stages on a turkey-processing line and Salmonella prevalence was determined using enrichment techniques. Recovered Salmonella was further characterized using serotyping and the molecular profiles were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Prevalence data showed that contamination rates varied along the line and were greatest after defeathering and after chilling. Analysis of contamination in relation to serotypes and PFGE profiles found that on some visits the same serotype was present all along the processing line while on other days, additional serotypes were recovered that were not detected earlier on the line, suggesting that the birds harbored more than one serotype of Salmonella or there was cross-contamination occurring during processing. Overall, this study found fluctuations in Salmonella prevalence along a turkey-processing line. Following washing, Salmonella prevalence was significantly reduced, suggesting that washing is critical for Salmonella control in turkey processing and has significant application for controlling Salmonella at the postdefeathering and prechill stages where prevalence increased.

  19. Salmonella enterica isolates from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, S N; Hanning, I; Han, J; Nayak, R; Clement, A R; Wooming, A; Hererra, P; Jones, F T; Foley, S L; Ricke, S C

    2010-12-01

    While considerable foodborne pathogen research has been conducted on conventionally produced broilers and turkeys, few studies have focused on free-range (organic) or pastured poultry. The current surveillance study was designed to isolate, identify and genetically characterize Salmonella from pastured poultry farm environment and from retail samples. In this study, 59 isolates were collected from two pastured poultry farms (n = 164; pens, feed, water and insect traps) and retail carcasses (n = 36) from a local natural foods store and a local processing plant. All isolates were serotyped and analysed phenotypically (antimicrobial resistance profiles) and genotypically (DNA fingerprints, plasmid profiles and integron analysis). Salmonella enterica was detected using standard microbiological methods. Salmonella Kentucky was the most prevalent serotype detected from the sampled sources (53%), followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (24%), Bareilly (10%), Mbandaka (7%), Montevideo (5%) or Newport (2%). All isolates were resistant to sulfisoxazole and novobiocin, and the majority (40/59) possessed class I integrons shown by PCR detection. Each Salmonella serotype elicited a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprint profile, and unique differences were observed among the serotypes.  The findings of this study show that Salmonella serotypes isolated from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons.  This study demonstrates that despite the cessation of antibiotic usage in poultry production, antibiotic resistant Salmonella may still be recovered from the environment and poultry products. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Molecular Typing of Salmonella Isolates in Poultry by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Golab

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella is one of the most widespread zoonotic enter pathogenic microorganisms found in the global food chain. Poultryand Poultry products have been identified as one of the important foodborne sources of Salmonella. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE is a gold standard typing method for identification of Salmonella isolates during outbreaks and epidemiological investigations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to carry out molecular typing of Salmonella enterica spp. by PFGE technique. Materials and Methods: All 47 Salmonella isolates were serotyped and then subjected to PFGE. Total isolates were analyzed by means of the molecular technique XbaI PFGE. Results: In the current work, PFGE and serotyping were used to subtype 47 Salmonella isolates belonging to 22 different serotypes and derived from poultry. Thirty-nine PFGE patterns out of 47 isolates were obtained. The Discrimination Index (DI by serotyping (0.93 was lower than PFGE (DI = 0.99. Conclusions: In conclusion, molecular methods such as PFGE can be used for epidemiological characterization of Salmonella serotypes.

  1. Global Monitoring of Salmonella Serovar Distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from 2001 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Vieira, Antonio; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15...

  2. The first attempt of an active integrated laboratory‐based Salmonella surveillance programme in the north‐eastern region of Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, I.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Svendsen, Christina Aaby

    2013-01-01

    cattle, camels, poultry, fish, vegetables and humans. All identified Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by MIC determinations. A total of 149 Salmonella isolates comprising 17 different serovars were obtained (7·9% prevalence). Salmonella Hadar (37%), S. Eko...

  3. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers.

  4. Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in the presence of competitive micro-organisms. Bacteriological collaborative study IV amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella, the use of MSRV as selective enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes M; Nagelkerke N; Henken AM; MGB; IMA

    2000-01-01

    A fourth bacteriological collaborative study was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs) participated. This study had two objectives: 1) Evaluation of the results of the detection of different contamination levels of

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella among waterfowl along the Texas Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigar, M K; Cummings, K J; Rankin, S C

    2017-12-01

    Migratory waterfowl may play a role in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic pathogens, given their ability to travel long distances and their use of varied habitats. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among waterfowl along the Texas Gulf coast and to characterize the isolates. Faecal samples were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl at four wildlife management areas from September through November, 2016. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized by serotyping and anti-microbial susceptibility testing. The apparent prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding was 0.5% (2/375). Serotypes identified were Thompson and Braenderup, and both isolates were susceptible to all anti-microbial agents tested. Although faecal contamination of agricultural fields or surface waters could serve as a potential source of zoonotic Salmonella transmission, waterfowl along the Gulf coast during the fall hunting season appear to pose minimal risk. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Mathematical modeling of growth Salmonella and spoilage microorganisms in raw oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to develop primary and secondary models to describe the growth of Salmonella as well as background microorganisms in fresh shucked oysters. The cocktail of two Salmonella serotypes, S. Typhimurium (CICC22956) and S. Enteritidis (CICC21482), was inoculated to raw...

  7. Herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in Danish slaughter pigs determined by microbiological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bager, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide programme to survey and control salmonella in pig herds, a microbiological survey of 1363 pig herds was performed in Denmark. A total of 13 468 slaughter pigs were examined at slaughter by culture of 5 g of caecal contents. Overall, 30 different serotypes of Salmonella...

  8. The effect of enrichment broth and temperature on the recovery of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of the Problem: No single enrichment broth or temperature is used consistently throughout the research, regulatory or industry laboratories for the detection of Salmonella. This lack of a single methodology leads to confusion and possible bias both for and against Salmonella serotypes. The...

  9. Virulence and metabolic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis sefD variants in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of a few pathogenic Salmonella enterica serotypes that have SEF14 fimbriae encoded by the sef operon, which consists of 4 co-transcribed genes sefABCD that are regulated by sefR. To explore the function of sefD within the infection pathway resulting in egg contamination...

  10. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25...

  11. The effects of oral and intramuscular administration and dose escalation of enrofloxacin on the selection of quinolone resistance among Salmonella and coliforms in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, C.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Svendsen, O.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of route of administration and dose of enrofloxacin (Baytril(R)) on the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of pigs was investigated. Healthy pigs at the age of 8-10 weeks were infected with a mixture of susceptible wild......-type (MICciprofloxacin = 0.03 mug/ml) and a mutant Salmonella typhimurium with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (MICciprofloxacin 0.5 mug/ml) (in the ratio 99: 1) and treated with 2.5 mg/kg bwt enrofloxacin by either intramuscular (i.m.) or oral (p.o.) administration at time points either 4 or 24 It after....... The Salmonella infection was cleared in all cases during the 2 weeks independent of frequency of resistance. The study showed that resistance is very easily selected by treatment with enrofloxacin at the recommended dose 2.5 mg/kg bwt, but also that the intensity of selection can be reduced by using...

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Salmonella enterica isolated from pet dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisanga, Songsak; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Sringam, Patcharee; Le Ho, Phuong T.; Vo, An T. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica isolates (n = 122), including 32 serotypes from 113 dogs and 9 cats, were obtained from household dogs (n = 250) and cats (n = 50) during 2012–2015. The isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance phenotyping and genotyping, and virulence gene screening. Serovars Weltevreden (15.6%) and Typhimurium (13.9%) were the most common. The majority (43%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. The dog isolates (12.3%) harbored class 1 integrons, of which the dfrA12-aadA2 cassette was most frequent (66.7%). The only class integron in serovar Albany was located on a conjugative plasmid. Two ESBL-producing isolates (i.e., a serovar Krefeld and a serovar Enteritridis) carried blaTEM and blaCTX-M, and the blaTEM gene in both was horizontally transferred. Of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes tested, only qnrS (4.9%) was detected. Most Salmonella isolates harbored invA (100%), prgH (91.8%), and sipB (91%). Positive associations between resistance and virulence genes were observed for blaPSE-1/orgA, cmlA/spaN, tolC, and sul1/tolC (p resistance and virulence genes and that antimicrobial use in companion animals may select for the examined Salmonella virulence factors. PMID:27586467

  13. Post-operative Salmonella surgical site infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Boozer, Lindsay; Glass, Eric N; Sanchez, Susan; Platt, Simon R; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Following decompressive surgery for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, a 6-year-old German shepherd dog developed a subcutaneous infection at the surgical site and discospondylitis at the lumbosacral intervertebral disc. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serotype Dublin was recovered from the surgical site. Salmonella of a different serovar was isolated from a sample of the raw meat-based diet that the owner fed the dog.

  14. Genomic Evolution Of The Mdr Serotype O12 Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Taylor, Véronique L.; Freschi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    that serotype switching in combination with an antibiotic resistance determinant contributed to the dissemination of the O12 serotype in the clinic. This selective advantage coincides with the introduction of fluoroquinolones in the clinic. With the PAst program isolates can be serotyped using WGS data......Introduction: Since the 1980’s the serotype O12 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as the predominant serotype in clinical settings and in epidemic outbreaks. These serotype O12 isolates exhibit high levels of resistance to various classes of antibiotics.Methods: In this study, we explore how......).Results: While most serotypes were closely linked to the core genome phylogeny we observed horizontal exchange of LPS genes among distinct P. aeruginosa strains. Specifically, we identified a ‘serotype island’ containing the P. aeruginosa O12 LPS gene cluster and an antibiotic resistance determinant (gyrAC248T...

  15. A genomic overview of the population structure of Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil-Fareed Alikhan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Salmonella enterica has been subdivided by serological properties into serovars or further subdivided for epidemiological tracing by a variety of diagnostic tests with higher resolution. Recently, it has been proposed that so-called eBurst groups (eBGs based on the alleles of seven housekeeping genes (legacy multilocus sequence typing [MLST] corresponded to natural populations and could replace serotyping. However, this approach lacks the resolution needed for epidemiological tracing and the existence of natural populations had not been independently validated by independent criteria. Here, we describe EnteroBase, a web-based platform that assembles draft genomes from Illumina short reads in the public domain or that are uploaded by users. EnteroBase implements legacy MLST as well as ribosomal gene MLST (rMLST, core genome MLST (cgMLST, and whole genome MLST (wgMLST and currently contains over 100,000 assembled genomes from Salmonella. It also provides graphical tools for visual interrogation of these genotypes and those based on core single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. eBGs based on legacy MLST are largely consistent with eBGs based on rMLST, thus demonstrating that these correspond to natural populations. rMLST also facilitated the selection of representative genotypes for SNP analyses of the entire breadth of diversity within Salmonella. In contrast, cgMLST provides the resolution needed for epidemiological investigations. These observations show that genomic genotyping, with the assistance of EnteroBase, can be applied at all levels of diversity within the Salmonella genus.

  16. A genomic overview of the population structure of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Zhou, Zhemin; Sergeant, Martin J; Achtman, Mark

    2018-04-01

    For many decades, Salmonella enterica has been subdivided by serological properties into serovars or further subdivided for epidemiological tracing by a variety of diagnostic tests with higher resolution. Recently, it has been proposed that so-called eBurst groups (eBGs) based on the alleles of seven housekeeping genes (legacy multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) corresponded to natural populations and could replace serotyping. However, this approach lacks the resolution needed for epidemiological tracing and the existence of natural populations had not been independently validated by independent criteria. Here, we describe EnteroBase, a web-based platform that assembles draft genomes from Illumina short reads in the public domain or that are uploaded by users. EnteroBase implements legacy MLST as well as ribosomal gene MLST (rMLST), core genome MLST (cgMLST), and whole genome MLST (wgMLST) and currently contains over 100,000 assembled genomes from Salmonella. It also provides graphical tools for visual interrogation of these genotypes and those based on core single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). eBGs based on legacy MLST are largely consistent with eBGs based on rMLST, thus demonstrating that these correspond to natural populations. rMLST also facilitated the selection of representative genotypes for SNP analyses of the entire breadth of diversity within Salmonella. In contrast, cgMLST provides the resolution needed for epidemiological investigations. These observations show that genomic genotyping, with the assistance of EnteroBase, can be applied at all levels of diversity within the Salmonella genus.

  17. Salmonella biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijn, G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Salmonellaspp. is a problem in the food industry, since biofilms may act as a persistent source of product contamination. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain more insight in the processes involved and the factors contributing to Salmonellabiofilm

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella . This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella . The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying and eliminating the sources and contamination

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Nidaullah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test, serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46% with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161, Salmonella Corvallis (42/161, and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161 being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying

  1. Prevalence and diversity of Salmonella enterica in water, fish and lettuce in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2015-07-31

    This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.

  2. Fourth human parechovirus serotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Kimberley S. M.; Schinkel, Janke; Luken, Manon E.; van den Broek, Peter J. M.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Menelik, Negassi; van Eijk, Hetty W. M.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Wolthers, Katja C.

    2006-01-01

    We identified a novel human parechovirus (HPeV) type (K251176-02) from a neonate with fever. Analysis of the complete genome showed K251176-02 to be a new HPeV genotype. Since K251176-02 could not be neutralized with antibodies against known HPeV serotypes 1-3, it should be classified as a fourth

  3. European bluetongue serotype 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey M.; Podell, Brendan K.; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Mcvey, D.S.; Rijn, van Piet A.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an orbivirus transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) that can result in moderate to high morbidity and mortality primarily in sheep and white-tailed deer. Although only 5 serotypes of BTV are considered endemic to the United States, as many as 11 incursive

  4. Bakteriaemi forårsaget af zoonotiske Salmonella-typer i Storkøbenhavn 1984-1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Eriksen, N H; Nielsen, H

    1990-01-01

    The five departments of clinical microbiology in Greater Copenhagen have together carried out a retrospective review of bacteraemia caused by the zoonotic Salmonella serotypes in the period 1984-1988 in the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg and in the County of Copenhagen. A gradual...... increase in frequency was observed from 11 cases in 1984 to 58 cases in 1988. The serotype most commonly isolated was Salmonella dublin followed by Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. S. dublin was found to be more invasive and more virulent than the other serotypes. Predisposing factors...... aortic aneurysm probably on account of Salmonella arteritis. 20% developed recurrence of bacteraemia while in the remaining patients the disease ran an uncomplicated course. It is concluded that the marked increase in the number of cases and the serious course taken by the infection demonstrate...

  5. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Foodborne Salmonella Serovars in Eight Provinces in China from 2007 to 2012 (Except 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Cao, Chenyang; Alali, Walid Q; Cui, Shenghui; Li, Fengqin; Zhu, Jianghui; Wang, Xin; Meng, Jianghong; Yang, Baowei

    2017-07-01

    One thousand four hundred ninety-one Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods including chicken, beef, fish, pork, dumplings, and cold dishes in China in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012 were analyzed for distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 129 Salmonella serotypes were detected among 1491 isolates. Salmonella Enteritidis (21.5%), Typhimurium (11.0%), Indiana (10.8%), Thompson (5.4%), Derby (5.1%), Agona (3.8%), and Shubra (3.0%) were the seven most important serotypes in 1491 isolates. For antibiotic susceptibility, except 16 (1.1%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics, 131 (8.8%) resisted 1-2 and 1344 (90.1%) resisted three or more antibiotics. One thousand forty-six (70.2%) of 1491 Salmonella isolates were identified as multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, which could resist three or more categories of antibiotics. Resistance to sulfisoxazole (78.1%) was most common among the tested Salmonella, followed by tetracycline (70.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (68.0%), and nalidixic acid (63.4%). Resistances to amikacin (20.0%), levofloxacin (18.7%), gatifloxacin (17.9%), ceftriaxone (17.7%), and cefoxitin (13.2%) were less frequently detected. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was most common among Salmonella Shubra and Indiana isolates, while resistance to cephalosporins was frequently detected among Salmonella Thompson isolates. The results highlighted the diversity of Salmonella serotypes and the high prevalence of Salmonella MDR isolates in China. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium isolates, the higher fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins resistance rates of some individual serotypes (Salmonella Shubra, Indiana, and Thompson) also provided more information for further study related to fluoroquinolones or cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella.

  6. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis associated with consumption of eggs in a restaurant chain in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F Y; Morris, J G; Trump, D; Tilghman, D; Wood, P K; Jackman, N; Israel, E; Libonati, J P

    1988-10-01

    Salmonella enteritidis ser. enteritidis was isolated from patrons and employees of three restaurants in a restaurant chain in Maryland during August and September 1985. Isolates from all three restaurants had identical plasmid profiles; this profile was present in 13 of 40 randomly selected S. enteritidis isolates received by the Maryland state health department laboratory during a comparable time period. The outbreak in one restaurant resulted in at least 71 illnesses, with 17 persons known to have been hospitalized. Scrambled eggs served on a "breakfast bar" were implicated as the vehicle of transmission in this restaurant, with eggs a possible vehicle in another of the three restaurants. The data point out the risks associated with improper handling of eggs in food service establishments, provide further evidence for the observed association between S. enteritidis and eggs in the northeastern United States, and demonstrate the utility of plasmid analysis in investigation of outbreaks involving common Salmonella serotypes.

  7. Selection of vaccine strains for serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses (2007-2012) circulating in Southeast Asia, East Asia and Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Aviso, Sharie; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya

    2017-12-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Southeast Asia (SEA) and East Asia with circulation of multiple serotypes and multiple genotypes within each serotype of the virus. Although countries like Japan and South Korea in the Far East were free of FMD, in 2010 FMD serotype O (O/Mya-98) outbreaks were recorded and since then South Korea has experienced several FMD outbreaks despite regular vaccination. In this study a total of 85 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 2007 to 2012 from SEA, East Asia and Far East were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using antisera to four existing (O/HKN/6/83, O/IND/R2/75, O/SKR/2010 and O/PanAsia-2) and one putative (O/MYA/2009) vaccine strains, and by full capsid sequencing. Serological studies revealed broad cross-reactivity with the vaccine strains; O/PanAsia-2 exhibited a good match with 95.3%, O/HKN/6/83 with 91.8%, O/IND/R2/75 with 80%, and the putative strain O/MYA/2009 with 89.4% isolates employed in this study. Similarly O/PanAsia-2 and O/IND/R2/75 vaccines showed a good match with all eight viruses belonging to O-Ind-2001d sublineage whereas the vaccines of O/Mya-98 lineage, O/MYA/2009 and O/SKR/2010 exhibited the lowest match indicating their unsuitability to protect infections from O-Ind-2001d viruses. A Bayesian analysis of the capsid sequence data indicated these circulating viruses (n = 85) to be of either SEA or Middle East-South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Lao PDR, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand reflecting the trade links with the Indian subcontinent, and also within the SEA countries. Implications of these results in the context of FMD control in SEA and East Asian countries are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete genomic sequences of two salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serogroup C2 (O:6,8) strains from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enteric subsp. enterica strains RM11060, serotype 6,8:d:-, and RM11065, serotype 6,8:-:e,n,z15, were isolated from environmental sampling in Central California in 2009. We report the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two strains. These genomic sequences are distinct and wi...

  9. Prevalence and Antibiogram Profile of Salmonellae in Intensively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Authors are very thankful to Dr. Simon Le Hello,. Co-directeur Centre National de Référence E. coli/Shigella/Salmonella Institut Pasteur, for serotyping of the isolates, and also to Dr. Oladepo Dauda of the National Institute for. Pharmaceutical Research and Development. (NIPRD), Abuja for providing the reference.

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of Salmonella surveillance data in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella ...

  11. Salmonella diversity associated with wild reptiles and amphibians in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Víctor; Téllez, Sonia; Goyache, Joaquín; Ballesteros, Cristina; del Pilar Lanzarot, María; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F

    2004-08-01

    During the spring and summer of 2001, faeces from 166 wild reptiles (94 individuals) and amphibians (72 individuals) from 21 different species found in central Spain were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Thirty-nine reptiles (41.5%) yielded 48 Salmonella isolates, whereas all the amphibians examined were negative. Subspecies Salmonella enterica enterica (I) accounted for up to 50% of isolates. Fourteen isolates (29.2%) belonged to subspecies diarizonae (IIIb), six isolates (12.5%) to subspecies salamae (II), and four isolates (8.3%) to subspecies arizonae (IIIa). Twenty-seven different serotypes were identified. Serotypes Anatum (12.5%), Herzliya (8.3%), Abony, 18:l,v:z, 9,12:z29:1,5 and 38:z10:z53 (6.2%/each) were the most frequently isolated. A high percentage (39.6%) of isolates belonged to serotypes previously associated with environmental sources. Also, 37.5% of isolates belonged to serotypes which had been related to human cases of salmonellosis. From these data, it is concluded that wild reptiles, but apparently not amphibians, may represent an important reservoir of Salmonella in nature and have potential implications for public health.

  12. Recent Trends in Salmonella Outbreaks and Emerging Technology for Biocontrol of Salmonella Using Phages in Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung

    2017-12-28

    Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne outbreaks. As traditional control methods have shown less efficacy against emerging Salmonella serotypes or antimicrobialresistant Salmonella , new approaches have been attempted. The use of lytic phages for the biocontrol of Salmonella in the food industry has become an attractive method owing to the many advantages offered by the use of phages as biocontrol agents. Phages are natural alternatives to traditional antimicrobial agents; they have proven effective in the control of bacterial pathogens in the food industry, which has led to the development of different phage products. The treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases, and ultimately promotes safe environments for animal and plant food production, processing, and handling. After an extensive investigation of the current literature, this review focuses predominantly on the efficacy of phages for the successful control of Salmonella spp. in foods. This review also addresses the current knowledge on the pathogenic characteristics of Salmonella , the prevalence of emerging Salmonella outbreaks, the isolation and characterization of Salmonella -specific phages, the effectiveness of Salmonella -specific phages as biocontrol agents, and the prospective use of Salmonella -specific phages in the food industry.

  13. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noochpramul, K.; Loaharanu, P.

    1974-01-01

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 10 6 , 10 4 , or 10 2 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 10 6 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 10 6 /g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 10 4 /g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 10 2 /g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  14. Phylogenetics and differentiation of Salmonella Newport lineages by whole genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Cao

    Full Text Available Salmonella Newport has ranked in the top three Salmonella serotypes associated with foodborne outbreaks from 1995 to 2011 in the United States. In the current study, we selected 26 S. Newport strains isolated from diverse sources and geographic locations and then conducted 454 shotgun pyrosequencing procedures to obtain 16-24 × coverage of high quality draft genomes for each strain. Comparative genomic analysis of 28 S. Newport strains (including 2 reference genomes and 15 outgroup genomes identified more than 140,000 informative SNPs. A resulting phylogenetic tree consisted of four sublineages and indicated that S. Newport had a clear geographic structure. Strains from Asia were divergent from those from the Americas. Our findings demonstrated that analysis using whole genome sequencing data resulted in a more accurate picture of phylogeny compared to that using single genes or small sets of genes. We selected loci around the mutS gene of S. Newport to differentiate distinct lineages, including those between invH and mutS genes at the 3' end of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1, ste fimbrial operon, and Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR associated-proteins (cas. These genes in the outgroup genomes held high similarity with either S. Newport Lineage II or III at the same loci. S. Newport Lineages II and III have different evolutionary histories in this region and our data demonstrated genetic flow and homologous recombination events around mutS. The findings suggested that S. Newport Lineages II and III diverged early in the serotype evolution and have evolved largely independently. Moreover, we identified genes that could delineate sublineages within the phylogenetic tree and that could be used as potential biomarkers for trace-back investigations during outbreaks. Thus, whole genome sequencing data enabled us to better understand the genetic background of pathogenicity and evolutionary history of S

  15. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

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    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Two Porcine Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates

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    Kemal METİNER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of the Salmonella species in swine with diarrhea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamase production. For this purpose, stool samples from three commercial pig farms in Istanbul and Tekirdag were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation by culture and isolates were identified by biochemical activity tests. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR then serotyped. Antimicrobial resistance and ESBL and AmpC production of the isolates were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standard. In the study, two hundred and thirty eight stool samples were examined. Salmonella spp. were obtained from 2 samples, and the isolation rate was determined as 0.8%. Both of the isolates were defined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotype 1, 4, [5], 12: I: 1, 2 by serotyping. Both of them were resistant to cefaclor, cloxacillin and lincomycin (100%. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥3 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. ESBL and AmpC production were not detected in any of the isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of S. Typhimurium in pigs with diarrhea in Turkey. This study also represents the first report of multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium isolates from pig stools in Turkey.

  17. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

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    Yiltawe Simwal Wungak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2. Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18 was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3 for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67 for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26 for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%. Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.

  18. Use of FTA Cards for the Transport of DNA Samples of Salmonella spp. from Poultry Products from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The contamination of products with Salmonella is a major threat to the poultry industry because the possible transmission to humans and animals can produce a huge negative impact. The diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes complicates the diagnostic systems and the transport of live ...

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples from table egg barns in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Amand, Joan A; Cassis, Rashed; King, Robin K; Annett Christianson, Colleen B

    2017-12-01

    Some Salmonella spp. are zoonotic, a frequent cause of foodborne illness in Canada, and known to infect humans through contaminated poultry and poultry products. Certain serotypes of Salmonella spp. have been demonstrated to be vertically transmitted from hen to egg. The incidence of Salmonella spp. isolation in the flock has been correlated to its isolation from the environment. Twenty-one producers were enrolled in this study to examine the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in 48 table egg layer flocks housed in 35 barns in Alberta. The purpose of this study was to: (i) identify Salmonella serotypes isolated from the environment of table egg layer facilities in Alberta and (ii) record the prevalence of Salmonella spp. across eight defined environmental sampling points. Salmonella spp. were isolated from the environment of 20/35 barns representing 29/48 flocks. The most common serotypes isolated were S. Heidelberg, S. Kentucky and S. Mbandaka. The order of most to least contaminated sample location was manure belts (54.1%), feeders (47.9%), feed motors (45.8%), egg belts and walls (41.7%), fans (35.0%), cage bottoms (31.3%) and lobbies (27.1%). Salmonella spp. were isolated from 7/7 barns post cleaning and disinfection, demonstrating the persistence of this organism in the environment and the need for effective eradication protocols.

