WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected safety-related events

  1. Safety related events at nuclear installations in 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear safety related events of significance at least corresponding to level 2 of the International Nuclear Event Scale are described. In 1995 only two events occured at nuclear power plants, and four events occured at plants using ionizing radiation for processing or research.......Nuclear safety related events of significance at least corresponding to level 2 of the International Nuclear Event Scale are described. In 1995 only two events occured at nuclear power plants, and four events occured at plants using ionizing radiation for processing or research....

  2. Assessing propensity to learn from safety-related events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Wybo, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Most organisations aim to use experience from the past to improve safety, for instance through learning from safety-related incidents and accidents. Whether an organisation is able to learn successfully can however only be determined afterwards. So far, there are no proactive measures to assess

  3. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Paks NPP Personnel Activity during Safety Related Event Sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareith, A.; Hollo, Elod; Karsa, Z.; Nagy, S.

    1998-01-01

    Within the AGNES Project (Advanced Generic and New Evaluation of Safety) the Level-1 PSA model of the Paks NPP Unit 3 was developed in form of a detailed event tree/fault tree structure (53 initiating events, 580 event sequences, 6300 basic events are involved). This model gives a good basis for quantitative evaluation of potential consequences of actually occurred safety-related events, i.e. for precursor event studies. To make these studies possible and efficient, the current qualitative event analysis practice should be reviewed and a new additional quantitative analysis procedure and system should be developed and applied. The present paper gives an overview of the method outlined for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the operator crew activity during off-normal situations. First, the operator performance experienced during past operational events is discussed. Sources of raw information, the qualitative evaluation process, the follow-up actions, as well as the documentation requirements are described. Second, the general concept of the proposed precursor event analysis is described. Types of modeled interactions and the considered performance influences are presented. The quantification of the potential consequences of the identified precursor events is based on the task-oriented, Level-1 PSA model of the plant unit. A precursor analysis system covering the evaluation of operator activities is now under development. Preliminary results gained during a case study evaluation of a past historical event are presented. (authors)

  5. Undetected latent failures of safety-related systems. Preliminary survey of events in nuclear power plants 1980-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from a preliminary survey of events involving undetected, latent failures of safety-related systems. The survey was limited to events where mispositioned equipment (e.g., valves, switches) remained undetected, thus rendering standby equipment or systems unavailable for short or long time periods. Typically, these events were symptoms of underlying latent errors (e.g., design errors, procedure errors, unanalyzed safety conditions) and programmatic errors. The preliminary survey identified well over 300 events. Of these, 95 events are documented in this report. Events involving mispositioned equipment are commonplace. Most events are discovered soon after occurrence, however. But as evidenced by the survey results, some events remained undetected beyond several shift changes. The recommendations developed by the survey emphasize the importance of applying modern root cause analysis techniques to the event analysis to ensure that the causes and implications of occurred events are fully understood

  6. Undetected latent failures of safety-related systems. Preliminary survey of events in nuclear power plants 1980-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Vista, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from a preliminary survey of events involving undetected, latent failures of safety-related systems. The survey was limited to events where mispositioned equipment (e.g., valves, switches) remained undetected, thus rendering standby equipment or systems unavailable for short or long time periods. Typically, these events were symptoms of underlying latent errors (e.g., design errors, procedure errors, unanalyzed safety conditions) and programmatic errors. The preliminary survey identified well over 300 events. Of these, 95 events are documented in this report. Events involving mispositioned equipment are commonplace. Most events are discovered soon after occurrence, however. But as evidenced by the survey results, some events remained undetected beyond several shift changes. The recommendations developed by the survey emphasize the importance of applying modern root cause analysis techniques to the event analysis to ensure that the causes and implications of occurred events are fully understood. 7 refs, 4 tabs, 3 figs. Also available at the SKI Home page: //www.ski.se.

  7. Guide on a national system for collecting, assessing and disseminating information on safety-related events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    There is a wide spectrum of safety significance in the events that can occur during nuclear power plant operations. It is important that lessons be learned from safety-related events (hereinafter referred to as unusual events) so as to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. Hence formal procedures should be established for this purpose. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to Member States for establishing a system (hereinafter referred to as a national system) for collecting, storing, retrieving, assessing and disseminating information on unusual events in nuclear power plants. The guidance given is based on experience gained in the use of existing national and international systems. This guide covers a national system that is part of a programme to improve nuclear power plant safety using experience gained from operating plants both within and outside the country. Implementing the recommendations in this guide would render any national system compatible with other national systems and facilitate the participation in the IAEA System for Reporting Unusual Events with Safety Significance (hereinafter referred to as the IAEA Incident Reporting System, IAEA-IRS) for more widespread dissemination of lessons learned from nuclear power plant operation

  8. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety.

  9. "Against the silence": Development and first results of a patient survey to assess experiences of safety-related events in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwappach David LB

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of patients in the detection and prevention of safety related events and medical errors have been widely recommended. However, it has also been questioned whether patients at large are willing and able to identify safety-related events in their care. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot test a brief patient safety survey applicable to inpatient care in Swiss hospitals. Methods A survey instrument was developed in an iterative procedure. The instrument asks patients to report whether they have experienced specific undesirable events during their hospital stay. The preliminary version was developed together with experts and tested in focus groups with patients. The adapted survey instrument was pilot-tested in random samples of patients of two Swiss hospitals (n = 400. Responders to the survey that had reported experience of any incident were sampled for qualitative interviews (n = 18. Based on the interview, the researcher classified the reported incidents as confirmed or discarded. Results The survey was generally well accepted in the focus groups and interviews. In the quantitative pilot test, 125 patients returned the survey (response rate: 31%. The mean age of responders was 55 years (range 17–91, SD 18 years and 62.5% were female. The 125 participating patients reported 94 "definitive" and 34 "uncertain" events. 14% of the patients rated any of the experienced events as "serious". The definitive and uncertain events reported with highest frequency were phlebitis, missing hand hygiene, allergic drug reaction, unavailability of documents, and infection. 23% of patients reported some or serious concerns about their safety. The qualitative interviews indicate that both, the extent of patients' uncertainty in the classification of events and the likelihood of confirmation by the interviewer vary very much by type of incident. Unexpectedly, many patients reported problems and incidents related to food

  10. Summary and bibliography of safety-related events at boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, K.E.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    This document presents a bibliography that contains 100-word abstracts of event reports submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water-reactor nuclear power plants in 1980. The 1547 abstracts included on microfiche in this bibliography describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. These abstracts are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Full-size keyword and permuted-title indexes to facilitate location of individual abstracts are provided following the text. Tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are also provided. The information in the tables includes a listing of the equipment items involved in the reported events and the associated number of reports for each item. Similar information is given for the various kinds of instrumentation and systems, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction).

  11. Event Shape Sorting: selecting events with similar evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomášik Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel method for the organisation of events. The method is based on comparing event-by-event histograms of a chosen quantity Q that is measured for each particle in every event. The events are organised in such a way that those with similar shape of the Q-histograms end-up placed close to each other. We apply the method on histograms of azimuthal angle of the produced hadrons in ultrarelativsitic nuclear collisions. By selecting events with similar azimuthal shape of their hadron distribution one chooses events which are likely that they underwent similar evolution from the initial state to the freeze-out. Such events can more easily be compared to theoretical simulations where all conditions can be controlled. We illustrate the method on data simulated by the AMPT model.

  12. Criteria for safety-related operator actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Safety-Related Operator Actions (SROA) Program was designed to provide information and data for use by NRC in assessing the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) control room operators in responding to abnormal/emergency events. The primary effort involved collection and assessment of data from simulator training exercises and from historical records of abnormal/emergency events that have occurred in operating plants (field data). These data can be used to develop criteria for acceptability of the use of manual operator action for safety-related functions. Development of criteria for safety-related operator actions are considered

  13. Online Event Selection at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Konecki, M

    2004-01-01

    Triggering in the high-rate environment of the LHC is a challenging task. The CMS experiment has developed a two-stage trigger system. The Level-1 Trigger is based on custom hardware devices and is designed to reduce the 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing rate to a maximum event rate of ~100 kHz. The further reduction of the event rate to O(100 Hz), suitable for permanent storage, is performed in the High-Level Trigger (HLT) which is based on a farm of commercial processors. The methods used for object identification and reconstruction are presented. The CMS event selection strategy is discussed. The performance of the HLT is also given.

  14. Impact of Selection Bias on Estimation of Subsequent Event Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yi Juan; Schmidt, Amand F.; Dudbridge, Frank; Holmes, Michael V; Brophy, James M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Li, Ziyi; Liao, Peizhou; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; McCubrey, Raymond O.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Hingorani, Aroon D; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Patel, Riyaz S.; Long, Qi; Åkerblom, Axel; Algra, Ale; Allayee, Hooman; Almgren, Peter; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Andreassi, Maria G.; Anselmi, Chiara V.; Ardissino, Diego; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Baranova, Ekaterina V.; Behloui, Hassan; Bergmeijer, Thomas O; Bezzina, Connie R; Bjornsson, Eythor; Body, Simon C.; Boeckx, Bram; Boersma, Eric H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bogaty, Peter; Braund, Peter S; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Briguori, Carlo; Brugts, Jasper J.; Burkhardt, Ralph; Cameron, Vicky A.; Carlquist, John F.; Carpeggiani, Clara; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Casu, Gavino; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Cresci, Sharon; Danchin, Nicolas; de Faire, Ulf; Deanfield, John; Delgado, Graciela; Deloukas, Panos; Direk, Kenan; Doughty, Robert N.; Drexel, Heinz; Duarte, Nubia E.; Dubé, Marie Pierre; Dufresne, Line; Engert, James C; Eriksson, Niclas; Fitzpatrick, Natalie; Foco, Luisa; Ford, Ian; Fox, Keith A; Gigante, Bruna; Gijsberts, Crystel M.; Girelli, Domenico; Gong, Yan; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Hagström, Emil; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L.; Held, Claes; Helgadottir, Anna; Hemingway, Harry; Heydarpour, Mahyar; Hoefer, Imo E.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; James, Stefan; Johnson, Julie A; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaczor, Marcin P.; Kaminski, Karol A.; Kettner, Jiri; Kiliszek, Marek; Kleber, Marcus; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kofink, Daniel; Kohonen, Mika; Kotti, Salma; Kuukasjärvi, Pekka; Lagerqvist, Bo; Lambrechts, Diether; Lang, Chim C; Laurikka, Jari O.; Leander, Karin; Lee, Vei Vei; Lehtimäki, Terho; Leiherer, Andreas; Lenzini, Petra A.; Levin, Daniel; Lindholm, Daniel; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mahmoodi, B. Khan; Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anke H.; Martinelli, Nicola; März, Winfried; Marziliano, Nicola; McPherson, Ruth; Melander, Olle; Mons, Ute; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.; Nelson, Cristopher P.; Cheh, Chris Newton; Olivieri, Oliviero; Opolski, Grzegorz; Palmer, Colin Na; Pare, Guillaume; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pepine, Carl J; Pepinski, Witold; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Pilbrow, Anna P.; Pilote, Louise; Pitha, Jan; Ploski, Rafal; Richards, A. Mark; Saely, Christoph H.; Samani, Nilesh J; Samman-Tahhan, Ayman; Sanak, Marek; Sandesara, Pratik B.; Sattar, Naveed; Scholz, Markus; Siegbahn, Agneta; Simon, Tabassome; Sinisalo, Juha; Smith, J. Gustav; Spertus, John A.; Stefansson, Kari; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Stott, David J.; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Szpakowicz, Anna; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Tang, Wilson H.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Ten Berg, Jur M.; Teren, Andrej; Thanassoulis, George; Thiery, Joachim; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Timmis, Adam; Trompet, Stella; Van de Werf, Frans; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Van Der Haarst, Pim; van der Laan, Sander W; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O.; Virani, Salim S.; Visseren, Frank L J; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Wallentin, Lars; Waltenberger, Johannes; Wauters, Els; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2017-01-01

    Background - Studies of recurrent or subsequent disease events may be susceptible to bias caused by selection of subjects who both experience and survive the primary indexing event. Currently, the magnitude of any selection bias, particularly for subsequent time-to-event analysis in genetic

  15. Conceptlets: Selective Semantics for Classifying Video Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazloom, M.; Gavves, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging trend in video event classification is to learn an event from a bank of concept detector scores. Different from existing work, which simply relies on a bank containing all available detectors, we propose in this paper an algorithm that learns from examples what concepts in a bank are

  16. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M andO 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS)

  17. Neural network real time event selection for the DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkas, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Vlachos, S

    2001-01-01

    The neural network first level trigger for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. Both the neural network algorithm used and its actual hardware implementation are described. The system uses the fast plastic scintillator information of the DIRAC spectrometer. In 210 ns it selects events with two particles having low relative momentum. Such events are selected with an efficiency of more than 0.94. The corresponding rate reduction for background events is a factor of 2.5. (10 refs).

  18. ALICE Trigger and Event Selection QA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    I will present the last nine weeks of work on building a class that efficiently produces trending physics selection of various trigger classes for the purposes of quality assurance. This class is easily generalizable and will be used for live monitoring via a webpage.

  19. Case studies of selected Project "Flash" events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Nicolaides

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a consequence of the prevailing meteorological situation, the intensity and duration of precipitation, geomorphology, human activities over a geographical region and other factors. Floods result in damage and destruction of infrastructure and private property and, in some cases, in fatalities. Flash floods are sudden and quite localized in extend, characterized by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short period of time and are distinguished from other floods by their degree of severity. The broader knowledge concerning flash floods is useful for the better understanding of the underlying thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms, as well as the associated physical processes. The wider understanding of flashfloods can form part of an integrated system for short and very short forecasting of these events. In the present study, the synoptic, dynamic and thermodynamic conditions during the development of a baroclinic depression which affected the area of Cyprus on 6 November 2005 are studied. The depression was associated with extreme weather phenomena, such as thunderstorms, a water spout and high precipitation accumulations. The results indicate the importance of the dynamic parameters in the system's development and the thermodynamic analysis has shown the convective potential of the atmosphere.

  20. Feature extraction and sensor selection for NPP initiating event identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Shun-Chi; Chen, Kuang-You; Chou, Hwai-Pwu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage feature extraction scheme for NPP initiating event identification. • With stBP, interrelations among the sensors can be retained for identification. • With dSFS, sensors that are crucial for identification can be efficiently selected. • Efficacy of the scheme is illustrated with data from the Maanshan NPP simulator. - Abstract: Initiating event identification is essential in managing nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accidents. In this paper, a novel two-stage feature extraction scheme that incorporates the proposed sensor type-wise block projection (stBP) and deflatable sequential forward selection (dSFS) is used to elicit the discriminant information in the data obtained from various NPP sensors to facilitate event identification. With the stBP, the primal features can be extracted without eliminating the interrelations among the sensors of the same type. The extracted features are then subjected to a further dimensionality reduction by selecting the sensors that are most relevant to the events under consideration. This selection is not easy, and a combinatorial optimization technique is normally required. With the dSFS, an optimal sensor set can be found with less computational load. Moreover, its sensor deflation stage allows sensors in the preselected set to be iteratively refined to avoid being trapped into a local optimum. Results from detailed experiments containing data of 12 event categories and a total of 112 events generated with a Taiwan’s Maanshan NPP simulator are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme.

  1. Selection of Photon Gluon Fusion Events in DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalik, K.; Rondio, E.; Sulej, R.; Zaremba, K.

    2001-01-01

    A selection of the Photon Gluon Fusion (PGF) process with light quarks for deep inelastic scattering events is presented. This process is directly sensitive to gluon polarization and our goal is to find out the most effective selection on a sample of events simulated for the SMC experiment. We compare two general multi-class classification methods - Bayes method and neural network with a conventional selection procedure. The neural network algorithm presented here is a modification of method belonging to the family of directional minimization algorithms. This method is convenient and effective for photon gluon fusion selection and determination of gluon polarization. Finally we present the estimation for precision of gluon polarization for neural network method. (author)

  2. Safety-related control air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This Standard applies to those portions of the control air system that furnish air required to support, control, or operate systems or portions of systems that are safety related in nuclear power plants. This Standard relates only to the air supply system(s) for safety-related air operated devices and does not apply to the safety-related air operated device or to air operated actuators for such devices. The objectives of this Standard are to provide (1) minimum system design requirements for equipment, piping, instruments, controls, and wiring that constitute the air supply system; and (2) the system and component testing and maintenance requirements

  3. Selection of low-risk design guidelines for energetic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.; Marchaterre, J.; Graham, J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper recommends the establishment of specific design guidelines for protection against potential, but low-probability, energetic events. These guidelines recognize the plant protective features incorporated to prevent such events, as well as the inherent capability of the plant to accommodate a certain level of energy release. Further, their application is recommended within the context of necessary standardized and agreed-upon acceptance criteria which are less restrictive than ASME code requirements. The paper provides the background upon which the selection of the design is made, including the characterization of energetic events dependent on various core-design parameters, and including the necessity of a low-risk design balanced between prevention of accidents and the mitigation of consequences

  4. Selection of initial events of accelerator driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qianglong; Hu Liqin; Wang Jiaqun; Li Yazhou; Yang Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is an important tool in reactor safety analysis and a significant reference to the design and operation of reactor. It is the origin and foundation of the PSA for a reactor to select the initial events. Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS) has advanced design characteristics, complicated subsystems and little engineering and operating experience, which makes it much more difficult to identify the initial events of ADS. Based on the current design project of ADS, the system's safety characteristics and special issues were analyzed in this article. After a series of deductions with Master Logic Diagram (MLD) and considering the relating experience of other advanced research reactors, a preliminary initial events was listed finally, which provided the foundation for the next safety assessment. (authors)

  5. Identification and selection of initiating events for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the current approaches used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to identify and select accident initiating events for study in either probabilistic safety analysis or PRA. Current methods directly apply to fusion facilities as well as other types of industries, such as chemical processing and nuclear fission. These identification and selection methods include the Master Logic Diagram, historical document review, system level Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and others. A combination of the historical document review, such as Safety Analysis Reports and fusion safety studies, and the Master Logic Diagram with appropriate quality assurance reviews, is suggested for standardizing US fusion PRA effects. A preliminary set of generalized initiating events applicable to fusion facilities derived from safety document review is presented as a framework to start from for the historical document review and Master Logic Diagram approach. Fusion designers should find this list useful for their design reviews. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Identification and selection of initiating events for experimental fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the current approaches used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to identify and select accident initiating events for study in either probabilistic safety analysis or PRA. Current methods directly apply to fusion facilities as well as other types of industries, such as chemical processing and nuclear fission. These identification and selection methods include the Master Logic Diagram, historical document review, system level Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and others. A combination of the historical document review, such as Safety Analysis Reports and fusion safety studies, and the Master Logic Diagram with appropriate quality assurance reviews, is suggested for standardizing U.S. fusion PRA efforts. A preliminary set of generalized initiating events applicable to fusion facilities derived from safety document review is presented as a framework to start from for the historical document review and Master Logic Diagram approach. Fusion designers should find this list useful for their design reviews. 29 refs., 1 tab

  7. Frontend event selection with an MBD using Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A problem common to many complex experiments in Nuclear Physics is the need to provide for event selection at a level beyond that readily available in a fast hardware trigger. This may be desirable as a means of reducing the amount of unwanted data going to tape, or be needed to reduce system deadtime, so as not to miss an infrequent good event. The latter criterion is particularly important at low duty factor accelerators such as LAMPF, where instantaneous trigger rates may be quite high. The need for such an event selection mechanism has arisen in conjunction with the installation of a polarimeter in the focal plane of the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at LAMPF. It has been met using a combination of buffered CAMAC electronics and an enhancement to the LAMPF standard Q data acquisition system. The enhancement to Q allows the experimeter to specify at runtime, a set of simple tests to be performed on each event as it is processed by the MBD, and before it is passed to the PDP-11 for taping and further analysis

  8. Qualification of safety-related valve actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This Standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. It may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This Standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of all safety-related functions of power-driven valve actuators

  9. Selective Attention in Multi-Chip Address-Event Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Indiveri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the “Selective Attention Chip” (SAC, which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  10. Selective attention in multi-chip address-event systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is the strategy used by biological systems to cope with the inherent limits in their available computational resources, in order to efficiently process sensory information. The same strategy can be used in artificial systems that have to process vast amounts of sensory data with limited resources. In this paper we present a neuromorphic VLSI device, the "Selective Attention Chip" (SAC), which can be used to implement these models in multi-chip address-event systems. We also describe a real-time sensory-motor system, which integrates the SAC with a dynamic vision sensor and a robotic actuator. We present experimental results from each component in the system, and demonstrate how the complete system implements a real-time stimulus-driven selective attention model.

  11. Relational databases for conditions data and event selection in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas, F; Hawkings, R; Dimitrov, G

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will make extensive use of relational databases in both online and offline contexts, running to O(TBytes) per year. Two of the most challenging applications in terms of data volume and access patterns are conditions data, making use of the LHC conditions database, COOL, and the TAG database, that stores summary event quantities allowing a rapid selection of interesting events. Both of these databases are being replicated to regional computing centres using Oracle Streams technology, in collaboration with the LCG 3D project. Database optimisation, performance tests and first user experience with these applications will be described, together with plans for first LHC data-taking and future prospects

  12. Relational databases for conditions data and event selection in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas, F; Hawkings, R; Dimitrov, G [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2008-07-15

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will make extensive use of relational databases in both online and offline contexts, running to O(TBytes) per year. Two of the most challenging applications in terms of data volume and access patterns are conditions data, making use of the LHC conditions database, COOL, and the TAG database, that stores summary event quantities allowing a rapid selection of interesting events. Both of these databases are being replicated to regional computing centres using Oracle Streams technology, in collaboration with the LCG 3D project. Database optimisation, performance tests and first user experience with these applications will be described, together with plans for first LHC data-taking and future prospects.