  20. Methodologies for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Subtyping: Gold Standards and Alternatives▿

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    Wattiau, Pierre; Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    For more than 80 years, subtyping of Salmonella enterica has been routinely performed by serotyping, a method in which surface antigens are identified based on agglutination reactions with specific antibodies. The serotyping scheme, which is continuously updated as new serovars are discovered, has generated over time a data set of the utmost significance, allowing long-term epidemiological surveillance of Salmonella in the food chain and in public health control. Conceptually, serotyping provides no information regarding the phyletic relationships inside the different Salmonella enterica subspecies. In epidemiological investigations, identification and tracking of salmonellosis outbreaks require the use of methods that can fingerprint the causative strains at a taxonomic level far more specific than the one achieved by serotyping. During the last 2 decades, alternative methods that could successfully identify the serovar of a given strain by probing its DNA have emerged, and molecular biology-based methods have been made available to address phylogeny and fingerprinting issues. At the same time, accredited diagnostics have become increasingly generalized, imposing stringent methodological requirements in terms of traceability and measurability. In these new contexts, the hand-crafted character of classical serotyping is being challenged, although it is widely accepted that classification into serovars should be maintained. This review summarizes and discusses modern typing methods, with a particular focus on those having potential as alternatives for classical serotyping or for subtyping Salmonella strains at a deeper level. PMID:21856826

  1. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

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    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  2. Genetic Transfer of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide Antigens to Escherichia coli K-12

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    Jones, Randall T.; Koeltzow, Donald E.; Stocker, B. A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 ϰ971 was crossed with a smooth Salmonella typhimurium donor, HfrK6, which transfers early the ilv-linked rfa region determining lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structure. Two ilv+ hybrids differing in their response to the LPS-specific phages FO and C21 were then crossed with S. typhimurium HfrK9, which transfers early the rfb gene cluster determining O repeat unit structure. Most recombinants selected for his+ (near rfb) were agglutinated by Salmonella factor 4 antiserum. Transfer of an F′ factor (FS400) carrying the rfb–his region of S. typhimurium to the same two ilv+ hybrids gave similar results. LPS extracted from two ilv+,his+, factor 4-positive hybrids contained abequose, the immunodominant sugar for factor 4 specificity. By contrast, his+ hybrids obtained from ϰ971 itself by similar HfrK9 and F′FS400 crosses were not agglutinated by factor 4 antiserum, indicating that the parental E. coli ϰ971 does not have the capacity to attach Salmonella O repeat units to its LPS core. It is concluded that the Salmonella rfb genes are expressed only in E. coli ϰ971 hybrids which have also acquired ilv-linked genes (presumably rfa genes affecting core structure or O-translocase ability, or both) from a S. typhimurium donor. When E. coli ϰ971 was crossed with a smooth E. coli donor, Hfr59, of serotype O8, which transfers his early, most his+ recombinants were agglutinated by E. coli O8 antiserum and lysed by the O8-specific phage, Ω8. This suggests that, although the parental E. coli K-12 strain ϰ971 cannot attach Salmonella-specific repeat units to its LPS core, it does have the capacity to attach E. coli O8-specific repeat units. PMID:4559827

  3. Salmonella isolated from individual reptiles and environmental samples from terraria in private households in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Veronica O; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Melin, Lennart; Boqvist, Sofia

    2014-01-24

    This study investigates Salmonella spp. isolated from privately kept reptiles and from environmental samples such as bedding materials or water from the floor of the enclosures (terraria). It also compares isolation of Salmonella using Modified Semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) medium or selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis-Soya (RVS) pepton broth. Cloacal swabs or swabs from the cloacal area were collected from 63 individual reptiles belonging to 14 households. All reptiles were from different terraria and from 62 of these, environmental samples were also collected. Sampling were done by the reptile owners according to written instructions and sent by mail immediately after sampling. All but three samples were analyzed within 24 h after collection. Colonies suspected for Salmonella were tested for agglutination and serotyped using the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme. The relative sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) for MSRV compared with RVS, and the agreement coefficient kappa (κ) were calculated. Salmonella was isolated from 50/63 (80%) terraria, either from the reptiles (31/63; 49%) or from bedding material (39/62; 63%). The most common subspecies was Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica followed by S. enterica subspecies diarizonae. In reptiles, the most common S. enterica subspecies enterica serovars were Java (n = 4) and Fluntern (n = 4), compared with the serovars Tennessee (n = 10) and Fluntern (n = 10) in the environmental samples. The exact same set of Salmonella subspecies and serovars were not isolated from the individual reptiles and the environmental samples from any of the households. Isolation using MSRV yielded more Salmonella isolates 61/113 (54%) than enrichment in RVS 57/125 (46%). The se was 97.9% (95% Confidence Interval 93.9-100), the sp 78.5% (95% CI 68.5-88.5) and the κ 0.74, indicating substantial agreement between the tests. Salmonella can be expected to be present in environments where reptiles are

  4. CRISPR typing and subtyping for improved laboratory surveillance of Salmonella infections.

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    Laëtitia Fabre

    Full Text Available Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats is highly polymorphic in Salmonella. We found that CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated with both serotype and multilocus sequence type. Furthermore, spacer microevolution discriminated between subtypes within prevalent serotypes, making it possible to carry out typing and subtyping in a single step. We developed a high-throughput subtyping assay for the most prevalent serotype, Typhimurium. An open web-accessible database was set up, providing a serotype/spacer dictionary and an international tool for strain tracking based on this innovative, powerful typing and subtyping tool.

  5. The epidemiology of Salmonella infection of calves: the role of dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, C.; Todd, N.; McLaren, I.; Beedell, Y.; Rowe, B.

    1990-01-01

    Salmonellas were detected in the environment of 10 of the 12 calf dealers' premises studied. The cleaning and disinfection routines were often ineffective and salmonellas were isolated from 7.6% and 5.3% of the wall and floor samples before disinfection and 6.8% and 7.6% afterwards. Eight different salmonella serotypes were detected, of which the commonest were Salmonella typhimurium, predominantly phage type DT204C, and S. dublin. Plasmid profiles were used to fingerprint S. typhimurium DT204C and the results indicated that with the exception of one of the premises, prolonged salmonella-persistence in the environment was not occurring. Three separate epidemics of salmonellosis in calves were studied by use of plasmid profile analysis. The results illustrated the role of delers, and their subcontractors, in the dissemination of salmonellas. The study concludes with suggestions for methods to reduce the spread of salmonellas in the calf marketing chain. PMID:2209734

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

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    F.R. El-Seedy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7% were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves were 18.1% and 75.6%, respectively. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the most prevalent serotypes, representing 60.9% and 30.4%, respectively, while S. Dublin was 8.7%. Serogrouping of E. coli isolates showed that 10 O-serogroups were obtained where O26 and O103 were the most prevalent (17.7% of each. Salmonella serotypes showed positive results with PCR test using oligonucleotide primer amplifying 521 bp fragment of invA gene of Salmonella while 70% of E. coli serogroups possessed ETEC virulent gene (K99. The in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that Salmonella serotypes showed high sensitivity against enrofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin while E. coli isolates showed high sensitivities against marbofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin only.

  7. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica isolated from humans and food animals using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

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    Golab, N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are the second leading cause of zoonotic bacterial foodborne illness. Main source of infection in human is contaminated food products. The aim of this study was sub typing isolates of Salmonella enterica obtained during our previous study by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE technique. All 46 Salmonella isolates were serotyped and then subjected to PFGE. Total isolates were analyzed by means of the molecular technique XbaI PFGE. In this study, PFGE and serotyping were used to subtype 46 Salmonella isolates belonging to 27different serovars and derived from human and different food origins. Among these isolates, S. Typhimurium was found to be the most predominant serovar. 40 PFGE patterns out of 46 isolates were obtained. The Discrimination Index obtained by serotyping (DI = 0.93 was lower than PFGE (DI = 0.99. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica is very important and shows that animal origin can be one of a reservoir that potentially could be transferred to human through the food chain. In addition, results of this study also revealed that this procedure is a golden standard for genotyping of such salmonella serotypes.

  8. Characterization of integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from diseased swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Ayers, Sherry; Friedman, Sharon; Sherwood, Julie; Breider-Foley, Missy; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two Salmonella isolates obtained from diseased swine were genetically characterized for the presence of specific antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Twenty of these isolates were characterized as S. Typhimurium DT104 strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relatedness and revealed 20 distinct genetic patterns among the 42 isolates. However, all DT104 isolates fell within 2 closely related genetic clusters. Other Salmonella isolates were genetically grouped together according to serotype. All DT104 isolates displayed the penta-resistance phenotype to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin was most common among the non-DT104 Salmonella isolates. All DT104 strains contained 2 chromosomal integrons of 1000 and 1200 base pairs. The DNA sequencing revealed that the 2 integrons contained genes encoding a resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin, respectively. None of the non-DT104 strains showed the same pattern, although several strains possessed integrons of 1000 base pairs or larger. However, the majority of non-DT104 Salmonella strains did not possess any integrons. Two Salmonella isolates displayed tolerance to the organic solvent cyclohexane, indicating the possibility that they are overexpressing chromosomal regulatory genes marA or soxS or the associated multidrug efflux pump, acrAB. This research suggests that integrons contribute to antimicrobial resistance among specific swine Salmonella serotypes; however, they are not as widely disseminated among non-Typhimurium swine Salmonella serotypes as previously thought. PMID:12528827

  9. Typing of Typhoidal Salmonella Using Extraction of Water Soluble Whole Cell Proteins and Analysing by SDS-PAGE

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    R. Yousefi Mashouf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Salmonella is one of the most important genus of Enterobacteriacea family. The aim of this study was typing of typhoidal Salmonella by SDS-PAGE and comparing the results with those of serotyping method.Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 reference strains of Salmonella species, 5 reference strains of Enterobacteriacea family and 100 clinical isolates of Salmonella that were previously collected from laboratories of Hamadan medical centers were studied. Serotyping of strains were performed by Biomereux and Difco monovalent antisera. Whole-cell proteins of strains were also separated on 10% poly acrylamide gel. Gels were stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue and analyzed by densitometry. Results: Of 100 cases of Salmonella species, 43 cases (43% were S. typhi, 20 cases (20% were S. typhymurium, 12 cases (12% were S. para typhi B, 10 cases (10% were S. para typhi C, S. para typhi A 1 case (1% and other cases were non-typhoidal Salmonella. The results of serotyping were compared with the results obtained by SDS-PAGE. Many protein bands from 220 KDa to 18.5 KDa were detected by SDS-PAGE and they were used to differentiate the strains. S. typhi serotypes were divided into 5 sub-species and S. para typhi B and C were divided each into 3 sub-species. Protein profiles of the reference strains of Salmonella were compared with protein profiles of Enterobacteriaceae species and showed some differences in major protein bands, however, they had a very similar protein band in 43 KDa area. Conclusion: Since our data was able to divide Salmonella species to sub-types and differentiate them from Enterobacteriacea species, we concluded that analsying SDS-PAGE profile of water soluble whole-cell proteins can be used for typing of these organisms and it is comparble with serotyping, nevertheless, further researches are needed to establish SDS-PAGE method and to replace it with serotyping method.

  10. Survey of Salmonella contamination in chicken layer farms in three Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the demography, management, and production practices on layer chicken farms in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia and the frequency of risk factors for Salmonella infection. The frequency of isolation of Salmonella from the layer farm environment, eggs, feeds, hatchery, and imported day-old chicks was determined using standard methods. Of the eight risk factors (farm size, age group of layers, source of day-old chicks, vaccination, sanitation practices, biosecurity measures, presence of pests, and previous disease outbreaks) for Salmonella infection investigated, farm size was the only risk factor significantly associated (P = 0.031) with the prevalence of Salmonella; 77.8% of large farms were positive for this pathogen compared with 33.3 and 26.1% of medium and small farms, respectively. The overall isolation rate of Salmonella from 35 layer farms was 40.0%. Salmonella was isolated at a significantly higher rate (P hatcheries, and airports in this country were negative. Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella group C, and Salmonella Kentucky were the predominant serotypes in Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia, respectively. Although Salmonella infections were found in layer birds sampled, table eggs appear to pose minimal risk to consumers. However, the detection of Salmonella -contaminated farm environments and feeds cannot be ignored. Only 2.9% of the isolates belonged to Salmonella Enteritidis, a finding that may reflect the impact of changes in farm management and poultry production in the region.

  11. Avaliação in vitro da atividade inibitória de Lactobacillus spp., isolados do inglúvio e cecos de aves sobre Salmonella In vitro evaluation of the inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from crop and ceca of chickens against Salmonella serotypes

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    M.R. Barros

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Inglúvios e cecos de reprodutoras comerciais de frangos de corte foram utilizados para o isolamento de Lactobacillus spp. As estirpes isoladas foram caracterizadas como Gram-positivo, catalase negativo, produtoras de gás em glicose, não produtoras de H2S em triple sugar iron e identificadas pela reação em cadeia da polimerase como Lactobacillus reuteri e Lactobacillus salivarius. A utilização da técnica spot-on-the-lawn para avaliação da inibição in vitro permitiu a análise de vários microrganismos simultaneamente. Todas as estirpes isoladas inibiram in vitro S. Enteritidis fagotipo 4, S. Enteritidis fagotipo 28, S. Typhimurium, S. Pullorum, S. Agona, S. Anatum, S. Dublin e S. Senftenberg.Crops and ceca of commercial broiler breeders were used for the isolation of Lactobacillus spp. The isolated samples were characterized by Gram positive staining, negative catalase test, production of gas from glucose, negative for H2S production from triple sugar iron, and were identified by the polymerase chain reaction as Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius. The use of the spot-on-the-lawn technique, with modifications, for the evaluation of the in vitro inhibition made it possible the simultaneous analysis of several microrganisms. All the crop and ceca isolated microorganisms presented an in vitro inhibitory effect against strains of Salmonella Enteritidis fagotype 4, S. Enteritidis fagotype 28, S. Typhimurium, S. Pullorum, S. Agona, S. Anatum, S. Dublin, and S. Senftenberg.

  12. Modification of Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimens for Poultry Experimentally Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 To Minimize Selection of Resistance▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Luke P.; Cooles, Sue W.; Coldham, Nick C.; Stapleton, Ken S.; Piddock, Laura J. V.; Woodward, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesized that higher doses of fluoroquinolones for a shorter duration could maintain efficacy (as measured by reduction in bacterial count) while reducing selection in chickens of bacteria with reduced susceptibility. Chicks were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 and treated 1 week later with enrofloxacin at the recommended dose for 5 days (water dose adjusted to give 10 mg/kg of body weight of birds or equivalence, i.e., water at 50 ppm) or at 2.5 or 5 times the recommended dose for 2 days or 1 day, respectively. The dose was delivered continuously (ppm) or pulsed in the water (mg/kg) or by gavage (mg/kg). In vitro in sera, increasing concentrations of 0.5 to 8 μg/ml enrofloxacin correlated with increased activity. In vivo, the efficacy of the 1-day treatment was significantly less than that of the 2- and 5-day treatments. The 2-day treatments showed efficacy similar to that of the 5-day treatment in all but one repeat treatment group and significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the Salmonella counts. Dosing at 2.5× the recommended dose and pulsed dosing both increased the peak antibiotic concentrations in cecal contents, liver, lung, and sera as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. There was limited evidence that shorter treatment regimens (in particular the 1-day regimen) selected for fewer strains with reduced susceptibility. In conclusion, the 2-day treatment would overall require a shorter withholding time than the 5-day treatment and, in view of the increased peak antibiotic concentrations, may give rise to improved efficacy, in particular for treating respiratory and systemic infections. However, it would be necessary to validate the 2-day regimen in a field situation and in particular against respiratory and systemic infections to validate or refute this hypothesis. PMID:17030564

  13. Caracterização de sorotipos em linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

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    Márcio G. Ribeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados os sorotipos, o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e os achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 53 linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de 41 cães, nove equinos e três bovinos, acometidos por diferentes manifestações clínicas entre 1997 e 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45,3%, Salmonella enterica (22,6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7,5%, Salmonella enterica subsp enterica 4,5,12i (5,7%, Salmonella Newport (5,7%, Salmonella Dublin (3,8%, Salmonella Agona (3,8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3,8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1,8% foram os sorotipos encontrados. Ciprofloxacina (100,0%, norfloxacina (100,0% e gentamicina (100,0% foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos, enquanto a maior resistência das linhagens foi observada para ceftiofur (28,5% e florfenicol (7,0%. As linhagens foram isoladas de animais com enterite, infecção do trato urinário, septicemia, piometra, pneumonia e conjuntivite. Ressalta-se para o predomínio do sorovar Typhimurium nas diferentes manifestações da salmonelose nos animais. Destaca-se, também, a identificação de sorotipos nos animais que também são observados em casos de salmonelose em humanosThe serotype characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and clinical-epidemiological findings were evaluated in 53 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from 41 dogs, nine horses and three cattle presenting different clinical manifestations between 1997 at 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45.3%, Salmonella enterica (22.6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7.5%, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12i (5.7%, Salmonella Newport (5.7%, Salmonella Dublin (3.8%, Salmonella Agona (3.8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3.8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1.8% were the more common serotypes. Ciprofloxacin (100.0%, norfloxacin (100.0% and gentamicin (100.0% were more effective drugs while resistance of isolates was observed to ceftiofur (28.5% and florfenicol (7.0%. The strains were isolated from animals with enteritis, urinary tract infections

  14. Classification of Salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has demonstrated an optical method with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) based hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) had potential for classifying gram-negative from gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria rapidly and nondestructively with a minimum sample preparation. In t...

  15. Salmonella Source Attribution in Japan by a Microbiological Subtyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyofuku, Hajime; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the number of human Salmonella infections attributable to each of major animal-food source, and help identifying the best Salmonella intervention strategies, a microbial subtyping approach for source attribution was applied. We adapted a Bayesian model that attributes illnesses......-food sources, subtype-related factors, and source-related factors. National-surveillance serotyping data from 1998 to 2007 were applied to the model. Results suggested that the relative contribution of the sources to salmonellosis varied during the 10 year period, and that eggs are the most important source...... to specific sources and allows for the estimation of the differences in the ability of Salmonella subtypes and food types to result in reported salmonellosis. The number of human cases caused by different Salmonella subtypes is estimated as a function of the prevalence of these subtypes in the animal...

  16. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella among humans in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andoh, Linda Aurelia; Ahmed, Shabana; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a public health problem worldwide and particularly in Africa with high disease burden. This study characterized Salmonella isolates from humans in Ghana to determine serovar distribution, phage types, and antimicrobial resistance. Further, the clonal...... relatedness among isolates was determined. Methods One hundred and thirty-seven Salmonella isolates (111 clinical and 26 public toilet) were characterized using standard serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The molecular epidemiology of common serovars (Salmonella....... Fifty-eight (n = 58/112; 54.5%) strains were multi-resistant with low resistance to cephalosporins ceftazidime (8.0%), cefotaxime (4.5%), and cefoxitin (2.7%) with synergy to clavulanic acid indicating possible ESBLs. Isolates showed high resistance to trimethoprim (66.1%), tetracycline (61...

  17. Ionizing Radiation for the Elimination of Salmonellae from Frozen Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1968-01-01

    The radiation resistance in frozen meat of a number of different serotypes of Salmonella has been examined. A dose of 0.65 Mrad achieves a 10 6 reduction in the numbers of the most resistant types and this dose has been shown to be effective in eliminating salmonellae from naturally contaminated meat. Some results are outlined which show that (a) Salmonella resistance is higher in frozen meat than in unfrozen meat, (b) pre-irradiation growth of the organisms in meat does not influence resistance, (c) salmonellae surviving irradiation grow at a slower rate than unirradiated organisms and appear to be unchanged in serological properties or phage type. Reference is made to wholesomeness tests carried out on irradiated meat and to the current situation on legislation in the United Kingdom controlling the irradiation of food. The identification of irradiated food is also mentioned. (author)

  18. Classification and structural analysis of live and dead salmonella cells using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and principle component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to detect Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis foodborne bacteria and distinguish between live and dead cells of both serotypes. Bacteria were loaded individually on the ZnSe Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) crystal surface and s...

  19. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript could use as research on infectious diseases Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicat...

  20. An unusual sequel to imported Salmonella zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W S; Munro, D; Reilly, W J; Sharp, J C

    1981-12-01

    In August, 1980 a rare serotype S. zanzibar was isolated in the North of Scotland from a man home on leave from Malaysia, whence he returned in November having been bacteriologically negative 2 months previously. In December however, S. zanzibar was isolated from a bulk milk sample taken at a nearby dairy farm. No illness occurred among milking cows which had been brought inside from pasture in mid-October. Since 1972 a variety of different salmonella serotypes had been identified in cattle, milk and other samples at this farm, with seagulls being implicated as the vector transmitting infection from the sewage of a local town on to farmland and an adjacent loch. Although water from this source has not been used in recent years for drinking by cattle, it is utilized for washing floors within the dairy premises. Since 1979, following an outbreak affecting consumers, all milk produced at the farm has been pasteurized.

  1. Impact of Clinical Salmonellosis in Veal Calves on the Recovery of Salmonella in Lymph Nodes at Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Vargas, Lohendy; Finney, Sarah K; Hutchinson, Holden; Masterson, Margaret A; Habing, Greg

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, serotypes, antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella recovered in feces and mesenteric and prefemoral lymph nodes (LNs) from cohorts of calves with and without a confirmed outbreak of salmonellosis. In a prospective cohort study, 160 calves from four farms without a reported outbreak (nonoutbreak farms) were sampled at farm and harvest. In addition, harvest samples from 80 calves of two farms with a confirmed outbreak (outbreak farms) were collected. A culture protocol for Salmonella isolation was applied for all samples and recovered isolates were further characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and PFGE. Among nonoutbreak farms, Salmonella was recovered from 0% (0/160) farm fecal samples, 3.7% (6/160) harvest fecal swabs, 21.9% (35/160) mesenteric LNs, and 0.6% (1/160) prefemoral LNs. Serotypes identified in nonoutbreak herds included Salmonella Typhimurium, Cerro, Hartford, and Newport. Most isolates (64.3%, 27/42) exhibited a unique multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype, including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Salmonella prevalence in harvest fecal samples and prefemoral LNs among calves from outbreak farms was numerically higher, but not significantly different than those without an outbreak. Serotypes recovered from outbreak farms included Salmonella Heidelberg and Typhimurium, and the monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains 4,5,12:i:- and 4,12:i:-, which have been also reported as highly pathogenic in humans. All isolates (33/33) exhibited an MDR phenotype. Salmonella strains recovered from ill calves in two outbreaks had indistinguishable PFGE patterns, suggesting between-farm transmission. In addition, the genotype of Salmonella Heidelberg causing an outbreak among calves was recovered from three prefemoral LNs of surviving members of the cohort at harvest. Implementation of preharvest

  2. New paradigms for Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2018-05-01

    Microbial subtyping is the most common approach for Salmonella source attribution. Typically, attributions are computed using frequency-matching models like the Dutch and Danish models based on phenotyping data (serotyping, phage-typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling). Herewith, we critically review three major paradigms facing Salmonella source attribution today: (i) the use of genotyping data, particularly Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA), which is replacing traditional Salmonella phenotyping beyond serotyping; (ii) the integration of case-control data into source attribution to improve risk factor identification/characterization; (iii) the investigation of non-food sources, as attributions tend to focus on foods of animal origin only. Population genetics models or simplified MLVA schemes may provide feasible options for source attribution, although there is a strong need to explore novel modelling options as we move towards whole-genome sequencing as the standard. Classical case-control studies are enhanced by incorporating source attribution results, as individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different sources have different associated risk factors. Thus, the more such analyses are performed the better Salmonella epidemiology will be understood. Reparametrizing current models allows for inclusion of sources like reptiles, the study of which improves our understanding of Salmonella epidemiology beyond food to tackle the pathogen in a more holistic way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Associated with Salmonella Prevalence in U.S. Swine Grower-Finisher Operations, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Kathe E; Fields, Victoria; Garber, Lindsey P; Kopral, Christine A

    2018-05-15

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U.S. grower-finisher swine operations and investigate associations between Salmonella detection and numerous factors via multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and regression analysis. MCA plots, complementary to univariate analyses, display relationships between covariates and Salmonella detection at the farm level. In the univariate analysis, Salmonella detection varied with feed characteristics and farm management practices, reports of diseases on farms and vaccinations administered, and administration of certain antimicrobials. Results from the univariate analysis reinforce the importance of biosecurity in managing diseases and pathogens such as Salmonella on farms. All multivariable regression models for the likelihood of Salmonella detection were strongly affected by multicollinearity among variables, and only one variable, pelleted feed preparation, remained in the final model. The study was limited by its cross-sectional nature, timelines of data collection, and reliance on operator-reported data via a convenience sample.

  4. Role of subtyping in detecting Salmonella cross contamination in the laboratory.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    De Lappe, Niall

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the exception of M. tuberculosis, little has been published on the problems of cross-contamination in bacteriology laboratories. We performed a retrospective analysis of subtyping data from the National Salmonella Reference Laboratory (Ireland) from 2000-2007 to identify likely incidents of laboratory cross contamination. METHODS: Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all Salmonella isolates received in the NSRL. Phage typing was performed on all S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis isolates while multi-locus variance analysis (MLVA) was performed on selected S. Typhimurium isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the PulseNet standard protocol was performed on selected isolates of various serovars. RESULTS: Twenty-three incidents involving fifty-six isolates were identified as likely to represent cross contamination. The probable sources of contamination identified were the laboratory positive control isolate (n = 13), other test isolates (n = 9) or proficiency test samples (n = 1). CONCLUSION: The scale of laboratory cross-contamination in bacteriology is most likely under recognized. Testing laboratories should be aware of the potential for cross-contamination, regularly review protocols to minimize its occurrence and consider it as a possibility when unexpected results are obtained.

  5. APTES Functionalized Iron Oxide-Silver Magnetic Hetero-Nanocomposites for Selective Capture and Rapid Removal of Salmonella enteritidis from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi; Dinh, Ngo Xuan; Lan, Hoang; Tam, Le Thi; Huy, Tran Quang; Tuan, Pham Anh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic nanomaterials, as a promising platform for the fast and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens, have attracted increasing interest from researchers in recent years. In this work, by utilizing a two-step synthetic technique consisting of co-precipitation and subsequent hydrothermal reaction, followed by functionalization steps with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and the antibody against Salmonella enteritidis, antibody-conjugated Fe3O4-Ag@APTES hetero-nanocomposites were successfully prepared. Due to the specific antibody, the developed Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are capable of selectively capturing S. enteritidis at a low concentration of about 101 CFU/mL. Moreover, the prepared magnetic conjugates also revealed that the S. enteritidis could be rapidly removed from water solution in 20 min by using an external magnetic field with a removal efficiency obtained of ˜ 91.36%. These results indicated that the Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are promising for the rapid selective capture and removal of bacterial pathogens from aqueous environments, and can be used for improving the detection quality of pathogens in water samples using immunosensor-based diagnostic tests.

  6. Surface display of Salmonella epitopes in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Nguyen Thanh; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; Gustavsson, Martin; Hai, Truong Nam; Larsson, Gen

    2011-04-11

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is considered to be one of the most potent pathogenic Salmonella serotypes causing food-borne disease in humans. Since a live bacterial vaccine based on surface display of antigens has many advantages over traditional vaccines, we have studied the surface display of the SE antigenic proteins, H:gm and SefA in Escherichia coli by the β-autotransporter system, AIDA. This procedure was compared to protein translocation in Staphylococcus carnosus, using a staphylococci hybrid vector earlier developed for surface display of other vaccine epitopes. Both SefA and H:gm were translocated to the outer membrane in Escherichia coli. SefA was expressed to full length but H:gm was shorter than expected, probably due to a proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminal during passage either through the periplasm or over the membrane. FACS analysis confirmed that SefA was facing the extracellular environment, but this could not be conclusively established for H:gm since the N-terminal detection tag (His6) was cleaved off. Polyclonal salmonella antibodies confirmed the sustained antibody-antigen binding towards both proteins. The surface expression data from Staphylococcus carnosus suggested that the H:gm and SefA proteins were transported to the cell wall since the detection marker was displayed by FACS analysis. Apart from the accumulated knowledge and the existence of a wealth of equipment and techniques, the results indicate the selection of E. coli for further studies for surface expression of salmonella antigens. Surface expression of the full length protein facing the cell environment was positively proven by standard analysis, and the FACS signal comparison to expression in Staphylococcus carnosus shows that the distribution of the surface protein on each cell was comparatively very narrow in E. coli, the E. coli outer membrane molecules can serve as an adjuvant for the surface antigenic proteins and multimeric forms of the SefA protein

  7. Breast abscess due to Salmonella paratyphi A : Case reports with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sonu; Yadav, Vishwanath Singh; Srivastava, Anurag; Kapil, Arti; Dhawan, Benu

    2018-05-01

    Salmonella paratyphi A causes paratyphoid fever which is characterized by acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Localized disease can occur following both overt and silent bacteremia followed by seeding of bacteria at distant sites. Salmonella species though associated with abscess formation in various organs,are rarely associated with breast abscess. We report 2 cases of breast abscess due to Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A. Appropriate sampling, surgery supplemented by a comprehensive microbiological work up aided in pathogen identification and appropriate antibiotic administration for a successful outcome of these patients.

  8. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    by Mix-ELISA and by faecal culture, and in case of a positive result in either of these a repeated, serological testing was performed, and 60 animals were organ-cultured. If one of these samplings was positive, the flock was declared salmonella infected. In a period of 3 months, 35 flocks were found......A Mix-ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigens from Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Typhimurium? was evaluated using samples collected over time in the Danish salmonella surveillance programme for poultry. Serological samples (n = 42813) taken from broiler-breeder flocks after a year...

  9. Preliminary findings of Salmonella spp. in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M A; Shane, S M

    2000-06-12

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling iguanas at this facility.

  10. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of 37 Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useh, Nicodemus M; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Akange, Nguavese; Thomas, Milton; Foley, Andrew; Keena, Mitchel Chan; Nelson, Eric; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Tomita, Masaru; Suzuki, Haruo; Scaria, Joy

    2016-05-05

    Here, we report the availability of draft genomes of several Salmonella serotypes, isolated from poultry sources from Nigeria. These genomes will help to further understand the biological diversity of S. enterica and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. Copyright © 2016 Useh et al.

  12. Effect of waste milk pasteurization on fecal shedding of Salmonella in pre-weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if pasteurization of non-saleable waste milk influences fecal Salmonella concentrations, prevalence, or antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of cultured isolates, 211 Holstein dairy calves were housed on a single commercial dairy in the southwestern United States and randomly allot...

  13. Distributions of Salmonella Subtypes Differ between Two U.S. Produce-Growing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D.; Worobo, Randy W.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella accounts for approximately 50% of produce-associated outbreaks in the United States, several of which have been traced back to contamination in the produce production environment. To quantify Salmonella diversity and aid in identification of Salmonella contamination sources, we characterized Salmonella isolates from two geographically diverse produce-growing regions in the United States. Initially, we characterized the Salmonella serotype and subtype diversity associated with 1,677 samples collected from 33 produce farms in New York State (NYS). Among these 1,677 samples, 74 were Salmonella positive, yielding 80 unique isolates (from 147 total isolates), which represented 14 serovars and 23 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. To explore regional Salmonella diversity associated with production environments, we collected a smaller set of samples (n = 65) from South Florida (SFL) production environments and compared the Salmonella diversity associated with these samples with the diversity found among NYS production environments. Among these 65 samples, 23 were Salmonella positive, yielding 32 unique isolates (from 81 total isolates), which represented 11 serovars and 17 different PFGE types. The most common serovars isolated in NYS were Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Cerro, and Thompson, while common serovars isolated in SFL were Salmonella serovars Saphra and Newport and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae serovar 50:r:z. High PFGE type diversity (Simpson's diversity index, 0.90 ± 0.02) was observed among Salmonella isolates across both regions; only three PFGE types were shared between the two regions. The probability of three or fewer shared PFGE types was Salmonella isolates were considerably different between the two sampled regions. These findings suggest the potential for PFGE-based source tracking of Salmonella in production environments. PMID:24747908

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in Gaborone (Botswana) retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaxa, Ronald Gaelekolwe; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated PCR method. The PCR assay results were in full concordance with those of the conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella. Sixty-five (21.7%) of 300 samples were positive for Salmonella by both the conventional culture method and PCR assay. Even though more chicken samples contained Salmonella than did any other sausage type, the difference in the presence of Salmonella among the four sausages types was not significant. Eleven serotypes were identified, and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae II was most prevalent in all the sausage types. Beef sausages generally had higher mesophilic bacterial counts than did the other three sausage types. However, higher microbial counts were not reflective of the presence of salmonellae. Susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica serotypes to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined, and Salmonella Muenchen was resistant to the widest array of agents and was mostly isolated from chicken sausages. Regardless of the meat of origin, all 65 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents: amikacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, and tombramycin. This resistance profile group was the most common in all four sausage types, comprising 90% of all Salmonella isolates from beef, 71% from pork, 63% from mutton, and 35% from chicken. These results suggest that raw sausages pose a risk of transmitting multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates to consumers.

  15. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations.

  16. Characterization of the Emerging Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- in Danish Animal Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argüello, Hector; Sørensen, Gitte; Carvajal, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The monophasic Salmonella variant with the antigenic formula Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged in the last decade as one of the main serotypes related to human salmonellosis. In the present study, a collection of 94 isolates of the S. 4,12:i:- and S. 4,5,12:i:- coming from Danish farm ...... in Danish food animal production with well-characterized clones that are described by previous studies, demonstrating the emergence and spread of this serotype in Denmark....... animals, swine (86), cattle (7), and poultry (1), with well-defined identification was further typed by polymerase chain reaction serotyping, phage typing, and molecular typing (polymerase chain reaction and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis [MLVA]). Moreover, the determination...

  17. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10 8  log 10  CFU ml -1 ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Molecular identification of common Salmonella serovars using multiplex DNA sensor-based suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Muhsin; Carter-Conger, Jacqueline; Gao, Ning; Gilmore, David F; Ricke, Steven C; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is one of major foodborne pathogens and the leading cause of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations and deaths. It is critical to develop a sensitive and rapid detection assay that can identify Salmonella to ensure food safety. In this study, a DNA sensor-based suspension array system of high multiplexing ability was developed to identify eight Salmonella serovars commonly associated with foodborne outbreaks to the serotype level. Each DNA sensor was prepared by activating pre-encoded microspheres with oligonucleotide probes that are targeting virulence genes and serovar-specific regions. The mixture of 12 different types of DNA sensors were loaded into a 96-well microplate and used as a 12-plex DNA sensor array platform. DNA isolated from Salmonella was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and the presence of Salmonella was determined by reading fluorescent signals from hybridization between probes on DNA sensors and fluorescently labeled target DNA using the Bio-Plex® system. The developed multiplex array was able to detect synthetic DNA at the concentration as low as 100 fM and various Salmonella serovars as low as 100 CFU/mL within 1 h post-PCR. Sensitivity of this assay was further improved to 1 CFU/mL with 6-h enrichment. The array system also correctly and specifically identified serotype of tested Salmonella strains without any cross-reactivity with other common foodborne pathogens. Our results indicate the developed DNA sensor suspension array can be a rapid and reliable high-throughput method for simultaneous detection and molecular identification of common Salmonella serotypes.

  20. A molecular scheme for Yersinia enterocolitica patho-serotyping derived from genome-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzetti, Debora; Susen, Rosa; Fruth, Angelika; Tietze, Erhard; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rakin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a food-borne, gastro-intestinal pathogen with world-wide distribution. Only 11 serotypes have been isolated from patients, with O:3, O:9, O:8 and O:5,27 being the serotypes most commonly associated with human yersiniosis. Serotype is an important characteristic of Y. enterocolitica strains, allowing differentiation for epidemiology, diagnosis and phylogeny studies. Conventional serotyping, performed by slide agglutination, is a tedious and laborious procedure whose interpretation tends to be subjective, leading to poor reproducibility. Here we present a PCR-based typing scheme for molecular identification and patho-serotyping of Y. enterocolitica. Genome-wide comparison of Y. enterocolitica sequences allowed analysis of the O-antigen gene clusters of different serotypes, uncovering their formerly unknown genomic locations, and selection of targets for serotype-specific amplification. Two multiplex PCRs and one additional PCR were designed and tested on various reference strains and isolates from different origins. Our genotypic assay proved to be highly specific for identification of Y. enterocolitica species, discrimination between virulent and non-virulent strains, distinguishing the main human-related serotypes, and typing of conventionally untypeable strains. This genotyping scheme could be applied in microbiology laboratories as an alternative or complementary method to the traditional phenotypic assays, providing data for epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  2. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Escherichia coli prevalence, enumeration, and subtypes on retail chicken breasts with and without skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Angela; Odumeru, Joseph; Lee, Susan; Pollari, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, counts, and subtypes of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), and E. coli on raw retail chicken breast with the skin on versus the skin off. From January to December 2007, 187 raw skin-on chicken breasts and 131 skin-off chicken breasts were collected from randomly selected retail grocery stores in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Campylobacter isolates were recovered from a higher proportion of the skin-off chicken breasts, 55 (42%) of 131, than of the skin-on chicken breasts tested, 55 (29%) of 187 (P = 0.023). There was no difference in the proportion of Salmonella isolates recovered from the two meat types (P = 0.715): 40 (31%) of 131 skin-off chicken breasts versus 61 (33%) of 187 skin-on chicken breasts. L. monocytogenes isolates were recovered from a statistically lower proportion of the skin-off chicken breasts, 15 (15%) of 99, than of the skin-on chicken breasts, 64 (34%) of 187 (P = 0.001). There was no difference in the proportion of E. coli isolates recovered from the skin-off chicken breasts, 33 (33%) of 99, than from the skin-on chicken breasts, 77 (41%) of 187 (P = 0.204). VTEC was detected on a single skin-off chicken breast. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequent species isolated on both types of chicken meat: skin-on, 48 (87%) of 55, and skin-off, 51 (94%) of 54. Salmonella serotypes Kentucky and Heidelberg and L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a were the most frequently detected serotypes from both skin-off and skin-on chicken breasts. Although there appeared to be a trend toward higher enumeration values of these pathogens and E. coli on the skin-on chicken, the differences did not exceed 1 log. This study suggested that skin-off chicken breast may represent a higher risk of consumer exposure to Campylobacter, a similar risk for Salmonella, VTEC, and E. coli, and a lower risk for L. monocytogenes than skin-on chicken breast.

  4. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...] Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of Compliance Policy Guide AGENCY: Food and Drug... the withdrawal of the compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination... entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food (CPG 690.700)'' on October 1, 1980. CPG...

  5. Detection of cell surface hydrophobicity, biofilm and fimbirae genes in salmonella isolated from tunisian clinical and poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, Fethi; Lagha, Rihab; Said, Khaled; Kallel, Héla; Gharbi, Jawhar

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 15 serotypes of Salmonella to form biofilm on polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass surfaces. . Initially slime production was assessed on CRA agar and hydrophobicity of 20 Salmonella strains isolated from poultry and human and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium references strains was achieved by microbial adhesion to n-hexadecane. In addition, biofilm formation on polystyrene, PVC and glass surfaces was also investigated by using MTT and XTT colorimetric assay. Further, distribution of Salmonella enterotoxin (stn), Salmonella Enteritidis fimbrial (sef) and plasmid encoded fimbrial (pef) genes among tested strains was achieved by PCR. Salmonella strains developed red and white colonies on CRA and they are considered as hydrophilic with affinity values to n-hexadecane ranged between 0.29% and 29.55%. Quantitative biofilm assays showed that bacteria are able to form biofilm on polystyrene with different degrees and 54.54% of strains produce a strong biofilm on glass. In addition, all the strains form only a moderate (54.54%) and weak (40.91%) biofilm on PVC. PCR detection showed that only S. Enteritidis harbour Sef gene, whereas Pef and stn genes were detected in S. Kentucky, S. Amsterdam, S. Hadar, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Salmonella serotypes are able to form biofilm on hydrophobic and hydrophilic industrial surfaces. Biofilm formation of Salmonella on these surfaces has an increased potential to compromise food safety and potentiate public health risk.

  6. Efficacy of biocides used in the modern food industry to control salmonella enterica, and links between biocide tolerance and resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condell, Orla; Iversen, Carol; Cooney, Shane; Power, Karen A; Walsh, Ciara; Burgess, Catherine; Fanning, Séamus

    2012-05-01

    Biocides play an essential role in limiting the spread of infectious disease. The food industry is dependent on these agents, and their increasing use is a matter for concern. Specifically, the emergence of bacteria demonstrating increased tolerance to biocides, coupled with the potential for the development of a phenotype of cross-resistance to clinically important antimicrobial compounds, needs to be assessed. In this study, we investigated the tolerance of a collection of susceptible and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica strains to a panel of seven commercially available food-grade biocide formulations. We explored their abilities to adapt to these formulations and their active biocidal agents, i.e., triclosan, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, and benzalkonium chloride, after sequential rounds of in vitro selection. Finally, cross-tolerance of different categories of biocidal formulations, their active agents, and the potential for coselection of resistance to clinically important antibiotics were investigated. Six of seven food-grade biocide formulations were bactericidal at their recommended working concentrations. All showed a reduced activity against both surface-dried and biofilm cultures. A stable phenotype of tolerance to biocide formulations could not be selected. Upon exposure of Salmonella strains to an active biocidal compound, a high-level of tolerance was selected for a number of Salmonella serotypes. No cross-tolerance to the different biocidal agents or food-grade biocide formulations was observed. Most tolerant isolates displayed changes in their patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial compounds. Food industry biocides are effective against planktonic Salmonella. When exposed to sublethal concentrations of individual active biocidal agents, tolerant isolates may emerge. This emergence was associated with changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  7. Occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from poultry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the major food-borne pathogens with more than 2,500 serotypes worldwide. The present study addresses antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates in Iran. A collection of 151 Salmonella spp. isolates collected from poultry were serotyped to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Sixty-one Salmonella Enteritidis were subsequently tested against 30 antimicrobials. A high frequency of antimicrobial resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (n=55, 90.2% followed by nalidixic acid (n=41, 67.2%, and cephalexin (n=23, 37.7%. Multi-drug resistance were observed in 35 (57.4% out of 61 isolates. Twenty-six antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed among the 61 Salmonella Enteritidis. All isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin, imipenem, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. In conclusion, our results revealed that implementing new policies toward overuse of antimicrobial drugs in Iranian poultry industry are of great importance.

  8. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  9. Effect of tulathromycin on the carrier status of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the tonsils of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.; Nielsen, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a single or double dose of tulathromycin was evaluated in pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in their tonsils. Twenty-nine pigs from a reinfected specific pathogen-free-herd were selected from animals testing positive in an A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific...

  10. Biofilm formation by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from avian sources is partially related with their in vivo pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karen Apellanis; Furian, Thales Quedi; de Souza, Sara Neves; Menezes, Rafaela; de Lima, Diane Alves; Fortes, Flávia Bornancini Borges; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Moraes, Hamilton Luiz Souza; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2018-03-22

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most prevalent serotypes isolated from salmonellosis outbreaks and poultry. Salmonella spp. have the capacity to form biofilms on several surfaces, which can favour survival in hostile environments, such as slaughterhouses. Salmonella strains present differences in pathogenicity. However, there is little information regarding the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from avian sources and their relationship to biofilm production. The aim of this study was to use a novel pathogenicity index and a biofilm production assay to evaluate their relationships within these serotypes. In addition, we detected the presence of the spiA and agfA genes in these strains. Biofilm formation was investigated at two temperatures (37 °C and 28 °C) using microtiter plate assay, and the results were compared with the individual pathogenicity index of each strain. PCR was used to detect spiA and agfA, virulence genes associated with biofilm production. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium strains were capable of producing biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C. Sixty-two percent and 59.5% of S. Enteritidis and 73.8% and 46.2% of S. Typhimurium produced biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C, respectively. Biofilm production at 37 °C was significantly higher in both serotypes. Only S. Enteritidis was capable of adhering strongly at both temperatures. Biofilm production was related to pathogenicity index only at 28 °C for S. Enteritidis. spiA and agfA were found in almost all strains and were not statistically associated with biofilm production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence, seasonal occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in poultry retail products in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdragas, A; Mazaraki, K; Vafeas, G; Giantzi, V; Papadopoulos, T; Ekateriniadou, L

    2012-10-01

    To detect the prevalence, the seasonal occurrence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes in poultry products and to determine the resistance profile of Salmonella isolates. A total of 96 skin-on chicken carcasses and 30 liver samples were analysed between May 2007 and May 2009 from twenty-two different commercial farm brands found in retail market countrywide. Salmonella was isolated from 38 (39·5%) of 96 chicken carcasses and from 10 (33·3%) of 30 liver samples. Higher isolation rate (60·4%) was observed in carcasses detected during summer (May to October), and lower isolation rate (18·7%) was observed in carcasses detected during winter (November to April); in liver samples, the positive rates were 53·4 and 13·2%, respectively. Twelve serotypes were detected with the serotypes Hadar, Enteritidis and Blockley being the most prevalent at 29·2, 22·9 and 12·5%, respectively. Nine of 11 Salm. Enteritidis isolates occurred during summer. Of 48 isolates, 38 (79%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents used. The highest resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (64·5%), tetracycline (56·2%), nalidixic acid (39·5%), ampicillin and rifampicin (33·3%). The relatively high Salmonella spp. contamination rates of raw chicken meat and liver have been detected. Salm. Enteritidis isolates peaked in summer, increasing the risk to human health. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella still remains a threat as resistance plasmids may be extensively shared between animal and humans. The study enabled us to improve the data on the seasonal occurrence of Salmonella and to determine the antimicrobial pattern profile and trends in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry retail products in Greece. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bovine Salmonella enterica isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P

    2017-02-01

    Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in

  13. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Indiana and Enteritidis from chickens in Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    Full Text Available A total of 310 Salmonella isolates were isolated from 6 broiler farms in Eastern China, serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White classification. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents, representative isolates were examined for resistance genes and class I integrons using PCR technology. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. There were two serotypes detected in the 310 Salmonella strains, which included 133 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates and 177 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity results showed that the isolates were generally resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and 95% of the isolates sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin. Among all Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, 108 (81.2% possessed the blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr resistance genes. The detected carriage rate of class 1 integrons was 66.5% (206/310, with 6 strains carrying gene integron cassette dfr17-aadA5. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance rate in Salmonella was associated with increasing prevalence of int1 genes (rs = 0.938, P = 0.00039. The int1, blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr positive Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates showed five major patterns as determined by PFGE. Most isolates exhibited the common PFGE patterns found from the chicken farms, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana prevailed in these sources. Some isolates with similar antimicrobial resistance patterns represented a variety of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana genotypes, and were derived from a different clone.

  14. Development and comparison of a generic multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis with PFGE for typing of Salmonella entericasubsp. enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    serovars can be typed. We developed a MLVA scheme for high discriminatory typing of Salmonella. Methods and Results Sixty-six unique VNTRs were investigated and the polymorphisms of seven promising VNTRs were evaluated with a panel 163 diverse isolates of 14 serotypes of significance for human health. Five......-related strains. Conclusions The technique showed a high discriminatory power within most serotypes comparable with or better than that of PFGE. Significance and impact of the Study This MLVA assay makes it possible to use a single typing method for Salmonella surveillance and outbreak investigations. This allows...... inexpensive and fast surveillance for laboratories without resources for both serotyping and molecular typing, e.g. PFGE or sequence-based methods, and thereby improve the effectiveness of epidemiological investigations of Salmonella infections globally....

  15. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  16. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  17. Salmonella spp. and antibiotic-resistant strains in wild mammals and birds in north-western Italy from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen of economic importance. In Europe, salmonellosis is the second food-borne infection, in Italy, Salmonella is still the major cause of food-borne outbreaks. In Europe, there are many Salmonella surveillance plans on farmed animals, while Salmonella survey of wild animals is occasionally performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella including the antibiotic-resistant strains in wild animals. Between 2002 and 2010, 2,713 wild animals (canids, mustelids, birds, rodents, ungulates, were collected in north-western Italy and tested for Salmonella by classical microbiological culture method followed by serological and biochemical typing. One hundred and seventeen wild animals (63 canids, 25 mustelids, 24 birds, 5 ungulates were found positive for Salmonella (4.3%. One hundred and thirty strains, belonging to several serotypes were isolated, and S. Typhimurium was the most common serotype found. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk-diffusion test on 88 strains. Almost all the analyzed strains (97.7% showed resistance/intermediate resistance to at least one class of antibiotics and the highest resistance values were observed for the tetracycline class. In conclusion, zoonotic and antibiotic-resistant serotypes were found in many species of wildlife.

  18. A multi-pathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella flexneri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 contaminate similar types of food and all three can cause foodborne disease. Traditional microbiological enrichment broths to detect these pathogens are different in terms of their composition, which limits the application of multi-pathogen detectio...

  19. LOOP-MEDIATED ISOTHERMAL AMPLIFICATION (LAMP) FOR THE DETECTION OF SALMONELLA SPP. ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT FOOD TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas Papanotas; Petros A. Kokkinos; Panos G. Ziros; Apostolos Vantarakis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was the application and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food samples. Salmonella specific invA gene sequences (50 strains, 15 serotypes) were amplified at 65oC in 60 min. All of the strains of Salmonella subsp. Enterica were shown to be positive using the LAMP reaction assay, whereas, all other bacteria, virus and yeasts tested in this study were negative. LAMP products ...

  20. Camel as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed H; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Zaher, Hala

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to shed light on the role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for emerging exotic Salmonella serovars. Fecal samples were collected from 206 camels directly after slaughtering including 25 local camels and 181 imported ones as well as stool specimens were obtained from 50 slaughterhouse workers at the same abattoir. The obtained samples were cultured while Salmonella serovars were identified through Gram's stain films, biochemical tests and serotyping with antisera kit. Moreover, the obtained Salmonella serovars were examined by PCR for the presence of invA and stn genes. The overall prevalence of Salmonella serovars among the examined camels was 8.3%. Stn gene was detected in the vast majority of exotic strains (11/14) 78.6% including emerging serovars such as Salmonella Saintpaul, S. Chester, S. Typhimurium whereas only one isolate from local camels carried stn gene (1/3) 33.3%. On the other hand, none of the examined humans yielded positive result. Our findings highlight the potential role of imported camels as a transboundary vector for exotic emerging Salomenella serovars.

  1. Empyema of preexisting subdural hemorrhage caused by a rare salmonella species after exposure to bearded dragons in a foster home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarani, Christy M; Bennett, Nicholas J; Kiska, Deanna L; Riddell, Scott W; Botash, Ann S; Domachowske, Joseph B

    2010-02-01

    An infant had a subdural empyema caused by the rare Salmonella species enterica subspecies houtenae (IV) serotype 44:z4,z23:- after only indirect exposure to exotic reptiles in her foster home. Infants recovering from preexisting subdural hematoma are at risk for development of empyema. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phage types of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from production animals and humans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1994-01-01

    S. Typhimurium is one of the 2 most common salmonella serotypes causing human salmonellosis in Denmark. In order to illustrate the significance of different production animals as a source of infection, 1461 isolates were characterized by phage typing. The isolates originated from human patients a...