  13. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  14. Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria

  15. Duration and speed of speech events: A selection of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbon Dafydd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of speech timing, i.e. the duration and speed or tempo of speech events, has increased in importance over the past twenty years, in particular in connection with increased demands for accuracy, intelligibility and naturalness in speech technology, with applications in language teaching and testing, and with the study of speech timing patterns in language typology. H owever, the methods used in such studies are very diverse, and so far there is no accessible overview of these methods. Since the field is too broad for us to provide an exhaustive account, we have made two choices: first, to provide a framework of paradigmatic (classificatory, syntagmatic (compositional and functional (discourse-oriented dimensions for duration analysis; and second, to provide worked examples of a selection of methods associated primarily with these three dimensions. Some of the methods which are covered are established state-of-the-art approaches (e.g. the paradigmatic Classification and Regression Trees, CART , analysis, others are discussed in a critical light (e.g. so-called ‘rhythm metrics’. A set of syntagmatic approaches applies to the tokenisation and tree parsing of duration hierarchies, based on speech annotations, and a functional approach describes duration distributions with sociolinguistic variables. Several of the methods are supported by a new web-based software tool for analysing annotated speech data, the Time Group Analyser.

  16. Safety design guide for safety related systems for CANDU 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Wright, A.C.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    In general, two types of safety related systems and structures exist in the nuclear plant; The one is a systems and structures which perform safety functions during the normal operation of the plant, and the other is a systems and structures which perform safety functions to mitigate events caused by failure of the normally operating systems or by naturally occurring phenomena. In this safety design guide, these systems are identified in detail, and the major events for which the safety functions are required and the major safety requirements are identified in the list. As the probabilistic safety assessments are completed during the course of the project, additions or deletions to the list may be justified. 3 tabs. (Author) .new.

  17. Safety design guide for safety related systems for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    In general, two types of safety related systems and structures exist in the nuclear plant; The one is a systems and structures which perform safety functions during the normal operation of the plant, and the other is a systems and structures which perform safety functions to mitigate events caused by failure of the normally operating systems or by naturally occurring phenomena. In this safety design guide, these systems are identified in detail, and the major events for which the safety functions are required and the major safety requirements are identified in the list. As the probabilistic safety assessments are completed during the course of the project, additions or deletions to the list may be justified. 3 tabs. (Author) .new

  18. Criteria for safety-related nuclear-power-plant operator actions: 1982 pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) simulator exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, D.S.; Beare, A.N.; Kozinsky, E.J.; Haas, P.M.

    1983-06-01

    The primary objective of the Safety-Related Operator Action (SROA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to provide a data base to support development of criteria for safety-related actions by nuclear power plant operators. When compared to field data collected on similar events, a base of operator performance data developed from the simulator experiments can then be used to establish safety-related operator action design evaluation criteria, evaluate the effects of performance shaping factors, and support safety/risk assessment analyses. This report presents data obtained from refresher training exercises conducted in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant control room simulator. The 14 exercises were performed by 24 teams of licensed operators from one utility, and operator performance was recorded by an automatic Performance Measurement System. Data tapes were analyzed to extract operator response times (RTs) and error rate information. Demographic and subjective data were collected by means of brief questionnaires and analyzed in an attempt to evaluate the effects of selected performance shaping factors on operator performance

  19. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  20. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  1. Aging of nuclear safety related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, R.; Vydra, V.; Toman, J.; Vodak, F.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of aging processes in nuclear-safety-related concrete structures (NSRCS) is presented. The major environmental stressor and aging factors affecting the performance of NSRCS are summarized, as are drying and plastic shrinkage, expansion of water during the freeze-thaw cycle, water passing through cracks dissolving or leaching the soluble calcium hydroxide, attack of acid rain and ground water, chemical reactions between particular aggregates and the alkaline solution within cement paste, reaction of calcium hydroxide in cement paste hydration products with atmospheric carbon dioxide, and physical radiation effects of neutrons and gamma radiation. The current methods for aging management in NSRCS are analyzed and evaluated. A new treatment is presented for the monitoring, evaluation and prediction of aging processes, consisting in a combination of theoretical methods, laboratory experiments, in-situ measurements and numerical simulations. 24 refs

  2. Selection of design basis event for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2016-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been investigating safety requirements and basic approach of safety guidelines for modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) aiming to increase internarial contribution for nuclear safety by developing an international HTGR safety standard under International Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, we investigate a deterministic approach to select design basis events utilizing information obtained from probabilistic approach. In addition, selections of design basis events are conducted for commercial HTGR designed by JAEA. As a result, an approach for selecting design basis event considering multiple failures of safety systems is established which has not been considered as design basis in the safety guideline for existing nuclear facility. Furthermore, selection of design basis events for commercial HTGR has completed. This report provides an approach and procedure for selecting design basis events of modular HTGR as well as selected events for the commercial HTGR, GTHTR300. (author)

  3. Selected event reconstruction algorithms for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Semen; Höhne, Claudia; Lebedev, Andrey; Ososkov, Gennady

    2014-01-01

    Development of fast and efficient event reconstruction algorithms is an important and challenging task in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR facility. The event reconstruction algorithms have to process terabytes of input data produced in particle collisions. In this contribution, several event reconstruction algorithms are presented. Optimization of the algorithms in the following CBM detectors are discussed: Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD) and Muon Chamber (MUCH). The ring reconstruction algorithm in the RICH is discussed. In TRD and MUCH track reconstruction algorithms are based on track following and Kalman Filter methods. All algorithms were significantly optimized to achieve maximum speed up and minimum memory consumption. Obtained results showed that a significant speed up factor for all algorithms was achieved and the reconstruction efficiency stays at high level.

  4. Compiler issues associated with safety-related software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinauer, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    A critical issue in the quality assurance of safety-related software is the ability of the software to produce identical results, independent of the host machine, operating system, or compiler version under which the software is installed. A study is performed using the VIPRE-0l, FREY-01, and RETRAN-02 safety-related codes. Results from an IBM 3083 computer are compared with results from a CYBER 860 computer. All three of the computer programs examined are written in FORTRAN; the VIPRE code uses the FORTRAN 66 compiler, whereas the FREY and RETRAN codes use the FORTRAN 77 compiler. Various compiler options are studied to determine their effect on the output between machines. Since the Control Data Corporation and IBM machines inherently represent numerical data differently, methods of producing equivalent accuracy of data representation were an important focus of the study. This paper identifies particular problems in the automatic double-precision option (AUTODBL) of the IBM FORTRAN 1.4.x series of compilers. The IBM FORTRAN version 2 compilers provide much more stable, reliable compilation for engineering software. Careful selection of compilers and compiler options can help guarantee identical results between different machines. To ensure reproducibility of results, the same compiler and compiler options should be used to install the program as were used in the development and testing of the program

  5. Safety-related LWR research. Annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The main topics in this annual report 1989 are phenomena of heavy fuel damage and single aspects of a core meltdown accident. The examined single aspects refer to aerosol behavior and filter engineering and to methods for assessment and minimization of the radiological consequences of reactor accidents. Different contributions to selected, safety-related problems of an advanced pressurized-water reactor complete the topic spectrum. The annual report 1989 describes the progress of the research work wich was carried out in the area of safety research by institutes and departments of the KfK, and on behalf of the KfK by external institutions. The individual contributions represent the status of work at the end of the year under review, 1989. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Criteria of reaction identification and selection of badly measured events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linetskij, A.R.; Lyubarskij, G.Ya.; Sagalovich, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Basing on photoemulsion methods of studying channels of multiparticle nuclear reactions the metrological characteristics of a physical technique are described in the process of its development. To increase the accuracy of reaction identification the technique for picture measuring has been complicated by introducing calibration measurements of tracks of stopped in the emulsion primary α-particles. Callibration measurements have support assumptions on energy oscillations of the primary beam and made possible the employment of actual values of this energy instead of rated one during mathematical processing. By using simulation reactions the effect of errors in determining the contraction ratio has been estimated. It has been found that rather a small error in determining the contraction (+-20%) results in additional casting-out 8-15% of measured events

  7. Regulatory instrument review: Management of aging of LWR [light water reactor] major safety-related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report comprises Volume 1 of a review of US nuclear plant regulatory instruments to determine the amount and kind of information they contain on managing the aging of safety-related components in US nuclear power plants. The review was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Eight selected regulatory instruments, e.g., NRC Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations, were reviewed for safety-related information on five selected components: reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, primary piping, pressurizers, and emergency diesel generators. Volume 2 will be concluded in FY 1991 and will also cover selected major safety-related components, e.g., pumps, valves and cables. The focus of the review was on 26 NPAR-defined safety-related aging issues, including examination, inspection, and maintenance and repair; excessive/harsh testing; and irradiation embrittlement. The major conclusion of the review is that safety-related regulatory instruments do provide implicit guidance for aging management, but include little explicit guidance. The major recommendation is that the instruments be revised or augmented to explicitly address the management of aging

  8. Persistent Data Layout and Infrastructure for Efficient Selective Retrieval of Event Data in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00084279; Malon, David

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN has completed its first full year of recording collisions at 7 TeV, resulting in billions of events and petabytes of data. At these scales, physicists must have the capability to read only the data of interest to their analyses, with the importance of efficient selective access increasing as data taking continues. ATLAS has developed a sophisticated event-level metadata infrastructure and supporting I/O framework allowing event selections by explicit specification, by back navigation, and by selection queries to a TAG database via an integrated web interface. These systems and their performance have been reported on elsewhere. The ultimate success of such a system, however, depends significantly upon the efficiency of selective event retrieval. Supporting such retrieval can be challenging, as ATLAS stores its event data in column-wise orientation using ROOT trees for a number of reasons, including compression considerations, histogramming use cases, and more. For 2011 data, ATLAS wi...

  9. RA-6 reactor's probabilistic safety evaluation. Identification and selection of starting events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, J.; Chiossi, C.; Felizia, E.; Vallerga, H.; Kalejman, G.; Navarro, R.; Caruso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the 'Identification and selection of starting events' stage of the previous probabilistic safety evaluation of RA-6 reactor is presented. This evaluation was performed to verify if the safety criteria required for the licensing of RA-6 are met and to promote the diffusion of its meaning and usefulness with educational purposes. At this stage the starting events of RA-6 are determined and the probability that such events occur is calculated. The identification and selection of starting events is performed in two steps: determination of proposed starting events and determination of postulated starting events. The proposed starting events are determined by means of the master logic diagram (MLD) method, while the postulated starting events are obtained by grouping the proposed starting events. The simplifying hypothesis required for the application of MLD to the reactor are also formulated. The probability that the proposed and postulated starting events occur is afterwards calculated, adopting different fault models, in accordance with the nature of events that are considered. Conservative hypothesis on the characteristics of these events and the uncertainty of parameter values of those models are also formulated. The numerical values of the above mentioned probabilities are obtained by giving the parameters suitable values that are extracted from specialized publications. (Author)

  10. New developments in file-based infrastructure for ATLAS event selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmeren, P van; Malon, D M [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nowak, M, E-mail: gemmeren@anl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    In ATLAS software, TAGs are event metadata records that can be stored in various technologies, including ROOT files and relational databases. TAGs are used to identify and extract events that satisfy certain selection predicates, which can be coded as SQL-style queries. TAG collection files support in-file metadata to store information describing all events in the collection. Event Selector functionality has been augmented to provide such collection-level metadata to subsequent algorithms. The ATLAS I/O framework has been extended to allow computational processing of TAG attributes to select or reject events without reading the event data. This capability enables physicists to use more detailed selection criteria than are feasible in an SQL query. For example, the TAGs contain enough information not only to check the number of electrons, but also to calculate their distance to the closest jet-a calculation that would be difficult to express in SQL. Another new development allows ATLAS to write TAGs directly into event data files. This feature can improve performance by supporting advanced event selection capabilities, including computational processing of TAG information, without the need for external TAG file or database access.

  11. Selection of events at Ukrainian NPPs using the algorithm based on accident precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, D.V.; Lyigots'kij, O.Yi.; Serafin, R.Yi.; Tkachova, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a general approach to the first stage of research and development on analysis of Ukrainian NPP operation events from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010 using the accident precursor approach. Groups of potentially important events formed after their selection and classification are provided

  12. Hierarchical event selection for video storyboards with a case study on snooker video visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Matthew L; Legg, Philip A; Chung, David H S; Griffiths, Iwan W; Chen, Min

    2011-12-01

    Video storyboard, which is a form of video visualization, summarizes the major events in a video using illustrative visualization. There are three main technical challenges in creating a video storyboard, (a) event classification, (b) event selection and (c) event illustration. Among these challenges, (a) is highly application-dependent and requires a significant amount of application specific semantics to be encoded in a system or manually specified by users. This paper focuses on challenges (b) and (c). In particular, we present a framework for hierarchical event representation, and an importance-based selection algorithm for supporting the creation of a video storyboard from a video. We consider the storyboard to be an event summarization for the whole video, whilst each individual illustration on the board is also an event summarization but for a smaller time window. We utilized a 3D visualization template for depicting and annotating events in illustrations. To demonstrate the concepts and algorithms developed, we use Snooker video visualization as a case study, because it has a concrete and agreeable set of semantic definitions for events and can make use of existing techniques of event detection and 3D reconstruction in a reliable manner. Nevertheless, most of our concepts and algorithms developed for challenges (b) and (c) can be applied to other application areas. © 2010 IEEE

  13. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  14. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  15. Non-selective beta-blockers decrease thrombotic events in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Peuter, Olav R.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Lip, Gregory Y.; Buller, Harry R.; De Boer, Anthonius; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Beta-blockers are often prescribed to patients with heart failure (HF) without distinctions between types of beta-blockers. The 2002 COMET study showed superiority of carvedilol (a non-selective beta-blocker) over metoprolol (selective beta-blocker) on mortality and cardiovascular events

  16. Event-related potentials during visual selective attention in children of alcoholics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, O.; Gunning, W.B.; Snel, J.; Kok, A.

    1998-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 50 7-18 yr old children of alcoholics (COAs) and 50 age- and sex-matched control children while they performed a visual selective attention task. The task was to attend selectively to stimuli with a specified color (red or blue) in an attempt to

  17. Safety-related control air systems - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This standard applies to those portions of the control air system that furnish air required to support, control, or operate systems or portions of systems that are safety related in nuclear power plants. This standard relates only to the air supply system(s) for safety-related air operated devices and does not apply to the safety-related air operated device or to air operated actuators for such devices. The objectives of this standard are to provide (1) minimum system design requirements for equipment, piping, instruments, controls, and wiring that constitute the air supply system; and (2) the system and component testing and maintenance requirements

  18. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, D; Cranshaw, J; Malon, D; Gemmeren, P Van; Zhang, Q; Dimitrov, G; Nairz, A; Sorokoletov, R; Doherty, T; Quilty, D; Gallas, E J; Hrivnac, J; Nowak, M

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of the billions of events the collaboration has measured or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking, to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. This paper describes how ATLAS event-level information repositories and selection infrastructure are evolving in light of this experience, and in view of their expected roles both in wide-area event delivery services and in an evolving ATLAS analysis model in which the importance of efficient selective access to data can only grow.

  19. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Methodology for Selecting Initiating Events and Hazards for Consideration in an Extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielenberg, A.; Hage, M.; Loeffler, H.; Alzbutas, R.; Apostol, M.; Bareith, A.; Siklossy, T.; Brac, P.; Burgazzi, L.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Cizelj, L.; Prosek, A.; Volkanovski, A.; Hashimoto, K.; Godefroy, F.; Gonzalez, M.; Groudev, P.; Kolar, L.; Kumar, M.; Nitoi, M.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    An extended PSA applies to a site of one or several Nuclear Power Plant unit(s) and its environment. It intends to calculate the risk induced by the main sources of radioactivity (reactor core and spent fuel storages) on the site, taking into account all operating states for each main source and all possible relevant accident initiating events (both internal and external) affecting one unit or the whole site. The combination between hazards or initiating events and their impact on a unit or the whole site is a crucial issue for an extended PSA. The report tries to discuss relevant methodologies for this purpose. The report proposes a methodology to select initiating events and hazards for the development of an extended PSA. The proposed methodology for initiating events identification, screening and bounding analysis for an extended PSA consists of four major steps: 1. A comprehensive identification of events and hazards and their respective combinations applicable to the plant and site. Qualitative screening criteria will be applied, 2. The calculation of initial (possibly conservative) frequency claims for events and hazards and their respective combinations applicable to the plant and the site. Quantitative screening criteria will be applied, 3. An impact analysis and bounding assessment for all applicable events and scenarios. Events are either screened out from further more detailed analysis, or are assigned to a bounding event (group), or are retained for detailed analysis, 4. The probabilistic analysis of all retained (bounding) events at the appropriate level of detail. (authors)

  1. Feedback of safety - related operational experience: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, D [Commonwealth Edison Co. (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation considers the following aspects of feedback of safety-related operational experience: lessons learned program, objectives, personnel characteristics; three types of documents for transmitting lessons learned issues.

  2. Feedback of safety - related operational experience: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, D.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation considers the following aspects of feedback of safety-related operational experience: lessons learned program, objectives, personnel characteristics; three types of documents for transmitting lessons learned issues

  3. Implementation and Performance of the Event Filter Muon Selection for the ATLAS experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, A; Assamagan, Ketevi A; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Bellomo, M; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Carlino, G; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Conde-Muíño, P; Conventi, F; De Santo, A; De Seixas, J M; Díaz-Gómez, M; Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Dosil, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootzw, A; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Primavera, M; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Soluk, R A; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Venda-Pinto, B; Vercesi, V; Werner, P; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger system is composed of three levels: an initial hardware trigger level (LVL1) followed by two software-based stages (LVL2 trigger and Event Filter) included in the High Level Trigger (HLT) and implemented on processor farms. The LVL2 trigger starts from LVL1 information concerning pointers to restricted so-called Regions of Interest (ROI) and performs event selection by means of optimized algorithms. If the LVL2 is passed, the full event is built and sent to the Event Filter (EF) algorithms for further selection and classification. After that, events are finally collected and put into mass storage for subsequent physics analysis. Even if many differences arise in the requirements and in the interfaces between the two HLT stages, they have a coherent approach to event selection. Therefore, the design of a common core software framework has been implemented in order to allow the HLT architecture to be flexible to changes (background conditions, luminosity, description of the detector, etc.). Al...

  4. Health of women: associations among life events, social support, and personality for selected patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group.

  5. The future of event-level information repositories, indexing, and selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Dimitrov, G; Doherty, T; Gallas, E; Hrivnac, J; Malon, D; Nairz, A; Nowak, M; Quilty, D; Sorokoletov, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zhang, Q

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS maintains a rich corpus of event-by-event information that provides a global view of virtually all of the billions of events the collaboration has seen or simulated, along with sufficient auxiliary information to navigate to and retrieve data for any event at any production processing stage. This unique resource has been employed for a range of purposes, from monitoring, statistics, anomaly detection, and integrity checking to event picking, subset selection, and sample extraction. Recent years of data-taking provide a foundation for assessment of how this resource has and has not been used in practice, of the uses for which it should be optimized, of how it should be deployed and provisioned for scalability to future data volumes, and of the areas in which enhancements to functionality would be most valuable. \

  6. Rejecting escape events in large volume Ge detectors by a pulse shape selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1993-01-01

    The dependence of the response to γ-rays of a large volume Ge detector on the interval width of a selected initial rise pulse slope is investigated. The number of escape events associated with a small pulse slope is found to be greater than the corresponding number of full energy events. An escape event rejection procedure based on the observed correlation between energy deposition and pulse shape is discussed. Such a procedure seems particularly suited for the design of highly granular large volume Ge detector arrays. (orig.)

  7. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  8. Real time event selection and flash analog-to-digital converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imori, Masatosi

    1983-01-01

    In high-energy particle experiments, high-speed analog logic is employed to select events on a real-time basis. Flash analog-to-digital converters replace the high-speed analog logic with digital logic. The digital logic gives great flexibility to the scheme for real-time event selection. This paper proposes the use of flash A/D converters for the logic used to obtain the total sum of the energy deposited in individual counters in a shower detector. (author)

  9. Multifragmentation of a very heavy nuclear system (I): selection of single-source events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.D.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    A sample of 'single-source' events, compatible with the multifragmentation of very heavy fused systems, are isolated among well-measured {sup 155}Gd + {sup nat}U 36 A.MeV reactions by examining the evolution of the kinematics of fragments with Z {>=} 5 as a function of the dissipated energy and loss of memory of the entrance channel. Single-source events are found to be the result of very central collisions. Such central collisions may also lead to multiple fragment emission due to the decay of excited projectile- and target-like nuclei and so-called 'neck' emission, and for this reason the isolation of single-source events is very difficult. Event-selection criteria based on centrality of collisions, or on the isotropy of the emitted fragments in each event, are found to be inefficient to separate the two mechanisms, unless they take into account the redistribution of fragments' kinetic energies into directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The selected events are good candidates to look for bulk effects in the multifragmentation process. (authors)

  10. Multifragmentation of a very heavy nuclear system (I): selection of single-source events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Borderie, B.; Rivet, M.F.; Squalli, M.; Auger, G.; Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buchet, Ph.; Chbihi, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Dayras, R.; Demeyer, A.; Dore, D.; Durand, D.; Galichet, E.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Gerlic, E.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Laville, J.L.; Lecolley, J.F.; Legrain, R.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Maskay, A.M.; Nalpas, L.; Nguyen, A.D.; Parlog, M.; Peter, J.; Plagnol, E.; Rosato, E.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Salou, S.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Stern, M.; Tabacaru, G.; Tamain, B.; Tirel, O.; Tassan-Got, L.; Vient, E.; Volant, C.; Wieleczko, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 'single-source' events, compatible with the multifragmentation of very heavy fused systems, are isolated among well-measured 155 Gd+ nat U 36 A MeV reactions by examining the evolution of the kinematics of fragments with Z≥5 as a function of the dissipated energy and loss of memory of the entrance channel. Single-source events are found to be the result of very central collisions. Such central collisions may also lead to multiple fragment emission due to the decay of excited projectile- and target-like nuclei and so-called 'neck' emission, and for this reason the isolation of single-source events is very difficult. Event-selection criteria based on centrality of collisions, or on the isotropy of the emitted fragments in each event, are found to be inefficient to separate the two mechanisms, unless they take into account the redistribution of fragments' kinetic energies into directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The selected events are good candidates to look for bulk effects in the multifragmentation process

  11. Network based on statistical multiplexing for event selection and event builder systems in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, D.

    2000-03-01

    Systems for on-line event selection in future high energy physics experiments will use advanced distributed computing techniques and will need high speed networks. After a brief description of projects at the Large Hadron Collider, the architectures initially proposed for the Trigger and Data AcQuisition (TD/DAQ) systems of ATLAS and CMS experiments are presented and analyzed. A new architecture for the ATLAS T/DAQ is introduced. Candidate network technologies for this system are described. This thesis focuses on ATM. A variety of network structures and topologies suited to partial and full event building are investigated. The need for efficient networking is shown. Optimization techniques for high speed messaging and their implementation on ATM components are described. Small scale demonstrator systems consisting of up to 48 computers (∼1:20 of the final level 2 trigger) connected via ATM are described. Performance results are presented. Extrapolation of measurements and evaluation of needs lead to a proposal of implementation for the main network of the ATLAS T/DAQ system. (author)

  12. Qualification of FPGA-Based Safety-Related PRM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tadashi; Oda, Naotaka; Goto, Yasushi; Hayashi, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Toshiba has developed Non-rewritable (NRW) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non-rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. FPGA is a device which consists only of basic logic circuits, and FPGA performs defined processing which is configured by connecting the basic logic circuit inside the FPGA. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing unit (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. The system which Toshiba developed this time is Power Range Neutron Monitor (PRM). Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development process to the other safety-related systems such as RPS from now on. Toshiba developed a special design process for NRW-FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems. The design process resolves issues for many years regarding testability of the digital system for nuclear safety application. Thus, Toshiba NRW-FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems has much advantage to be a would standard of the digital systems for nuclear safety application. (author)

  13. Resistance ability evaluation of safety-related structures for the simulated aircraft accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Woon; Choi, Jang Kyu [Daewoo E and C Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Aircraft accidents on nuclear safety-related structures can cause severe damage to the safety of NPP(Nuclear Power Plant)s. To assess the safety of nuclear safety-related structures, the local damage and the dynamic response of global structures should be investigated together. This study have compared several local damage assessment formulas suggested for aircraft as an impactor, and have set the assessment system of local damage for impact-proof design of NPP containment buildings. And the local damage of nuclear safety-related structures in operation in Korea for commercial aircraft as impactor have been estimated. Impact load-time functions of the aircraft crash have been decided to assessment the safety of nuclear safety-related structures against the intentional colliding of commercial aircraft. Boeing 747 and Boeing 767 is selected as target aircraft based on the operation frequencies and weights. Comparison of the fire analysis methods showed that the method considering heat convection and radiation is adequate for the temperature analysis of the aircraft fuel fire. Finally, the study covered the analysis of the major structural drawings and design drawings with which three-dimensional finite element model analysis is expected to be performed.

  14. A New Integrated Threshold Selection Methodology for Spatial Forecast Verification of Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodovsky, V.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather and climate events such as heavy precipitation, heat waves and strong winds can cause extensive damage to the society in terms of human lives and financial losses. As climate changes, it is important to understand how extreme weather events may change as a result. Climate and statistical models are often independently used to model those phenomena. To better assess performance of the climate models, a variety of spatial forecast verification methods have been developed. However, spatial verification metrics that are widely used in comparing mean states, in most cases, do not have an adequate theoretical justification to benchmark extreme weather events. We proposed a new integrated threshold selection methodology for spatial forecast verification of extreme events that couples existing pattern recognition indices with high threshold choices. This integrated approach has three main steps: 1) dimension reduction; 2) geometric domain mapping; and 3) thresholds clustering. We apply this approach to an observed precipitation dataset over CONUS. The results are evaluated by displaying threshold distribution seasonally, monthly and annually. The method offers user the flexibility of selecting a high threshold that is linked to desired geometrical properties. The proposed high threshold methodology could either complement existing spatial verification methods, where threshold selection is arbitrary, or be directly applicable in extreme value theory.

  15. Event-related potentials during visual selective attention in children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stelt, O; Gunning, W B; Snel, J; Kok, A

    1998-12-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded from 7- to 18-year-old children of alcoholics (COAs, n = 50) and age- and sex-matched control children (n = 50) while they performed a visual selective attention task. The task was to attend selectively to stimuli with a specified color (red or blue) in an attempt to detect the occurrence of target stimuli. COAs manifested a smaller P3b amplitude to attended-target stimuli over the parietal and occipital scalp than did the controls. A more specific analysis indicated that both the attentional relevance and the target properties of the eliciting stimulus determined the observed P3b amplitude differences between COAs and controls. In contrast, no significant group differences were observed in attention-related earlier occurring event-related potential components, referred to as frontal selection positivity, selection negativity, and N2b. These results represent neurophysiological evidence that COAs suffer from deficits at a late (semantic) level of visual selective information processing that are unlikely a consequence of deficits at earlier (sensory) levels of selective processing. The findings support the notion that a reduced visual P3b amplitude in COAs represents a high-level processing dysfunction indicating their increased vulnerability to alcoholism.

  16. Recent adaptive events in human brain revealed by meta-analysis of positively selected genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of positively-selected genes can help us understand how human evolved, especially the evolution of highly developed cognitive functions. However, previous works have reached conflicting conclusions regarding whether human neuronal genes are over-represented among genes under positive selection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We divided positively-selected genes into four groups according to the identification approaches, compiling a comprehensive list from 27 previous studies. We showed that genes that are highly expressed in the central nervous system are enriched in recent positive selection events in human history identified by intra-species genomic scan, especially in brain regions related to cognitive functions. This pattern holds when different datasets, parameters and analysis pipelines were used. Functional category enrichment analysis supported these findings, showing that synapse-related functions are enriched in genes under recent positive selection. In contrast, immune-related functions, for instance, are enriched in genes under ancient positive selection revealed by inter-species coding region comparison. We further demonstrated that most of these patterns still hold even after controlling for genomic characteristics that might bias genome-wide identification of positively-selected genes including gene length, gene density, GC composition, and intensity of negative selection. CONCLUSION: Our rigorous analysis resolved previous conflicting conclusions and revealed recent adaptation of human brain functions.

  17. The selection of low-risk design guidelines for energetic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, Donald; Marchaterre, John; Graham, John

    1982-01-01

    This paper recommends the establishment of specific design guidelines for protection against potential, but low probability, energetic events. These guidelines recognize the plant protective features incorporated to prevents such events, as well as the inherent capability of the plant to accommodate a certain level of energy release. Further, their application is recommended within the context of necessary standardized and agreed upon acceptance criteria which are less restrictive than ASME code requirements. The paper provides the background upon which the selection of the design is made, including the characterization of energetic events dependent on various core-design parameters, and including the necessity of a low-risk design balanced between prevention of accidents and the mitigation of consequences

  18. Measurement of the top-quark mass with dilepton events selected using neuroevolution at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shekhar, R; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Whiteson, S; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-04-17

    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass M_{t} in the dilepton decay channel tt[over ] --> bl;{'+} nu_{l};{'}b[over ]l;{-}nu[over ]_{l}. Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top-quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top-quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb;{-1} of pp[over ] collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M_{t} = 171.2 +/- 2.7(stat) +/- 2.9(syst) GeV / c;{2}.

  19. Measurement of the top quark mass with dilepton events selected using neuroevolution at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; Tsukuba U.; Albrow, M.G.; Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Cantabria U., Santander; Amerio, S.; Padua U.; Amidei, D.; Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; Frascati; Antos, J.; Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top quark mass M t in the dilepton decay channel t(bar t) to b(ell)(prime) + ν(prime) # ell# (bar b)(ell) - (bar ν) # ell#. Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb -1 of p(bar p) collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M t = 171.2 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 2.9(syst.) GeV/c 2

  20. Measurement of the Top-Quark Mass with Dilepton Events Selected Using Neuroevolution at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Maki, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Kim, Y. K.; Krop, D.; Kwang, S.; Paramonov, A. A.; Schmidt, M. A.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Wolfe, C.; Yang, U. K.

    2009-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass M t in the dilepton decay channel tt→bl '+ ν l ' bl - ν l . Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top-quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top-quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb -1 of pp collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M t =171.2±2.7(stat)±2.9(syst) GeV/c 2

  1. Projected large flood event sensitivity to projection selection and temporal downscaling methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raff, D. [U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Large flood events, that influence regulatory guidelines as well as safety of dams decisions, are likely to be affected by climate change. This talk will evaluate the use of climate projections downscaled and run through a rainfall - runoff model and its influence on large flood events. The climate spatial downscaling is performed statistically and a re-sampling and scaling methodology is used to temporally downscale from monthly to daily signals. The signals are run through a National Weather Service operational rainfall-runoff model to produce 6-hour flows. The flows will be evaluated for changes in large events at look-ahead horizons from 2011 - 2040, 2041 - 2070, and 2071 - 2099. The sensitivity of results will be evaluated with respect to projection selection criteria and re-sampling and scaling criteria for the Boise River in Idaho near Lucky Peak Dam. (author)

  2. Projected large flood event sensitivity to projection selection and temporal downscaling methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, D.

    2008-01-01

    Large flood events, that influence regulatory guidelines as well as safety of dams decisions, are likely to be affected by climate change. This talk will evaluate the use of climate projections downscaled and run through a rainfall - runoff model and its influence on large flood events. The climate spatial downscaling is performed statistically and a re-sampling and scaling methodology is used to temporally downscale from monthly to daily signals. The signals are run through a National Weather Service operational rainfall-runoff model to produce 6-hour flows. The flows will be evaluated for changes in large events at look-ahead horizons from 2011 - 2040, 2041 - 2070, and 2071 - 2099. The sensitivity of results will be evaluated with respect to projection selection criteria and re-sampling and scaling criteria for the Boise River in Idaho near Lucky Peak Dam. (author)

  3. A Ranking Method for Neutral Pion and Eta Selection in Hadronic Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingoel, A.

    2004-01-01

    The selection of neutral pions and etas with a high purity while maintaining also a high efficiency can be important in the formation of statistically significant mass spectra in the reconstruction of short-lived particles such as the omega meson (ω→π + + π - + π 0 ). In this study a Ranking method has been optimized for data from the ALEPH Experiment, CERN. The results show that the Ranking method, when applied to high multiplicity events, yields significant improvements in the purity of selected pion candidates and facilitates the relaxation of standard cuts thereby avoiding some systematic uncertainties

  4. Motivated encoding selectively promotes memory for future inconsequential semantically-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Javiera P; Packard, Pau A; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluis

    2016-09-01

    Neurobiological models of long-term memory explain how memory for inconsequential events fades, unless these happen before or after other relevant (i.e., rewarding or aversive) or novel events. Recently, it has been shown in humans that retrospective and prospective memories are selectively enhanced if semantically related events are paired with aversive stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether motivating stimuli, as opposed to aversive, have the same effect in humans. Here, participants performed a three phase incidental encoding task where one semantic category was rewarded during the second phase. A memory test 24h after, but not immediately after encoding, revealed that memory for inconsequential items was selectively enhanced only if items from the same category had been previously, but not subsequently, paired with rewards. This result suggests that prospective memory enhancement of reward-related information requires, like previously reported for aversive memories, of a period of memory consolidation. The current findings provide the first empirical evidence in humans that the effects of motivated encoding are selectively and prospectively prolonged over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  6. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention.

  7. Mutational jackpot events generate effective frequency-dependent selection in adapting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallatschek, Oskar

    The site-frequency spectrum is one the most easily measurable quantities that characterize the genetic diversity of a population. While most neutral models predict that site frequency spectra should decay with increasing frequency, a high-frequency uptick has been reported in many populations. Anomalies in the high-frequency tail are particularly unsettling because the highest frequencies can be measured with greatest accuracy. Here, we show that an uptick in the spectrum of neutral mutations generally arises when mutant frequencies are dominated by rare jackpot events, mutational events with large descendant numbers. This leads to an effective pattern of frequency-dependent selection (or unstable internal equilibrium at one half frequency) that causes an accumulation of high-frequency polymorphic sites. We reproduce the known uptick occurring for recurrent hitchhiking (genetic draft) as well as rapid adaptation, and (in the future) generalize the shape of the high-frequency tail to other scenarios that are dominated by jackpot events, such as frequent range expansions. We also tackle (in the future) the inverse approach to use the high-frequency uptick for learning about the tail of the offspring number distribution. Positively selected alleles need to surpass, typically, an u NSF Career Award (PoLS), NIH NIGMS R01, Simons Foundation.

  8. Technical evaluation of seismic qualification of safety-related equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yang Hui; Park, Heong Gee; Park, Yeong Seok [Univ. of Incheon, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    This study is purposed to evaluate the technical acceptability of the procedures and techniques of seismic qualifications which were performed for the YGN 3 and 4 safety-related equipment.This study is also targeted to suggest a systematized technical procedure guide for the effective performance and review of the seismic qualification, which reflects the most up-to-date licensing requirements and state-of the-art.

  9. Aging related degradation in turbine drives and governors for safety related pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This study is being performed to examine the relationship between time dependent degradation, and current industry practices in the areas of maintenance, surveillance, and operation of stem turbine drive for safety related pumps. These pumps are located in the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) system for pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants, and the Reactor Core Isolation Cooking (RCIC) and High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) systems for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) facilities. This research has been conducted by examining current information in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS), reviewing Licensee Event Reports, thoroughly investigating contacts with operating plant personnel, and by personal observation. This information was reviewed to determine the cause of each reported event and the method of discovery. From this data attempts have been made at determining the predictability of events and possible preventive measures that may be implemented

  10. Non-selective vs. selective beta-blocker treatment and the risk of thrombo-embolic events in patients with heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peuter, Olav R.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Büller, Harry R.; de Boer, Anthonius; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Heart failure (HF) is associated with a prothrombotic state, resulting in an increased risk for thrombo-embolic events. Studies suggest a reduced prothrombotic state when non-selective beta-blockers relative to selective beta-blockers are given. We studied the influence of non-selective

  11. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.; Le Courtois, T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

  12. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pays, M.F.; Le Courtois, T

    1997-11-01

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during `lifetime`); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author) 2 refs.

  13. Common cause failure data collection and analysis for safety-related components of TRIGA SSR-14MW Pitesti, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, G.; Mladin, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study performed on the set of common cause failures (CCF) of safety-related components of the research reactor TRIGA SSR-14 MW Pitesti. The data collected cover a period of 20 years, from 1979 to 2000. The sources of data are Shift Supervisor Reports, Work Authorizations, and Reactor Log Books. Events collected are analyzed by failure mode and degrees of failure. Qualitative analysis of root causes, coupling factors and corrective actions and quantitative analysis of CCF events are studied. The objective of this work is to develop qualitative insights in the nature of the reported events and to build a site-specific common cause events database. (author)

  14. Selection of equipment for safe shutdown in the event of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano Gomez, J.; Perez Alcaniz, T.; Esteban Barriendos, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the work carried out at the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant for selecting equipment that contributes to reactor safe shutdown in the event of earthquake. The objective was to comply with the requirements defined by the US NRC in Generic Letter 87-02, 'Verification of Seismic Adequacy of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment in Operating Reactors'. The analysis framework and the method applied followed the generic procedures prepared by the Seismic Qualification Utility Group of which Almaraz NPP is a member, along with other Spanish power plants. The equipment selected shall be subjected to the Application Programme of the above-mentioned Generic Letter. The aim has been to cover the objectives of the programme and, at the same time, to ensure compatibility with plant operating procedures. (author)

  15. The influence of caffeine on spatial-selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J; de Ruiter, M B; Snel, J; Lorist, M M

    2000-12-01

    Following the indications of previous studies that caffeine might have a specific effect on the processing of spatial information compared with other types of information, the present study investigated the influence of caffeine on an often used spatial-selective attention task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 11 participants under conditions of caffeine (250 mg) and placebo. Spatial-selective attention effects were reflected in the ERPs as more positive going occipital P1 and broadly distributed P2 components, and more negative going occipital-temporal N1 and broadly distributed N2 components. A treatment effect was found as a more positive going frontal P2 component in the caffeine condition, whereas interactions between treatment and attention were observed for P2 and N2 components, but not for P1 and N1 components. This pattern of results suggests that caffeine has no specific influence on spatial-selective attention, but rather, has a more general facilitating effect on perceptual processing, as well as a possible effect on the frontal control mechanisms, i.e. focusing attention and increasing selectivity.

  16. Auditory selective attention in adolescents with major depression: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, E; Trinkl, M; Bartling, J; Bakos, S; Grossheinrich, N; Schulte-Körne, G

    2015-02-01

    Major depression (MD) is associated with deficits in selective attention. Previous studies in adults with MD using event-related potentials (ERPs) reported abnormalities in the neurophysiological correlates of auditory selective attention. However, it is yet unclear whether these findings can be generalized to MD in adolescence. Thus, the aim of the present ERP study was to explore the neural mechanisms of auditory selective attention in adolescents with MD. 24 male and female unmedicated adolescents with MD and 21 control subjects were included in the study. ERPs were collected during an auditory oddball paradigm. Depressive adolescents tended to show a longer N100 latency to target and non-target tones. Moreover, MD subjects showed a prolonged latency of the P200 component to targets. Across groups, longer P200 latency was associated with a decreased tendency of disinhibited behavior as assessed by a behavioral questionnaire. To be able to draw more precise conclusions about differences between the neural bases of selective attention in adolescents vs. adults with MD, future studies should include both age groups and apply the same experimental setting across all subjects. The study provides strong support for abnormalities in the neurophysiolgical bases of selective attention in adolecents with MD at early stages of auditory information processing. Absent group differences in later ERP components reflecting voluntary attentional processes stand in contrast to results reported in adults with MD and may suggest that adolescents with MD possess mechanisms to compensate for abnormalities in the early stages of selective attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Composing Distributed Services for Selection and Retrieval of Event Data in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinek, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    TAGs are event-level metadata allowing a quick search for interesting events for further analysis, based on selection criteria defined by the user. They are stored in a file-based format as well as in relational databases. The overall TAG system encompasses a range of web services providing functionality for the required use cases. The data as well as the services are replicated to several ATLAS sites, i.e. inside each service group there exist several concrete deployments, differing only in site-related non-functional attributes. In order to satisfy a user's request, the above mentioned atomic data sources and web services have to be composed on demand to provide the required functionality. As several instances of each service exist, one service has to be selected out of each group. The overall goal is to maximize the system’s throughput, in order to give to as many users as possible efficient access to the TAGs, while meeting end-to-end quality of service (QoS) requirements. Many approaches can be found t...

  18. Composing Distributed Services for Selection and Retrieval of Event Data in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinek, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Zhang, Q

    2010-01-01

    TAGs are event-level metadata allowing a quick search for interesting events for further analysis, based on selection criteria defined by the user. They are stored in a file-based format as well as in relational databases. The overall TAG system encompasses a range of web services providing functionality for the required use cases. The data as well as the services are replicated to several ATLAS sites, i.e. inside each service group there exist several concrete deployments, differing only in site-related non-functional attributes. In order to satisfy a user’s request, the above mentioned atomic data sources and web services have to be composed on demand to provide the full functionality. As several instances of each service exist, one service has to be selected out of each group. The overall goal is to maximize the system’s throughput, in order to give to as many users as possible efficient access to the TAGs, while meeting end-to-end quality of service (QoS) requirements. Many approaches can be found to ...

  19. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, P.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Doumont, C.; Mared, A.

    2000-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  20. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, B.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Mared, A.

    2001-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-Engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can then be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  1. Aging of turbine drives for safety-related pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.

    1995-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the relationship between time-dependent degradation and current industry practices in the areas of maintenance, surveillance, and operation of steam turbine drives for safety-related pumps. These pumps are located in the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) system for pressurized-water reactor plants and in the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling and High-Pressure Coolant Injection systems for boiling-water reactor plants. This research has been conducted by examination of failure data in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, review of Licensee Event Reports, discussion of problems with operating plant personnel, and personal observation. The reported failure data were reviewed to determine the cause of the event and the method of discovery. Based on the research results, attempts have been made to determine the predictability of failures and possible preventive measures that may be implemented. Findings in a recent study of AFW systems indicate that the turbine drive is the single largest contributor to AFW system degradation. However, examination of the data shows that the turbine itself is a reliable piece of equipment with a good service record. Most of the problems documented are the result of problems with the turbine controls and the mechanical overspeed trip mechanism; these apparently stem from three major causes which are discussed in the text. Recent improvements in maintenance practices and procedures, combined with a stabilization of the design, have led to improved performance resulting in a reliable safety-related component. However, these improvements have not been universally implemented

  2. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STUK-B-YTO 7), which is supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  3. Modification and backfitting in safety related systems at Ringhals 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidh, B. [KSU, Nykoeping (Sweden); Stroemqvist, E. [ES-Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-08-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Ringhals-2, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 4 refs.

  4. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitasaari, O.; Rantavaara, A.