  3. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolates from reptiles in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wan-Ching; Chin, Shih-Chien; Lai, Yen-Hsueh; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Pets, including reptiles, have been shown to be a source of Salmonella infection in humans. Due to increasing popularity and variety of exotic reptiles as pets in recent years, more human clinical cases of reptile-associated Salmonella infection have been identified. However, limited information is available with regard to serotypes in different reptiles (turtles, snakes, and lizards) and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in pet reptiles. The current study was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella colonization in pet reptiles. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 30.9% of 476 reptiles investigated. The isolation prevalences were 69.7% (23/33), 62.8% (27/43), and 24.3% (97/400) in snakes, lizards, and turtles, respectively. A total of 44 different Salmonella serovars were identified. Compared with S. Heron, Bredeney, Treforest, and 4,[5],12:i:-, S. Typhimurium isolates were resistant to many antimicrobials tested, and notably 61.1% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. The results indicated that raising reptiles as pets could be a possible source of Salmonella infection in humans, particularly zoonotic Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that may be resistant to antimicrobials.

  5. Emergence of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks in broiler chickens in the Lebanon: epidemiological markers and competitive exclusion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Jurdi, L H; Talhouk, R; Qatanani, M; Eid, A; Sakr, W; Bouljihad, M; Spasojevic, R

    1999-12-01

    This study investigates the first emergence of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks among chickens in the Lebanon and identifies the epidemiological markers of selected recovered Enteritidis strains. In addition, the authors evaluate a competitive exclusion approach to control infection in broiler chickens by Enteritidis organisms which possess the prevalent identified markers. The basic procedure in this investigation involved recording signs and lesions in eleven broiler chicken flocks on eleven farms, and culturing livers, spleens, and caeca of ten randomly selected birds per flock for Salmonella isolation and serotyping. Furthermore, culturing for Salmonella and serotyping was attempted from the livers, spleens, caeca and oviduct swabs of ten hens in four broiler breeder flocks which provided hatching eggs for the broilers under study. The identification of epidemiological markers in recovered S. Enteritidis included the determination of drug-resistance patterns and plasmid profiling. The competitive exclusion was evaluated by spraying the microflora on day-old broilers in the hatchery, followed by a controlled oral challenge at three days of age, with 2.85 x 10(5) colony-forming units of S. Enteritidis organisms per bird. Exclusion was evaluated by culturing for S. Enteritidis in anal swabs, spleens, livers, and caeca of individual challenged birds treated with the microflora and in untreated challenged birds. A total of 112 invasive S. Enteritidis strains were recovered on eleven farms from individual organs of broiler chickens with typical signs and lesions of salmonellosis. The prevalent resistance to drugs in such strains was to furaltadone and gentamycin, a marker identified in 93 strains (83%), recovered from nine out of eleven farms. The same resistance pattern was present in S. Enteritidis strains recovered from breeders on one out of four farms. The prevalent plasmid profile in nine S. Enteritidis organisms selected randomly from a pool of 93 strains (one

  6. Using molecular techniques for rapid detection of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... A total of 152 samples of chicken and chicken products ... detection of Salmonella species in the collected field samples ... that 16 million new cases of typhoid fever occur each ... vative methods for the rapid identification of Salmonella ... saved for the PCR-Non Selective test (PCR-NS) and 1 ml of the.

  7. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  8. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis of Salmonella in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to employ biochemical and molecular assays to detect and diagnose Salmonella in wastewater. For this reason, two water samples were collected from Alexandria wastewater treatment plant (S1) and septic tank of a hospital at Alexandria governorate (S2). Selective culture media specific for Salmonella ...

  9. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, Kayode; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pooled fresh pen floor fecal samples of pigs collected from 31 pig farms were cultured; the Salmonella isolates were serotyped and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. PMQR genes were screened by polymerase chain...... Kingston (n = 13; 5.7 %). The most widely distributed serovars among the farms were Salmonella Give (six farms) and Salmonella Elisaberthville (six farms). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline ranged from 11.6 % (n = 26) to 22.8 % (n = 51). Resistance....... Other PMQR genes were not detected. Pigs constitute an important source of diverse Salmonella serovars in Ibadan. The isolates were more resistant to old antimicrobials with some multiple resistant. Control measures and regulation of antimicrobials are warranted....

  10. Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strains using a monoclonal-based polystyrene agglutination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva

    1996-01-01

    A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS-PAGE and We......A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS...... suspension of bacterial cells grown for 18 h. All A, pleuropneumoniae strains had been previously serotyped using standard procedures, The polystyrene agglutination test was rapid (less than 3 min) and easy to perform. Overall a very good correlation (97.3%) with the standard techniques was found...

  11. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...

  12. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Robin; Hanning, Irene; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered. PMID:22346699

  13. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  14. Effects of selected non-digestible dietary carbohydrates on the composition of the large intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne

    The mammalian intestinal tract is a complex ecosystem colonised by a high and diverse number of commensal bacterial. Bacteria colonising the intestinal tract have a profound impact on host health e.g. by acting as a barrier against colonisation by pathogens and by contributing to digestion...... of complex food components. In this regard there is a considerable interest in dietary components that can modulate the gut microbiota and potentially improve gut health. Some gut bacteria, known as probiotics, are belived to improve gut health upond ingestion, whereas non-digestible (ND) dietary...... of the gut microbiota or by stimulating the immune response. Salmonella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that are a major cause of food-borne illness globally. Several studies with probiotics have demonstrated protective effects against murine Salmonella infections, while studies with prebiotics have...

  15. Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Lassen-Nielsen, Anne Marie; Nordentoft, Steen

    2009-01-01

    The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995–2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles...... in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S....... Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles...

  16. A systematic review-meta-analysis and meta-regression on the effect of selected competitive exclusion products on Salmonella spp. prevalence and concentration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ashley K; Farrar, Ashley M; Waddell, Lisa A; Wilkins, Wendy; Wilhelm, Barbara J; Bucher, Oliver; Wills, Robert W; Bailey, R Hart; Varga, Csaba; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2013-08-01

    The effectiveness of various competitive exclusion (CE) products for reducing Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens was evaluated using systematic review-meta-analysis-meta-regression (SR-MA-MR). Relevance screening identified 201 relevant studies that were subjected to methodological assessment. Of these studies, 159 were suitable for data extraction, 66 were presented in a number of MAs and 130 were examined in a meta-regression (MR). Fourteen different CE products were identified, 9 of them commercial products, and the most common route of administration was oral gavage (63.7% of trials). Meta-analyses indicated that a number of CE products reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers, the most effective one being Preempt™ which was formerly known as CF-3. Five study characteristics (publication year, CE type, CE route, sample origin, and Salmonella serovar administered/recovered) and three methodological soundness characteristics (treatment assignment, intervention and laboratory methods description) were retained as statistically significant (pchicken source CE culture products in effectiveness. The administration of CE through spraying the chicks at the hatchery was determined to be just as effective as the oral gavage treatment, and more practical for farmers to administer. The results of this study could be useful in decision-making concerning the on-farm use of CE products in broiler chickens, and as inputs for risk assessments as the industry pushes for more antibiotic-free alternatives. Out of the various interventions to reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers on-farm, CE was the most studied; its inability to be licenced in certain countries and proof of consistent efficacy remains a barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany.

  18. A Family of Salmonella Type III Secretion Effector Proteins Selectively Targets the NF-κB Signaling Pathway to Preserve Host Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Kamanova, Jana; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Galán, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Microbial infections usually lead to host innate immune responses and inflammation. These responses most often limit pathogen replication although they can also result in host-tissue damage. The enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium utilizes a type III secretion system to induce intestinal inflammation by delivering specific effector proteins that stimulate signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show here that a family of related Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins PipA, GogA and GtgA redundantly target components of the NF-κB signaling pathway to inhibit transcriptional responses leading to inflammation. We show that these effector proteins are proteases that cleave both the RelA (p65) and RelB transcription factors but do not target p100 (NF-κB2) or p105 (NF-κB1). A Salmonella Typhimurium strain lacking these effectors showed increased ability to stimulate NF-κB and increased virulence in an animal model of infection. These results indicate that bacterial pathogens can evolve determinants to preserve host homeostasis and that those determinants can reduce the pathogen's virulence.

  19. Breast abscess due to Salmonella Typhimurium in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

    2016-07-22

    This is the first report of breast abscess due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Staphylococcus aureus is known as the most common cause of breast abscess. Salmonella spp. may occasionally form localized abscesses after dissemination to various organ systems following a bacteraemia. But breast abscess related to Salmonella spp is a very rare complication. A 43-year-old female patient referred to our hospital with a lump, fever and mild pain in her breast. The patient was not pregnant or lactating at that time. She had a history of rheumatoid arthritis for 5 years and was under immunosuppressive therapy. Ultrasonography of the breast revealed an abscess. The abscess was drained and sent for culture to medical microbiology laboratory. The microorganism was identified as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and found to be sensitive to all antibiotics tested. The patient was cured after surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. The abscess did not recur again. This case is presented to draw attention to non-typhoidal Salmonella as rare causes of breast abscess and submission of specimens to the microbiology laboratory for accurate diagnosis and treatment especially in patients with underlying immunosuppressive diseases.

  20. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  1. Similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans and captive wild animals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony M; Ismail, Husna; Henton, Maryke M; Keddy, Karen H

    2014-12-15

    Salmonella is well recognized as an aetiological agent of gastrointestinal and diarrhoeal disease. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the commonest serotypes associated with foodborne illness. In South Africa, we compared Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans with gastroenteritis and strains isolated from captive wild animals, between June 2011 and July 2012. Bacteria were phenotypically characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Genotypic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. a diversity of 27 PFGE patterns amongst 196 human non-invasive isolates was shown; two PFGE patterns predominated and accounted for 74% of all human isolates. Human isolates showed a 12% prevalence rate for nalidixic acid resistance. Animal isolates from 5 different sources were investigated. With the exception of an isolate from a ground hornbill, all animal isolates (jaguar, crocodile, lion and poultry) showed PFGE pattern matches to a human isolate. Animal isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of nalidixic acid resistance in isolates from the lion and poultry source. Our data showed similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans and captive wild animals, suggesting a probable common source for strains from humans and animals.

  2. Global monitoring of Salmonella serovar distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: results of quality assured laboratories from 2001 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Vieira, Antonio R; Karlsmose, Susanne; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Jensen, Arne B; Wegener, Henrik C; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15 most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External Quality Assurance System. In all regions throughout the study period, with the exception of the Oceania and North American regions, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium ranked as the most common and second most common serovar, respectively. In the North American and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) regions, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was the most common serovar reported, and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was the second most common serovar. During the study period, the proportion of Salmonella isolates reported from humans that were Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was 43.5% (range: 40.6% [2007] to 44.9% [2003]), and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was 17.1% (range: 15% [2007] to 18.9% [2001]). Salmonella serovars Newport (mainly observed in Latin and North American and European countries), Infantis (dominating in all regions), Virchow (mainly observed in Asian, European, and Oceanic countries), Hadar (profound in European countries), and Agona (intense in Latin and North American and European countries) were also frequently isolated with an overall proportion of 3.5%, 1.8%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. There were large differences in the most commonly isolated serovars between regions, but lesser differences between countries within the same region. The results also highlight the complexity of the global epidemiology of Salmonella and the need and importance

  3. Are Salmonella-Induced Gastroenteritis Neglected in Developing Countries? Feedback from Microbiological Investigations in N'Djamena Hospitals, Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djim-Adjim Tabo

    Full Text Available Salmonella is considered to be one of the main pathogens causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Looking for Salmonella in Africa in patients suffering from gastroenteritis is rather unusual, and the use of antibiotics is not subject to any regulation. This study intends for stressing the possible prominent importance of Salmonella in digestive diseases in Africa as well as identifying antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from faeces samples of human origin. All samples were collected from five N'Djamena hospitals, from patients suffering from diarrhoea. The collecting was undertaken over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Salmonella isolates were obtained by standard cultivation and serotyping methods. A total of 43 Salmonella isolates were identified, belonging to 21 different serovars. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Stanleyville (n = 7, followed by S. Anatum (n = 4 and S. Kottbus (n = 3. The other serovars were under-represented. The majority of these isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards, except two S. Enteritidis isolates that exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones. The different serovars and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in N'Djamena, Chad. Roughly, one out of ten patients who consulted for gastroenteritis was shedding Salmonella spp. and none of them would have been diagnosed outside the context of this research program. This study may encourage local clinicians to explore more often salmonellosis suspicion in their daily practice.

  4. Salmonella isolates from wild-caught Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported to the U.S. from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine F; Yabsley, Michael J; Sanchez, Susan; Casey, Christine L; Behrens, Michael D; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2012-07-01

    Reptiles account for ∼10% of live animal shipments imported to the United States (U.S.), the majority of which are sold in the pet trade. Characterizing Salmonella shedding by imported reptiles is of value to public health, the pet industry, and veterinary medicine. Here we report results of a pilot survey of Salmonella serotypes isolated from wild-caught Indonesian Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported to the U.S. Upon arrival, the geckos were individually housed until a fecal sample was acquired for Salmonella culture. The geckos were divided into three groups with variable numbers to investigate density effects. A second group was imported after 3 months and combined with the previous groups. A total of 88 Salmonella isolates were obtained from 110 geckos surveyed, representing 14 serogroups and 17 unique serotypes. Group prevalence ranged from 31-73%. A significant increase in prevalence and a change in serotype richness were detected between the time of import and 6 months later at necropsy. Six isolates (6.8%) expressed resistance to more than one antibiotic. All S. enterica subsp. enterica Adelaide isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and sulfisoxazole, one S. enterica subsp. arizonae 61:k:z35 isolate was resistant to ampicillin and sulfisoxazole, and another 61:k:z35 isolate was resistant to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole. Forty-three additional isolates expressed resistance only to sulfisoxazole. The mechanisms for increased prevalence and apparent change in serotype richness are unknown, but could be due to stress associated with trade, transport, and captivity, increased transmission from unnaturally high densities, or contact with other species shedding Salmonella along the trade route. Future studies to differentiate the physical, social, and physiological effects of trade-related conditions on Salmonella shedding and transmission among reptiles will benefit the industry by identifying ways to reduce mortality, and safeguard the individuals

  5. Salmonella pyomyositis with concurrent sacroiliac osteomyelitis presenting as piriformis syndrome: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Phadke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A-21-year old male admitted with fever and piriformis syndrome, typically associated with gluteal region pain radiating down the thigh, was evaluated and found to have pyomyositis involving piriformis and osteomyelitis with sacroiliac joint affection on radiological imaging. Salmonella serotype typhi was isolated from blood culture. He was treated with intravenous Ceftriaxone for 6 weeks with signs of recovery documented clinically as well as on imaging studies. Salmonella pyomyositis with osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient with no previous hematological or endocrine disorder makes this case an unusual presentation.

  6. Multilevel Mycotic Aneurysms Due to Salmonella Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasveer, Erik Hans; van Eps, Randolph G Statius; Wever, Jan Jacob; Veger, Hugo Thomas Christian

    2017-10-01

    Infected or mycotic aneurysms (MAs) of the aorta and adjacent arteries are rare and difficult to treat. We report a unique case of a Salmonella serotype enteritidis-induced rapidly expanding aortic and iliac pseudoaneurysm during preoperative workup. Based on the presented case, we postulate that the agressive nature of Salmonella enteritidis MAs should not be underestimated. If postponed intervention is chosen and the patient is managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy to create a window of definitive diagnosis, one should consider close follow-up imaging to observe progression of the pseudoaneurysm. This may prevent the need of acute intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella Isolates from Infections in Humans in Henan Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.L.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Xie, Z.Q.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized 208 human Salmonella isolates from 2006 to 2007 and 27 human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from 1987 to 1993 from Henan Province, China, by serotyping, by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and, for the most common serovars, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). The most common serovars among the 2006-2007 isolates were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (27%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (17%), S. enterica serovar Derby (10%), S. enterica serovar Indiana (6%), and S. enterica serovar Litchfield (6%). A high percentage of the isolates were multiple-drug...

  8. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  9. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W N; Gillespie, I A; Smyth, F B; Rooney, P J; McClenaghan, A; Devine, M J; Tohani, V K

    2009-10-01

    A large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infection occurred in Northern Ireland during September and October 2004. Typing of isolates from patients confirmed that this strain was indistinguishable from that in concurrent outbreaks in regions of England, in Scotland and in the Isle of Man. A total of 130 cases were distributed unequally across local government district areas in Northern Ireland. The epidemic curve suggested a continued exposure over about 4 weeks. A matched case-control study of 23 cases and 39 controls found a statistically significant association with a history of having eaten lettuce in a meal outside the home and being a case (odds ratio 23.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4-404.3). This exposure was reported by 57% of cases. Although over 300 food samples were tested, none yielded any Salmonella spp. Complexity and limited traceability in salad vegetable distribution hindered further investigation of the ultimate source of the outbreak.

  10. Potential Regrowth and Recolonization of Salmonellae and Indicators in Biosolids and Biosolid-Amended Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Kathleen J.; Josephson, Karen L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Pepper, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae decreased as temperature and rate of desiccation increased. After 3 to 4 weeks, Class A requirements were achieved in both biosolids for the pathogens and the indicators. However, following rainfall events, significant increase in numbers was observed for both fecal coliforms and salmonellae. In laboratory studies, regrowth of fecal coliforms was observed in both biosolids and biosolid-amended soil, but the regrowth of salmonellae observed in the concrete-lined drying beds did not occur. These laboratory studies demonstrated that pathogens decreased in numbers when soil was amended with biosolids. Based on serotyping, the increased numbers of salmonellae seen in the concrete lined drying beds following rainfall events was most likely due to recolonization due to contamination from fecal matter introduced by animals and not from regrowth of salmonellae indigenous to biosolids. Overall, we conclude that the use of concrete-lined beds created a situation in which moisture added as rainfall accumulated in the beds, promoting the growth of fecal coliforms and salmonellae added from external sources. PMID:16000779

  11. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Avians Using Multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Talebi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S.enterica serovar Enteritidis are the most frequently isolated serovars from food-borne diseases throughout the world. According to their antigenic profiles, salmonella shows different disease syndromes and host specificities. It is necessary and important to discriminate salmonella serovars from each other in order to ensure that each pathogen and its epidemiology are correctly recognized. Many PCR-based methods have been developed to identify salmonella serovars. The objective of present study was to identify S. Typhimurium in avians from different regions including: North, Northwest and capital city (Tehran of Iran. Also in this research, the quality of CHROMagar™ Salmonella medium (CAS medium in veterinary medicine was evaluated. The results of present study showed that out of 1870 intestine samples, fifty two S. Typhimurium including broiler (n=13, layer (n=12, duck (n=5, goose (n=5, sparrow (n=8, canary (n=3, pigeon (n=5 and African grey parrot (n=1 were identified using serotyping as well as multiplex-PCR. In conclusion, important measures must be taken on prevention and propagation of S. Typhimurium among avians. CHROMagar™ Salmonella medium has high levels of sensitivity and specificity and reduced the time to final identification of salmonella spp. in comparison with biochemical tests.

  12. Salmonella Yoruba infection in white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus, found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necropsy findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.

  13. Imported dengue from 2013 Angola outbreak: Not just serotype 1 was detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida; Silva-Pinto, André; Lazzara, Daniela; Sobrinho-Simões, Joana; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sarmento, António

    2016-06-01

    All the reports from Angola's 2013 dengue outbreak revealed serotype 1. However, previously dengue serotypes 1-4 have been reported in Africa and in 2014 serotype 4 was reported in Angola. To report dengue serotypes in patients returning from Angola during 2013 outbreak. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. We serotyped the dengue by an in house Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in randomly selected cases. From the 2013 Angola's dengue outbreak we treated 47 adult patients. None had history of past dengue. A combo kit test for dengue revealed positive NS1 antigen in 39 and IgM antibodies in 8. From 17 randomly patients tested by RNA Real Time-PCR, 11 were positive: 7 for DENV-1, 2 for DENV-2, 1 for DENV-3 (co-infected with DENV-1) and 1 for DENV-4. None had a complicated or fatal evolution. Unlike previous reports the 4 serotypes were detected, and this resulted in a different epidemiological situation, raising the risk of future outbreaks of severe dengue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pneumococcal Serotypes Colonise the Nasopharynx in Children at Different Densities.

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    Fernanda Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes in carriage and disease has been described but absolute serotype colonisation densities have not been reported. 515 paediatric nasal swab DNA extracts were subjected to lytA qPCR and molecular serotyping by microarray. Absolute serotype densities were derived from total pneumococcal density (qPCR cycle threshold and standard curve and relative abundance (microarray and varied widely. Compared to all serotype densities observed, the strongest evidence of differences was seen for serotypes 21 and 35B (higher and 3, 38 and non-typeables (lower (p<0.05 with a similar hierarchy when only a single serotype carriage was assessed. There was no evidence of any overall density differences between children with single or multiple serotypes detected but serotypes with mid-range densities were more prevalent. The hierarchy of distinct pneumococcal serotype carriage densities described here for the first time, may help explain the dynamics of transmission between children.

  15. Case report of Salmonella cross-contamination in a food laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasschaert, Geertrui; De Reu, K; Heyndrickx, M; Herman, L

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a case of Salmonella cross-contamination in a food laboratory. In 2012, chocolate bars shipped from Belgium to the USA were prevented from entering the USA because a Salmonella Rissen strain had been isolated from one of the chocolate bars in a Belgian food laboratory. However, a retrospective study of the Salmonella isolates sent from the laboratory to the Belgian National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella revealed that 7 weeks prior, a Salmonella Rissen strain has been isolated from fish meal in the same food laboratory. The chocolate bars were not expected to be contaminated with Salmonella because the ingredients all tested negative during the production process. Furthermore, because Salmonella Rissen is only rarely isolated from food, it was hypothesized that the two Salmonella Rissen isolates belonged to the same strain and that the second isolation event in this laboratory was caused by cross-contamination. To confirm this hypothesis, both Salmonella Rissen isolates were fingerprinted using different molecular techniques. To evaluate the discriminatory power of the techniques used, 11 other Salmonella Rissen isolates from different origins were included in the comparison. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, repetitive element palindromic PCR and three random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assays were used. Repetitive element palindromic PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assays were insufficiently discriminatory, whereas pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the combination of two restriction enzymes showed sufficient discrimination to confirm the hypothesis. Although cross-contamination in food laboratories are rarely reported, cross-contamination can always occur. Laboratories should therefore always be aware of the possibility of cross-contamination, especially when enrichment is used in the microbiological analysis. Furthermore, it is advised that results showing isolates of the same serotype isolated in a short time frame

  16. Use of enrichment real-time PCR to enumerate salmonella on chicken parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2014-07-01

    Salmonella bacteria that survive cooking or that cross-contaminate other food during meal preparation and serving represent primary routes of consumer exposure to this pathogen from chicken. In the present study, enrichment real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate Salmonella bacteria that contaminate raw chicken parts at retail or that cross-contaminate cooked chicken during simulated meal preparation and serving. Whole raw chickens obtained at retail were partitioned into wings, breasts, thighs, and drumsticks using a sterilized knife and cutting board, which were then used to partition a cooked chicken breast to assess cross-contamination. After enrichment in buffered peptone water (400 ml, 8 h, 40°C, 80 rpm), subsamples were used for qPCR and cultural isolation of Salmonella. In some experiments, chicken parts were spiked with 0 to 3.6 log of Salmonella Typhimurium var. 5- to generate a standard curve for enumeration by qPCR. Of 10 raw chickens examined, 7 (70%) had one or more parts contaminated with Salmonella. Of 80 raw parts examined, 15 (19%) were contaminated with Salmonella. Of 20 cooked chicken parts examined, 2 (10%) were cross-contaminated with Salmonella. Predominant serotypes identified were Typhimurium (71%) and its variants (var. 5-, monophasic, and nonmotile) and Kentucky (18%). The number of Salmonella bacteria on contaminated parts ranged from one to two per part. Results of this study indicated that retail chicken parts examined were contaminated with low levels of Salmonella, which resulted in low levels of cross-contamination during simulated meal preparation and serving. Thus, if consumers properly handle and prepare the chicken, it should pose no or very low risk of consumer exposure to Salmonella.

  17. The incidence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella species isolated from cloacae of captive veiled chameleons

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    Silvia Barazorda Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella can be present in the intestinal flora of captive reptiles without clinical disease or it can cause life threatening morbidity. The presence of certain species of Salmonella in reptiles is consistent with them being the source of contamination in some cases of human disease. Thus, Salmonella positive animals can be a potential public health concern even more when strains acquire resistance to antibiotics. The nature and extent of Salmonella harboured by different species of reptiles commonly kept in captivity are not known. The aims of this study were to analyse the incidence of Salmonella species in cloacae as an indicator of the intestinal flora in a cohort of healthy captive bred female veiled chameleons. A cloacal sample was taken from each of fifteen healthy captive bred, adult female veiled chameleons that were housed at a teaching and research clinic. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and positive cases were serotyped by slide agglutination test. Salmonella organisms were detected in 12 chameleons. Eighty percent of chameleons harboured 1 of 4 subspecies and serovars of Salmonella. All strains belonged to the species enterica, predominantly subspecies enterica (91.7 % and were distributed among 4 different serovars: S. Ago (58.3 %, S. Blijdorp (16.7 %, S. Tennessee (16.7 % and S. IV 45:g,z51:- (8.3 %. Antibiotic resistance to streptomycin was detected in one of 12 Salmonella strains: S. IV 45:g,z51:-. Our study extended the list of Salmonella found in healthy captive animals and included serovars S. Tennessee and S. IV 45:g,z51:- that have been associated with morbidity in humans.