    1984-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STL-B-RTO-83/7), which is supplemented by this report intended principally for experts. (author)

  5. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  6. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  7. Safety-related decision making at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    The decision making environment of an operating nuclear power plant is presented. The organizations involved, their roles and interactions as well as the main influencing factors and decision criteria are described. The focus is on safety-related decisions, and the framework is based on the situation at Loviisa power station. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is illustrated with decisions concerning plant modifications, optimization, acceptance of temporary configurations and extended repair times. Suggestions are made for rational and flexible risk-based control of allowed times to operate the plant with some components out of service. (orig.)

  8. Modification and backfitting in safety related systems at Ringhals 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidh, B.; Stroemqvist, E.

    1995-08-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Ringhals-2, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 4 refs

  9. Configuration control during maintenance of safety related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Possibly the most important aspect of performing maintenance of safety related equipment is maintaining the component's original design basis. Assuring that the repaired item will perform the same safety function within the original performance and equipment qualification parameters is commonly referred to as configuration control. Maintaining configuration control of a technologically current well documented item is easy. Unfortunately, this does not describe most safety related items requiring maintenance within the global nuclear industry. Items such as motors, transformers, metal clad switchgear (low and medium voltage circuit breakers), refrigeration compressors, and electronic components (i.e. circuit boards, power supplies, regulators, etc.) which routinely require repair have been in service for twenty plus years. As a result, finding replacement parts and or material to repair the items to the original condition is becoming more and more difficult. An added difficulty is the lack of original technical documentation available on the item which is being repaired. The lack of technical documentation makes it difficult to identify replacement material and parts when the original part or material is not available. The lack of documentation also makes it difficult to test the repaired item to make sure that the original configuration has been maintained after the repair. The presentation will discuss the details of repairing various items including motors, metal clad switchgear, refrigeration compressors and power supplies and the controls which are necessary to maintain the configuration of the original item. The discussion will include the Quality Assurance and engineering necessary to identify and evaluate replacement material and parts necessary to perform repairs on safety related equipment when the original material or part is not available. Examples of repairs which required different parts or materials than the original to be used in the repair will be

  10. Configuration control during maintenance of safety related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Possibly the most important aspect of performing maintenance of safety related equipment is maintaining the component's original design basis. Assuring that the repaired item will perform the same safety function within the original performance and equipment qualification parameters is commonly referred to as configuration control. Maintaining configuration control of a technologically current well documented item is easy. Unfortunately, this does not describe most safety related items requiring maintenance within the global nuclear industry. Items such as motors, transformers, metal clad switchgear (low and medium voltage circuit breakers), refrigeration compressors, and electronic components (i.e. circuit boards, power supplies, regulators, etc.) which routinely require repair have been in service for twenty plus years. As a result, finding replacement parts and or material to repair the items to the original condition is becoming more and more difficult. An added difficulty is the lack of original technical documentation available on the item which is being repaired. The lack of technical documentation makes it difficult to identify replacement material and parts when the original part or material is not available. The lack of documentation also makes it difficult to test the repaired item to make sure that the original configuration has been maintained after the repair. The presentation will discuss the details of repairing various items including motors, metal clad switchgear, refrigeration compressors and power supplies and the controls which are necessary to maintain the configuration of the original item. The discussion will include the Quality Assurance and engineering necessary to identify and evaluate replacement material and parts necessary to perform repairs on safety related equipment when the original material or part is not available. Examples of repairs which required different parts or materials than the original to be used in the repair will be

  11. Challenges in the management of gas voids in safety related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Turkowski, W.M.; Ferraraccio, F.P.; Swartz, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gas intrusion into Safety Related Systems, such as the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), Decay Heat Removal (DHR) and Containment Spray (CS) in nuclear power plants is undesirable and can lead to pump binding (depending on the void fraction and flow rate) and damaging water hammer events. Gas ingestion in pumps can result in total or momentary loss of hydraulic performance resulting in possible pump shaft seizure rendering the pumps unable to perform their safety functions or reduce the pump discharge pressure and flow capacity to the point that the system cannot perform its design function. Extreme cases of gas water hammer can result in physical damage to system piping, components and supports, and possible relief valve lifting events with consequential loss of inventory. NRC Generic Letter GL 2008 01, 'Managing Gas Accumulation in Emergency Core Cooling, Decay Heat Removal, and Containment Spray Systems,' requires US utilities to demonstrate that suitable design, operational and testing measures are in place to maintain licensing commitments. The Generic Letter (GL 2008 01) outlines a number of actions that are detailed in nature, such as establishing pump void tolerance limits; establishing limits on pump suction void fractions, assuring adequate system venting capability, identification of all possible sources of gas intrusion, preventing vortex formation in tanks, and determining acceptable limits of gas in system discharge piping.. Regarding one of these issues, GL 2008 01 indicates that the amount of gas that can be ingested without significant impact on pump design, gas dispersion and flow rate. Each US nuclear power plant licensee is required to evaluate their ECCS, DHR and CS system design, operation and test procedures to assure that gas intrusion is minimized and monitored in order to maintain system operability and compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 50 Appendix B. Typically, gas pockets get into the safety related systems through a number

  12. Challenges in the management of gas voids in safety related systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Turkowski, W.M.; Ferraraccio, F.P.; Swartz, M.M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Gas intrusion into Safety Related Systems, such as the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), Decay Heat Removal (DHR) and Containment Spray (CS) in nuclear power plants is undesirable and can lead to pump binding (depending on the void fraction and flow rate) and damaging water hammer events. Gas ingestion in pumps can result in total or momentary loss of hydraulic performance resulting in possible pump shaft seizure rendering the pumps unable to perform their safety functions or reduce the pump discharge pressure and flow capacity to the point that the system cannot perform its design function. Extreme cases of gas water hammer can result in physical damage to system piping, components and supports, and possible relief valve lifting events with consequential loss of inventory. NRC Generic Letter GL 2008 01, 'Managing Gas Accumulation in Emergency Core Cooling, Decay Heat Removal, and Containment Spray Systems,' requires US utilities to demonstrate that suitable design, operational and testing measures are in place to maintain licensing commitments. The Generic Letter (GL 2008 01) outlines a number of actions that are detailed in nature, such as establishing pump void tolerance limits; establishing limits on pump suction void fractions, assuring adequate system venting capability, identification of all possible sources of gas intrusion, preventing vortex formation in tanks, and determining acceptable limits of gas in system discharge piping.. Regarding one of these issues, GL 2008 01 indicates that the amount of gas that can be ingested without significant impact on pump design, gas dispersion and flow rate. Each US nuclear power plant licensee is required to evaluate their ECCS, DHR and CS system design, operation and test procedures to assure that gas intrusion is minimized and monitored in order to maintain system operability and compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 50 Appendix B. Typically, gas pockets get into the safety related systems through

  13. Evaluation of Generic Issue 57: Effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Bohn, M.; Lynch, J.; Ross, S.; Brosseau, D.

    1992-12-01

    Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate and also have experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged safety-related equipment. A review of the impact of past occurrences of both types of such events and their impact on plant safety systems, an analysis of the risk impacts of such events on nuclear power plant safety, and a cost-benefit analysis of potential corrective measures have been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios ranged from inadvertent actuation caused by human error to hardware failure, and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen root causes, where applicable, was performed on generically applicable scenarios. This document, Volume 4, contains appendices E and F of this report

  14. Reliability of containment and safety-related structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    A research program on Reliability of Containment and Safety-related Structures has been developed and is described in this document. This program is designed to support AECB's regulatory activities aimed at ensuring the safety of these structures. These activities include evaluating submissions by operators and requesting special assessments when necessary. The results of the proposed research will also be useful in revising and enhancing the CSA design standards for containment and safety-related structures. The process of developing the research program started with an information collection and review phase. The sources of information included C-FER's previous work in the area, various recent research publications, regulatory documents and relevant design standards, and a detailed discussion with AECB staff. The second step was to outline the process of reliability evaluation, and identify the required models and parameters. Comparison between the required and available information was used to identify gaps in the state-of-the-art, and the research program was designed to fill these gaps. The program is organized in four major topics, namely: development of an approach for reliability analysis; compilation and development of the required analysis tools; application to specific problems related to design, assessment, maintenance and testing of structures; and testing and validation. It is suggested that the program should be supported by an on-going process of communication and consultation between AECB staff and industry experts. This will lend credibility to the results and facilitate their future application. (author). 1 fig

  15. Development of safety related technology and infrastructure for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.

    1997-01-01

    Development and optimum utilisation of any technology calls for the building up of the necessary infrastructure and backup facilities. This is particularly true for a developing country like India and more so for an advanced technology like nuclear technology. Right from the inception of its nuclear power programme, the Indian approach has been to develop adequate infrastructure in various areas such as design, construction, manufacture, installation, commissioning and safety assessment of nuclear plants. This paper deals with the development of safety related technology and the relevant infrastructure for safety assessment. A number of computer codes for safety assessment have been developed or adapted in the areas of thermal hydraulics, structural dynamics etc. These codes have undergone extensive validation through data generated in the experimental facilities set up in India as well as participation in international standard problem exercises. Side by side with the development of the tools for safety assessment, the development of safety related technology was also given equal importance. Many of the technologies required for the inspection, ageing assessment and estimation of the residual life of various components and equipment, particularly those having a bearing on safety, were developed. This paper highlights, briefly, the work carried out in some of the areas mentioned above. (author)

  16. Design and installation of advanced computer safety related instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Andolina, K.; Ruether, J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly developing area of computer systems creates new opportunities for commercial utilities operating nuclear reactors to improve plant operation and efficiency. Two of the main obstacles to utilizing the new technology in safety-related applications is the current policy of the licensing agencies and the fear of decision making managers to introduce new technologies. Once these obstacles are overcome, advanced diagnostic systems, CRT-based displays, and advanced communication channels can improve plant operation considerably. The article discusses outstanding issues in the area of designing, qualifying, and licensing of computer-based instrumentation and control systems. The authors describe the experience gained in designing three safety-related systems, that include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based Safeguard Load Sequencer for NSP Prairie Island, a digital Containment Isolation monitoring system for TVA Browns Ferry, and a study that was conducted for EPRI/NSP regarding a PLC-based Reactor Protection system. This article presents the benefits to be gained in replacing existing, outdated equipment with new advanced instrumentation

  17. Performance Studies for Electron and Photon Selection at the Event Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Mommsen, R K; Wielers, M

    2000-01-01

    In this note the electron and photon selection potential of the event filter is studied. The offline software suite ATRECON is used to investigate the rejection power achievable within the stringent constraints in an online environment. We used the electro-magnetic calorimeter reconstruction, the xKalman and iPatRec pattern recognition packages, and for photon conversion finding xConver/xHouRec. The interplay between efficiency/rejection and the execution time of the algorithms is investigated for electrons and photons both at low and high luminosity. A total efficiency of about 75(73)% for single electrons with Pt=20(30)GeV at a dijet rate of ~40(130)Hz at low (high) luminosity can be retained while reducing the median reconstruction time by a factor of ~3(10) with simple reconfigurations of ATRECON.Additional, the long tails seen in the reconstruction time distribution at the default settings are reduced significantly.

  18. Seismic qualification of multiple interconnected safety-related cabinets in a high seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Chen, W.H.W.; Wang, T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Certain safety-related multiple, interconnected electrical cabinets and the devices contained therein are required to perform their intended safety functions during and after a design basis seismic event. In general, seismic testing is performed to ensure the structural integrity of the cabinets and the functionality of their associated devices. Constrained by the shake table capacity, seismic testing is usually performed only for a limited number of interconnected cabinets. Also, original shake table tests performed usually did not provide detailed response information at various locations inside the cabinets. For operational and maintenance purposes, doors and panels of some cabinets may need to be opened while the adjacent cabinets are required to remain functional. In addition, in-cabinet response spectra need to be generated for the seismic qualification of new devices and the replacement parts. Consequently, seismic analysis of safety-related multiple, interconnected cabinets is frequently required for configurations which are different from the original tested conditions. This paper presents results of seismic tests of three interconnected safety-related cabinets and finite element analyses performed to compare the analytical results with those obtained from the cabinet seismic tests. Parametric analyses are performed to determine how many panels and doors can be opened while the adjacent cabinets still remain functional. The study indicates that for cabinets located in a high seismic zone, the critical damping of the cabinet is significantly higher than 5% to 7% typically used in qualifying electrical equipment. For devices mounted on the cabinet doors to performed their intended safety function, it requires stiffening of doors and that these doors be properly bolted to the cabinet frame. It also shows that even though doors and panels bolted to the cabinet frame are the primary seismic resistant element of the cabinet, opening of a limited number of them

  19. Black-hole ringdown search in TAMA300: matched filtering and event selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Tatsumi, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    Detecting gravitational ringdown waves provides a probe for direct observation of astrophysical black holes. The masses and angular momenta of black holes can be determined from the waveforms by using the black-hole perturbation theory. In this paper we present data analysis methods to search for black-hole ringdowns of fundamental quasi-normal modes with interferometric gravitational wave detectors, and report an application to the TAMA300 data. Our method is based upon matched filtering by which we calculate cross-correlations between detector outputs and reference waveforms. In a search for gravitational signals, fake reductions and event identifications are of most importance. We developed two methods to reject spurious triggers in filter outputs in the time domain and examined their reduction powers. It is shown that by using the methods presented here the number of fake triggers can be reduced by an order with a false dismissal probability of 5%. We also discuss the possibility of using the higher order quasi-normal modes for event selection

  20. Selection of important initiating events for Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment study at Puspati TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskin, M.; Charlie, F.; Hassan, A.; Prak Tom, P.; Ramli, Z.; Mohamed, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Identifying possible important initiating events (IEs) for Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment performed on research nuclear reactor. • Methods in screening and grouping IEs are addressed. • Focusing only on internal IEs due to random failures of components. - Abstract: This paper attempts to present the results in identifying possible important initiating events (IEs) as comprehensive as possible to be applied in the development of Level-1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) study. This involves the approaches in listing and the methods in screening and grouping IEs, by focusing only on the internal IEs due to random failures of components and human errors with full power operational conditions and reactor core as the radioactivity source. Five approaches were applied in listing the IEs and each step of the methodology was described and commented. The criteria in screening and grouping the IEs were also presented. The results provided the information on how the Malaysian PSA team applied the approaches in selecting the most probable IEs as complete as possible in order to ensure the set of IEs was identified systematically and as representative as possible, hence providing confidence to the completeness of the PSA study. This study is perhaps one of the first to address classic comprehensive steps in identifying important IEs to be used in a Level-1 PSA study.

  1. Physiological and Selective Attention Demands during an International Rally Motor Sport Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To monitor physiological and attention responses of drivers and codrivers during a World Rally Championship (WRC event. Methods. Observational data were collected from ten male drivers/codrivers on heart rate (HR, core body (Tcore and skin temperature (Tsk, hydration status (urine osmolality, fluid intake (self-report, and visual and auditory selective attention (performance tests. Measures were taken pre-, mid-, and postcompetition day and also during the precompetition reconnaissance. Results. In ambient temperatures of 20.1°C (in-car peak 33.9°C mean (SD peak HR and Tcore were significantly elevated (P<0.05 during rally compared to reconnaissance (166 (17 versus 111 (16 beats·min−1 and 38.5 (0.4 versus 37.6 (0.2°C, resp.. Values during competitive stages were substantially higher in drivers. High urine osmolality was indicated in some drivers within competition. Attention was maintained during the event but was significantly lower prerally, though with considerable individual variation. Conclusions. Environmental and physical demands during rally competition produced significant physiological responses. Challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and cognitive function need to be addressed to minimise potentially negative effects on performance and safety.

  2. Selective Regulation of Oocyte Meiotic Events Enhances Progress in Fertility Preservation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Celik

    2015-01-01

    persistence of the GV oocyte, which reduces the number of good quality eggs. Selective regulation of somatic cell signals and oocyte meiotic events enhance progress in fertility preservation methods, which may give us the opportunity to prevent follicle loss in prematurely aging women and young women with cancer are undergoing chemoradiotherapy.

  3. Value-impact assessment of safety-related modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, W.M.C.; Dinnie, K.S.; Gordon, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Like other nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, as part of its risk management activities, continually assesses the safety of its nuclear operations. In addition, new regulatory requirements are being applied to the older nuclear power plants. Both of these result in proposed plant modifications designed to reduce the risk to the public. However, modifications to an operating plant can have serious economic effects, and the resources, both financial and personnel, required for the implementation of these modifications are limited. Thus, all potential benefits and effects of a proposed modification must be thoroughly investigated to judge whether the modification is beneficial. Ontario Hydro has begun to use comprehensive value-impact assessments, utilizing plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), as tools to provide an informed basis for judgments on the benefit of safety-related modifications. The results from value-impact assessments can also be used to prioritize the implementation of these modifications

  4. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  5. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of... establishing minimum training standards for each category and subcategory of safety-related railroad employee... or contractor that employs one or more safety-related railroad employee to develop and submit a...

  6. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2010-12-01

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  7. An event-related brain potential study of visual selective attention to conjunctions of color and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, H G; Jakob, A; Heinze, H J

    1999-03-01

    What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other conjunctions of these attributes in three discriminability conditions. Attending to color and shape produced three ERP effects: frontal selection positivity (FSP), central negativity (N2b), and posterior selection negativity (SN). The results suggested that the processes underlying SN and N2b perform independent within-dimension selections, whereas the process underlying the FSP performs hierarchical between-dimension selections. At posterior electrodes, manipulation of discriminability changed the ERPs to the relevant but not to the irrelevant stimuli, suggesting that the SN does not concern the selection process itself but rather a cognitive process initiated after selection is finished. Other findings suggested that selection of multiple visual attributes occurs in parallel.

  8. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  9. Seismic fragility testing of naturally-aged, safety-related, class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The concern over seismic susceptibility of naturally-aged lead-acid batteries used for safety-related emergency power in nuclear power stations was brought about by battery problems that periodically had been reported in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The Turkey Point Station had reported cracked and buckled plates in several cells in October 1974 (LER 75-5). The Fitzpatrick Station had reported cracked battery cell cases in October 1977 (LER 77-55) and again in September 1979 (LER 79-59). The Browns Ferry Station had reported a cracked cell leaking a small quantity of electrolyte in July 1981 (LER 81-42). The Indian Point Station had reported cracked and leaking cells in both February (LER 82-7) and April 1982 (LER 82-16); both of these LERs indicated the cracked cells were due to expansion (i.e., growth) of the positive plates

  10. EEG Channel Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization for the Classification of Auditory Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMI rely on the accurate classification of event-related potentials (ERPs and their performance greatly depends on the appropriate selection of classifier parameters and features from dense-array electroencephalography (EEG signals. Moreover, in order to achieve a portable and more compact BMI for practical applications, it is also desirable to use a system capable of accurate classification using information from as few EEG channels as possible. In the present work, we propose a method for classifying P300 ERPs using a combination of Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA and a multiobjective hybrid real-binary Particle Swarm Optimization (MHPSO algorithm. Specifically, the algorithm searches for the set of EEG channels and classifier parameters that simultaneously maximize the classification accuracy and minimize the number of used channels. The performance of the method is assessed through offline analyses on datasets of auditory ERPs from sound discrimination experiments. The proposed method achieved a higher classification accuracy than that achieved by traditional methods while also using fewer channels. It was also found that the number of channels used for classification can be significantly reduced without greatly compromising the classification accuracy.

  11. Software FMEA analysis for safety-related application software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee-Yong; Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Dong Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a modified FMEA analysis suited for applying to software architecture. • A template for failure modes on a specific software language is established. • A detailed-level software FMEA analysis on nuclear safety software is presented. - Abstract: A method of a software safety analysis is described in this paper for safety-related application software. The target software system is a software code installed at an Automatic Test and Interface Processor (ATIP) in a digital reactor protection system (DRPS). For the ATIP software safety analysis, at first, an overall safety or hazard analysis is performed over the software architecture and modules, and then a detailed safety analysis based on the software FMEA (Failure Modes and Effect Analysis) method is applied to the ATIP program. For an efficient analysis, the software FMEA analysis is carried out based on the so-called failure-mode template extracted from the function blocks used in the function block diagram (FBD) for the ATIP software. The software safety analysis by the software FMEA analysis, being applied to the ATIP software code, which has been integrated and passed through a very rigorous system test procedure, is proven to be able to provide very valuable results (i.e., software defects) that could not be identified during various system tests

  12. Can we use IEC 61850 for safety related functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rocca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety is an essential issue for processes that present high risk for human beings and environment. An acceptable level of risk is obtained both with actions on the process itself (risk reduction and with the use of special safety systems that switch the process into safe mode when a fault or an abnormal operation mode happens. These safety systems are today based on digital devices that communicate through digital networks. The IEC 61508 series specifies the safety requirements of all the devices that are involved in a safety function, including the communication network. Also electrical generation and distribution systems are processes that may have a significant level of risk, so the criteria stated by the IEC 61508 applies. Starting from this consideration, the paper analyzes the safety requirement for the communication network and compare them with the services of the communication protocol IEC 61850 that represents the most used protocol for automation of electrical plants. The goal of this job is to demonstrate that, from the technical point of view, IEC 61850 can be used for implementing safety-related functions, even if a formal safety certification is still missing.

  13. Relationships between organizational climates and safety-related events at four wood manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrice D. Evans; Judd H. Michael; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles D. Ray; Charles D. Ray

    2005-01-01

    Most segments of thewood manufacturing industry place a great deal of emphasis on production in order to meet daily orweekly productivity quotas. Unfortunately, conflicts often exist between productivity and employee safety, aswell as between productivity and quality. The perceived emphasis placed on each of these areas by an organization?s management will cultivate a...

  14. An evaluation of selected herbal reference texts and comparison to published reports of adverse herbal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christine A; Anderson, Ilene B; Kim, Susan Y; Blanc, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    There has been a recent proliferation of medical reference texts intended to guide practitioners whose patients use herbal therapies. We systematically assessed six herbal reference texts to evaluate the information they contain on herbal toxicity. We selected six major herbal references published from 1996 to 2000 to evaluate the adequacy of their toxicological information in light of published adverse events. To identify herbs most relevant to toxicology, we reviewed herbal-related calls to our regional California Poison Control System, San Francisco division (CPCS-SF) in 1998 and identified the 12 herbs (defined as botanical dietary supplements) most frequently involved in these CPCS-SF referrals. We searched Medline (1966 to 2000) to identify published reports of adverse effects potentially related to these same 12 herbs. We scored each herbal reference text on the basis of information inclusiveness for the target 12 herbs, with a maximal overall score of 3. The herbs, identified on the basis of CPCS-SF call frequency were: St John's wort, ma huang, echinacea, guarana, ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, tea tree oil, goldenseal, arnica, yohimbe and kava kava. The overall herbal reference scores ranged from 2.2 to 0.4 (median 1.1). The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database received the highest overall score and was the most complete and useful reference source. All of the references, however, lacked sufficient information on management of herbal medicine overdose, and several had incorrect overdose management guidelines that could negatively impact patient care. Current herbal reference texts do not contain sufficient information for the assessment and management of adverse health effects of botanical therapies.

  15. Soluble endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule and incident cardiovascular events in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao-Yu; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James A; Ayers, Colby R; Rohatgi, Anand

    2017-09-01

    Cell adhesion molecules are key regulators of atherosclerotic plaque development, but circulating levels of soluble fragments, such as intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), have yielded conflicting associations with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM) is expressed exclusively in platelets and endothelial cells, and soluble ESAM (sESAM) levels have been associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. We therefore hypothesized that sESAM would be associated with incident ASCVD. sESAM, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured in 2,442 participants without CVD in the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based population sample aged 30-65 years enrolled between 2000 and 2002. ASCVD was defined as first myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or CV death. A total of 162 ASCVD events were analyzed over 10.4 years. Increasing sESAM was associated with ASCVD, independent of risk factors (HR Q4 vs Q1: 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.6). Serial adjustment for renal function, sICAM-1, VCAM-1, and prevalent coronary calcium did not attenuate these associations. Continuous ESAM demonstrated similar findings (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). Addition of sESAM to traditional risk factors improved discrimination and reclassification (delta c-index: P = .009; integrated-discrimination-improvement index P = .001; net reclassification index = 0.42, 95% CI 0.15-0.68). Neither sICAM-1 nor sVCAM-1 was independently associated with ASCVD. sESAM but not sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1 levels are associated with incident ASCVD. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role of sESAM in ASCVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An initial examination of aging related degradation in turbine drives and governors for safety related pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This study is being performed to examine the relationship between time dependent degradation, and current industry practices in the areas of maintenance, surveillance, and operation of steam turbine drives for safety related pumps. These pumps are located in the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) system for pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants, and the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) and High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) systems for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) facilities. This research has been conducted by examining current information in NPRDS, reviewing Licensee Event Reports, and thoroughly investigating contacts with operating plant personnel, and by personal observation. The reported information was reviewed to determine the cause of the event and the method of discovery. From this data attempts have been made at determining the predictability of events and possible preventive measures that may be implemented. Findings in a recent study on the Auxiliary Feedwater System (NUREG/CR-5404) indicate that the turbine drive is the single largest contributor to AFW system degradation. Recent improvements in maintenance practices and procedures, combined with a stabilization of the design seem to indicate that this equipment can be a reliable component in safety systems

  17. Integrity of Safety-Related Fast Reactor Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.

    1981-01-01

    The LMFBR contains several structural items whose integrity must be safeguarded during the life of the plant. These items include the main core support structures (strongback, diagrid) and the primary tank to which these structures are attached. In order to demonstrate an acceptable level of structural integrity, the chosen design philosophy must be supported by both analytical and experimental evidence. This paper describes the current approaches in the UK to these requirements. Section 2 describes the materials mechanical properties tests performed to date on both fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth in Type 316 austenitic stainless steel plate and weldments. This data illustrates the problems in identifying the relevant materials fracture parameters for use in assessments. Section 3 shows the test programmes in hand to extend the materials programmes to tests on structural features (mainly welded wide plate tests) which incorporate the complexity of weldments in a structural context. This includes experimental evidence on the effects of local weld residual stresses on structural failure. Various routes are open for the integrity assessment of FR structures. These are discussed in Section 4 but in effect they reduce to a fracture mechanics approach using some technique to cope with elastic-plastic fracture. The main problems at present relate to our ability in analysis to cope with residual stresses and the post-initiation region of the fracture resistance curve. Also, there is the problem of initial defect sizing by current NDE techniques. Current conservative analytical assessments give acceptable defect sizes of order a few millimetres in irradiated weldments. Finally, Section 5 discusses the options open in design to cope with safety related structures under normal and abnormal loading conditions. It is clear that several options exist in design to satisfy the demand for high integrity

  18. An event-related brain potential study of visual selective attention to conjunctions of color and shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, HGOM; Jakob, A; Heinze, HJ

    What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other

  19. Soil organic carbon loss and selective transportation under field simulated rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Wenming; Hu, Yanbiao; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    The study on the lateral movement of soil organic carbon (SOC) during soil erosion can improve the understanding of global carbon budget. Simulated rainfall experiments on small field plots were conducted to investigate the SOC lateral movement under different rainfall intensities and tillage practices. Two rainfall intensities (High intensity (HI) and Low intensity (LI)) and two tillage practices (No tillage (NT) and Conventional tillage (CT)) were maintained on three plots (2 m width × 5 m length): HI-NT, LI-NT and LI-CT. The rainfall lasted 60 minutes after the runoff generated, the sediment yield and runoff volume were measured and sampled at 6-min intervals. SOC concentration of sediment and runoff as well as the sediment particle size distribution were measured. The results showed that most of the eroded organic carbon (OC) was lost in form of sediment-bound organic carbon in all events. The amount of lost SOC in LI-NT event was 12.76 times greater than that in LI-CT event, whereas this measure in HI-NT event was 3.25 times greater than that in LI-NT event. These results suggest that conventional tillage as well as lower rainfall intensity can reduce the amount of lost SOC during short-term soil erosion. Meanwhile, the eroded sediment in all events was enriched in OC, and higher enrichment ratio of OC (ERoc) in sediment was observed in LI events than that in HI event, whereas similar ERoc curves were found in LI-CT and LI-NT events. Furthermore, significant correlations between ERoc and different size sediment particles were only observed in HI-NT event. This indicates that the enrichment of OC is dependent on the erosion process, and the specific enrichment mechanisms with respect to different erosion processes should be studied in future.

  20. A DEA Approach for Selecting a Bundle of Tickets for Performing Arts Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    tackle the issue of identifying the most efficient subset of the events scheduled to offer as a bundle. We formulate this problem following the choice-based network Revenue Management approach. Assuming the price as fixed on two types of events, lowbrow and highbrow, proposed by the theatre, the purchase...... decision is modelled on the basis of two random variables: the available time and the reservation price per perfomance. The super-efficiency DEA model will be implemented in order to find the most efficient combination of events to be bundled, defined as the one that offers the most favourable trade...

  1. Selected problems and results of the transient event and reliability analyses for the German safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.

    1977-01-01

    For the investigation of the risk of nuclear power plants loss-of-coolant accidents and transients have to be analyzed. The different functions of the engineered safety features installed to cope with transients are explained. The event tree analysis is carried out for the important transient 'loss of normal onsite power'. Preliminary results of the reliability analyses performed for quantitative evaluation of this event tree are shown. (orig.) [de

  2. Non-bleached colonies of massive Porites may attract fishes for selective grazing during mass bleaching events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ikeuchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the variation in grazing scar densities between bleached and non-bleached colonies of massive Porites species in Sekisei Lagoon (Okinawa, southwestern Japan during a mass bleaching event in 2016. The grazing scar densities and bleaching susceptibility varied among neighboring colonies of massive Porites spp. However, non-bleached colonies had significantly more surface scars than bleached colonies. One explanation for these variations is that corallivorous fishes may selectively graze on non-bleached, thermally tolerant colonies. This is the first report of a relationship between grazing scars and the bleaching status of massive Porites spp. colonies during a mass bleaching event.

  3. Association of Selected Antipsychotic Agents With Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Noncardiovascular Mortality in Elderly Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlberg, Marie; Holm, Ellen; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2015-01-01

    events and noncardiovascular mortality associated with individual APs (ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, levomepromazine, chlorprothixen, flupentixol, and haloperidol) in Danish treatment-naïve patients aged ≥70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed all treatment-naïve Danish citizens...... of treatment, compared with risperidone, incidence rate ratios of major adverse cardiovascular events were higher with use of levomepromazine (3.80, 95% CI 3.43 to 4.21) and haloperidol (1.85, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.05) and lower for treatment with flupentixol (0.54, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.66), ziprasidone (0.31, 95% CI 0...

  4. Enhanced Starting Track Event Selection for Astrophysical Neutrinos in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jero, Kyle; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    IceCube’s measurements of the astrophysical neutrino flux have applied veto techniques to suppress atmospheric neutrinos and muons. All the vetos thus far have used the outer regions of the detector to identify and reject penetrating muon tracks, leaving the inner parts of the detector available to observe the astrophysical neutrino flux. Here we discuss a method that is optimized for muon neutrinos which have a charged-current interaction with a contained vertex. This analysis exploits the high quality directional information of muons to determine a veto on an event by event basis. The final sample will contain astrophysical neutrinos with good purity starting around 10 TeV.

  5. MODULATION OF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS BY WORD REPETITION - THE ROLE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OTTEN, LJ; RUGG, MD; DOYLE, MC

    1993-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects viewed visually presented words, some of which occurred twice. Each trial consisted of two colored letter strings, the requirement being to attend to and make a word/nonword discrimination for one of the strings. Attention was manipulated

  6. High-speed special-purpose processor for event selection by number of direct tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Chudakov, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A processor which uses data on events from five detector planes is described. To increase economy and speed in parallel processing, the processor converts the input data to superposition code and recognizes tracks by a generated search mask. The resolving time of the processor is ≤300 nsec. The processor is CAMAC-compatible and uses ECL integrated circuits

  7. Effects of nicotine on visuo-spatial selective attention as indexed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, A; Thiel, C M; Fink, G R

    2006-08-11

    Nicotine has been shown to specifically reduce reaction times to invalidly cued targets in spatial cueing paradigms. In two experiments, we used event-related potentials to test whether the facilitative effect of nicotine upon the detection of invalidly cued targets is due to a modulation of perceptual processing, as indexed by early attention-related event-related potential components. Furthermore, we assessed whether the effect of nicotine on such unattended stimuli depends upon the use of exogenous or endogenous cues. In both experiments, the electroencephalogram was recorded while non-smokers completed discrimination tasks in Posner-type paradigms after chewing a nicotine polacrilex gum (Nicorette 2 mg) in one session and a placebo gum in another session. Nicotine reduced reaction times to invalidly cued targets when cueing was endogenous. In contrast, no differential effect of nicotine on reaction times was observed when exogenous cues were used. Electrophysiologically, we found a similar attentional modulation of the P1 and N1 components under placebo and nicotine but a differential modulation of later event-related potential components at a frontocentral site. The lack of a drug-dependent modulation of P1 and N1 in the presence of a behavioral effect suggests that the effect of nicotine in endogenous visuo-spatial cueing tasks is not due to an alteration of perceptual processes. Rather, the differential modulation of frontocentral event-related potentials suggests that nicotine acts at later stages of target processing.

  8. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants... entitled ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily...

  9. Experience on environmental qualification of safety-related components for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.S.; Kukreti, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The proliferation of Nuclear Power Plant safety concerns has lead to increasing attention over the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Components to provide the assurance that the safety related equipment will meet their intended functions during normal operation and postulated accident conditions. The environmental qualification of these components is also a Licensing requirement for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station. This paper provides an overview of EQ and the experience of a pilot project, in the qualification of the Main Moderator System safety-related functions for the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station currently under construction. It addresses the various phases of qualification from the identification of the EQ Safety-Related Components List, definition of location specific service conditions (normal, adbnormal and accident), safety-related functions, Environmental Qualification Assessments and finally, an EQ system summary report for the Main Moderator System. The results of the pilot project are discussed and the methodology reviewed. The paper concludes that the EQ Program developed for Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, as applied to the qualification of the Main Moderator System, contained all the elements necessary in the qualification of safety-related equipment. The approach taken in the qualification of the Moderator safety-related equipment proves to provide a sound framework for the qualification of other safety-related components in the station

  10. Applicant Reactions to Selection Events : Four studies into the role of attributional style and fairness perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, S.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Ryan, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In four studies, applicants’ (N = 478) organizational attractiveness perceptions and recommendation intentions following selection outcomes were measured. In three field studies, actual applicants’ perceptions were measured in authentic, high-stakes application contexts, both preprocedure and

  11. Moment magnitude determination of local seismic events recorded at selected Polish seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents the method of local magnitude determination used at Polish seismic stations to report events originating in one of the four regions of induced seismicity in Poland or its immediate vicinity. The method is based on recalculation of the seismic moment into magnitude, whereas the seismic moment is obtained from spectral analysis. The method has been introduced at Polish seismic stations in the late 1990s but as of yet had not been described in full because magnitude discrepancies have been found between the results of the individual stations. The authors have performed statistics of these differences, provide their explanation and calculate station corrections for each station and each event source region. The limitations of the method are also discussed. The method is found to be a good and reliable method of local magnitude determination provided the limitations are observed and station correction applied.

  12. An assessment of the risk significance of human errors in selected PSAs and operating events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, R.L. Jr.; El-Bassioni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Sensitivity studies based on Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) for a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor are described. In each case human errors modeled in the PSAs were categorized according to such factors as error type, location, timing, and plant personnel involved. Sensitivity studies were then conducted by varying the error rates in each category and evaluating the corresponding change in total core damage frequency and accident sequence frequency. Insights obtained are discussed and reasons for differences in risk sensitivity between plants are explored. A separate investigation into the role of human error in risk-important operating events is also described. This investigation involved the analysis of data from the USNRC Accident Sequence Precursor program to determine the effect of operator-initiated events on accident precursor trends, and to determine whether improved training can be correlated to current trends. The findings of this study are also presented. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  13. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural assessment at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight systems, namely: cooling water system, emergency cooling system, moderator recovery system, supplementary safety system, water removal system, service raw water system, service clarified water system, and river water system. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four major disciplines, including: structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management, and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five subsystems. These subsystems were then ranked with six attributes, namely: safety classification, degradation mechanisms, difficulty of replacement, failure mode, radiation dose to workers, and consequence of failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner

  14. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural enhancement assessment at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight (8) systems, namely: Cooling Water System, Emergency Cooling System, Moderator Recovery System supplementary Safety System, Water Removal System, Service Raw Water System, Service Clarified Water System, and River Water System. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four (4) major disciplines, including. structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five (35) subsystem. These subsystems were then ranked with six (6) attributes, namely: Safety Classification, Degradation Mechanisms, Difficulty of Replacement, Failure Mode, Radiation Dose to Workers and Consequence of Failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner

  15. Fast digital processor for event selection according to particle number difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Gus'kov, B.N.; Li Van Sun; Maksimov, A.N.; Parfenov, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    A fast digital processor for a magnetic spectrometer is described. It is used in experimental searches for charmed particles. The basic purpose of the processor is discriminating events in the difference of numbers of particles passing through two proportional chambers (PC). The processor consists of three units for detecting signals with PC, and a binary coder. The number of inputs of the processor is 32 for the first PC and 64 for the second. The difference in the number of particles discriminated is from 0 to 8. The resolution time is 180 ns. The processor is built in the CAMAC standard

  16. The influence of caffeine on spatial-selective attention : an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, MB; Snel, J; Lorist, MM; Ruijter, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Following the indications of previous studies that caffeine might have a specific effect on the processing of spatial information compared with other types of information, the present study investigated the influence of caffeine on an often used spatial-selective attention task. Methods:

  17. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  18. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Harald T. Schupp; Ursula Kirmse; Ralf Schmälzle; Tobias Flaisch; Britta Renner

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depi...

  19. Pixel sensor evaluation and online event selection for the Mu3e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, Dorothea vom

    2017-10-27

    Despite having survived numerous experimental tests, the standard model of particle physics is not a complete description of nature. The Mu3e experiment tests theories beyond the standard model by searching for the lepton flavour violating decay μ→e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +}, aiming at a branching ratio sensitivity of 2.10{sup -15} in a first phase of the experiment. A high precision magnetic spectrometer combined with scintillation detectors will measure the momenta, vertices and timing of the decay products of 1.10{sup 8} μ/s stopped on a target. In this work, a prototype of the high voltage monolithic active pixel sensor envisaged for the spectrometer was characterised. With an efficiency >99% and a time resolution of 14 ns, it meets the requirements imposed on the final sensor. Furthermore, an online signal selection process was developed and implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU), keeping 98% of signal decays, while reducing the data rate of 80 Gbit/s by a factor of 140; resulting in a rate that can be stored to disk. With the computing performance achieved on the GPU, the selection process can run on the hardware planned for the experiment. Both the online selection and the silicon sensor are key aspects for the success of Mu3e.

  20. Distribution of events of positive selection and population differentiation in a metabolic pathway: the case of asparagine N-glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dall’Olio Giovanni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asparagine N-Glycosylation is one of the most important forms of protein post-translational modification in eukaryotes. This metabolic pathway can be subdivided into two parts: an upstream sub-pathway required for achieving proper folding for most of the proteins synthesized in the secretory pathway, and a downstream sub-pathway required to give variability to trans-membrane proteins, and involved in adaptation to the environment and innate immunity. Here we analyze the nucleotide variability of the genes of this pathway in human populations, identifying which genes show greater population differentiation and which genes show signatures of recent positive selection. We also compare how these signals are distributed between the upstream and the downstream parts of the pathway, with the aim of exploring how forces of population differentiation and positive selection vary among genes involved in the same metabolic pathway but subject to different functional constraints. Results Our results show that genes in the downstream part of the pathway are more likely to show a signature of population differentiation, while events of positive selection are equally distributed among the two parts of the pathway. Moreover, events of positive selection are frequent on genes that are known to be at bifurcation points, and that are identified as being in key position by a network-level analysis such as MGAT3 and GCS1. Conclusions These findings indicate that the upstream part of the Asparagine N-Glycosylation pathway has lower diversity among populations, while the downstream part is freer to tolerate diversity among populations. Moreover, the distribution of signatures of population differentiation and positive selection can change between parts of a pathway, especially between parts that are exposed to different functional constraints. Our results support the hypothesis that genes involved in constitutive processes can be expected to show

  1. A Study of Time Response for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Non-LOCA Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Seok; Lee, Sang Seob; Park, Min Soo; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The classification of initiating events for safety analysis report (SAR) chapter 15 is categorized into moderate frequency events (MF), infrequent events (IF), and limiting faults (LF) depending on the frequency of its occurrence. For the non-LOCA safety analysis with the purpose to get construction or operation license, however, it is assumed that the operator response action to mitigate the events starts at 30 minutes after the initiation of the transient regardless of the event categorization. Such an assumption of corresponding operator response time may have over conservatism with the MF and IF events and results in a decrease in the safety margin compared to its acceptance criteria. In this paper, the plant conditions (PC) are categorized with the definitions in SAR 15 and ANS 51.1. Then, the consequence of response for safety-related operator action time is determined based on the PC in ANSI 58.8. The operator response time for safety analysis regarding PC are reviewed and suggested. The clarifying alarm response procedure would be required for the guideline to reduce the operator response time when the alarms indicate the occurrence of the transient.

  2. Development of a Method for Quantifying the Reliability of Nuclear Safety-Related Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zhang; Golay, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    The work of our project is intended to help introducing digital technologies into nuclear power into nuclear power plant safety related software applications. In our project we utilize a combination of modern software engineering methods: design process discipline and feedback, formal methods, automated computer aided software engineering tools, automatic code generation, and extensive feasible structure flow path testing to improve software quality. The tactics include ensuring that the software structure is kept simple, permitting routine testing during design development, permitting extensive finished product testing in the input data space of most likely service and using test-based Bayesian updating to estimate the probability that a random software input will encounter an error upon execution. From the results obtained the software reliability can be both improved and its value estimated. Hopefully our success in the project's work can aid the transition of the nuclear enterprise into the modern information world. In our work, we have been using the proprietary sample software, the digital Signal Validation Algorithm (SVA), provided by Westinghouse. Also our work is being done with their collaboration. The SVA software is used for selecting the plant instrumentation signal set which is to be used as the input the digital Plant Protection System (PPS). This is the system that automatically decides whether to trip the reactor. In our work, we are using -001 computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tool of Hamilton Technologies Inc. This tool is capable of stating the syntactic structure of a program reflecting its state requirements, logical functions and data structure

  3. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Curtis J; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N; Clambey, Eric T; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A; DeGregori, James

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRAS(V12), or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRAS(V12)-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation--a common feature of aging--has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis.