  18. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana).; Radiossensibilidade de Salmonella spp e Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporadas artificialmente por ostras (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-07-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ({sup 60}Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  19. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  20. Salmonella serovar-specific interaction with jejunal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Amadori, Massimo; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Bilato, Dania; Ferraris, Monica; Vito, Guendalina; Ferrari, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Gut is often a receptacle for many different pathogens in feed and/or the environment, such as Salmonella spp. The current knowledge about pathogenicity of Salmonella is restricted to few serotypes, whereas other important ones like S. Coeln, S. Thompson, S. Veneziana, have not been investigated yet in human and animal models. Therefore, the aim of our work was to verify the ability of widespread environmental Salmonella strains to penetrate and modulate innate immunity in pig intestinal IPEC-J2 cells. Our results outline the different ability of Salmonella strains to modulate innate immunity; the expression of the IFN-β gene was increased by S. Typhimurium, S. Ablogame and S. Diarizonae 2, that also caused an inflammatory response in terms of Interleukin (IL)-1β and/or IL-8 gene espression. In particular, IL-8 gene expression and protein release were significantly modulated by 5 Salmonella strains out of 7. Interestingly, S. Typhimurium, S. Coeln and S. Thompson strains, characterized by a peculiar ability to penetrate into IPEC-J2 cells, up-regulated both IL-8 and TNF-α gene expression. Accordingly, blocking IL-8 was shown to decrease the penetration of S. Typhimurium. On the contrary, S. Diarizonae strain 1, showing lesser invasion of IPEC-J2 cells, down-regulated the p38-MAPK pathway, and it did not induce an inflammatory response. Our results confirm that IPEC-J2 cells are a useful model to evaluate host-gut pathogen interaction and indicate IL-8 and TNF-α as possible predictive markers of invasiveness of Salmonella strains in enterocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. on tomatoes by plant molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Tyler E; Johny, Anup Kollanoor; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; More, Karen; Schreiber, David T; Patel, Jitu; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2011-01-05

    The efficacy of carvacrol (CAR), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), eugenol (EUG) and β-resorcylic acid (BR) as a wash treatment for reducing Salmonella spp. on tomatoes was investigated. Plum tomatoes inoculated with a six-serotype mixture of Salmonella (10⁸CFU) were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water (control) or deionized water containing chlorine (100 ppm), CAR (0.25 and 0.75%), TC (0.5 and 0.75%), EUG (0.25 and 0.75%), or BR (0.75 and 1.0%) for 15 sec, 1 min, and 3 min. The plant molecules were more effective (Pwashing in water and chlorine. Both concentrations of CAR and TC, and 0.75% EUG decreased Salmonella counts on tomatoes by~6.0 log CFU/ml at 1 min. Both concentrations of BR decreased the pathogen on tomatoes to undetectable levels at 3 min of exposure. Washing of tomatoes in deionized water and chlorine for 3 min reduced Salmonella by ca. 2.0 and 4.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. No Salmonella was detected in the wash water containing the plant molecules or chlorine, whereas a substantial population of the pathogen survived in the control wash water. Moreover, none of the dipping treatments had any effect on the red color of tomatoes (P>0.05). Results indicate that CAR, TC, EUG and BR could effectively be used to kill Salmonella on tomatoes, but additional studies on sensory and quality characteristics of tomatoes treated with plant molecules are warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Makwana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (i To attempt isolation and identification of Salmonella species from samples. (ii Serotyping of Salmonella isolates. (iii Detection of virulence factor associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 284 samples comprised of chevon and mutton (112 samples each as well as 60 samples (20 each of retail meat shops environment samples viz. Butchers’ hands, knives and log swabs were collected from the retail meat shops in and around Anand City under aseptic precautions. Rappaport-vassiliadis soy bean meal broth and tetrathionate broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on brilliant green agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping, isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Detection of virulence genes was performed by PCR technique using previously reported primer. Result: Of 284 meats and retail meat shops environment samples, 13 (4.58% samples were found positive for Salmonella. It was interesting to know that incidence of Salmonella was more in mutton (6.25% than chevon (3.57%. In case of meat shop environmental samples 1 (5.00% sample observed positive for Salmonella separately among the butchers’ hands and knives swabs (Each of 20 samples examined. Out of 13, eleven isolates detected as Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas only two isolates were detected as Salmonella Enteritidis. All Salmonella isolates possess invA and stn genes, whereas nine isolates had a presence of spvR gene while only five of the isolates revealed the presence of spvC gene as shown by in vitro detection of virulence genes by PCR. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the good hygiene practices and effective control measures should be taken to encourage clean meat production with

  3. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Cockeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P<0.014–0.0006 upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11, consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen.

  4. escherichia coli serotypes confirmed in experimental mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    VARIATIONS IN VIRULENCE OF THREE (3) ESCHERICHIA COLI. SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN ... ows are susceptible to E. coli infection because. E. coli exist in the .... Coli infections in mice: A laboratory animal model for research in.

  5. Molecular Confirmation of Salmonella typhimuriumin Poultry from Kathmandu Valley

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    Sanjeev Kumar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was carried to isolate Salmonella typhimurium from blood (n= 50 and gut samples (n=100 of poultry in Kathmandu valley during early 2016. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria isolated in the selective media were biochemically confirmed based on Bergey’s Manual. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers-the genus specific 16S rRNA and the organism specific invA were employed for molecular level confirmation by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay. The amplified fragments in 1% agarose gel observed at 406bp and 285bp, respectively confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella typhimurium. Of 150 samples tested, Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from 49 samples, among which nine were from blood (18% and forty from the gut (40%. The present result indicated an alarmingly high level of Salmonella typhimurium, which can result inzoonotic infection in humans owing to increased contact with poultry and consumption of poultry products in the Kathmandu valley.

  6. Salmonella and raw shell eggs: results of a cross-sectional study of contamination rates and egg safety practices in the United Kingdom catering sector in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, R; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2005-02-01

    This study was prompted by epidemiological investigations of the unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in catering premises in England and Wales during 2002. The aims of the study, performed between April and May 2003, were to establish the rate of Salmonella contamination in raw shell eggs from catering premises, investigate any correlation between the origin and type of eggs and the presence of particular serotypes or phage types (PTs) of Salmonella, and examine the use of raw shell eggs in catering premises in the United Kingdom. A total of 34,116 eggs (5,686 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected from 2,104 catering premises, most of which were eggs produced in the United Kingdom (88%). Salmonella was isolated from 17 pools (0.3%) of eggs. Of these, 15 were Salmonella Enteritidis, which were further characterized to PTs as follows: PT6 (0.1%), PT4 (0.07%), PT12 (0.04%), PT1 (0.04%), and PT14b (0.02%). Salmonella Livingstone and Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 7 resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline were also isolated. The Salmonella contamination rate of eggs produced in the United Kingdom appears to have decreased significantly since 1995 and 1996. This trend is reflected in the decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis and, in particular, Salmonella Enteritidis PT4. The impact of the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency's advice on the use of eggs, issued in January 2003, is discussed.

  7. Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Isolated from Human Feces in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satomi; Koori, Yoshio; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Osaka, Shunsuke; Oana, Kozue; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Nagano, Noriyuki

    2017-05-24

    β-lactamase genes were detected and characterized from 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) clinical isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins collected between 2012 and 2014 in Japan. Five strains showed cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 64 μg/ml and positive clavulanic acid inhibition results. The bla CTX-M-2 was detected in 3 strains (serotypes Stanley and Muenchen), whereas bla TEM-52 (serotype Manhattan) and bla SHV-12 (serotype Infantis) were each found in 1 strain. bla CMY-2 was detected in the remaining 5 strains (serotypes Infantis, Rissen, Newport, and Saintpaul) with cefotaxime MICs of 4-32 μg/ml and positive cloxacillin- and 3-aminophenylboronic acid- based inhibition tests. ISEcp1 was located upstream of the bla CMY-2 in 4 strains and of the bla CTX-M-2 in 1 strain. Incompatibility (Inc)A/C, IncP, and IncI1 plasmids were present in the strains harboring bla CMY-2 , which were detected predominantly in this study. Acquisition of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins by invasive NTS may limit therapeutic options for severe systemic infections and causing serious public health problems. Though such resistant clinical isolates are still rare in Salmonella species in Japan, our findings reveal the presence of cephem-resistant NTS in food handlers, thus emphasizing the necessity of more systematic nationwide investigations.

  8. Culture versus PCR for Salmonella Species Identification in Some Dairy Products and Dairy Handlers with Special Concern to Its Zoonotic Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwida, Mayada M; Al-Ashmawy, Maha A M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 200 samples of milk and dairy products as well as 120 samples of dairy handlers were randomly collected from different dairy farms and supermarkets in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. The conventional cultural and serotyping methods for detection of Salmonella in dairy products were applied and the results were compared with those obtained by molecular screening assay using (ttr sequence). The obtained results revealed that 21% of milk and dairy products (42/200) were positive for Salmonella species using enrichment culture-based PCR method, while 12% of different dairy samples (24/200) were found to be positive for Salmonella species by using the conventional culture methods. Two stool specimens out of 40 apparently healthy dairy handlers were positive by the PCR method. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that 58.3% (14/24) from different dairy products were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium. We conclude that the enrichment culture-based PCR assay has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella species in dairy products and handlers. High incidence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the examined dairy samples highlights the important role played by milk and dairy products as a vehicle in disease prevalence. Great effort should be applied for reducing foodborne risk for consumers.

  9. Transplacental Transmission of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and Serotype 8 in Sheep: Virological and Pathological Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der M.T.W.; Schroer-Joosten, D.P.H.; Fid-Fourkour, A.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Moulin, V.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Smit, de A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never

  10. Selection of surrogate bacteria in place of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium for pulsed electric field treatment of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Rivera, Rebecca B; Zhang, Howard Q; Geveke, David J

    2010-04-30

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) technology has been used for the inactivation of microorganisms and to prevent flavor loss in liquid foods and beverages in place of thermal pasteurization. When used to pasteurize orange juice, PEF may prevent loss of volatile sensory attributes. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC), two strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, and twenty strains of non-pathogenic bacteria were screened for inactivation in orange juice by PEF at 22 and 20kV/cm at 45 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Higher populations of both salmonellae were inactivated (2.81 and 3.54 log CFU/ml) at 55 degrees C, in comparison with the reduction of EHEC (2.22 log). When tested under the same conditions, inactivation of EHEC was slightly greater than that of a non-pathogenic E. coli (NPEC) ATCC 35218 (2.02 log). NPEC was further tested as a surrogate for EHEC by comparing inactivation kinetics at 45, 50 and 55 degrees C at field strengths of between 7.86 and 32.55kV/cm. Statistical comparison of revealed that EHEC and NPEC inactivation curves were homogeneous at outlet temperatures of 45 and 50 degrees C; however, EHEC was slightly more sensitive to PEF than the surrogate NPEC at 55 degrees C. The higher PEF resistance of non-pathogenic E. coli 35218 at 55 degrees C may provide a desirable margin of safety when used in pilot plant challenge studies in place of E. coli O157:H7. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Identification of a Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Gene in Salmonella Isolates from Texas Dairy Farm Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Norman, K N; Ohta, N; Scott, H M

    2017-06-01

    A recent increase in plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been detected among Salmonella isolated from humans in the United States, and it is necessary to determine the sources of human infection. We had previously isolated Salmonella from dairy farm environmental samples collected in Texas, and isolates were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Two isolates, serotyped as Salmonella Muenster, showed the discordant pattern of nalidixic acid susceptibility and intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. For this project, whole-genome sequencing of both isolates was performed to detect genes associated with quinolone resistance. The plasmid-mediated qnrB19 gene and IncR plasmid type were identified in both isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PMQR in Salmonella isolated from food animals or agricultural environments in the United States. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Susceptibility of Salmonella Biofilm and Planktonic Bacteria to Common Disinfectant Agents Used in Poultry Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylkova, Tereza; Cadena, Myrna; Ferreiro, Aura; Pitesky, Maurice

    2017-07-01

    Poultry contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are a major cause of zoonotic foodborne gastroenteritis. Salmonella Heidelberg is a common serotype of Salmonella that has been implicated as a foodborne pathogen associated with the consumption of improperly prepared chicken. To better understand the effectiveness of common antimicrobial disinfectants (i.e., peroxyacetic acid [PAA], acidified hypochlorite [aCH], and cetylpyridinium chloride [CPC]), environmental isolates of nontyphoidal Salmonella were exposed to these agents under temperature, concentration, and contact time conditions consistent with poultry processing. Under simulated processing conditions (i.e., chiller tank and dipping stations), the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of each disinfectant were assessed against biofilm and planktonic cultures of each organism in a disinfectant challenge. Log reductions, planktonic MICs, and mean biofilm eradication concentrations were computed. The biofilms of each Salmonella isolate were more resistant to the disinfectants than were their planktonic counterparts. Although PAA was bacteriostatic and bactericidal against the biofilm and planktonic Salmonella isolates tested at concentrations up to 64 times the concentrations commonly used in a chiller tank during poultry processing, aCH was ineffective against the same isolates under identical conditions. At the simulated 8-s dipping station, CPC was bacteriostatic against all seven and bactericidal against six of the seven Salmonella isolates in their biofilm forms at concentrations within the regulatory range. These results indicate that at the current contact times and concentrations, aCH and PAA are not effective against these Salmonella isolates in their biofilm state. The use of CPC should be considered as a tool for controlling Salmonella biofilms in poultry processing environments.

  13. The Antibiofilm Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Against Salmonella and Listeria Isolates from Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Park, Keun Cheol; Choi, Beom Geun; Park, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. are common foodborne pathogens in poultry and have caused a large number of outbreaks worldwide. Biofilm formation is common in the food industry and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract against the biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates from poultry at retail markets. Bacteria detection, isolation, and enumeration were carried out on 27 chicken and 29 ducks at retail markets. The effects of temperature and G. biloba extract against biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates were measured using the crystal violet assay and swimming and swarming motilities. The monitoring results of Salmonella and Listeria in 56 poultry carcasses at retail markets in Korea showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry was low (5.4%), but the prevalence of Listeria spp (78.6%) was high. L. innocua was the predominant serotype (80%) in the isolated Listeria species. Temperature, strain, and surface affected the biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. L. innocua showed the best biofilm formation ability on a 96-well plate, while Salmonella Enteritidis formed the most biofilm on a glass slide. Biofilm formation abilities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were increased with the increase of temperature. G. biloba extract at 75 μg/mL significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp (p Listeria, but not L. monocytogenes. The findings of this study provided the basis for the application of G. biloba extract as a food additive to promote the quality and safety of poultry products.

  14. Characterization of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Isolates from Asymptomatic Migrant Food Handlers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woh, Pei Yee; Thong, Kwai Lin; Behnke, Jerzy Marian; Lewis, John Watkin; Zain, Siti Nursheena Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriers who work as food handlers pose food safety and public health risks, particularly during food preparation, and this has serious implications for the disease burden in society. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the number of Salmonella carriers in a migrant cohort in several food establishments in three major cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Sociodemographic data and stool samples were collected and analyzed using standard methods of detection and isolation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the positive samples were also performed. A total of 317 migrant food handlers, originating from South and Southeast Asian countries, were recruited voluntarily. Nine (2.8%) stool samples were confirmed to be Salmonella positive. PCR serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified four serotypes as Typhimurium (n = 3), Corvallis (n = 2), Hadar (n = 1), Agona (n = 1) and two unknown serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that all nine isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and gentamycin. However, seven isolates were found to be multidrug resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfonamides, streptomycin, and tetracycline. This study highlights that carriers of nontyphoidal Salmonella exist among migrant food handlers, which poses a health risk to consumers through food contamination. Our results indicate a need for authorities to enhance food safety awareness in the migrant workers and to reevaluate current health screening methods to include preventive measure such as mandatory stool screening as part of the preemployment and routine health examinations.

  15. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ( 60 Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  16. Epidemiology of Salmonella sp. in California cull dairy cattle: prevalence of fecal shedding and diagnostic accuracy of pooled enriched broth culture of fecal samples

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    Omran A. Abu Aboud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the crude, seasonal and cull-reason stratified prevalence of Salmonella fecal shedding in cull dairy cattle on seven California dairies. A secondary objective was to estimate and compare the relative sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp for pools of 5 and 10 enriched broth cultures of fecal samples for Salmonella sp. detection. Methods Seven dairy farms located in the San Joaquin Valley of California were identified and enrolled in the study as a convenience sample. Cull cows were identified for fecal sampling once during each season between 2014 and 2015, specifically during spring, summer, fall, and winter, and 10 cows were randomly selected for fecal sampling at the day of their sale. In addition, study personnel completed a survey based on responses of the herd manager to questions related to the previous four month’s herd management. Fecal samples were frozen until testing for Salmonella. After overnight enrichment in liquid broth, pools of enrichment broth (EBP were created for 5 and 10 samples. All individual and pooled broths were cultured on selective media with putative Salmonella colonies confirmed by biochemical testing before being serogrouped and serotyped. Results A total of 249 cull cows were enrolled into the study and their fecal samples tested for Salmonella. The survey-weighted period prevalence of fecal shedding of all Salmonella sp. in the cull cow samples across all study herds and the entire study period was 3.42% (N = 249; SE 1.07. The within herd prevalence of Salmonella shed in feces did not differ over the four study seasons (P = 0.074. The Se of culture of EBP of five samples was 62.5% (SE = 17.12, which was not statistically different from the Se of culture of EBP of 10 (37.5%, SE = 17.12, P = 0.48. The Sp of culture of EBP of five samples was 95.24% (SE = 3.29 and for pools of 10 samples was 100.00% (SE = 0. There was no statistical

  17. Control of Salmonella and other pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in poultry by gamma and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1992-07-01

    Salmonella contamination of chicken is a major public health concern, causing sickness and loss of productivity. Modern, concentrated production methods increase the difficulty of Salmonella control. The current and suggested treatments with chlorinated water or heat pasteurization are unsatisfactory. In pasteurization, the end product is partially cooked, and in the chlorine water wash the poultry skin gets bleached if too much chlorine is used. There is also a risk of formation of toxic chloro-organic compounds. Further, the chlorine water wash does not completely eliminate salmonella. Low-dose radiation treatment is much more effective for the control of Salmonella and has the additional benefit of preserving the freshness of the product. Irradiation of fresh chicken carcasses, pieces or deboned chicken meat with a dose of 2.5 kGy appears to be sufficient to eliminate naturally occurring Salmonella contamination, which is generally present in extremely low numbers on this continent (1 to 30 cells/100 g). For elimination of Salmonella in frozen chicken, doses higher than 2.5 kGy are required. There is a large range of D 10 - values for the different Salmonella serotypes that have been tested, with the highest being 0.72 kGy for S. oranienberg at 22 degrees C. Thus the 2.5-kGy dose would reduce the most radio-resistant Salmonella serotype by four orders of magnitude, and the most common serotypes (with D 10 - values of 0.3 to 0.4 kGy) by greater than six orders of magnitude. The 2.5-kGy dose also appears to be sufficient to eliminate other bacterial pathogens, such as Campylobactor jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica. The microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken carcass or deboned chicken meat (6 to 11 d) is extended by a factor of 2 to 3 with irradiation to a dose of 2.5 kGy followed by storage between 1 and 4 degrees C. In radappertization (at a dose of ≥ 45 kGy at -30 degrees C), the shelf life of enzyme-inactivated chicken meat is extended to years, on

  18. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Mauritius Linked to Consumption of Marlin Mousse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, M. I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lun, P. L. K.

    2009-01-01

    . A laboratory investigation of one sample of marlin mousse manufactured 3 days later, and the individual ingredients sampled a week after production of the contaminated batch were all negative for Salmonella. Serotyping and minimum inhibitory concentration determination were performed on 12 patient isolates......We report the first outbreak of salmonellosis caused by consumption of contaminated marlin mousse. Between 29 October and 5 November 2008, at least 53 persons developed diarrheal illness, all with a history of eating marlin mousse. Salmonella spp. that did not produce gas from glucose was isolated...... from stools of 26 affected patients and blood culture from one patient. Salmonella sp. isolates with the same phenotype were isolated in three samples of marlin mousse manufactured on 27 October 2008. The constituents of the mousse were smoked marlin, raw eggs, bovine gelatin, oil, and cream...

  19. Salmonella typhimurium infection in total knee arthroplasty: A case report with review of literature

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    Sujeesh Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI. The recognized predisposing risk factors for Salmonella septic arthritis include diabetes mellitus, renal failure, human immunodeficiency virus infection and chronic corticosteroid use. We describe a case of PJI of the knee in a 74-year-old lady who was on antitubercular treatment. The patient presented with discharging sinus and raised inflammatory markers. She was successfully treated by the removal of prosthesis and debridement followed by ciprofloxacin therapy for 6 weeks. This case report highlights the potential virulence of Salmonella in immunocompromised patient with a joint prosthesis. Continuous monitoring and close collaboration of microbiologists and orthopedicians helped obtain the resolution of infection in our patient.

  20. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of animal and food isolates of Salmonella enterica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Tania; López-Martin, Juana; Gädicke, Paula

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial resistance to one or more antimicrobiak is worrisome. To determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials of Salmonella entérica isolates from animáis and food, from the Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology at the University of Concepción. The samples were isolated according to traditional microbiological methods standardized protocols. Resistance was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations (2008). Nine serotypes were identified among the 68 isolates. Strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 11 patterns of resistance were identified. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 20.5% of the strains tested. The most common was Oxytetracycline resistance (69.1%). Infood, the predominant serotype was S. Derby (2.9%) and S. Senftenberg (2.9%), which is commonly found infood intended for animal consumption. In samples of animal origin, the predominant serotypes were S. infantis (33.8%) and S. Group E (3.9;-;-) (23.5%). The frequeney of resistance found and the impending risk that these strains could reach humans through the food chain, should prompt a follow-up study of this pathogen.

  1. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues.

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella , and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella , thereby posing a threat to public health.

  3. Lack of evidence of spill-over of Salmonella enterica between cattle and sympatric Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from a protected area in Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Velarde, R; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic agent of worldwide importance found in a wide range of wild hosts. However, its prevalence in many popular game species has never been assessed. Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is the main game caprinae of the Iberian Peninsula and around two thousand individuals are hunted every year for trophy or for home consumption. In this work, 313 Iberian ibexes from the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain) were tested for Salmonella enterica in faeces, and anti microbial susceptibility was determined. The exact location of shooting or capture was recorded with a GPS device to study the links of Salmonella infection with cattle presence and human proximity. Additionally, samples were taken from cattle grazing inside this reserve (n = 73). Only three Iberian ibexes (0.96%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) were positive to Salmonella (serotype Enteritidis, Bardo and 35:r:z35), while prevalence was moderate in cattle: 21.92% (95% CI 13.10-33.14, serotype Meleagridis, Anatum, Kedougou and Othmarschen). All isolates were susceptible to the anti microbial agents tested. Moreover, a case of fatal septicaemic salmonellosis in an 11-year-old male Iberian ibex is described where Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the lung, liver and spleen samples. The low prevalence of Salmonella in Iberian ibex and the lack of shared serotypes suggest no association to cattle. Despite this, game meat aimed for human consumption should be examined, and it is strongly recommended that hunters and game keepers manipulate animals and carcasses under maximal hygienic conditions to avoid environmental contamination and human contagion. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Comparing validation of four ELISA-systems for detection of Salmonella derby- and Salmonella infantis-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Uwe; Szabo, Istvan; Matthies, Claudia; Albrecht, Kerstin; Leffler, Martin; Scherer, Kathrin; Nöckler, Karsten; Lehmann, Jörg; Methner, Ulrich; Hensel, Andreas; Truyen, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests at study time approved in Germany to detect Salmonella infection in pigs.Three tests are based on a LPS-antigen mix and directed against specific IgG antibodies. The fourth test is based on a purified S. Typhimurium whole-cell lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella-specific IgM-, IgA-, and IgG- antibodies. In a longitudinal study, two groups of six weeks old hybrid piglets were orally infected with a porcine S. Infantis or S. Derby strain. Clinical and bacteriological parameters were monitored weekly during an observation period of 130 days after infection and serum samples were investigated in parallel with the respective ELISAs. Apparently, the LPS-based ELISA systems used in this study failed to recognize S. Infantis-infected pigs although those animals shed the pathogen in high amounts throughout the study until day 81 post infection (p. i.). In contrast, the isotype-specific Salmonella Typhimurium whole-cell-lysate based ELISA was capable of detecting Salmonella-infected pigs from day ten p. i. at all tested serotypes and revealed the highest sensitivity in detection of S. Infantis-infected pigs. Furthermore, it became apparent that the often used surveillance cut-off value of 40 OD% is not appropriate for intra-vitam detection of S. Infantis- and S. Derby-infected pigs. In contrast, the cut-off values of the ELISAs given by the suppliers result in considerable higher detection rates.

  5. Serotype distribution in non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas Lars Vibe; Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2013-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of serotypes that cause non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBP). Here we report serotypes, their associated disease potential and coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in adults with NBP and compare these to bacteremic pneumonia (BP).......There is limited knowledge of serotypes that cause non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBP). Here we report serotypes, their associated disease potential and coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in adults with NBP and compare these to bacteremic pneumonia (BP)....

  6. Effect of Serotype on Pneumococcal Competition in a Mouse Colonization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzciński, Krzysztof; Li, Yuan; Weinberger, Daniel M; Thompson, Claudette M; Cordy, Derrick; Bessolo, Andrew; Malley, Richard; Lipsitch, Marc

    2015-09-15

    Competitive interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae strains during host colonization could influence the serotype distribution in nasopharyngeal carriage and pneumococcal disease. We evaluated the competitive fitness of strains of serotypes 6B, 14, 19A, 19F, 23F, and 35B in a mouse model of multiserotype carriage. Isogenic variants were constructed using clinical strains as the capsule gene donors. Animals were intranasally inoculated with a mixture of up to six pneumococcal strains of different serotypes, with separate experiments involving either clinical isolates or isogenic capsule-switch variants of clinical strain TIGR4. Upper-respiratory-tract samples were repeatedly collected from animals in order to monitor changes in the serotype ratios using quantitative PCR. A reproducible hierarchy of capsular types developed in the airways of mice inoculated with multiple strains. Serotype ranks in this hierarchy were similar among pneumococcal strains of different genetic backgrounds in different strains of mice and were not altered when tested under a range of host conditions. This rank correlated with the measure of the metabolic cost of capsule synthesis and in vitro measure of pneumococcal cell surface charge, both parameters considered to be predictors of serotype-specific fitness in carriage. This study demonstrates the presence of a robust competitive hierarchy of pneumococcal serotypes in vivo that is driven mainly, but not exclusively, by the capsule itself. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of death due to respiratory bacterial infections but also a commensal frequently carried in upper airways. Available vaccines induce immune responses against polysaccharides coating pneumococcal cells, but with over 90 different capsular types (serotypes) identified, they can only target strains of the selected few serotypes most prevalent in disease. Vaccines not only protect vaccinated individuals against disease but also protect by

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%, 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%, 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%, 4 S.e. Dublin (4%, 4 S.e. Hadar (4%, and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%. Twenty-five (28% were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%. Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56% and to five antibiotics (40%. One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

  8. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSPECIES ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS – ACTUALITIES AND IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis has been recently recognized as a prevalent cause of alimentary toxi-infection worldwide. Its widespread presence could be explained by intensification and globalization of traffic, global trade, and the rest of socioeconomic processes. However, no matter to global spreading of S. Enteritidis, there is unequal distribution of certain phage types (PT where PT 4 and 8 are predominant. Salmonella is considered as a cause of various diseases from acute enterocolitis to typhoid fever. All bacteria from this species have numerous virulence factors such as: adhesins, toxins, virulence plasmids, and cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Similar to other salmonella serotypes, S. Enteritidis has a virulence plasmid. It allows a bacterium to persist inside the reticuloendothelial cells, while strains without it are eliminated quickly. In the last few years several virulent S. Enteritidis strains of PT 4 were described and considered to be of the same origin. The domination of PT 4 is probably subjected to the resistance of certain strains to nitrofurantoin which is used in poultry rising. The increased significance of S. Enteritidis refers not only to its association with pandemic problems but to frequent reports about extraintestinal infectious processes caused by this bacterium. Taking into consideration that eggs are very important source of infection besides poultry meat, the advised efficient preventive measures, among others, should be some changes in poultry meat preparation, investigation of outbreak-related flocks and devastation of infected ones, as well as egg pasteurization.

  9. Coconut and Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.

    1967-01-01

    Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650

  10. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

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    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  11. Microbiological analysis of pre-packed sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) leaves for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbeke, Stefanie; Ceuppens, Siele; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-09-02

    Enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli, have been detected and associated with food borne outbreaks from (imported) fresh leafy herbs. Screening on imported herbs from South East Asian countries has been described. However, limited information on prevalence of these pathogens is available from other sourcing regions. Therefore, fresh pre-packed basil and coriander leaves from a Belgian trading company were investigated for the presence of Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), generic E. coli and coliforms. In total 592 samples were collected originating from Belgium, Israel and Cyprus during 2013-2014. Multiplex PCR followed by further culture confirmation was used for the detection of Salmonella spp. and STEC, whereas the Petrifilm Select E. coli and VRBL-agar were used, respectively, for the enumeration of E. coli and coliforms. Salmonella was detected in 10 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.7%; 5 from basil and 5 from coriander), of which two samples were sourced from Israel and eight from Cyprus. The presence of STEC was suspected in 11 out of 592 samples (25g) (1.9%; 3 basil and 8 coriander), due to the detection of stx and eae genes, of which one sample originated from Belgium, four from Israel and six from Cyprus. No STEC was isolated by culture techniques, but in three samples a serotype (O26, O103 or O111) with its most likely associated eae-variant (β or θ) was detected by PCR. Generic E. coli was enumerated in 108 out of 592 samples, whereby 55, 32 and 13 samples respectively between 10-100, 100-1000 and 1000-10,000cfu/g and 8 samples exceeding 10,000cfu/g. Coliforms were enumerated in all herb samples at variable levels ranging from 1.6 to 7.5logcfu/g. Further statistics indicate that the E. coli class (categorized by level) was significantly correlated with the presence of Salmonella (pbasil and coriander sourced from different cultivation regions, may contain enteric pathogens and potentially pose a

  12. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  13. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food other than meat in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Mąka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria can result in therapy failure, increased hospitalization, and increased risk of death. In Poland, [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. is a major bacterial agent of food poisoning. The majority of studies on antimicrobial resistance in [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from food have focused on meat products as the source of this pathogen. In comparison, this study examines the antimicrobial susceptibility of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from retail food products other than meat in Poland. Materials and Methods. A collection of 122 [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were isolated in Poland in 2008–2012 from foods other than meat: confectionery products, eggs, fruits, vegetables, spices and others. The resistance of these isolates to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. Results. [i]Salmonella[/i] Enteritidis was the most frequently identified serotype (84.4% of all tested isolates. In total, 42.6% of the [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates were resistant to antibiotics. The highest frequencies of resistance were observed in isolates from 2009 (60.0% and 2012 (59.5%. Antibiotic resistance was most prevalent among [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolated from egg-containing food samples (68.0%. Resistance to nalidixic acid was most common and was observed in 35.2% of all tested isolates. The isolates were less frequently resistant to sulphonamides (6.6%, ampicillin (4.9%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2.5% and to streptomycin, cefoxitin, gentamicin and tetracycline (1.6%. Only one isolate showed resistance to chloramphenicol. Four isolates displayed multiresistance. Conclusions. Although, the level of resistance and multiresistance of [i]Salmonella[/i] spp. isolates from non-meat foods was lower than in those from meat products, the presence of these resistant bacteria poses a real threat to the health of consumers.

  14. House Sparrows Do Not Constitute a Significant Salmonella Typhimurium Reservoir across Urban Gradients in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013-2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines.

  15. Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in poultry products in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Y. Olobatoke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serotypes in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE broiler products in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 120 raw broiler samples, 40 samples of polonies and 20 samples of smoked viennas were obtained from retail points in major cities and towns in the province. Samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and later screened for the presence of NTS using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The average bacterial count in raw products was 3.1 x 105 cfu/g whereas bacterial contamination of RTE products was 1.8 x 103 cfu/g. The average recovery rate of NTS species from raw broiler products was 12.5% and the serotypes identified were S. typhimurium (46.4%, S. enteritidis (30.9% and S. newport (22.9%. No NTS was recovered from the RTE products. However, S. typhimurium was the predominant serotype in whole carcasses whereas S. enteritidis and S. newport were prevalent in chicken parts. Out of the 160 presumptive NTS isolates screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 140 (87.5% were confirmed for the presence of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. In addition, 115 (82.4% of the confirmed isolates harboured the plasmid spvC gene. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting of isolates using RAPD 1 and RAPD 3 primers, revealed some inter- and intra-serotype genetic diversity among isolates, suggesting varying sources of contamination. The results of this study represent the first report on the incidence and prevalent serotypes of NTS in chicken products in the North West Province of South Africa.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in chicken carcasses at retail in 15 Brazilian cities Prevalencia y resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Salmonella en pollos congelados de venta al por menor en 15 ciudades del Brasil

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    Marcelo Augusto Nunes Medeiros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in frozen chicken carcasses at retail from 15 Brazilian cities. METHODS: A descriptive study of data from the Brazilian National Program for Monitoring the Prevalence of Bacterial Resistance in Chicken (PREBAF was conducted from September 2004 to July 2006. The program collected chicken carcasses in 15 state capitals of Brazil in the five geographic regions of the country. Standardized methodologies were used to isolate Salmonella­spp. and identify serotypes. The minimal inhibitory concentration method was used to test resistance to 18 antimicrobials. RESULTS: In 2 679 carcasses examined, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 2.7% (range 0.0%-8.9%. São Paulo State produced 50.6% of positive samples. Eighteen serotypes were identified. The most frequently occurring were Salmonella Enteritidis (48.8%, Salmonella Infantis (7.6%, Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2%, and Salmonella Heidelberg (6.4%. All 250 strains tested were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 133 (53.2% were multidrug resistant (≥ 3 classes. S. Heidelberg was resistant to ceftriaxone (75.0% and to ceftiofur(43.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Salmonella spp. found in this study was relatively low. However, there were a high proportion of multidrug-resistant strains, including third-generation cephalosporins used to treat invasive salmonellosis. The results confirm the relevanceof the PREBAF program. It is recommended that PREBAF be improved, including a timely data analysis. A review of permitted limits for Salmonella spp. in retail chicken in Brazil is also needed.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia y la resistencia a los antibióticos de Salmonella spp. en canales de pollo congeladas de venta al por menor en 15 ciudades del Brasil. MÉTODOS: Entre septiembre del 2004 y julio del 2006 se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo de los datos del Programa Nacional Brasileño de Vigilancia de la

  17. Characterization of Salmonella Occurring at High Prevalence in a Population of the Land Iguana Conolophus subcristatus in Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Alessia; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Lorenzetti, Serena

    2011-01-01

    swabs from animals (n = 63) in their natural environment on in the island of Santa Cruz. A high prevalence (62/63, 98.4%) was observed with heterogeneity of Salmonella subspecies and serovars, all known to be associated with reptiles and with reptile-associated salomonellosis in humans. Serotyping...... possible exposure of the iguanas and the biocenosis to direct or indirect environmental factors influenced by the use of antimicrobials in agriculture, in human medicine or in veterinary medicine....

  18. Development and evaluation of a mixed long-chain lipopolysaccharide based ELISA for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6 and 12 in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl-Hansen, Jan; Barfod, Kristen; Klausen, Joan

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for simultaneous detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotypes 2, 6 and 12. The assay was designated MIX-ELISA. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotypes 2, 6 and 12 was purified using hot...... of the assay indicate that screening of herds for Ap infection can be performed using this ELISA. Efficient serological surveillance can be achieved by using such mixed antigen ELISAs coated with size-selected LPS-antigens from the most prevalent serotypes....... phenol-water extraction followed by fractionation by size-exclusion chromatography. A mixture of fractions containing molecules with molecular weight above 50 kDa from all three serotypes was used as antigen. The MIX-ELISA was evaluated with sera from pigs experimentally infected with the serotypes 1, 2...

  19. Virulence, serotype and phylogenetic groups of diarrhoeagenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr DADIE Thomas

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... The virulence, serotype and phylogenetic traits of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli were detected in 502 strains isolated during digestive infections. Molecular detection of the target virulence genes, rfb gene of operon O and phylogenetic grouping genes Chua, yjaA and TSPE4.C2 was performed.

  20. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  1. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  2. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann

    1996-01-01

    -year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock....... The salmonella status of the flock was determined by examining the caecal tonsils from 16 3-week-old chickens from each flock. This procedure would detect a salmonella-infected flock, with a probability above 95%, if the prevalence is above 20%. Furthermore, the structure and quality of the collected data have...... been evaluated. Fourteen variables were selected for analysis by multivariable logistic regression. An increased risk of salmonella infection in the broiler Becks was associated with the biggest hatcheries and feedmill, with an increasing number of houses on the farm, if the preceding flock...

  3. Isolamenti di Salmonella spp. da matrici ambientali nella regione Molise negli anni 2003-2005

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    Carla Pepe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Enter-Net is a European network used for the surveillance of human gastrointestinal infections. This network was created in 1994 and is coordinated by the HPA in Colindale. In Italy, this network is managed by the Superior Health Institute and its participants include various referral centres present in most of the regions in Italy. In Molise, the centre is located at the Arpa Provincial Department of Isernia.This centre receives strains of isolated Salmonella from six Regional hospital laboratories. In addition, the centre receives strains from other Arpa laboratories originating from surface and sewer water. All of the Centre’s activities are conducted according to the Italian law (D.L.vo n° 152/99.The isolates are tested for serotyping classification and antimicrobial susceptibility. During the three year period (2003-2005, 228 Salmonella strains were isolated throughout the principle water basins. 18.9% of the isolates were from the Biferno basins, in which the water is considered drinkable, while 51.7% were from various water bodies flowing into the Molise costal areas. Consequently, the potential impact on drinkable and recreational water is rather consistent. Particularly considering that 26 isolates (22.1% belong to serotypes relevant for public health (S.typhimurium, S.enteritidis, S.hadar, S.infantis, S.virchow.The results confirmed the presence of these endemic serotypes in surface waters in Molise.The results have also showned the impact that these could have on public health.

  4. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).

  5. Salmonella in the pork production chain and its impact on human health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella spp. comprise the second most common food-borne pathogens in the European Union (EU). The role of pigs as carriers of Salmonella has been intensively studied both on farm and at slaughter. Salmonella infection in pigs may cause fever, diarrhoea, prostration and mortality. However, most infected pigs remain healthy carriers, and those infected at the end of the fattening period could pose a threat to human health. Contamination of pig carcasses can occur on the slaughter line, and it is linked to cross-contamination from other carcasses and the presence of Salmonella in the environment. Therefore, Salmonella serovars present on pig carcasses can be different from those detected in the same bathes on the farm. In recent years, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby and S. serotype 4,[5],12:i:- (a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium) have been the most common serovars to be detected in pigs in EU countries, but S. Rissen, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Brandenburg have also been reported. In humans, several cases of salmonellosis have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and pork products. Among the main serovars of porcine origin detected in confirmed human cases, S. Typhimurium, the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Derby are certainly the most important.

  6. [Detection of Salmonella and Mycobacterium species in seagulls captured in Talcahuano, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, Juana; Junod, Tania; Riquelme, Fredy; Contreras, Cecilia; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Salmonella can be isolated from the feces of seagulls. Therefore these birds can be a vector for dissemination of this pathogen. To evaluate the possible role of gulls as vectors of two important human and animal pathogens (My-cobacteria and Salmonella). One hundred twenty three Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) and 60 Franklin gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) captured off the coast of the seaport of Talcahuano, were analyzed. Using traditional microbiological methods, the presence of Mycobacteria in cloacal swabs and feet lavages, was analyzed in both types of gulls. To detect the presence of Salmonella, feces, fecal and tracheal swabs, and feet lavage were analyzed from Franklin gulls. Feces, feet lavage, intestine, spleen, liver, kidney and lung, were examined in Kelp gulls. All Mycobacteria cultures were negative. Salmonella enterica cultures were positive in 25 % of Kelp gulls and 6.7 % of Franklin gulls. Four serovars were identified by serotyping. Enteritidis and Senfteberg serovars were found in both types of gulls. Anatum and Infantis serovars were found only in Kelp gulls. Feces of gulls captured during the winter had the highest yield of positive cultures (36.1%). Seagulls are an important Salmonella vector in Chile.

  7. Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae in the peanut supply chain: From farm to table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M S; Carminati, J A; Silva, I C R N; Silva, D L; Bernardi, A O; Copetti, M V

    2018-03-01

    Due to recent foodborne outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a potential risk for Salmonella transmission. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and contamination load of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae throughout the peanut supply chain in Brazil. Samples of peanuts and peanut-containing processed products from post-harvest (n=129), secondary processing (n=185) and retail market (n=100) were analyzed. The results showed high Enterobacteriaceae counts in the post-harvest samples. At the end of the secondary processing, 16% of the samples remained contaminated by this group of microorganisms. Six peanut samples from primary production and one sample of peanut butter were tested positive for E. coli while Salmonella was detected in nine samples (2.2%): six from post-harvest, two from the initial stage of the secondary processing and one from retail. The Salmonella counts ranged between 0.004 and 0.092MPN/g and five serotypes were identified (Muenster, Miami, Javiana, Oranienburg, Glostrup). The results demonstrated a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and low prevalence of E. coli throughout the peanut supply chain. Furthermore, it was verified that peanuts may become contaminated by Salmonella during different stages of the supply chain, especially at post-harvest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni Penner serotypes in broiler flocks 1998-2000 in a small Danish community with special reference to serotype 4-complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Nielsen, E.M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2003-01-01

    During the period January 1998-December 2001, all Danish broiler flocks were monitored bacteriologically for thermophilic campylobacters and isolates were stored at -80 degreesC. Six neighbouring broiler farms in a small community were selected for detailed examination of all Campylobacter jejuni...... isolated (n = 180) from these farms during 1998-2000 using Penner serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The area and the farms were selected according to their prevalence of campylobacter so that both farms with low and high frequencies of campylobacter positive flocks were included...... in the study. The frequency of campylobacter positive flocks on the six farms ranged from 24.5 to 72.7%. One hundred and eighty of the isolates were C. jejuni (included in this study), 14 isolates were C. coli whereas 7 isolates belonged to other species but were not further identified. By serotyping of all C...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis from broiler carcasses in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, A.; Baltić, T.; Velebit, B.; Babić, M.; Milojević, L.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Infantis isolates from poultry carcasses in Serbia. A total of 48 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial resistance. A panel of 10 antibiotics was selected for testing. Isolates showed resistance to sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and cefotaxime (100%). However, the highest number of Salmonella Infantis isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol. The usage of antibiotics in food producing animals could result in antimicrobial resistance pathogenic bacteria especially Salmonella spp. in poultry, which may be transmitted to humans through the food chain and increase risk of treatment failures.

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella spp., in mesenteric pig’s ganglia at Colombian benefit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ayala-Romero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp., in pigs mesenteric ganglion, from different regions of Colombia. Materials and Methods. A stratified sampling by proportional fixation was carried out at benefit plants of each of the 13 participating departments, whose pork production volume is representative at national level. Sampling was performed during five months, for a total of 457 samples analyzed. Salmonella spp., identification was performed by the MDS Molecular System, later isolates were confirmed in Maldi-TOF MS. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using the B1016-180 panel and statistical analysis was performed in Whonet 2016, some of the multi-resistant isolates were them serotyped by Kauffman-White method. Results. National prevalence was 28.2%, with the presence of S. Typhimurium, S. Agama, S. London, S. Agona, S. Haifa and S. 1,4,12: i: -. Resistance to antibiotics frequently used in human (23.6% Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole, 2.7% Cefotaxime (CTX, 11.8% Ampicillin (AMP and 1.8% Ciprofloxacin was found. Conclusion. The prevalence of Salmonella in mesenteric ganglia was 28.2%, being the Huila region the one with the highest prevalence, recovering atypical serotypes such as S. London and S. Haifa.

  11. Salmonella spp. contamination in commercial layer hen farms using different types of samples and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M C; Soria, M A; Bueno, D J; Godano, E I; Gómez, S C; ViaButron, I A; Padin, V M; Rogé, A D

    2017-08-01

    The performance of detection methods (culture methods and polymerase chain reaction assay) and plating media used in the same type of samples were determined as well as the specificity of PCR primers to detected Salmonella spp. contamination in layer hen farms. Also, the association of farm characteristics with Salmonella presence was evaluated. Environmental samples (feces, feed, drinking water, air, boot-swabs) and eggs were taken from 40 layer hen houses. Salmonella spp. was most detected in boot-swabs taken around the houses (30% and 35% by isolation and PCR, respectively) follow by fecal samples (15.2% and 13.6% by isolation and PCR, respectively). Eggs, drinking water, and air samples were negative for Salmonella detection. Salmonella Schwarzengrund and S. Enteritidis were the most isolated serotypes. For plating media, relative specificity was 1, and the relative sensitivity was greater for EF-18 agar than XLDT agar in feed and fecal samples. However, relative sensitivity was greater in XLDT agar than EF-18 agar for boot-swab samples. Agreement was between fair to good depending on the sample, and it was good between isolation and PCR (feces and boot-swabs), without agreement for feed samples. Salmonella spp. PCR was positive for all strains, while S. Typhimurium PCR was negative. Salmonella Enteritidis PCR used was not specific. Based in the multiple logistic regression analyses, categorization by counties was significant for Salmonella spp. presence (P-value = 0.010). This study shows the importance of considering different types of samples, plating media and detection methods during a Salmonella spp. monitoring study. In addition, it is important to incorporate the sampling of floors around the layer hen houses to learn if biosecurity measures should be strengthened to minimize the entry and spread of Salmonella in the houses. Also, the performance of some PCR methods and S. Enteritidis PCR should be improved, and biosecurity measures in hen farms must be

  12. A European longitudinal study in Salmonella seronegative and seropositive-classified finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne

    2004-01-01

    and was performed between October 1996 and May 1999. The Salmonella status of finishing pig herds was determined by an initial blood sampling of approximately 50 finishing pigs close to market weight per herd. The development of the Salmonella status of the selected herds was assessed at seven subsequent sampling...

  13. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...

  14. Changing trends in antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Padma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chloramphenicol was considered the anti-microbial gold standard for typhoid treatment but, following the increasing worldwide frequency of antibiotic resistance, ciprofloxacin has been the mainstay of therapy since 1980. Recent studies have shown a shifting of susceptibility to conventional drugs like chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of chloramphenicol and other first-line drugs in comparison with cephalosporins and quinolones. Materials and Methods: Fifty isolates of Salmonella obtained from blood culture were subjected to serotyping at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli. Phage typing and biotyping was performed at the National Phage Typing Centre, New Delhi. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out for 10 drugs by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution for nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefixime and ofloxacin. Multi-drug-resistant (MDR strains were checked for plasmid. Results: In the present study, 70 and 30% of the isolates were Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A, respectively. They were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (86%, ampicillin (84% and cotrimoxazole (88%. Highest sensitivity was seen for cephalosporins, followed by quinolones. Seventeen/21 (81% and 100% of the Salmonella enterica serovar typhi strains belonged to E1 phage type and biotype 1, respectively. Antibiogram showed 2% of the strains to be sensitive to all the drugs tested and 12% were MDR and showed the presence of plasmids. Conclusion: The study indicates reemergence of chloramphenicol-susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A isolates, a significant decline in MDR strains and high resistance to nalidixic acid. E1 phage type and biotype 1 are found to be most prevalent in Chennai, India.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Getachew; Tessema, Tesfaye S; Beyene, Getenet; Aseffa, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    Wide-ranging evidence on the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance genetic determinants in African Salmonella strains is not available. The main objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneity, estimate pooled proportions and describe the preponderance of FQ-resistance determinants in typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates of Africa. Genetic and phenotypic data on 6103 Salmonella isolates were considered. Meta- and frequency analyses were performed depending on the number of studies by category, number of isolates and risks of bias. A random effects model was used to assess heterogeneity and estimate pooled proportions. Relative and cumulative frequencies were calculated to describe the overall preponderance of FQ-resistance determinants in quinolone resistant isolates. The pooled proportion of gyrA mutants (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) was estimated at 5.7% (95% Confidence interval (CI) = 2.6, 9.8; Tau squared (T2) = 0.1105), and was higher in S. Typhi than in S. Typhimurium (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95%CI = 2, 5.7). The proportions of each of gyrB and parC mutants, and strains with Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB and qnrS) were low (≤ 0.3%). Overall, 23 mutant serotypes were identified, and most strains had mutations at codons encoding Ser83 and Asp87 of gyrA (82%, 95%CI = 78, 86). Mutations at gyrA appear to account for ciprofloxacin non-susceptibility in most clinical Salmonella strains in Africa. The estimates could be harnessed to develop a mismatch-amplification mutation-assay for the detection of FQ-resistant strains in Africa.

  16. Detection of Salmonella Carriers in Sheep and Goat Flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan Provinces, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Salmonellosis is an infectious and a food-borne disease of humans and animals. The initial source of the infection is the intestinal tracts of birds and other animals. Apparently healthy animals can become subclinical carriers and persistently shed Salmonella in their feces which can act as a reservoir for the pathogen. The aim of this study is to detect the carriers of Salmonella among apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces, Iran.Methods:    A total of 389 fecal samples were aseptically collected from the rectum of apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces. Bacteriological culture was conducted using selenite cystine, Rappaport–Vassiliadis, brilliant green and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Suspected colonies were inoculated in to TSI, peptone water, Simmon’s Citrate, Urea medium and MRVP. Sero-groups were detected by antisera.              Results:    Two samples from 189 samples (1.05% were positive for Salmonella in Bushehr province. Salmonella abortusovis and Salmonella typhimurium were detected following serotyping. No Salmonella carriers were detected in Lorestan province.Conclusion:    As the rate of carriers of Salmonella was low, the risk of food-borne salmonellosis due to consumption of small ruminant's meat is low, especially in the condition of well cooked meat. Since S. abortusovis was detected, strategies of prevention and control of abortion due to this agent must be taken to reduce the economic losses. Moreover, the presence of S. typhimurium is a hazard to public health and people who have close contact to sheep and goats.

  17. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Quantification of hygiene indicators and Salmonella in the tonsils, oral cavity and rectal content samples of pigs during slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Mattheus, Wesley; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2018-05-01

    The tonsils, oral cavity and faeces of 94 pigs at slaughter were sampled to assess the numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli in the rectal content, tonsils and oral cavity of pigs at time of evisceration. Moreover, the prevalence, numbers and types of Salmonella spp. were determined. Mean numbers of Enterobacteriaceae in tonsils and the oral cavity differed between slaughterhouses. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae relative to total aerobic bacteria differed between the different tissues, though large variations were observed between animals. Salmonella spp. were mostly detected in oral cavity swabs (n = 51, 54%), of which six samples were contaminated in numbers over 2.0 log CFU/100 cm 2 . Salmonella spp. were also recovered from 17 tonsillar tissue samples (18%) and 12 tonsillar swabs (13%). Out of the 29 rectal content samples from which Salmonella was recovered (31%), most were lowly contaminated, in the range between -1 and 0 log CFU/g. The predominant serotypes were S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant, which were recovered from 33 and 13 pigs, respectively. In most cases, the same serotypes and MLVA profiles were found in pigs slaughtered during the same day, thus suggesting a common source of contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PCR detection and serotyping of enterotoxigenic and shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates obtained from chicken meat in Mumbai, India

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    R. J. Zende,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was undertaken to find out the frequency of few virulent genes and prevalence of related strains of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat obtained from chicken retail shops by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Materials and Methods: 66 samples of freshly slaughtered chicken meat were collected from 22 identified retail shops located at Mumbai city, randomly. Processed meat samples were cultured in EMB agar and presumptive colonies were confirmed by various biochemical tests. PCR method was accustomed for identification of the genes coding for heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat labile enterotoxin (LT, shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (SLT1 and SLT2. E. coli isolates were sent to National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, CRI, Kasauli, HP, India for serotyping.Results: 11 (16.67% E. coli strains were isolated from 66 chicken meat samples. 3 (27.27% out of 11 harbored the gene for SLT2, and 2 (18.18% for STa. None of the strain contains SLT1 and LT genes. Serotypes detected were rough, O2, O20, O22, O102 each for one isolate and 6 isolates were untypable (UT.Conclusion: The results concluded that chicken meat samples analysed harbored genes for shiga like toxins and enterotoxins and different serotypes of E. coli. These findings indicating that regular monitoring of chicken meat is essential for this pathogen to prevent potential public health problems.