  4. IEEE Std 382-1980: IEEE standard for qualification of safety-related valve actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. This standard may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of all safety-related functions of power-driven valve actuators

  5. Selected safety-related occurrences reported in May and June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casto, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    The following occurrences are reviewed because of their uniqueness and/or general interest: (1) short reactor periods have occurred at Quad Cities 1 during shutdown margin tests; (2) loss of instrument air caused damage to reactor coolant-pump seals at a pressurized-water reactor (PWR); (3) a power-distribution anomaly occurred because of a failure of burnable poison rods at St. Lucie 1; (4) short reactor periods have occurred at some boiling-water reactors (BWRs) during startups at peak xenon; and (5) surging in the feedwater flow caused pipe vibrations at Beaver Valley 1

  6. Criteria for the optimal selection of remote sensing optical images to map event landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Giordan, Daniele; Santangelo, Michele; Dutto, Furio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    Landslides leave discernible signs on the land surface, most of which can be captured in remote sensing images. Trained geomorphologists analyse remote sensing images and map landslides through heuristic interpretation of photographic and morphological characteristics. Despite a wide use of remote sensing images for landslide mapping, no attempt to evaluate how the image characteristics influence landslide identification and mapping exists. This paper presents an experiment to determine the effects of optical image characteristics, such as spatial resolution, spectral content and image type (monoscopic or stereoscopic), on landslide mapping. We considered eight maps of the same landslide in central Italy: (i) six maps obtained through expert heuristic visual interpretation of remote sensing images, (ii) one map through a reconnaissance field survey, and (iii) one map obtained through a real-time kinematic (RTK) differential global positioning system (dGPS) survey, which served as a benchmark. The eight maps were compared pairwise and to a benchmark. The mismatch between each map pair was quantified by the error index, E. Results show that the map closest to the benchmark delineation of the landslide was obtained using the higher resolution image, where the landslide signature was primarily photographical (in the landslide source and transport area). Conversely, where the landslide signature was mainly morphological (in the landslide deposit) the best mapping result was obtained using the stereoscopic images. Albeit conducted on a single landslide, the experiment results are general, and provide useful information to decide on the optimal imagery for the production of event, seasonal and multi-temporal landslide inventory maps.

  7. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  8. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-06-20

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life.

  9. New trends in the evaluation and implementation of the safety-related operating experience associated with NRC-licensed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelson, C.; Heltemes, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This article is an overview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission program for the evaluation and dissemination of the safety-related operating experience associated with all NRC-licensed reactors. It discusses the historical background and past problems that led to the recent formation of NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) and details its activities, organization, staffing, and proposed analysis and evaluation methodology. The programs of industry organizations and nuclear plant licensees and the integration of foreign operating experience are included in the overview. The problems and limitations of the Licensee Event Report (LER) program and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data system program are discussed. The AEOD analysis and evaluation methodology program includes some new improvements in the assessment of safety-related operating experience. Of particular note is the sequence coding and search procedure being developed by AEOD under a contract with the Nuclear Safety Information Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This computer-based retrieval system will have markedly improved search strategy capability for such items as commoncause failures or complex system interactions involving various failure sequences and other relationships associated with an event. The system retrieves failure data and information on the principal LER occurrence and on related component and system responses. The computer-generated Power Reactor Watch List enables AEOD to monitor all critical or unusual situations warranting close attention because of potential public health and safety. This listing is supported by a preestablished computer search strategy of the historical data base permitting identification of all past events and statistical information that are applicable to the situation being watched

  10. Towards the Development of a Methodology for the Cyber Security Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Digital I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, Parvaiz Ahmed; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants the redundant safety related systems are designed to take automatic action to prevent and mitigate accident conditions if the operators and the non-safety systems fail to maintain the plant within normal operating conditions. In case of an event, the failure of these systems has catastrophic consequences. The tendency in the industry over the past 10 years has been to use of commercial of the shelf (COTS) technologies in these systems. COTS software was written with attention to function and performance rather than security. COTS hardware usually designed to fail safe, but security vulnerabilities could be exploited by an attacker to disable the fail safe mechanisms. Moreover, the use of open protocols and operating systems in these technologies make the plants to become vulnerable to a host of cyber attacks. An effective security analysis process is required during all life cycle phases of these systems in order to ensure the security from cyber attacks. We are developing a methodology for the cyber security analysis of safety related nuclear digital I and C Systems. This methodology will cover all phases of development, operation and maintenance processes of software life cycle. In this paper, we will present a security analysis process for the concept stage of software development life cycle

  11. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips January 1 - June 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This is a systematically arranged report on all safety-related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during the period from January 1 to June 30 1984. It is based on the reports submitted by the utilities to the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate according to Technical Specifications. Twice a year since 1974 the Inspectorate has issued a compilation on such reported occurrences and reactor trips. Starting with the compilation of the second half of 1982 some new features have been introduced. The most important change is that the volume of information has been increased. The full text, provided by the utilities when reporting the incidents, is now attached to the codified information and also the layout has been altered to facilitate reading. As in the previous reports the occurrences and reactor trips are arranged both alphabetically by facility name and chronologically by report number for each facility. Electricity generation charts for each facility are also presented. The primary purpose of this report is thus to present all the information furnished by the utilities when they submit their reports according to Technical Specifications. The only evaluation made by the Inspectorate is the categorization on the incidents. Like the previous reports this one also presents frequency of incidents as related to affected component, cause of incident etc. The difference is that only information reported by the utilities is used. This is the reason why a considerable proportion of the incidents are categorized as other component or other fault. Sometime in the future, however, the Inspectorate plants to put out a special report containing its own analyses of the most interesting events along with processed statistics and other information. (author)

  12. Network based on statistical multiplexing for event selection and event builder systems in high energy physics experiments; Reseau a multiplexage statistique pour les systemes de selection et de reconstruction d'evenements dans les experiences de physique des hautes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, D

    2000-03-01

    Systems for on-line event selection in future high energy physics experiments will use advanced distributed computing techniques and will need high speed networks. After a brief description of projects at the Large Hadron Collider, the architectures initially proposed for the Trigger and Data AcQuisition (TD/DAQ) systems of ATLAS and CMS experiments are presented and analyzed. A new architecture for the ATLAS T/DAQ is introduced. Candidate network technologies for this system are described. This thesis focuses on ATM. A variety of network structures and topologies suited to partial and full event building are investigated. The need for efficient networking is shown. Optimization techniques for high speed messaging and their implementation on ATM components are described. Small scale demonstrator systems consisting of up to 48 computers ({approx}1:20 of the final level 2 trigger) connected via ATM are described. Performance results are presented. Extrapolation of measurements and evaluation of needs lead to a proposal of implementation for the main network of the ATLAS T/DAQ system. (author)

  13. Measuring severe adverse events and medication selection using a “PEER Report” for nonpsychotic patients: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman DA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel A Hoffman,1 Charles DeBattista,2 Rob J Valuck,3 Dan V Iosifescu41Neuro-Therapy Clinic, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 2Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado, SKAGES School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: We previously reported on an objective new tool that uses quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG normative- and referenced-electroencephalography sampling databases (currently called Psychiatric EEG Evaluation Registry [PEER], which may assist physicians in determining medication selection for optimal efficacy to overcome trial-and-error prescribing. The PEER test compares drug-free QEEG features for individual patients to a database of patients with similar EEG patterns and known outcomes after pharmacological interventions. Based on specific EEG data elements and historical outcomes, the PEER Report may also serve as a marker of future severe adverse events (eg, agitation, hostility, aggressiveness, suicidality, homicidality, mania, hypomania with specific medications. We used a retrospective chart review to investigate the clinical utility of such a registry in a naturalistic environment.Results: This chart review demonstrated significant improvement on the global assessment scales Clinical Global Impression – Improvement and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction – Short Form as well as time to maximum medical improvement and decreased suicidality occurrences. The review also showed that 54.5% of previous medications causing a severe adverse event would have been raised as a caution had the PEER Report been available at the time the drug was prescribed. Finally, due to the significant amount of off-label prescribing of psychotropic medications, additional, objective, evidence-based data aided the prescriber toward better choices.Conclusion: The PEER Report may be

  14. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of generators for nuclear safety related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, R.K.; Hajos, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The number of nuclear safety related equipment suppliers and the availability of spare and replacement parts designed specifically for nuclear safety related application are shrinking rapidly. These have made it necessary for utilities to apply commercial grade spare and replacement parts in nuclear safety related applications after implementing proper acceptance and dedication process to verify that such items conform with the requirements of their use in nuclear safety related application. The general guidelines for the commercial grade item (CGI) acceptance and dedication are provided in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letters and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report NP-5652, Guideline for the Utilization of Commercial Grade Items in Nuclear Safety Related Applications. This paper presents an application of these generic guidelines for procurement, acceptance, and dedication of a commercial grade generator for use as a standby generator at Salem Generating Station Units 1 and 2. The paper identifies the critical characteristics of the generator which once verified, will provide reasonable assurance that the generator will perform its intended safety function. The paper also delineates the method of verification of the critical characteristics through tests and provide acceptance criteria for the test results. The methodology presented in this paper may be used as specific guidelines for reliable and cost effective procurement and dedication of commercial grade generators for use as standby generators at nuclear power plants

  15. A two-Transputer VME module for data acquisition and on-line event selection in ZEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boterenbrood, H.; Goble, S.; Jong, S.J. de; Kieft, G.; Lugt, H.J. van der; Uijterwaal, H.A.J.R.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Waard, A. de; Wiggers, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    For the ZEUS experiment at the HERA e-p collider in Hamburg a versatile and fast VME-based processor module has been developed at NIKHEF-H. The single-slot wide VME module contains two INMOS T800 Transputers, each with private memory, and a triple-port memory (TPM), accessible to both Transputers. Both Transputers have access to the VME bus, while an external master can also access the TPM directly. The VME accesses proceed typically with 10 Mbyte/s. Three application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) handle the internal and external Transputer interfacing. The module combines the VME environment with the parallel processing and link-oriented environment of the Transputer. Over 200 modules are used in the data acquisition and event selection systems of ZEUS. (orig.)

  16. Mutual information spectrum for selection of event-related spatial components. Application to eloquent motor cortex mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei eOssadtchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial component analysis is often used to explore multidimensional time series data whose sources cannot be measured directly. Several methods may be used to decompose the data into a set of spatial components with temporal loadings. Component selection is of crucial importance, and should be supported by objective criteria. In some applications, the use of a well defined component selection criterion may provide for automation of the analysis.In this paper we describe a novel approach for ranking of spatial components calculated from the EEG or MEG data recorded within evoked response paradigm. Our method is called Mutual Information Spectrum and is based on gauging the amount of mutual information of spatial component temporal loadings with a synthetically created reference signal. We also describe the appropriate randomization based statistical assessment scheme that can be used for selection of components with statistically significant amount of mutual information. Using simulated data with realistic trial to trial variations and SNR corresponding to the real recordings we demonstrate the superior performance characteristics of the described mutual information based measure as compared to a more conventionally used power driven gauge. We also demonstrate the application of the Mutual Information Spectrum for the selection of task-related independent components from real MEG data. We show that the Mutual Information spectrum allows to identify task-related components reliably in a consistent fashion, yielding stable results even from a small number of trials. We conclude that the proposed method fits naturally the information driven nature of ICA and can be used for routine and automatic ranking of independent components calculated from the functional neuroimaging data collected within event-related paradigms.

  17. Development of a Method for Quantifying the Reliability of Nuclear Safety-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zhang; Michael W. Golay

    2003-10-01

    The work of our project is intended to help introducing digital technologies into nuclear power into nuclear power plant safety related software applications. In our project we utilize a combination of modern software engineering methods: design process discipline and feedback, formal methods, automated computer aided software engineering tools, automatic code generation, and extensive feasible structure flow path testing to improve software quality. The tactics include ensuring that the software structure is kept simple, permitting routine testing during design development, permitting extensive finished product testing in the input data space of most likely service and using test-based Bayesian updating to estimate the probability that a random software input will encounter an error upon execution. From the results obtained the software reliability can be both improved and its value estimated. Hopefully our success in the project's work can aid the transition of the nuclear enterprise into the modern information world. In our work, we have been using the proprietary sample software, the digital Signal Validation Algorithm (SVA), provided by Westinghouse. Also our work is being done with their collaboration. The SVA software is used for selecting the plant instrumentation signal set which is to be used as the input the digital Plant Protection System (PPS). This is the system that automatically decides whether to trip the reactor. In our work, we are using -001 computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tool of Hamilton Technologies Inc. This tool is capable of stating the syntactic structure of a program reflecting its state requirements, logical functions and data structure.

  18. Failure modes of safety-related components at fires on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaslund, A.

    2000-03-01

    Probabilistic assessment methods can be used to identify specific plant vulnerabilities. Application of such methods can also facilitate selection among system design alternatives available for safety enhancements. The quality of assessment results is however strongly dependent on realistic and accurate input data for modelling of system component behaviour and failure modes during conditions to be assessed. Use of conservative input data may not lead to results providing guidance on safety upgrades. Adequate input data for probabilistic assessments seems to be lacking for at least failure modes of some electrical components when exposed to a fire. This report presents an attempt to improve the situation with respect to such input data. In order to take advantage of information in existing documentation of fire incident occurrences some of the lessons learned from the fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975 are discussed in this report. Also a summary of results from different fire tests of electrical cables presented in a fire risk analysis report is a part of the references. The failure modes used to describe fire-induced damage are 'open circuit' and 'hot short' which seems to be commonly accepted terms within the branch. Definitions of the terms are included in the report. Effects of the failure modes when occurring in some of the channels of the reactor protection system are discussed with respect to the existing design of the reactor protection system at Ringhals 2 nuclear power unit. Experiences from the Browns Ferry fire and results from fire tests of electrical cables indicate that the dominating failure mode for electrical cables is 'open circuit'. An 'open circuit' failure leads to circuit disjunction and loss of continuity. The circuit can no longer transmit its signal or power. When affecting channels of the reactor protection system an 'open circuit' failure can cause extensive inadvertent actions of safety related equipment

  19. Safety related studies on the accident behaviour of the HTR-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.; Mertens, J.; Altes, J.; Bongartz, R.; Breitbach, G.; David, P.H.; Degen, G.; Ehrlich, H.G.; Escherich, K.H.; Frank, E.; Hennings, W.; Jahn, W.; Koschmieder, R.; Marx, J.; Meister, G.; Moormann, R.; Rehm, W.; Verfondern, K.

    1991-10-01

    The aim of investigations was to verify the safety concept of the plant for balance and to quantify the radiological risk to be expected in operating an HTR-100 double unit system. Moreover, aspects of the investment risk were considered. The spectrum of initiating events ranged from so-called transients to leaks in the primary circuit and steam generator and even included earthquakes. Some of the event trees derived were highly complex and extensive due to the situation of the steam generator above the core and with regard to the double unit plant concept with increased possibilities of accident control, but also with respect to potential accident propagation. Correspondingly sophisticated analyses were required to identify risk-relevant event sequences. Environmental exposure for all risk-relevant accidents is so low that accident consequence calculations do not reveal any lethal radiation doses and practically no stochastic fatal injuries. These calculations neither assumed acute protective measures nor long-term resettlement or decontamination. The radiological risk caused by an HTR-100 plant is therefore to be classified as very low. The initiating events selected as representative and the event sequences studied in detail cover the risk-relevant event spectrum well into the hypothetical range. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Application of quality assurance program to safety related aging equipment or components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaiya, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses how quality assurance programs and their criteria are applied to safety related and aging equipment or components used in commercial nuclear plant applications. The QA Programs referred to are 10CFR50 Appendix B and EPRI NP-5652. The QA programs as applicable are applied to equipment/component aging qualification, preventive maintenance, surveillance testing and procurement engineering. The intent of this paper is not the technical issues, methods and research of aging. The paper addresses QA program's application to age-related equipment or components in safety related applications. Quality Assurance Program 10CFR50 Appendix B applies to all safety related aging components or equipment related to the qualification program and associated preventive maintenance and surveillance testing programs. Quality Assurance involvement with procurement engineering for age-related commercial grade items supports EPRI NP-5652 and assures that the dedicated OGI is equal to the item purchased as a basic component to 10CFR50 Appendix B requirements

  1. Selective attention to sound location or pitch studied with event-related brain potentials and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerman, Alexander; Rinne, Teemu; Särkkä, Anna-Kaisa; Salmi, Juha; Alho, Kimmo

    2008-06-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) were used to compare brain activity associated with selective attention to sound location or pitch in humans. Sixteen healthy adults participated in the ERP experiment, and 11 adults in the ERF experiment. In different conditions, the participants focused their attention on a designated sound location or pitch, or pictures presented on a screen, in order to detect target sounds or pictures among the attended stimuli. In the Attend Location condition, the location of sounds varied randomly (left or right), while their pitch (high or low) was kept constant. In the Attend Pitch condition, sounds of varying pitch (high or low) were presented at a constant location (left or right). Consistent with previous ERP results, selective attention to either sound feature produced a negative difference (Nd) between ERPs to attended and unattended sounds. In addition, ERPs showed a more posterior scalp distribution for the location-related Nd than for the pitch-related Nd, suggesting partially different generators for these Nds. The ERF source analyses found no source distribution differences between the pitch-related Ndm (the magnetic counterpart of the Nd) and location-related Ndm in the superior temporal cortex (STC), where the main sources of the Ndm effects are thought to be located. Thus, the ERP scalp distribution differences between the location-related and pitch-related Nd effects may have been caused by activity of areas outside the STC, perhaps in the inferior parietal regions.

  2. Commercial-grade motors in safety-related applications: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzman, P.M.

    1988-04-01

    The objective of this project was to discuss the process necessary to utilize commercial grade equipment in safety related applications and to provide utilities with guidance for accepting commercial grade motors for safety-related applications. The generic commercial-grade concepts presented in this report can be successfully applied to motors. Commercial grade item utilization has the greatest applicability to motors in ''mild'' environments, because these motors are essentially similar to commercial grade motors in materials, construction methods, and capabilities. The acceptance process is less applicable to motors that are subject to ''harsh'' environments during postulated accidents, because of the unique design features and testing required to qualify these motors

  3. Impact of pre-conditioning on the qualification of safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isgro, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper shares some recent experiences on the effects of preconditioning on the qualification of safety-related equipment not located in a harsh environment. Environmental and seismic qualification testing programs were conducted following the guidelines of IEEE 323-1974, IEEE 344-1975 and appropriate IEEE daughter standards, where available. The examples that follow will illustrate the degree of pre-conditioning of safety-related equipment qualified to the requirements of IEEE-323-1974, and its effect on the outcome of the qualification program

  4. Discordance in selected designee for return of genomic findings in the event of participant death and estate executor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jessie L; Amendola, Laura M; Horike-Pyne, Martha; Trinidad, Susan B; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Burke, Wylie; Jarvik, Gail P

    2017-03-01

    Legal and ethical questions arise regarding disseminating genetic research results to family members in the event of a research participant's death; failure to return or return to legal next of kin or estate executor may not reflect participant desires. We sought to determine participant preferences for whether and to whom they would like their data released in the case of their death prior to receiving genomic results, focusing on whether the person selected was also their estate executor. The University of Washington NEXT Medicine Study of the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research program previously reported participant preferences regarding designating an individual to receive genomic results in the event of death, including whether they want results shared, and if so, with what person. Participants were also asked whether this designee is executor of their will or estate. To date, 61 individuals were asked about the concordance of their study designee and legal representative: 42 (69%) reported having a will or estate plan and of these, 14 (33%) chose someone other than their executor to receive their results. For the 14 who chose someone other than their estate executor to receive genetic results, 12 (86%) chose a family member, typically a biological relative, as their designee. Those with a different genomic designee than their executor were less likely to be partnered ( P  = 0.0024). For those partnered participants without an estate plan, spouses were not always chosen for return of genomic results. For one-third of our participants, the individual deemed most appropriate by the participant to receive their genomic results was not the executor. In the absence of an explicit designation, HIPAA may prohibit access to genomic results to persons other than the executor; hence asking for designation at the time of study enrollment (or initiation of clinical testing) is important.

  5. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  6. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1977 - December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andermo, L.; Sundman, B.

    1974-04-01

    This is a systematically arranged report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1 to December 31, 1977 inclusive. The facilities involved are Barsebaeck 1 and 2, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 and Ringhals 1 and 2. During this period of 6 months 48 safety related occurrences and 49 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Included is also one incident June 21 in Barsebaeck 2 which was not included in the last compilation of occurrences. As earlier experiences have shown it is to the greatest extent the conventional components which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant systems and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The total number of reactor trips have increased nearly 30% since the last period. Those occurred during power operation however, were less. More than 50% of the reactor trips happened in the shutdown condition. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation result in automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences withou02068NRM 0000169 450

  7. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Revision to regulatory guide; issuance..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide... Operators Installed Inside the Containment of Nuclear Power Plants,'' dated January 1974. ADDRESSES: Please...

  8. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1979 - December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.; Andermo, L.

    1980-01-01

    This is a report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1 to December 31, 1979 inclusive. The facilities involved are Barsebaeck 1 and 2, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 and Ringhals 1 and 2. During this period of 6 months 76 safety related occurrences and 27 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It is to the greatest extent conventional components such as valves and pumps which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant system and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The total number of reactor trips are normal. The average value for these 6 months is 4.5 trips/unit. Approximetely one half of the reactor trips happened at zero or very low power operation. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation result in an automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences without safety significance. (author)

  9. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1976-December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andermo, L.

    1977-04-01

    This is a systematically arranged report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1, 1976 to December 31, 1976 inclusive. The facilities involved are Oskarshamn 1 and 2, Ringhals 1 and 2 and Barsebaeck 1. During this period of the 6 months 37 safety related occurrences and 34 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. As earlier experiences have shown it is to the greatest extent the conventional components which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant systems and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation results in automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The number of reactor trips are almost as low as during the last period, which is a drastic reduction compared to earlier time periods. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences without safety significance.(author)

  10. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures

  11. New method for selection and characterization of single-source events in Ni+Ni collisions at 32 A.MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskay-Wallez, Anne-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The study of heavy ion collisions, with the help of such efficient multi-detectors as INDRA, has shown the persistence of reactions leading to single-source events, up to bombarding energies higher than the Fermi one. These events could help characterizing an expected phase transition in nuclear matter. Whatever interesting they may be, the single-source events correspond to a small part of the total cross section, which makes them difficult to isolate and therefore to analyze. That is why different selection means have been tested - thanks to the 'Simon' event generator - on a simulated Ni + Ni at 32 A·MeV sample, before any application to the INDRA experimental data. As the known methods based on global variables did not prove effective, a set of new 4-dimensional quantities has been built, whose main advantage lies in a better description of physical events. From a Discriminant Analysis performed on 625 of these new 'moments' proceeds a highly discriminant variable, called D 625 . The experimental cross section associated with D 625 -selected single-source events amounts to 170 mb at 32 A·MeV. Such quasi-fusion events are shown to disappear at about 60 A·MeV. As regards the deexcitation mode of the 32 A·MeV Ni + Ni single-source events, an extensive experimental study and comparisons of the data with two reference models seem to confirm the hypothesis of a transition between fusion-evaporation and simultaneous multifragmentation mechanisms. (author)

  12. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Rodrigues, João V C; Souza, Thadeu C; Tavares, Clébson S; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul N C; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2015-12-17

    Transgenic crop "pyramids" producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the "pyramid" resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field.

  13. A Simple and Sensitive Plant-Based Western Corn Rootworm Bioassay Method for Resistance Determination and Event Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhimou; Chen, Jeng Shong

    2018-05-26

    We report here a simple and sensitive plant-based western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), bioassay method that allows for examination of multiple parameters for both plants and insects in a single experimental setup within a short duration. For plants, injury to roots can be visually examined, fresh root weight can be measured, and expression of trait protein in plant roots can be analyzed. For insects, in addition to survival, larval growth and development can be evaluated in several aspects including body weight gain, body length, and head capsule width. We demonstrated using the method that eCry3.1Ab-expressing 5307 corn was very effective against western corn rootworm by eliciting high mortality and significantly inhibiting larval growth and development. We also validated that the method allowed determination of resistance in an eCry3.1Ab-resistant western corn rootworm strain. While data presented in this paper demonstrate the usefulness of the method for selection of events of protein traits and for determination of resistance in laboratory populations, we envision that the method can be applied in much broader applications.

  14. Motion events in English as a fourth language: a linguistic analysis of a selected episode in multilingual learner narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Irsara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This article reports on a study that investigated the description of motion events in narrative texts written by 13-14 and 17-18 year olds learning English as a fourth language at schools where multilingualism is a key objective. The focus was placed on the learners’ references to the animate beings featured in the story and their use of verbs and satellites in order to describe the movement situations elicited from the image selected for analysis from the wordless picture story the teenagers had to retell in words. The main objective of the study was to draw a comparison between the two age or proficiency-level groups within a functional-pragmatic framework. The learners’ narrative and linguistic choices in their motion-event constructions were analysed, with a number of comments made on the basis of the participants’ other languages. Findings revealed preferences and tendencies that were partly similar and partly different in the two school grades. The predominant figures turned out to be the same at both proficiency levels, with the use of superordinates to fill lexical gaps identified as one of the main communication strategies and the more frequent use of personal pronouns characterising the higher-level texts. With the exception of the motion undertaken by one figure, the motion events depicted were described with similar verbs, and a non-target like use of the satellites after and behind was noticed in both age groups. The article is argued to constitute the basis for further investigations into motion events in multilingual learners’ texts.Riassunto - L’articolo costituisce uno studio sulla descrizione degli eventi di moto in testi narrativi prodotti da giovani di 13-14 e 17-18 anni apprendenti di inglese come quarta lingua. Il lavoro si concentra sui riferimenti degli alunni alle entità in movimento con funzione di Figura e sul loro uso di verbi e Satelliti indicanti i percorsi delle entità negli estratti

  15. Association between Selective Beta-adrenergic Drugs and Blood Pressure Elevation: Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Selective beta-adrenergic drugs are used clinically to treat various diseases. Because of imperfect receptor selectivity, beta-adrenergic drugs cause some adverse drug events by stimulating other adrenergic receptors. To examine the association between selective beta-adrenergic drugs and blood pressure elevation, we reviewed the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reports (JADERs) submitted to the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. We used the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Preferred Terms extracted from Standardized MedDRA queries for hypertension to identify events related to blood pressure elevation. Spontaneous adverse event reports from April 2004 through May 2015 in JADERs, a data mining algorithm, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) were used for quantitative signal detection, and assessed by the case/non-case method. Safety signals are considered significant if the ROR estimates and lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) exceed 1. A total of 2021 reports were included in this study. Among the nine drugs examined, significant signals were found, based on the 95%CI for salbutamol (ROR: 9.94, 95%CI: 3.09-31.93) and mirabegron (ROR: 7.52, 95%CI: 4.89-11.55). The results of this study indicate that some selective beta-adrenergic drugs are associated with blood pressure elevation. Considering the frequency of their indications, attention should be paid to their use in elderly patients to avoid adverse events.

  16. How To Select an Event Management System: A Guide to Selecting the Most Effective Resource Management System for College Union and Student Activities Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott; Raasch, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Provides an evaluation template for student activities professionals charged with evaluating competitive event scheduling software. Guides staff in making an informed decision on whether to retain event management technology provided through an existing vendor or choose "best-of-breed" scheduling software. (EV)

  17. Dedication for Safety-Related Fuses used in Class-1E Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Younghee

    2014-01-01

    The safety-related fuses used in class-1E power system provide overcurrent protection for electrical system and isolate the class 1E circuit from a fault or overload condition. These days, the number of nuclear grade suppliers has been reduced. Accordingly, commercial grade, instead of safety-related, fuses are procured and used in the utilities through the dedication process. Therefore, this paper introduces the commercial grade fuse dedication process/engineering and how to assure the quality requirements with this process and engineering. The fuses used in class-1E power system are to protect overcurrent and to isolate fault. Therefore the fuse for acceptance in order to improve the quality and reliability for commercial grade fuses shall be dedicated. The fuse resistance value may be useful as an indicator of acceptance. The current carrying capacity test can change the fuse performance properties. Therefore these critical characteristics are needed for additional review and analysis with fuse manufactures

  18. Recent progress in safety-related applications of reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Jitsuya; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Saito, Keiichi

    1982-01-01

    Recent progress in safety-related applications of reactor noise analysis is reviewed, mainly referring to various papers presented at the Third Specialists' Meeting on Reactor Noise (SMORN-III) held in Tokyo in 1981. Advances in application of autoregressive model, coherence analysis and pattern recognition technique are significant since SMORN-II in 1977. Development of reactor diagnosis systems based on noise analysis is in progress. Practical experiences in the safety-related applications to power plants are being accumulated. Advances in quantitative monitoring of vibration of internal structures in PWR and diagnosis of core stability and control system characteristics in BWR are notable. Acoustic methods are also improved to detect sodium boiling in LMFBR. The Reactor Noise Analysis Benchmark Test performed by Japan in connection with SMORN-III is successful so that it is possible to proceed to the second stage of the benchmark test. (author)

  19. Seismic analysis of the safety related piping and PCLS of the WWER-440 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, A.M.; Kostarev, V.V.; Schukin, A.J.; Boiadjiev, Z.; Kostov, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of seismic analysis of Safety Related Piping Systems of the typical WWER-440 NPP. The methodology of this analysis is based on WANO Terms of Reference and ASME BPVC. The different possibilities for seismic upgrading of Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) were considered. The first one is increasing of hydraulic snubber units and the second way is installation of limited number of High Viscous Dampers (HVD). (author)

  20. Environmental qualification - walkdowns: The documentation of configuration information for safety related components, equipment and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melmer, J.; Waters, M.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Qualification walkdowns are conducted to collect field data to verify/validate/document configurations of safety related equipment and systems. This paper describes the process for conducting walkdowns and the justification for using an electronic format. The following are described: a) Background; b) Preparing, executing and processing walkdowns; c) Hardware/software; d) Impact of a paperless system on walkdown execution, maintenance and work planning; e) Other applications for the technology

  1. Application of project management methodology in design management of nuclear safety related structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mao

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of project management methodology in the design management of Nuclear Safety Related Structure (NSRS), considering the design management features of its civil construction. Based on the experiences from the management of several projects, the project management triangle is proposed to be used in the management, to well treat the position of design interface in the project management. Some other management methods are also proposed

  2. Emergency Diesel: Safety-related instrumentation and control with programmable logic controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breidenich, G.; Luedtke, M.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a new concept for the design of emergency diesel equipment protection circuits as a part of the safety related instrumentation in the nuclear power plant Biblis, units A and B. The concept was implemented with state of the art SIMATIC S7/316 programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and can be adapted to any system with high availability requirements (e.g. power plant turbines, aircraft engines, mining pumps etc). (orig.)

  3. Continuing the service of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program consists of three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technologies, and quantitative methodologies for continued service determinations. Recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are summarized

  4. Peer training of safety-related skills to institutional staff: benefits for trainers and trainees.

    OpenAIRE

    van Den Pol, R A; Reid, D H; Fuqua, R W

    1983-01-01

    A peer training program, in which experienced staff trained new staff, was evaluated as a method for teaching and maintaining safety-related caregiver skills in an institutional setting for the developmentally disabled. Three sets of safety-type skills were assessed in simulated emergency situations: responding to facility fires, managing aggressive attacks by residents, and assisting residents during convulsive seizures. Using a multiple-baseline research design, results indicated that the p...

  5. Development of FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Y.; Oda, N.; Miyazaki, T.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.; Igawa, S. [08, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); 1, Toshiba-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8511 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Toshiba has developed Non-rewritable (NRW) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system [1]. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non-rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing unit (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. The system which Toshiba developed this time is Power Range Monitor (PRM). Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  6. Development of FPGA-based safety-related instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, N.; Tanaka, A.; Izumi, M.; Tarumi, T.; Sato, T. [Toshiba Corporation, Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Toshiba has developed systems which perform signal processing by field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) for safety-related instrumentation and control systems. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing units (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. The systems which Toshiba developed this time are Power range Monitor (PRM) and Trip Module (TM). These systems are compatible with the conventional analog-based systems and the CPU-based systems. Therefore, requested cost for upgrading will be minimized. Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  7. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Selective attention to spatial and non-spatial visual stimuli is affected differentially by age: Effects on event-related brain potentials and performance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2006-01-01

    To assess selective attention processes in young and old adults, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were recorded. Streams of visual stimuli were presented from left or right locations (Experiment 1) or from a central location and comprising two different spatial frequencies

  9. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles…

  10. Post-Coma Persons with Extensive Multiple Disabilities Use Microswitch Technology to Access Selected Stimulus Events or Operate a Radio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Gianfranco; Iliceto, Carla; Damiani, Sabino; Ricci, Irene; Spica, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    The present two studies extended research evidence on the use of microswitch technology by post-coma persons with multiple disabilities. Specifically, Study I examined whether three adults with a diagnosis of minimally conscious state and multiple disabilities could use microswitches as tools to access brief, selected stimulus events. Study II…

  11. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue 57: Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, H.W.

    1993-10-01

    Actuation of Fire Protection Systems (FPS) in Nuclear Power Plants have resulted in adverse interactions with equipment important to safety. Precursor operational experience has shown that 37% of all FPS actuations damaged some equipment, and 20% of all FPS actuations have resulted in a plant transient and reactor trip. On an average 0.17 FPS actuations per reactor year have been experienced in nuclear power plants in this country. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment''. The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations contained in this report can significantly reduce risk, and that these improvements can be warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). However, plant specific analyses are required in order to identify such improvements. Generic analyses can not serve to identify improvements that could be warranted for individual, specific plants. Plant specific analyses of the type needed for this purpose are underway as part of the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program

  12. Quality Control Activities Related to Mechanical Maintenance of Safety Related Components at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djakovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    For successful, safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plant, maintenance processes have to be systematically controlled and procedures for quality control of maintenance activities shall be established. This is requested by the quality assurance program, which shall provide control over activities affecting the quality of structures, systems, and components, considering their importance to safety. As a part of Quality and Nuclear Oversight Division (QNOD; SKV), the Quality Control Department (QC) provides quality control activities, which are deeply involved in maintenance processes at Krsko NPP, both on safety related and non-safety related (non-nuclear safety) components. QC activities on safety related components have to fulfil all requirements, which will enable the components to perform their intended safety functions. This paper describes quality control activities related to mechanical maintenance of safety related components at Krsko NPP and significant role of the Krsko plant QC Department in three particular maintenance cases connected with safety related components. In these three specific cases, the QC has confirmed its importance in compliance with quality assurance program and presented its significant added value in providing safe and reliable operation of the plant. The first maintenance activity was installation of nozzle check valves in the scope of a modification for improving regulation of spent fuel pit pumps. The QC Department performed receipt inspection of the valves. Using non-destructive examination methods and X-ray spectrometry, it was found out that the valve diffuser was made of improper material, which could cause progressive corrosion of the valve diffuser in borated water and consequently a loss of safety function of the valves followed by long-term consequences. The second one was the receipt inspection of containment ventilation fan coolers. The coolers were claimed and sent back to the supplier because the QC Department

  13. Seismic design and performance of nuclear safety related RC structures based on new seismic design principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R.; Sivathanu Pillai, C.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sundaramurthy, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Seismic design of safety related Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures of Nuclear power plants (NPP) in India as per the present AERB codal procedures tries to ensure predominantly elastic behaviour under OBE so that the features of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) necessary for continued safe operation are designed to remain functional and prevent accident (collapse) of NPP under SSE for which certain Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) those are necessary to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor safely, are designed to remain functional. While the seismic design principles of non safety related structures as per Indian code (IS 1893-2002) are ensuring elastic behaviour under DBE and inelastic behaviour under MCE by utilizing ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structure effectively. The design principle of AERB code is ensuring elastic behaviour under OBE and is not enlightening much inference about the overall structural behaviour under SSE (only ensuring the capability of certain SSCs required for safe shutdown of reactor). Various buildings and structures of Indian Nuclear power plant are classified from the basis of associated safety functions in a descending order in according with their roles in preventions and mitigation of an accident or support functions for prevention. This paper covers a comprehensive seismic analysis and design methodology based on the AERB codal provisions followed for safety related RC structure taking Diesel Generator Building of PFBR as a case study and study and investigates its performance under OBE and SSE by carrying out Non-linear static Pushover analysis. Based on the analysis, observed variations, recommendations are given for getting the desired performance level so as to implement performance based design in the future NPP design

  14. Advancements in the design of safety-related systems and components of the MARS nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caira, M.; Caruso, G.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.; Farello, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper, the advancements in the design of safety-related systems and components of the MARS nuclear plant, equipped with a 600 MW th PWR, are described. These advancements are due to the special safety features of this plant, which relies completely on inherent and passive safety. In particular, the new steps of the design of the innovative, completely passive, and with an unlimited autonomy Emergency core Cooling System are described, together with the characteristics of the last version of the steam generator, developed in a new design involving disconnecting components, for a fast erection and an easy maintenance. (author)

  15. Risk-based evaluation tool for safety-related maintenance involving scaffolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.; Azizi, M.; Massman, M.

    1988-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed a general concern that transient materials in and around safety systems at nuclear power plants represent a seismic safety hazard to the plant, in particular, the uncontrolled use of scaffolding during maintenance activities. Currently, most plants perform a seismic safety analysis for all uses of scaffolding near safety-related equipment to determine appropriate tie-down locations, scaffolding reinforcements, etc. This is both time-consuming and, for the most part, unnecessary. A workable engineering solution based on risk analysis techniques has been developed and is being used at the Palo Verde nuclear generating station (PVNGS)

  16. Safety-related instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals mainly with design requirements for those I and C systems that are important to safety but are not safety systems. The Guide is intended to expand paragraphs 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-D) in the area of I and C systems important to safety and refers to them as safety-related I and C systems. It also gives guidance and enumerates requirements for multiplexing and the use of the digital computers employed in this area

  17. Staff report on the environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The current NRC safety review process for nuclear power plants includes criteria related to the qualification of certain electrical equipment. These criteria require that electrical equipment important to safety must be qualified to function in the environment that might result from various accident conditions. Although such criteria have been applied since the early days of commercial nuclear power, the details of these criteria have been changed over the years. The evolution of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment is described in Appendix A

  18. Modification and backfitting at the Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 in safety related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Leif; Nilsson, Ove; Lidh, B.

    1995-05-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Oskarshamn-2, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 3 refs

  19. A cost summary applicable to seismic construction and maintenance of nuclear safety related piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of costs applicable to nuclear power plant piping for an earthquake defined as 0.2 SSE-PGA as a function of three eras of initial construction: 1967--1974, 1974--1981 and 1981--1990. Costs have been presented for both new construction and maintenance in operating plants using both the original PSAR-FSAR design criteria and current SRP requirements. It is recommended that the cost information contained in this report be considered in evaluating the cost benefit relationships associated with current and proposed future changes in seismic design procedures applicable to safety-related piping systems

  20. Developing novel techniques for readout, calibration and event selection in the NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Ryan; Backhouse, Christopher; Bays, Kirk; Lozier, Joseph; Pershey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment uses a fine-grained, low-Z, fully active detector that offers unprecedented electron neutrino identification capabilities for a detector of its scale. In this award's proposal, the PI outlined the development and implementation of novel techniques for channel readout, detector calibration, and event reconstruction that make full use of the strengths of the NOvA detector technology. In particular, this included designing custom event reconstruction algorithms that utilize the rich information available in the substructure of hadronic and electromagnetic showers. Exploiting this information provides not only substantial improvement in background rejection for the electron neutrino search but also better shower energy resolution (improving the precision on measured oscillation parameters) and a high-energy electromagnetic calibration source (through neutral pion events). The PI further proposed developing and deploying a new electronics readout scheme compatible with the existing hardware that can reduce near detector event pile-up and can offer powerful timing information to the reconstruction, allowing for cosmic ray muon tagging via track direction determination, among other things. In conjunction with the above, the PI proposed leading the calibration of the NOvA detectors, including characterizing individual electronics channels, correcting for spatial variations across the detector, and establishing absolute event energy scales. All three of these lines of effort have been successfully completed, feeding directly into the NOvA's recent exciting neutrino oscillation results. The techniques developed under this award are detailed in this final technical report.

  1. Developing novel techniques for readout, calibration and event selection in the NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Ryan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Backhouse, Christopher [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Bays, Kirk [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Lozier, Joseph [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pershey, Daniel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment uses a fine-grained, low-Z, fully active detector that offers unprecedented electron neutrino identification capabilities for a detector of its scale. In this award’s proposal, the PI outlined the development and implementation of novel techniques for channel readout, detector calibration, and event reconstruction that make full use of the strengths of the NOvA detector technology. In particular, this included designing custom event reconstruction algorithms that utilize the rich information available in the substructure of hadronic and electromagnetic showers. Exploiting this information provides not only substantial improvement in background rejection for the electron neutrino search but also better shower energy resolution (improving the precision on measured oscillation parameters) and a high-energy electromagnetic calibration source (through neutral pion events). The PI further proposed developing and deploying a new electronics readout scheme compatible with the existing hardware that can reduce near detector event pile-up and can offer powerful timing information to the reconstruction, allowing for cosmic ray muon tagging via track direction determination, among other things. In conjunction with the above, the PI proposed leading the calibration of the NOvA detectors, including characterizing individual electronics channels, correcting for spatial variations across the detector, and establishing absolute event energy scales. All three of these lines of effort have been successfully completed, feeding directly into the NOvA’s recent exciting neutrino oscillation results. The techniques developed under this award are detailed in this final technical report.

  2. AGAPEROS Searches for microlensing in the LMC with the Pixel Method; 2, Selection of possible microlensing events

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, A.L.; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E.; Baillon, P.; Bareyre, P.; Bauer, F.; Beaulieu, J.-Ph.; Bouquet, A.; Brehin, S.; Cavalier, F.; Char, S.; Couchot, F.; Coutures, C.; Ferlet, R.; Fernandez, J.; Gaucherel, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Goldman, B.; Gondolo, P.; Gros, M.; Guibert, J.; Hardin, D.; Kaplan, J.; de Kat, J.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Laurent, B; Lesquoy, E; Magneville, Ch.; Mansoux, B.; Marquette, J.-B.; Maurice, E.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Moreau, O.; Moscoso, L.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau. O.; Prevot, L.; Renault, C.; Queinnec, F.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux, L.; Zylberajch, S.; Magneville, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    We apply the pixel method of analysis (sometimes called ``pixel lensing'') to a small subset of the EROS-1 microlensing observations of the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The pixel method is designed to find microlensing events of unresolved source stars and had heretofore been applied only to M31 where essentially all sources are unresolved. With our analysis optimised for the detection of long-duration microlensing events due to 0.01-1 Mo Machos, we detect no microlensing events and compute the corresponding detection efficiencies. We show that the pixel method should detect 10 to 20 times more microlensing events for M>0.05 Mo Machos compared to a classical analysis of the same data which latter monitors only resolved stars. In particular, we show that for a full halo of Machos in the mass range 0.1 -- 0.5 Mo, a pixel analysis of the three-year EROS-1 data set covering 0.39 deg^2 would yield 4 events.

  3. Bayesian Analysis for Risk Assessment of Selected Medical Events in Support of the Integrated Medical Model Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Myers, Jerry G.; McRae, Michael P.; Griffin, Elise A.; Kallrui, Aditya S.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability project is creating a catalog of risk assessments using the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software-based system intended to assist mission planners in preparing for spaceflight missions by helping them to make informed decisions about medical preparations and supplies needed for combating and treating various medical events using Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The objective is to use statistical analyses to inform the IMM decision tool with estimated probabilities of medical events occurring during an exploration mission. Because data regarding astronaut health are limited, Bayesian statistical analysis is used. Bayesian inference combines prior knowledge, such as data from the general U.S. population, the U.S. Submarine Force, or the analog astronaut population located at the NASA Johnson Space Center, with observed data for the medical condition of interest. The posterior results reflect the best evidence for specific medical events occurring in flight. Bayes theorem provides a formal mechanism for combining available observed data with data from similar studies to support the quantification process. The IMM team performed Bayesian updates on the following medical events: angina, appendicitis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, dental abscess, dental caries, dental periodontal disease, gallstone disease, herpes zoster, renal stones, seizure, and stroke.