  20. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 10 4 cfu.mL −1 and 10 3 cfu.mL −1 , respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  1. Salmonella in Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Healthy Cattle at Slaughter

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    Hattie E. Webb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To more fully characterize the burden of Salmonella enterica in bovine peripheral lymph nodes (PLN, PLN (n = 5,450 were collected from healthy cattle at slaughter in 12 commercial abattoirs that slaughtered feedlot-fattened (FF cattle exclusively (n = 7, cattle removed (or culled from breeding herds (n = 3, or both FF and cull cattle (n = 2. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to estimate prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in PLN. Isolates were subjected to a variety of phenotypic, serological, and molecular assays. Overall, Salmonella prevalence in PLN from FF and cull cattle was 7.1 and 1.8%. However, burden varied by season in that observed prevalence in PLN collected in cooler or warmer seasons was 2.4 and 8.2%, respectively. Prevalence in PLN from cull cattle in the southwest region of the US was 2.1 and 1.1% for cool and warm seasons, respectively; however, prevalence in FF PLN was far greater in that it was 6.5 and 31.1%, respectively. Salmonella was recovered from 289 (5.6% PLN and 2.9% (n = 160 of all PLN tested had quantifiable concentrations that varied from 1.6 to 4.9 log10 colony forming units/PLN. The most common serotypes isolated from PLN were Montevideo (26.9%, Lille (14.9%, Cerro (13.0%, Anatum (12.8%, and Dublin (6.9%. In all, 376 unique isolates were collected from the 289 Salmonella-positive PLN. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the majority (80.6% of these isolates were pansusceptible; however, 10.7% of isolates were found to be resistant to two or more antimicrobial classes. We were able to document an observed increased in prevalence of Salmonella in PLN during the warmer season, particularly in FF cattle from the southwest region of the US. The mechanisms underlying the observed association between season, region, and production source have yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, these findings increase our understanding of the sources of contamination of beef products and shed light on

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. recovered from patients admitted to six different hospitals in Tehran, Iran from 2007 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Nochi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    were screened for the presence of Salmonella, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using disk diffusion and examined for the presence of relevant resistance genes and integrons by PCR. A total of 1,120 patients were screened for the presence of Salmonella. Out of 71 Salmonella isolates...... recovered, the following serovars were identified: 17 Typhi, 14 Paratyphi C, 13 Enteritidis, 11 Paratyphi B, 10 Paratyphi A and six Infantis. Most resistance was observed towards sulfamethoxazole (30%), tetracyclines (25%), nalidixic acid (22%), spectinomycin (17%), trimethoprim (15%), ampicillin (14......%) and kanamycin (14%). The tetracycline resistance genes tet(A), tet(B), and tet(G) were found in 28%, 14% and 6% of the tetracycline resistant isolates, respectively. The genes aadA, aadB, strA, strB and aphA1-Iab were present in 83%, 55%, 34%, 1% and 17% of the aminoglycoside resistant isolates, respectively...

  3. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nowakiewicz

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes. From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328, we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%, Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%, Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21, and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%. The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19, and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%. S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each, and hlb (32.5% genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%. In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%, the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  4. Free-Living Species of Carnivorous Mammals in Poland: Red Fox, Beech Marten, and Raccoon as a Potential Reservoir of Salmonella, Yersinia, Listeria spp. and Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Zięba, Przemysław; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Gnat, Sebastian; Muszyńska, Marta; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Majer Dziedzic, Barbara; Ulbrych, Łukasz; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine a population of free-living carnivorous mammals most commonly found in Poland (red fox, beech marten, and raccoon) for the occurrence of bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for humans and other animal species and to determine their virulence potential (the presence of selected virulence genes). From the total pool of isolates obtained (n = 328), we selected 90 belonging to species that pose the greatest potential threat to human health: Salmonella spp. (n = 19; 4.51%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 10; 2.37%), Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii (n = 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 40; 9.5%). The Salmonella spp. isolates represented three different subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica accounted for a significant proportion (15/19), and most of the serotypes isolated (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Newport and S. Enteritidis) were among the 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes that are most often responsible for infections in Europe, including Poland. Y. enterococlitica was detected in the smallest percentage of animals, but 60% of strains among the isolates tested possessed the ail gene, which is responsible for attachment and invasion. Potentially pathogenic Listeria species were isolated from approx. 5% of the animals. The presence of all tested virulence genes was shown in 35% of L. monocytogenes strains, while in the case of the other strains, the genes occurred in varying numbers and configurations. The presence of the inlA, inlC, hlyA, and iap genes was noted in all strains, whereas the genes encoding PI-PLC, actin, and internalin Imo2821 were present in varying percentages (from 80% to 55%). S. aureus was obtained from 40 individuals. Most isolates possessed the hla, hld (95% for each), and hlb (32.5%) genes encoding hemolysins as well as the gene encoding leukotoxin lukED (70%). In a similar percentage of strains (77.5%), the presence of at least one gene encoding enterotoxin was found, with 12

  5. Phenotypic and Genotypic Eligible Methods for Salmonella Typhimurium Source Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Rafaela G; Panzenhagen, Pedro H N; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common causes of foodborne infection and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis. Throughout the last decade, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST) has shown an increase report with the simultaneous emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates, as phage type DT104. Therefore, to successfully control this microorganism, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the exact source. Studies of Salmonella source attribution have been performed to determine the main food/food-production animals involved, toward which, control efforts should be correctly directed. Hence, the election of a ST subtyping method depends on the particular problem that efforts must be directed, the resources and the data available. Generally, before choosing a molecular subtyping, phenotyping approaches such as serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling are implemented as a screening of an investigation, and the results are computed using frequency-matching models (i.e., Dutch, Hald and Asymmetric Island models). Actually, due to the advancement of molecular tools as PFGE, MLVA, MLST, CRISPR, and WGS more precise results have been obtained, but even with these technologies, there are still gaps to be elucidated. To address this issue, an important question needs to be answered: what are the currently suitable subtyping methods to source attribute ST. This review presents the most frequently applied subtyping methods used to characterize ST, analyses the major available microbial subtyping attribution models and ponders the use of conventional phenotyping methods, as well as, the most applied genotypic tools in the context of their potential applicability to investigates ST source tracking.

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Eligible Methods for Salmonella Typhimurium Source Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela G. Ferrari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is one of the most common causes of foodborne infection and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis. Throughout the last decade, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST has shown an increase report with the simultaneous emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates, as phage type DT104. Therefore, to successfully control this microorganism, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the exact source. Studies of Salmonella source attribution have been performed to determine the main food/food-production animals involved, toward which, control efforts should be correctly directed. Hence, the election of a ST subtyping method depends on the particular problem that efforts must be directed, the resources and the data available. Generally, before choosing a molecular subtyping, phenotyping approaches such as serotyping, phage typing, and antimicrobial resistance profiling are implemented as a screening of an investigation, and the results are computed using frequency-matching models (i.e., Dutch, Hald and Asymmetric Island models. Actually, due to the advancement of molecular tools as PFGE, MLVA, MLST, CRISPR, and WGS more precise results have been obtained, but even with these technologies, there are still gaps to be elucidated. To address this issue, an important question needs to be answered: what are the currently suitable subtyping methods to source attribute ST. This review presents the most frequently applied subtyping methods used to characterize ST, analyses the major available microbial subtyping attribution models and ponders the use of conventional phenotyping methods, as well as, the most applied genotypic tools in the context of their potential applicability to investigates ST source tracking.

  7. Thermal tolerance of acid-adapted and unadapted Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Adler, B B; Harrison, M D; Beuchat, L R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to determine D values of acid-adapted and unadapted cells of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice. Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, S. enterica serotype Saphra, two strains of E. coli O157:H7, and two strains of L. monocytogenes were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and TSB supplemented with 1% glucose for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Decimal reduction times (D values) of cells suspended in unpasteurized cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice were determined. Acid-adapted cells of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, but not L. monocytogenes, had increased thermal tolerance compared with cells that were not acid-adapted. There was no correlation between soluble solids content of the two types of juice and thermal resistance. Growth of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in cantaloupe juice, watermelon juice, or other acidic milieu, either in preharvest or postharvest environments, may result in cross protection to heat. The pasteurization conditions necessary to achieve elimination of pathogens from these juices would consequently have to be more severe if cells are habituated to acidic environments. Insights from this study provide guidance to developing pasteurization processes to eliminate Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

  8. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica food and animal isolates from Colombia: identification of a qnrB19-mediated quinolone resistance marker in two novel serovars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karczmarczyk, M.; Martins, M.; McCusker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-three Salmonella isolates recovered from commercial foods and exotic animals in Colombia were studied. The serotypes, resistance profiles and where applicable the quinolone resistance genes were determined. Salmonella Anatum (n=14), Uganda (19), Braenderup (10) and Newport (10) were the most...... plasmids, two of which were completely sequenced. These exhibited 97% (serovar 6,7:d:- isolate) and 100% (serovar Infantis isolate) nucleotide sequence identity with previously identified ColE-like plasmids. This study demonstrates the occurrence of the qnrB19 gene associated with small ColE plasmids...

  9. Notes from the field: multistate outbreak of human salmonella infections linked to live poultry from a mail-order hatchery in Ohio--February-October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Colin; Forshey, Tony M; Machesky, Kimberly; Erdman, C Matthew; Gomez, Thomas M; Brinson, Denise L; Nguyen, Thai-An; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Bosch, Stacey

    2015-03-13

    In early 2014, five clusters of human Salmonella infections were identified through PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. Many ill persons in each of these clusters reported contact with live poultry, primarily chicks and ducklings, from a single mail-order hatchery; therefore, the clusters were merged into a single investigation. During February 3-October 14, 2014, a total of 363 persons infected with outbreak strains of Salmonella serotypes Infantis, Newport, and Hadar were reported from 43 states and Puerto Rico, making it the largest live poultry-associated salmonellosis outbreak reported in the United States.

  10. The use of oligonucleotide probes for meningococcal serotype characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SACCHI Claudio Tavares

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examine the potential use of oligonucleotide probes to characterize Neisseria meningitidis serotypes without the use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Antigenic diversity on PorB protein forms the bases of serotyping method. However, the current panel of MAbs underestimated, by at least 50% the PorB variability, presumably because reagents for several PorB variable regions (VRs are lacking, or because a number of VR variants are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs12. We analyzed the use of oligonucleotide probes to characterize serotype 10 and serotype 19 of N. meningitidis. The porB gene sequence for the prototype strain of serotype 10 was determined, aligned with 7 other porB sequences from different serotypes, and analysis of individual VRs were performed. The results of DNA probes 21U (VR1-A and 615U (VR3-B used against 72 N. meningitidis strains confirm that VR1 type A and VR3 type B encode epitopes for serotype-defined MAbs 19 and 10, respectively. The use of probes for characterizing serotypes possible can type 100% of the PorB VR diversity. It is a simple and rapid method specially useful for analysis of large number of samples.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- isolates associated with an outbreak of food-borne disease in Paz de Rio, Boyacá, Colombia, in 2010 = Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Salmonella Typhimurium variante 5- asociada a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el municipio de Paz de Río, Boyacá, 2010 = Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Salmonella Typhimurium variante 5- asociada a un brote de enfermedad transmitida por alimentos en el municipio de Paz de Río, Boyacá, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Osorio, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimuri-um variant 5- is a pathogen closely related to animals, especially pigeons, which has been also associ- ated in rare cases with sporadic infections in humans. However, epidemiological surveillance systems have enabled the detection of this variant in human out- breaks. Objective: To characterize by means of phenotypic and genotypic techniques the isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- associated with an outbreak of food-borne disease in Paz de Rio, Boyacá, Colombia (2010, in order to establish their molecular relationships. Materials and methods: Twelve isolates of Salmonella -spp., were analyzed by biochemical, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE with Xball Blnl enzymes was used to establish their molecular relationships Results: All isolates were confirmed as Salmonella spp. They were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin and sensitive to the rest of antibiotics tested. Eleven isolates were identified as Salmonella Typhimurium variant 5- and grouped in COIN10.JPX.X01.0168 pattern using the enzyme Xball two isolates in this group were confirmed using the enzyme Blnl with the COIN10.JPX.A26.0002 pattern. One isolate was identified as Salmonella Typhimurium with COIN10.JPX.X01.0221 pattern with the enzyme Xbal Conclusion: This is the first outbreak in Colombia of foodborne illness epidemiologically associated with isolates of Typhimurium variant 5 -, which Epidemiologic Sur were phenotypically and genetically related.

  12. Dietary proteins extend the survival of salmonella dublin in a gastric Acid environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Kristensen, Kim; Harboe, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which we...... mimicked the dynamic pH changes in the human stomach. In the present study, model gastric fluid was set up to imitate pH dynamics in the stomachs of young and elderly people after ingestion of a standard meal. To model a serious foodborne pathogen, we followed the survival of Salmonella enterica serotype...

  13. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chickens...... and poultry sources (litter, water, rodent and lizard fecal samples) were collected from fourteen (14) poultry farms in 2007, 2010 and 2011 and were analyzed for S. Kentucky. Results and conclusions: Six percent of the samples were positive for S. Kentucky - all resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin...

  14. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann; Davies, Robert

    Union was 54 and 88, respectively. Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Typhimurium predominated in both types of holdings. Breeding pigs may be an important source of dissemination of Salmonella throughout the pig-production chain. The results of this survey provide valuable information for setting......Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing...... and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing breeding pigs and selling mainly pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) from 24 European Union Member States and two non-Member States, were randomly selected and included in the survey. In each selected breeding...

  15. Genesis of a novel Shigella flexneri serotype by sequential infection of serotype-converting bacteriophages SfX and SfI

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    Sun Qiangzheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Fifteen serotypes have been recognized up to now. The genesis of new S. flexneri serotypes is commonly mediated by serotype-converting bacteriophages. Untypeable or novel serotypes from natural infections had been reported worldwide but have not been generated in laboratory. Results A new S. flexneri serotype-serotype 1 d was generated when a S. flexneri serotype Y strain (native LPS was sequentially infected with 2 serotype-converting bacteriophages, SfX first and then SfI. The new serotype 1 d strain agglutinated with both serotype X-specific anti-7;8 grouping serum and serotype 1a-specific anti- I typing serum, and differed from subserotypes 1a, 1b and 1c. Twenty four S. flexneri clinical isolates of serotype X were all converted to serotype 1 d by infection with phage SfI. PCR and sequencing revealed that SfI and SfX were integrated in tandem into the proA-yaiC region of the host chromosome. Conclusions These findings suggest a new S. flexneri serotype could be created in nature. Such a conversion may be constrained by susceptibility of a strain to infection by a given serotype-converting bacteriophage. This finding has significant implications in the emergence of new S. flexneri serotypes in nature.

  16. Il Centro di Riferimento per la Tipizzazione di Salmonella spp in Emilia-Romagna

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    Giuseppe Cirillo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The steady actuality of genus Salmonella follows step by step the new Italian’s eat habit (canteen, fast food etc…, this fact brought up a fast spreading of the bacteria inside the all of the Emilia Romagna food industry. The need to set up Distrectual Reference Centres working inside a net system came about because of technical reasons (new methods, quality management, etc… as well as economic ones (structures, staff, etc.... Activities of the D.R.C. (Distrectual Reference Centre from 1997 till now are described. The classical analytic protocol to isolate the Salmonella spp require enrichment steps of the sample (when necessary biochemical identification (by dedicated systems and a complete serological identification (serotyping. The Centre process samples coming from: human, food and environmental matrixes. It utilizes acceptation procedures and analytical methods Sinal approved. Data are sent to ISS in Rome every month.This procedure is part of the European Project ENTER-NET.

  17. Culling decisions of dairy farmers during a 3-year Salmonella control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, I.

    2011-01-01

    Dublin which is the most prevalent and most persistent serotype in the Danish cattle population. A field study in 10 dairy herds with persistent Salmonella infections was carried out over three years to gain experience with control procedures including risk assessment, targeted control actions and test...... animals into risk groups. These risk groups and all individual ELISA-results were communicated to the farmers as colour-coded lists four to six times per year. Farmers were advised to manage the risk of Salmonella transmission from cattle with repeatedly high ELISA results (flagged as “red”) or cows...... if animals with red and yellow flags had higher probability of being slaughtered or sold before first calving than animals without any risk flags. For adult cows a semi-parametric proportional hazard survival model was used to test the effect of number of red and yellow flags on hazards of culling...

  18. Evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne N.; Carstensen, B.; Tornoe, N.

    1999-01-01

    The present study compares four different sampling methods potentially applicable to detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks, based on collection of faecal samples (i) by hand, 300 fresh faecal samples (ii) absorbed on five sheets of paper (iii) absorbed on five pairs of socks (elastic cotton...... horizontal or vertical) were found in the investigation. The results showed that the sock method (five pairs of socks) had a sensitivity comparable with the hand collection method (60 pools of five faecal samples); the paper collection method was inferior, as was the use of only one pair of socks, Estimation...... tubes pulled over the boots and termed 'socks') and (iv) by using only one pair of socks. Twenty-three broiler flocks were included in the investigation and 18 of these were found to be positive by at least one method. Seven serotypes of Salmonella with different patterns of transmission (mainly...

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Preptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Retail Pork in Major Village Markets in Tai'an Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Qin, Kun; Zhou, Yufa

    2017-10-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate Salmonella contamination in retail pork at major village markets of the Tai'an region, China. In total, 200 retail pork samples were collected from four village markets between June 2015 and February 2016, of which 69 samples (34.5%) were determined to be positive for Salmonella. Eleven serotypes were identified from the 69 Salmonella isolates, and Salmonella Derby was the most common (18 of 69, 26.1%), followed by Typhimurium (17 of 69, 24.6%) and Meleagridis (11 of 69, 15.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that antimicrobial resistance against tetracycline was the most prevalent (42 of 69, 60.9%), but antimicrobial resistance against both ceftriaxone and cefotaxime was 1.4% (1 of 69) and 2.9% (2 of 69), respectively. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that the 69 Salmonella isolates were divided into 11 sequence types (STs), among which ST40 (18 of 69, 26.1%) was the most common, followed by ST34 (15 of 69, 21.7%) and ST64 (13 of 69, 18.8%). Collectively, retail pork at village markets in the Tai'an region has a high Salmonella contamination rate, and these isolates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance. However, the absence of a dominant ST demonstrates that the Salmonella isolates from retail pork may be of diverse origins.

  1. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied.

  2. The next step in gene delivery: molecular engineering of adeno-associated virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhui; Faust, Susan M; Rabinowitz, Joseph E

    2011-05-01

    Delivery is at the heart of gene therapy. Viral DNA delivery systems are asked to avoid the immune system, transduce specific target cell types while avoiding other cell types, infect dividing and non-dividing cells, insert their cargo within the host genome without mutagenesis or to remain episomal, and efficiently express transgenes for a substantial portion of a lifespan. These sought-after features cannot be associated with a single delivery system, or can they? The Adeno-associated virus family of gene delivery vehicles has proven to be highly malleable. Pseudotyping, using AAV serotype 2 terminal repeats to generate designer shells capable of transducing selected cell types, enables the packaging of common genomes into multiple serotypes virions to directly compare gene expression and tropism. In this review the ability to manipulate this virus will be examined from the inside out. The influence of host cell factors and organism biology including the immune response on the molecular fate of the viral genome will be discussed as well as differences in cellular trafficking patterns and uncoating properties that influence serotype transduction. Re-engineering the prototype vector AAV2 using epitope insertion, chemical modification, and molecular evolution not only demonstrated the flexibility of the best-studied serotype, but now also expanded the tool kit for molecular modification of all AAV serotypes. Current AAV research has changed its focus from examination of wild-type AAV biology to the feedback of host cell/organism on the design and development of a new generation of recombinant AAV delivery vehicles. This article is part of a Special Section entitled "Special Section: Cardiovascular Gene Therapy". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lessons From Globally Coordinated Cessation of Serotype 2 Oral Poliovirus Vaccine for the Remaining Serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2017-07-01

    Comparing model expectations with the experience of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotype 2 (OPV2) cessation can inform risk management for the expected cessation of OPV containing serotypes 1 and 3 (OPV13). We compare the expected post-OPV2-cessation OPV2-related viruses from models with the evidence available approximately 6 months after OPV2 cessation. We also model the trade-offs of use vs nonuse of monovalent OPV (mOPV) for outbreak response considering all 3 serotypes. Although too early to tell definitively, the observed die-out of OPV2-related viruses in populations that attained sufficiently intense trivalent OPV (tOPV) use prior to OPV2 cessation appears consistent with model expectations. As expected, populations that did not intensify tOPV use prior to OPV2 cessation show continued circulation of serotype 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Failure to aggressively use mOPV to respond to circulating VDPVs results in a high risk of uncontrolled outbreaks that would require restarting OPV. Ensuring a successful endgame requires more aggressive OPV cessation risk management than has occurred to date for OPV2 cessation. This includes maintaining high population immunity to transmission up until OPV13 cessation, meeting all prerequisites for OPV cessation, and ensuring sufficient vaccine supply to prevent and respond to outbreaks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Genomic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum serotypes and development of a multiplex PCR-based serotyping scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochat, Tatiana; Fujiwara-Nagata, Erina; Calvez, Ségolène

    2017-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of salmonids reared in freshwater worldwide. So far, serological diversity between isolates has been described but the underlying molecular factors remain unknown. By combining complete genome sequence analysis and the serotyping me...... for bacterial coldwater disease resistance and future vaccine formulation....

  5. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie

  6. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  7. Antibacterial effect of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabadariffa), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alcántara, E J; Rangel-Vargas, E; Gómez-Aldapa, C A; Falfan-Cortes, R N; Rodríguez-Marín, M L; Godínez-Oviedo, A; Cortes-López, H; Castro-Rosas, J

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from saladette and red round type tomatoes, and an analysis done of the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extracts against any of the identified strains. One hundred saladette tomato samples and 100 red round tomato samples were collected from public markets. Each sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. Salmonella was isolated from the samples by conventional culture procedure. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated Salmonella strains by standard test. The antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates was evaluated on contaminated tomatoes. Twenty-four Salmonella strains were isolated from 12% of each tomato type. Identified Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Typhi. All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least three antibiotics and some to as many as 12. Over contaminated tomatoes, the roselle calyx extracts produced a greater reduction (2-2·6 log) in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strain concentration than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from raw tomatoes purchased in public markets in Mexico and challenged with roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. On tomatoes, the extracts caused a greater reduction in the concentration of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. Roselle calyx extracts are a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of raw tomatoes in the field, processing plants, restaurants and homes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Contamination of Carcasses and Utensils in Small Swine Slaughterhouses by Salmonella in the Northwestern Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Claudius Couto; Panzenhagen, Pedro Henrique Nunes; Delgado, Karina Frensel; Silva, Gabriela Rodrigues Alves; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres; Franco, Robson Maia; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that constantly threatens food safety in developed countries and underdeveloped countries such as Brazil, where it is responsible for 38% of notified cases of foodborne illness. Swine are one of the main meat-producing species that may asymptomatically carry Salmonella, periodically shedding the bacteria through feces. The state of Rio de Janeiro is not a major producer of swine meat, but small slaughterhouses are operational and produce meat for consumption within the state, although few studies have been conducted in the region. In this context, this study was designed to evaluate Salmonella contamination in carcasses, lymph nodes, feces, utensils, and the environment of three small slaughterhouses in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 344 samples from carcasses, utensils, equipment, water, and the environment were collected from these slaughterhouses in the northwestern region of Rio de Janeiro. Salmonella was isolated from 36 (10.5%) samples: 10 of 48 carcasses, 19 of 96 lymph nodes, 4 of 48 fecal samples, 2 of 6 water samples, and 1 of 6 bleeding knives; 55 isolates were recovered. Serotyping revealed the predominance of Salmonella Typhimurium (20 isolates) followed by Salmonella Abony (10 isolates), Salmonella Give (7 isolates), Salmonella Heidelberg (4 isolates), and Salmonella Infantis (1 isolate). Ten isolates were only partially typeable, with only their O antigen identified, and three isolates had rough, nontypeable colonies. Despite the overall low prevalence of Salmonella in this study, all three slaughterhouses had poor hygienic and sanitary conditions, providing easy routes for carcass and, consequently, meat contamination. Thus, it is imperative to enforce sanitary inspections in these establishments and to apply good manufacture practices to assure the safety of the produced pork.

  9. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  10. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.

  11. In-Feed Use of Heavy Metal Micronutrients in U.S. Swine Production Systems and Its Role in Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medardus, Julius J.; Molla, Bayleyegn Z.; Nicol, Matthew; Morrow, W. Morgan; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J.; Kazwala, Rudovick

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize the role of heavy metal micronutrients in swine feed in emergence of heavy-metal-tolerant and multidrug-resistant Salmonella organisms. We conducted a longitudinal study in 36 swine barns over a 2-year period. The feed and fecal levels of Cu2+ and Zn2+ were measured. Salmonella was isolated at early and late finishing. MICs of copper sulfate and zinc chloride were measured using agar dilution. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the Kirby-Bauer method, and 283 isolates were serotyped. We amplified pcoA and czcD genes that encode Cu2+ and Zn2+ tolerance, respectively. Of the 283 isolates, 113 (48%) showed Cu2+ tolerance at 24 mM and 164 (58%) showed Zn2+ tolerance at 8 mM. In multivariate analysis, serotype and source of isolates were significantly associated with Cu2+ tolerance (P 20 mM MICs of Cu2+ than did “other” serotypes. More than 60% of Salmonella isolates with resistance type (R-type) AmStTeKm (32 of 53) carried pcoA; only 5% with R-type AmClStSuTe carried this gene. czcD gene carriage was significantly associated with a higher Zn2+ MIC (P < 0.05). The odds of having a high Zn2+ MIC (≥8 mM) were 14.66 times higher in isolates with R-type AmClStSuTe than in those with R-type AmStTeKm (P < 0.05). The findings demonstrate strong association between heavy metal tolerance and antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Salmonella serotypes important in public health. PMID:24487542

  12. Early cytokine response of gnotobiotic piglets to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Trebichavský, Ilja; Muneta, Y.; Mori, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2002), s. 291-297 ISSN 0928-4249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/0917 Grant - others:Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries(JP) RCP3260 Keywords : typhimurium * gnotobiotic piglet Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.031, year: 2002

  13. Rapid identification of salmonella serotypes with stereo and hyperspectral microscope imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Retail Poultry Meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ichiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Teranishi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shioko; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Wada, Eriko; Kumagai, Yuko; Takahashi, Shiho; Konno, Takayuki; Kashio, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Kato, Naoki; Hayashi, Ken-Ichi; Fukushima, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Horikawa, Kazumi; Oishi, Akira; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Yoshiko; Kuroki, Toshiro

    2017-05-24

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat, and to analyze the association of genetic types of these bacteria with their geographical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates have been detected, respectively, in 54 and 71 samples out of 100 samples tested. Nine Salmonella serotypes were found, including S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (33%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Manhattan (9%), and others. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were detected in 64 (64%) and 14 (14%) samples, respectively. S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates were very frequently resistant to tetracycline (78.3%) and streptomycin (68.3%). Many C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (90.5%), nalidixic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (45.9%), and ciprofloxacin (40.5%). Cluster analysis was performed for the Salmonella isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. For Campylobacter isolates, the cluster analysis was based on both PFGE and comparative genomic fingerprinting. The molecular typing results were compared with the information about antimicrobial resistance and geographical locations in which the poultry meat was produced. This analysis revealed that C. jejuni strains with a particular genotype and antimicrobial resistance profile are spreading in specific areas of Japan.

  15. Laboratory surveillance of Salmonella enterica from human clinical cases in Colombia 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Edna Catering; Díaz-Guevara, Paula; Moreno, Jaime; Bautista, Adriana; Montaño, Lucy; Realpe, María Elena; Della Gaspera, Anabella; Wiesner, Magdalena

    Salmonella is an enteropathogen acquired through contaminated food or water. In Colombia, Salmonella spp. is included in the national surveillance of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases and typhoid fever initiated in 1997. This report shows the phenotype and genotype results obtained from 2005 to 2011. A total of 4010 isolates of Salmonella enterica were analysed by serotyping with Kauffmann-White-LeMinor, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A total of 93 serovars were identified, of which, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Typhi, Dublin, Panama, Derby, Braenderup, Saintpaul, and Uganda were prominent. The highest levels of resistance were found for tetracycline and nalidixic acid. Susceptibility was observed in 52.4% (2101/4010) of the isolates. Multi-resistance was recorded in 54.9% of Typhimurium isolates, with 81 different combinations. Using PFGE, 51.9% (2083/4010) isolates were analysed in 34 serovars, and 828 electrophoretic patterns were obtained. From these, 8 patterns were found in at least two Latin-American countries. The surveillance of Salmonella spp. provides information on the serovar distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and clonal distribution in Colombia, as well as information to treat this disease and control the spread of antimicrobial bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  17. Molecular study on some antibiotic resistant genes in Salmonella spp. isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Ari Q.

    2017-09-01

    Studying the genes related with antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. is a crucial step toward a correct and faster treatment of infections caused by the pathogen. In this work Integron mediated antibiotic resistant gene IntI1 (Class I Integrase IntI1) and some plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance genes (Qnr) were scanned among the isolated non-Typhoid Salmonellae strains with known resistance to some important antimicrobial drugs using Sybr Green real time PCR. The aim of the study was to correlate the multiple antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. with the presence of integrase (IntI1) gene and plasmid mediated quinolone resistant genes. Results revealed the presence of Class I Integrase gene in 76% of the isolates with confirmed multiple antibiotic resistances. Moreover, about 32% of the multiple antibiotic resistant serotypes showed a positive R-PCR for plasmid mediated qnrA gene encoding for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance. No positive results could be revealed form R-PCRs targeting qnrB or qnrS. In light of these results we can conclude that the presence of at least one of the qnr genes and/or the presence of Integrase Class I gene were responsible for the multiple antibiotic resistance to for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from the studied Salmonella spp. and further studies required to identify the genes related with multiple antibiotic resistance of the pathogen.

  18. The new ISO 6579-1: A real horizontal standard for detection of Salmonella, at last!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooijman, Kirsten A

    2018-05-01

    Up to 2016, three international standard methods existed for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food, animal feed and samples from the primary production stage: ISO 6785:2001 for milk and milk products, ISO 6579:2002 for (other) food and animal feed and Annex D of ISO 6579:2007 for samples from the primary production stage. In 2009, an ISO/CEN working group started with the revision of ISO 6579:2002 with two main aims: combining the three aforementioned standards in one document and improving the information in ISO 6579:2002. Additionally it was decided to split ISO 6579 into three parts, where part 1 describes the detection, part 2 the enumeration by mini-MPN (published in 2012) and part 3 the serotyping of Salmonella (published in 2014). This paper describes the experiments and choices made for improving the part on detection of Salmonella (ISO 6579-1). The final voting stage on (draft) ISO 6579-1 was finished by the end of December 2016, with a positive outcome. Finally, a real horizontal standard became available for detection of Salmonella in food, animal feed, environmental samples in the area of food production and food handling and in samples from the primary production stage in 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H; Aarestrup, Frank M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes

    2011-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20). Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored bla(CTX-M-63) and one bla(CMY-2). PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  20. Positive selection of mutants with cell envelope defects of a Salmonella typhimurium strain hypersensitive to the products of genes hisF and hisH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Strain SB564 and its derivative DA78 are hypersensitive to the inhibitory action of the proteins coded for by genes hisF and hisH on cell division. Transduction of hisO1242, a regulatory mutation that elicits a very high level of expression of the histidine operon, into these strains resulted in the production of long filamentous cells carrying large balloons and in growth failure. Forty-one hisO1242 derivatives that escaped inhibition were isolated. These strains showed a large variety of alterations, many of which were related to the cell envelope. The more-frequent alterations included: changes in cell shape, increased sensitivity to one or more of several drugs (deoxycholate, cycloserine, penicillin, novobiocin, acridine orange), increased autolytic activity in alkaline buffer, anomalous fermentation of maltose on eosin--methylene blue plates, and temperature-conditional cell division. The alterations are produced, in some of the strains, by pleiotropic mutations in gene envB. Strains affected in divC, divD, and rodA loci have also been identified. Genetic analaysis has shown that several strains carry more than one envelope mutation. It is assumed that envelope mutations are positively selected because they somehow alleviate the particularly severe inhibition of cell division caused, in strains SB564 and DA78, by the excessive synthesis of hisF and hisH gene products

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Serotyping of Clinical Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Atalay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty one S. agalactiae strains isolated from the clinical samples were included in the study. Of the strains, 99 were isolated from urine, 20 from soft tissue, 10 from blood and 2 from vaginal swab. Penicillin G and ceftriaxone susceptibilities of GBS were determined by the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities to erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin and tetracycline were determined by the Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI criteria. Serotyping was performed using the latex aglutination method using specific antisera (Ia, Ib, II-VIII. Results: While in 131 GBS strains, serotypes VII and VIII were not detected, the most frequently isolated serotypes were types Ia (36%, III (30.5% and II (13% respectively. Serotype Ia was the most frequently seen serotype in all samples. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicilin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Among the strains, tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates were determined as 90%, 14.5%, and 13% respectively. Conclusion: Penicillin is still the first choice of treatment for the infections with all serotypes of S. agalactiae in Turkey.

  2. A sandwich-type optical immunosensor based on the alkaline phosphatase enzyme for Salmonella thypimurium detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, E.; Puspitasari Schonherr, M. F.; Masruroh, A.; Anggraeni, R. A.; Nisak, Y. K.; Mursidah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Salmonella is pathogenic bacteria that caused foodborne diseases which being called Salmonellosis. Prevalence of Salmonellosis that being caused by Salmonella thypimurium in Indonesia is quite high. However, detection of Salmonella bacteria in food still limited, complicated, and required a lot time. Sensitive optical assay for Salmonella thypimurium paper based detection has been developed by integrating sandwich assay between antibody-antigen complex and alkaline phosphatase enzyme that produce visible bluish-purple colour with presence of NBT-BCIP substrate. The results showed that Limit of Quantitation of detection is 105 CFU mL-1 with detection time 15 minutes. Linearity test between Colour intensity that produced from Salmonella concentration presence on samples showed that detection has good linearity. Selectivity test exhibited excellent sensitivity with good discrimination against Escherichia coli.

  3. Inactivation of Salmonella on pecan nutmeats by hot air treatment and oil roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A

    2011-09-01

    Studies were done to determine the effectiveness of hot air drying, dry roasting, and oil roasting in killing Salmonella on pecan nutmeats. Pecan halves and pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-serotype suspension of Salmonella or by surface application of powdered chalk containing the pathogen. Hot air treatment of low-moisture (2.8 to 4.1%) and high-moisture (10.5 to 11.2%) immersion-inoculated nutmeats (initial population, 6.18 to 7.16 log CFU/g) at 120°C for 20 min reduced the number of Salmonella by 1.18 to 1.26 and 1.89 to 2.04 log CFU/g, respectively. However, regardless of the moisture content, hot air treatment of pecan halves containing 0.77 log CFU/g at 120°C for 20 min failed to eliminate Salmonella. Reductions were >7 log CFU/g when dry pieces were dry roasted at 160°C for 15 min. Treatment of halves at 140°C for 20 min, 150°C for 15 min, or 170°C for 10 min reduced Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g. The pathogen was slightly more heat resistant in immersion-inoculated nutmeats than on surface-inoculated nutmeats. Exposure of immersion-inoculated pieces to peanut oil at 127°C for 1.5 min or 132°C for 1.0 min reduced the number of Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g. Treatment of halves at 138°C for 2.0 min reduced Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g; treatment at 132°C for 2.5 to 4.0 min did not always achieve this reduction. Hot air treatment cannot be relied upon to reduce Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g of raw pecan nutmeats without changing sensory qualities. Treatment temperatures and times typically used to oil roast nutmeats appear to be sufficient to reduce Salmonella by 5 log CFU/g.

  4. Llama Single Domain Antibodies Specific for the 7 Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotypes as Heptaplex Immunoreagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, M. Thelma; Garza, John A.; Hayhurst, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background There are currently 7 known serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) classified upon non-cross reactivity of neutralizing immunoglobulins. Non-neutralizing immunoglobulins, however, can exhibit cross-reactivities between 2 or more serotypes, particularly mosaic forms, which can hamper the development of highly specific immunoassays, especially if based on polyclonal antisera. Here we employ facile recombinant antibody technology to subtractively select ligands to each of the 7 BoNT serotypes, resulting in populations with very high specificity for their intended serotype. Methods and Findings A single llama was immunized with a cocktail of 7 BoNT toxoids to generate a phage display library of single domain antibodies (sdAb, VHH or nanobodies) which were selected on live toxins. Resulting sdAb were capable of detecting both toxin and toxin complex with the best combinations able to detect 100s-10s of pg per 50 µL sample in a liquid bead array. The most sensitive sdAb were combined in a heptaplex assay to identify each of the BoNT serotypes in buffer and milk and to a lesser extent in carrot juice, orange juice and cola. Several anti-A(1) sdAb recognized A2 complex, showing that subtype cross-reactivity within a serotype was evident. Many of our sdAb could act as both captor and tracer for several toxin and toxin complexes suggesting sdAb can be used as architectural probes to indicate BoNT oligomerisation. Six of 14 anti-A clones exhibited inhibition of SNAP-25 cleavage in the neuro-2A assay indicating some sdAb had toxin neutralizing capabilities. Many sdAb were also shown to be refoldable after exposure to high temperatures in contrast to polyclonal antisera, as monitored by circular dichroism. Conclusions Our panel of molecularly flexible antibodies should not only serve as a good starting point for ruggedizing assays and inhibitors, but enable the intricate architectures of BoNT toxins and complexes to be probed more extensively. PMID:20098614

  5. U.S. Food safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: an establishment-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblen, Denise R; Barlow, Kristina E; Naugle, Alecia Larew

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) pathogen reduction-hazard analysis critical control point systems final rule, published in 1996, established Salmonella performance standards for broiler chicken, cow and bull, market hog, and steer and heifer carcasses and for ground beef, chicken, and turkey meat. In 1998, the FSIS began testing to verify that establishments are meeting performance standards. Samples are collected in sets in which the number of samples is defined but varies according to product class. A sample set fails when the number of positive Salmonella samples exceeds the maximum number of positive samples allowed under the performance standard. Salmonella sample sets collected at 1,584 establishments from 1998 through 2003 were examined to identify factors associated with failure of one or more sets. Overall, 1,282 (80.9%) of establishments never had failed sets. In establishments that did experience set failure(s), generally the failed sets were collected early in the establishment testing history, with the exception of broiler establishments where failure(s) occurred both early and late in the course of testing. Small establishments were more likely to have experienced a set failure than were large or very small establishments, and broiler establishments were more likely to have failed than were ground beef, market hog, or steer-heifer establishments. Agency response to failed Salmonella sample sets in the form of in-depth verification reviews and related establishment-initiated corrective actions have likely contributed to declines in the number of establishments that failed sets. A focus on food safety measures in small establishments and broiler processing establishments should further reduce the number of sample sets that fail to meet the Salmonella performance standard.

  6. Impact of co-carriage of IncA/C plasmids with additional plasmids on the transfer of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pendleton, Sean J; Deck, Joanna; Singh, Ruby; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Johnson, Timothy J; Sanad, Yasser M; Nayak, Rajesh; Foley, Steven L

    2018-04-20

    Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is often plasmid encoded. A key resistance plasmid group is the incompatibility group (Inc) A/C plasmids that often carry multiple resistance determinants. Previous studies showed that IncA/C plasmids were often co-located with other plasmids. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of plasmid co-carriage on antimicrobial resistance and plasmid transfer. A total of 1267 Salmonella isolates, representing multiple serotypes and sources were previously subjected to susceptibility testing and 251 isolates with resistance to at least 5 antimicrobial agents were identified for further study. Each isolate was subjected to PCR-based replicon typing, and those with IncA/C plasmids were selected for plasmid isolation, PCR-based mapping of IncA/C plasmid backbone genes, and conjugation assays to evaluate resistance plasmid transferability. Of the 87 identified IncA/C positive isolates, approximately 75% carried a plasmid with another identified replicon type, with the most common being I1 (39%), FIA, FIIA, FIB and HI2 (each 15%). PCR-based mapping indicated significant diversity in IncA/C backbone content, especially in regions encoding transfer-associated and hypothetical proteins. Conjugation experiments showed that nearly 68% of the isolates transferred resistance plasmids, with 90% containing additional identified plasmids or larger (>50 kb) non-typeable plasmids. The majority of IncA/C-positive strains were able to conjugally transfer antimicrobial resistance to the recipient, encoded by IncA/C and/or co-carried plasmids. These findings highlight the importance of co-located plasmids for resistance dissemination either by directly transferring resistance genes or by potentially providing the needed conjugation machinery for IncA/C plasmid transfer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Bell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a two-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms and leaves, irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment.

  8. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2016-05-25

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S. Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species.

  9. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella spp. identification in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chou Chiu, Yi; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important pathogens of waterborne diseases with outbreaks from contaminated water reported worldwide. In addition, Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in aquatic environments. To realize genotypes and serovars of Salmonella in aquatic environments, we isolated the Salmonella strains by selective culture plates to identify the serovars of Salmonella by serological assay, and identify the genotypes by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the sequence data from University College Cork (UCC), respectively. The results show that 36 stream water samples (30.1%) and 18 drinking water samples (23.3%) were confirmed the existence of Salmonella using culture method combined PCR specific invA gene amplification. In this study, 24 cultured isolates of Salmonella from water samples were classified to fifteen Salmonella enterica serovars. In addition, we construct phylogenetic analysis using phylogenetic tree and Minimum spanning tree (MST) method to analyze the relationship of clinical, environmental, and geographical data. Phylogenetic tree showed that four main clusters and our strains can be distributed in all. The genotypes of isolates from stream water are more biodiversity while comparing the Salmonella strains genotypes from drinking water sources. According to MST data, we can found the positive correlation between serovars and genotypes of Salmonella. Previous studies revealed that the result of Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method can predict the serovars of Salmonella strain. Hence, we used the MLST data combined phylogenetic analysis to identify the serovars of Salmonella strain and achieved effectiveness. While using the geographical data combined phylogenetic analysis, the result showed that the dominant strains were existed in whole stream area in rainy season. Keywords: Salmonella spp., MLST, phylogenetic analysis, PFGE

  10. Epidemiological studies on salmonella in a certain area ("Walcheren project") III. The presence of salmonella in man, insects, seagulls and in foods, chopping-block scrapings from butcher's shops, effluent of sewage treatment plants and drains of butcher's shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, W; van Schothorst, M; van Leusden, F M; Kampelmacher, E H

    1978-12-01

    For a period of three months in a relatively small area (Walcheren), various materials (meat and meat products, insects, seagull droppings, chopping-block scrapings from butcher's shops, effluent of sewage treatment plants, drains from butcher's shops and stools of patients) were examined again for the presence of Salmonella as a continuation of previous investigations. As had been the case in previous studies, S. typhimurium (27.5%), S. panama (22.2%) and S. brandenburg (9.2%) were the three most frequently isolated serotypes. The three most frequently isolated phage types of S. typhimurium were II 505 (62.1%) II 502 (5.3%) and I 650 (4.2%). The serotypes and phage types were present in almost all the materials examined which again emphasizes the fact that there are contamination cycles of Salmonella. These studies show that the route of contamination divides in the butcher's shops. Salmonella organisms carried with the meat from the slaughter-house find their way into the drains on the one hand, and through meat and meat products, to the consumer on the other. Moreover, the high degree of contamination of effluent is not in accordance with the small number of cases of salmonellosis in man.

  11. Notes from the field: multistate outbreak of Salmonella Altona and Johannesburg infections linked to chicks and ducklings from a mail-order hatchery - United States, February-October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    Salmonella infections from contact with live poultry (chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese) continue to be a public health problem. In summer 2011, two clusters of human Salmonella infections were identified through PulseNet, a molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. Standard outbreak and traceback investigations were conducted. From February 25 to October 10, 2011, a cluster of 68 cases caused by Salmonella serotype Altona and a cluster of 28 cases caused by Salmonella Johannesburg were identified in 24 states. Among persons infected, 32% of those with Salmonella Altona and 75% of those with Salmonella Johannesburg were aged ≤5 years. Forty-two of 57 (74%) Salmonella Altona patients and 17 of 24 (71%) of Salmonella Johannesburg patients had contact with live poultry in the week preceding illness. Most patients or their parents reported purchasing chicks or ducklings from multiple locations of an agricultural feed store chain that was supplied by a single mail-order hatchery. Live poultry were purchased for either backyard flocks or as pets.

  12. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  13. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi genomic chimera: a model to study Vi polysaccharide capsule function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Jansen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi(+, harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-7, which encodes the Vi locus. S. Typhimurium C5.507 Vi(+ colonised and persisted in mice at similar levels compared to the parent strain, S. Typhimurium C5. However, the innate immune response to infection with C5.507 Vi(+ and SGB1, an isogenic derivative not expressing Vi, differed markedly. Infection with C5.507 Vi(+ resulted in a significant reduction in cellular trafficking of innate immune cells, including PMN and NK cells, compared to SGB1 Vi(- infected animals. C5.507 Vi(+ infection stimulated reduced numbers of TNF-α, MIP-2 and perforin producing cells compared to SGB1 Vi(-. The modulating effect associated with Vi was not observed in MyD88(-/- and was reduced in TLR4(-/- mice. The presence of the Vi capsule also correlated with induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, a factor that impacted on chemotaxis and the activation of immune cells in vitro.

  14. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Moran, R; Rivera, D; Toledo, V; Moreno-Switt, A I; Hamilton-West, C

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01-1·07), mixed productive objective (P = 0·030; OR = 5·35; IC (95%) = 1·24-27·59) and mixed animal replacement origin (P = 0017; OR = 5·19; IC (95%) = 1·35-20·47) were detected as

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Outbreak-Associated Salmonella Strains in Irrigation Water from the Metropolitan Region, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M C; Retamal, P; Rojas-Aedo, J F; Fernández, J; Fernández, A; Lapierre, L

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the main cause of foodborne diseases in the Chilean population. With the aim of characterizing the presence of S. enterica in bodies of water, samples from 40 sources were obtained, including rivers and irrigation canals used by agricultural farms in the most populated regions of Chile. As result, 35 S. enterica isolates belonging to several serotypes were detected, with the highest frequency represented by Typhimurium and Enteritidis. All strains showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance, and most of them were multiresistant to critically important antimicrobials. In addition, the pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis using XbaI and BlnI endonucleases showed that seven Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Infantis had identical pulsotypes to outbreak-associated clinical isolates detected in the Chilean population, suggesting a public health risk of water pollution in this region. Among sampling sites, the higher detection rates were observed in rural than urban and peri-urban areas, suggesting that the animal husbandry might contribute for environmental dispersion of this pathogen. Future efforts should address the characterization of cause-and-effect relationship between water contamination and foodborne disease, including the implementation of surveillance programmes to tackle potential risks for both human and animal populations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Baseline Antibody Titre against Salmonella enterica in Healthy Population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Rucha; Lilani, Sunil; Lanjewar, Dhaneshwar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a baseline titre for the population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Four hundred healthy blood donors, attending blood donation camps, were screened using a survey questionnaire. Widal tube agglutination test was performed on the diluted sera (with 0.9% normal saline) of blood donors, with final dilution ranging from 1 : 40 to 1 : 320. Out of 400 individuals providing samples, 78 (19.5%) individuals showed antibody titres ≥ 1 : 40 for at least one antigen and 322 (80.5%) showed no agglutination. The baseline antibody titres against O antigen and H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Similarly, the baseline antibody titres for the H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Thus, it was noted that the diagnostically significant cutoff of antibody titre from acute phase sample was ≥ 1 : 80 for S. Typhi O antigen and titre of ≥ 1 : 160 for both S. Typhi H antigen and S. Paratyphi BH antigen. Antibody titre of ≥ 1 : 80 can be considered significant for S. Paratyphi AH antigen.

  17. Baseline Antibody Titre against Salmonella enterica in Healthy Population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Patki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline titre for the population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Method. Four hundred healthy blood donors, attending blood donation camps, were screened using a survey questionnaire. Widal tube agglutination test was performed on the diluted sera (with 0.9% normal saline of blood donors, with final dilution ranging from 1 : 40 to 1 : 320. Results. Out of 400 individuals providing samples, 78 (19.5% individuals showed antibody titres ≥ 1 : 40 for at least one antigen and 322 (80.5% showed no agglutination. The baseline antibody titres against O antigen and H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Similarly, the baseline antibody titres for the H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Conclusion. Thus, it was noted that the diagnostically significant cutoff of antibody titre from acute phase sample was ≥ 1 : 80 for S. Typhi O antigen and titre of ≥ 1 : 160 for both S. Typhi H antigen and S. Paratyphi BH antigen. Antibody titre of ≥ 1 : 80 can be considered significant for S. Paratyphi AH antigen.

  18. Allergic reactions in salmonellosis depends on the Serotype of pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkrtchyan, M.S.; Zakaryan, М. K.; Mnatsakanyan, А. А.

    2013-01-01

    the members of the Salmonella genus are genetically close, they display wide variations in host-specificity, virulence, and disease manifestations. Gastroenteritis is most frequently caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enteric serovar Enteritidis (S....../or progression of autoimmune diseases in humans. It is also thought that there is a high probability that infectious gastroenteritis increases the risk of subsequent autoimmune and allergic diseases....

  19. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  20. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  1. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  3. Lung abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuhei; Toyoshima, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Takehiro; Iwamoto, Keisuke; Sasano, Hajime; Itani, Hidetoshi; Kondo, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Motoaki

    2018-01-01

    Lung abscess has been considered to be a rare complication of pneumococcal infection, and most cases are reported to be Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. A 67-year-old man presented with fever and was diagnosed to have lung abscess caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin for the isolate was 1 μg/mL. He was treated with high-dose intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin as definitive therapy based on susceptibility testing for S. pneumoniae and recovered successfully without surgical intervention. S. pneumoniae serotype 6B can cause lung abscess.

  4. Chromosome sizes and phylogenetic relationships between serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, Bruno; Dugourd, Dominique; Tarasiuk, Kazimirez; Harel, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Kobisch, Marylène; Frey, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The genome size of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of AscI and ApaI digested chromosomal DNA. The genome size of the type strain 4074T (serotype 1) was determined to be 2404±40 kb. The chromosome sizes for the reference strains of the other serotypes range between 2.3 and 2.4 Mb. The restriction pattern profiles of AscI, ApaI and NheI digested chromosomes showed a high degree of polymorphism among the different serotype reference strains and ...

  5. Preexisting Salmonella-specific immunity interferes with the subsequent development of immune responses against the Salmonella strains delivering H9N2 hemagglutinin.

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