  4. Prey selection of corallivorous muricids at Koh Tao (Gulf of Thailand) four years after a major coral bleaching event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, M.S.; Scott, C.M.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    Corallivorous Drupella (Muricidae) snails at Koh Tao are reported to have extended their range of prey species following a major coral bleaching event in 2010. Populations of their preferred Acropora prey had locally diminished in both size and abundance, and the snails had introduced free-living

  5. Predicted high-water elevations for selected flood events at the Albert Pike Recreation Area, Ouachita National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Marion

    2012-01-01

    The hydraulic characteristics are determined for the June 11, 2010, flood on the Little Missouri River at the Albert Pike Recreation Area in Arkansas. These characteristics are then used to predict the high-water elevations for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood events in the Loop B, C, and D Campgrounds of the recreation area. The peak discharge and related...

  6. Selective attention and error processing in an illusory conjunction task - An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, AA; Boksem, MAS

    2005-01-01

    We recorded event-related potentials in an illusory conjunction task, in which subjects were cued on each trial to search for a particular colored letter in a subsequently presented test array, consisting of three different letters in three different colors. In a proportion of trials the target

  7. Effects of inter- and intramodal selective attention to non-spatial visual stimuli: An event-related potential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.B.; Kok, A.; van der Schoot, M.

    1998-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to trains of rapidly presented auditory and visual stimuli. ERPs in conditions in which Ss attended to different features of visual stimuli were compared with ERPs to the same type of stimuli when Ss attended to different features of auditory stimuli,

  8. Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index (CRSI): An Assessment of Resilience to Acute Meteorological Events and Selected Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a conceptual model of climate resilience (CRSI – Climate Resilience Screening Index ) designed to be sensitive to changes in the natural environment, built environment, governance, and social structure and vulnerability or risk to climate events. CRSI has been used ...

  9. Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety Related Instrumentation at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) at Malaysia Nuclear Agency is a TRIGA Mark II type reactor and pool type cooled by natural circulation of light water. This paper describe on performance monitoring for nuclear safety related instrumentation in TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) of based on various parameter of reactor safety instrument channel such as log power, linear power, Fuel temperature, coolant temperature will take into consideration. Methodology of performance on estimation and monitoring is to evaluate and analysis of reactor parameters which is important of reactor safety and control. And also to estimate power measurement, differential of log and linear power and fuel temperature during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown .This study also focus on neutron power fluctuation from fission chamber during reactor start-up and operation. This work will present result of performance monitoring from RTP which indicated the safety parameter identification and initiate safety action on crossing the threshold set point trip. Conclude that performance of nuclear safety related instrumentation will improved the reactor control and safety parameter during reactor start-up, operation and shutdown. (author)

  10. A PLC generic requirements and specification for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jea Bok; Lee, C. K.; Lee, D. Y.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the requirements and specification to be applied to the generic qualification of programmable Logic Controller(PLC), which is being developed as part of the KNICS project, 'Development of the Digital Reactor Safety Systems' of which purpose is the application to safety-related instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. This report defines the essential and critical characteristics that shall be included as part of a PLC design for safety-related application. The characteristics include performance, reliability, accuracy, the overall response time from an input to the PLC exceeding it trip condition to the resulting outputs, and the specification of processors and memories in digital controller. It also specifies the quality assurance process for software development, dealing with executive software, firmware, application software tools for developing the application software, and human machine interface(HMI). In addition, this report reviews the published standards and guidelines that are required for the PLC development and the quality assurance processes such as environment requirements, seismic withstand requirements, EMI/RFI withstand requirements, and isolation test

  11. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

    1994-08-01

    MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

  12. A new approach to determine the environmental qualification requirements for the safety related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, C.; Parent, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the environmental qualification of safety related equipment is to ensure that the plant defense-in-depth is not compromised by common mode failures following design basis accidents with a harsh environment. A new approach based on safety functions has been developed to determine what safety-related equipment is required to function during and after a design basis accident, as well as their environmental qualification requirements. The main feature of this approach is to use auxiliary safety functions established from safety requirements as credited in the safety analyses. This approach is undertaken in three steps: identification of the auxiliary safety functions of each main safety function; determination of the main equipment groups required for each auxiliary safety function; and review of the safety analyses for design basis accidents in order to determine the credited auxiliary safety functions and their mission times for each accident scenario. Some of the benefits of the proposed approach for the determination of the safety environmental qualification requirements are: a systematic approach for the review of safety analyses based on a safety function check list, and the insurance, with the availability of the safety functions, that Gentilly-2 defense-in-depth would not be compromised by design basis accidents with a harsh environment. (author)

  13. Assessment and management of aging of nuclear power plant safety-related structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Graves, H.L. III; Ellingwood, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background information and data have been developed for improving existing and developing new methods to assist in quantifying the effects of age-related degradation on the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety-related structures. Factors that can lead to age-related degradation of safety-related structures are identified and their manifestations described. Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are noted and guidance provided on repair options available for various forms of degradation. A probabilistic methodology for condition assessment and reliability-based life prediction has been developed and applied to structures subject to combinations of structural load processes and to structural systems. The methodology has also been used to investigate optimization of in-service inspection and maintenance strategies to maintain failure probability below a specified target value as well as to minimize costs. Fragility assessments involving analytical solutions and finite-element methods have been utilized to predict the effect of aging degradation on structural component performance. (author)

  14. A Study of Cyber Security Activities for Development of Safety-related Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongkyun; Song, Seunghwan; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Yun, Donghwa [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear Power Plant Regulatory guide describes the regulatory requirements to implement cyber security activities to ensure that design and operate to respond to cyber threats that exploited to vulnerability of digital-based technologies associated with safety-related digital instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. Cyber security activities coverage is instrumentation and control systems to perform safety functions and digital-based equipment to use development, test, analysis and asset for instrumentation and control systems. Regulatory guidance is required to the cyber security activities that should be performed in each development phase of safety-related controller. Development organization should establish and implement to cyber security plans for responding to cyber threats throughout each lifecycle phase and the result of the cyber security activities should be generated to the documents. In addition, the independent verification and validation organization should perform simulated penetration test for enhancing response capabilities to cyber security threats and development organization should establish and implement response hardening solutions for the cyber security vulnerabilities identified in the simulated penetration test.

  15. A Study of Cyber Security Activities for Development of Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongkyun; Song, Seunghwan; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Yun, Donghwa

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Regulatory guide describes the regulatory requirements to implement cyber security activities to ensure that design and operate to respond to cyber threats that exploited to vulnerability of digital-based technologies associated with safety-related digital instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. Cyber security activities coverage is instrumentation and control systems to perform safety functions and digital-based equipment to use development, test, analysis and asset for instrumentation and control systems. Regulatory guidance is required to the cyber security activities that should be performed in each development phase of safety-related controller. Development organization should establish and implement to cyber security plans for responding to cyber threats throughout each lifecycle phase and the result of the cyber security activities should be generated to the documents. In addition, the independent verification and validation organization should perform simulated penetration test for enhancing response capabilities to cyber security threats and development organization should establish and implement response hardening solutions for the cyber security vulnerabilities identified in the simulated penetration test

  16. Logic qualification of FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Oda, Naotaka; Ito, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Haren, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-01

    We established a logic qualification method for FPGA-Based I and C safety-related use in Nuclear Power Plants Systems. The FPGA is a programmable logic device and has advantages that the programming is rigorous, simple verifiable, and the technology is stable. However, logic qualification of FPGA had been an issue to be solved when it is used in the safety-related systems, because FPGA is relatively new technology for the nuclear power industry. We employed a software-life cycle approach, because its development process is similar to that of conventional computer-based systems. There are some differences between the FPGA-Based systems and the computer-based systems in the implementation and integration of logic. We examined the FPGA logic implementation and integration process to identify any FPGA-Based system specific hazards. The identified hazards are (1) small logic errors, (2) timing errors, (3) logic synthesis errors, (4) place and route errors, and (5) logic embedding errors. We took the appropriate countermeasures to mitigate these hazards, and employed this logic qualification method in the qualification of the Power Range Monitor System for BWR Power Plants. (author)

  17. Review of domestic and international experience on optimization of tests planning for safety related systems at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalozubov, V.I.; Komarov, Yu.A.; Kolykanov, V.N.; Kochneva, V.Yu.; Gablaya, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    There are represented the basic requirements of normative and operating documents on test periodicity of safety related systems at NPPs, sets out the theoretical methods of test optimization of the technical systems, and analyses foreign engineering methods for changing test periodicity of the NPP systems. Based on this review analyses further tasks are formulated for improvement of the methodical base of optimization of tests planning for safety related systems

  18. Reactor protection system software test-case selection based on input-profile considering concurrent events and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaquzzaman, M.; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Jaehyun; Jung, Wondea

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the input-profile-based testing for safety critical software has been proposed for determining the number of test cases and quantifying the failure probability of the software. Input-profile of a reactor protection system (RPS) software is the input which causes activation of the system for emergency shutdown of a reactor. This paper presents a method to determine the input-profile of a RPS software which considers concurrent events/transients. A deviation of a process parameter value begins through an event and increases owing to the concurrent multi-events depending on the correlation of process parameters and severity of incidents. A case of reactor trip caused by feedwater loss and main steam line break is simulated and analyzed to determine the RPS software input-profile and estimate the number of test cases. The different sizes of the main steam line breaks (e.g., small, medium, large break) with total loss of feedwater supply are considered in constructing the input-profile. The uncertainties of the simulation related to the input-profile-based software testing are also included. Our study is expected to provide an option to determine test cases and quantification of RPS software failure probability. (author)

  19. Pre-selecting muon events in the camera server of the ASTRI telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarone, Maria C.; Mineo, Teresa; Capalbi, Milvia; Conforti, Vito; Coffaro, Martina

    2016-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the next generation of ground based observatories for very high energy gamma ray astronomy. The CTA will consist of two arrays at two different sites, one in the northern and one in the southern hemisphere. The current CTA design foresees, in the southern site, the installation of many tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes of three different classes, namely large, medium, and small, so defined in relation to their mirror area; the northern hemisphere array would consist of few tens of the two larger telescope types. The telescopes will be equipped with cameras composed either of photomultipliers or silicon photomultipliers, and with different trigger and read-out electronics. In such a scenario, several different methods will be used for the telescopes' calibration. Nevertheless, the optical throughput of any CTA telescope, independently of its type, can be calibrated analyzing the characteristic image produced by local atmospheric highly energetic muons that induce the emission of Cherenkov light which is imaged as a ring onto the focal plane if their impact point is relatively close to the telescope optical axis. Large sized telescopes would be able to detect useful muon events under stereo coincidence and such stereo muon events will be directly addressed to the central CTA array data acquisition pipeline to be analyzed. For the medium and small sized telescopes, due to their smaller mirror area and large inter-telescope distance, the stereo coincidence rate will tend to zero; nevertheless, muon events will be detected by single telescopes that must therefore be able to identify them as possible useful calibration candidates, even if no stereo coincidence is available. This is the case for the ASTRI telescopes, proposed as pre-production units of the small size array of the CTA, which are able to detect muon events during regular data taking without requiring any dedicated trigger. We present two fast

  20. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, Alan [Chockie Group International, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2005-09-15

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  1. Safety-Related Contractor Activities at Nuclear Power Plants. New Challenges for Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, Alan

    2005-09-01

    The use of contractors has been an integral and important part of the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. To ensure the safe and efficient completion of contracted tasks, each nuclear plant licensee has developed and refined formal contract management processes to meet their specific needs and plant requirements. Although these contract management processes have proven to be effective tools for the procurement of support and components tailored to the needs of nuclear power plants, contractor-related incidents and accidents have revealed some serious weaknesses with the implementation of these processes. Identifying and addressing implementation problems are becoming more complicated due to organizational and personnel changes affecting the nuclear power industry. The ability of regulators and licensees to effectively monitor and manage the safety-related performance of contractors will likely be affected by forthcoming organization and personnel changes due to: the aging of the workforce; the decline of the nuclear industry; and the deregulation of nuclear power. The objective of this report is to provide a review of current and potential future challenges facing safety-related contractor activities at nuclear power plants. The purpose is to assist SKI in establishing a strategy for the proactive oversight of contractor safety-related activities at Swedish nuclear power plants and facilities. The nature and role of contractors at nuclear plants is briefly reviewed in the first section of the report. The second section describes the essential elements of the contract management process. Although organizations have had decades of experience with the a contract management process, there remain a number of common implantation weaknesses that have lead to serious contractor-related incidents and accidents. These implementation weaknesses are summarized in the third section. The fourth section of the report highlights the

  2. Using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, Florent

    2017-01-01

    The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 functional safety standards encourage the use of field feedback to estimate the failure rates of safety-related systems, which is preferred than generic data. In some cases (if “Route 2_H” is adopted for the 'hardware safety integrity constraints”), this is even a requirement. This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals, depending if the failures are detected on-line (called 'detected failures', e.g. by automatic diagnostic tests) or only revealed by proof tests (called 'undetected failures'). Examples show that for the same duration and number of failures observed, the estimated failure rates are basically higher for “undetected failures” because, in this case, the duration observed includes intervals of time where it is unknown that the elements have failed. This points out the need of using a proper approach for failure rates estimation, especially for failures that are not detected on-line. Then, this paper proposes an approach to use the estimated failure rates, with their uncertainties, for PFDavg and PFH assessment with upper confidence bounds, in accordance with IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 requirements. Examples finally show that the highest SIL that can be claimed for a safety function can be limited by the 90% upper confidence bound of PFDavg or PFH. The requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 relating to the data collection and analysis should therefore be properly considered for the study of all safety-related systems. - Highlights: • This paper deals with requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 for using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are detected on-line. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are only revealed by

  3. Insights from event-related potentials into the temporal and hierarchical organization of the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hinojosa, J A; Rubia, F J

    1999-11-01

    The temporal and hierarchical relationships between the dorsal and the ventral streams in selective attention are known only in relation to the use of spatial location as the attentional cue mediated by the dorsal stream. To improve this state of affairs, event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects attended simultaneously to motion direction (mediated by the dorsal stream) and to a property mediated by the ventral stream (color or shape). At about the same time, a selection positivity (SP) started for attention mediated by both streams. However, the SP for color and shape peaked about 60 ms later than motion SP. Subsequently, a selection negativity (SN) followed by a late positive component (LPC) were found simultaneously for attention mediated by both streams. A hierarchical relationship between the two streams was not observed, but neither SN nor LPC for one property was completely insensitive to the values of the other property.

  4. Group contribution modelling for the prediction of safety-related and environmental properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    warming potential and ozone depletion potential. Process safety studies and environmental assessments rely on accurate property data. Safety data such as flammability limits, heat of combustion or auto ignition temperature play an important role in quantifying the risk of fire and explosions among others......We present a new set of property prediction models based on group contributions to predict major safety-related and environmental properties for organic compounds. The predicted list of properties includes lower and upper flammability limits, heat of combustion, auto ignition temperature, global...... models like group contribution (GC) models can estimate data. However, the estimation needs to be accurate, reliable and as little time-consuming as possible so that the models can be used on the fly. In this study the Marrero and Gani group contribution (MR GC) method has been used to develop the models...

  5. Usage of Commercial Grade Programmable Digital Systems in Safety Related Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains methods and conditions, which if completely and correctly fulfilled, enable an operating NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) licensed and operating in accordance with the US codes and US regulatory requirements to use a commercial grade programmable digital device (PLC - Programmable Digital Controller, digital controller, digital computer or process computer) in a safety related application in a NPP. In mid 80's, when an intensive construction cycle of the new NPPs in the U.S.A. was completed, many equipment manufacturers either disappeared from the market or they abandoned their product lines that were designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B quality assurance program. The quality assurance as defined by 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B comprises all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a Structure, System or Component (SSC) will perform satisfactorily in service . The operating NPPs faced the problem related to the availability of qualified equipment, components and spare parts. The US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) recognized that problem timely (Oct. 1978 revision of 10CFR21) and required a commercial grade item to be dedicated before it could be used as a basic component. A special process named Dedication of CGI - Commercial Grade Items if conducted properly, provides reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety related function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B. After that, the Dedication of CGI has been widely used mostly for relatively simple mechanical, electrical, and IandC components and spare parts. In order to provide guidance to the dedication process, EPRI has issued two documents (EPRI NP-5652 and Supplemental Guidance for EPRI NP-5652). All nuclear power plants, which comply with the US nuclear regulatory requirements, hindered as

  6. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants; Terminos relacionados con la seguridad para centrales nucleares avanzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety.

  7. Optimal replacement policy for safety-related multi-component multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Chen Tao; Yang Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates replacement scheduling for non-repairable safety-related systems (SRS) with multiple components and states. The aim is to determine the cost-minimizing time for replacing SRS while meeting the required safety. Traditionally, such scheduling decisions are made without considering the interaction between the SRS and the production system under protection, the interaction being essential to formulate the expected cost to be minimized. In this paper, the SRS is represented by a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov model, and its state distribution is evaluated with the aid of the universal generating function. Moreover, a structure function of SRS with recursive property is developed to evaluate the state distribution efficiently. These methods form the basis to derive an explicit expression of the expected system cost per unit time, and to determine the optimal time to replace the SRS. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  8. Role of security during safety-related emergencies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, R.G.; Moul, D.A.; McBride, J.A.; Wilson, C.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report provides an analysis of the literature and on-site data gathering relating to the actions of security forces at licensed nuclear power plants during safety-related emergencies. Literature search findings and results of on-site data gathering are furnished and subjected to analysis. Taking into account the analysis provided, appropriate recommendations are presented. Recommendations are keyed as to how improvements can be made in the regulatory approach and licensee planning and procedures as they relate to the subject matter under examination. In addition, certain technological problems and issues are examined within the context of the study. Appendices provide the results of the literature search, an annotated bibliography, the Data Collection Guide used, and additional details regarding certain aspects of the study that are relevant for further explication of the body of the report

  9. Towards assuring the continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance, design considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. Accomplishments of the SLAG Program are summarized, i.e., development of the structural materials information center, development of a structural aging assessment methodology, evaluation of models for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete, review of in-service inspection methods, and development of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures. On-going activities are also described

  10. Lessons learned from recent safety related incidents at A Canadian uranium conversion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaferi, Jafir

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) regulatory requirements for nuclear fuel facility licensees to report any situation or incident that results or is likely to result in a hazard to the health or safety of any person or the environment and to submit its incident investigation report with cause(s) of the incident and corrective actions taken or planned. In addition, the paper presents two recent safety-related incidents that occurred at a uranium conversion facility in Canada along with their consequences, causes, corrective actions and any lessons learned. The first incident resulted in a release of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) inside the UF6 cylinder filling station and the second one resulted in a spill of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) slurry inside the UF6 plant. Both incidents had no impact on the workers or the environment. (authors)

  11. Fundamentals of a graded approach to safety-related equipment setpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, B.A.; Cash, J.S. Jr.; Bockhorst, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of using a graded approach to reconstitute instrument setpoints associated with safety-related equipment was first presented to the industry by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission during the 1992 ISA/POWID Symposium in Kansas City, Missouri. The graded approach establishes that the manner in which a utility analyzes and documents setpoints is related to each setpoint's relative importance to safety. This allows a utility to develop separate requirements for setpoints of varying levels of safety significance. A graded approach to setpoints is a viable strategy that minimizes extraneous effort expended in resolving difficult issues that arise when formal setpoint methodology is applied blindly to all setpoints. Close examination of setpoint methodology reveals that the application of a graded approach is fundamentally dependent on the analytical basis of each individual setpoint

  12. Smooth handling: the lack of safety-related consumer information in car advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Maher, Anthony; Thomson, George; Keall, Michael

    2007-10-01

    To examine the content and trends of safety-related consumer information in magazine vehicle advertisements, as a case study within the worldwide marketing of vehicles. Content analysis of popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the 5-year period 2001-2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements), supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Safety information in advertisements for light passenger vehicles was relatively uncommon with only 27% mentioning one or more of nine key safety features examined (average: 1.7 out of nine features in this 27%). Also included were potentially hazardous features of: speed imagery (in 29% of advertisements), power references (14%), and acceleration data (4%). The speed and power aspects became relatively more common over the 5-year period (p advertisements and vehicle marketing - as already occurs with many other consumer products.

  13. Green fluorescent protein labeling of Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 for safety-related studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    Full Text Available Many food safety-related studies require tracking of introduced foodborne pathogens to monitor their fate in complex environments. The green fluorescent protein (GFP gene (gfp provides an easily detectable phenotype so has been used to label many microorganisms for ecological studies. The objectives of this study were to label major foodborne pathogens and related bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, with GFP and characterize the labeled strains for stability of the GFP plasmid and the plasmid's effect on bacterial growth. GFP plasmids were introduced into these strains by a CaCl(2 procedure, conjugation or electroporation. Stability of the label was determined through sequential propagation of labeled strains in the absence of selective pressure, and rates of plasmid-loss were calculated. Stability of the GFP plasmid varied among the labeled species and strains, with the most stable GFP label observed in E. coli O157:H7. When grown in nonselective media for two consecutive subcultures (ca. 20 generations, the rates of plasmid loss among labeled E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains ranged from 0%-30%, 15.8%-99.9% and 8.1%-93.4%, respectively. Complete loss (>99.99% of the plasmid occurred in some labeled strains after five consecutive subcultures in the absence of selective pressure, whereas it remained stable in others. The GFP plasmid had an insignificant effect on growth of most labeled strains. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria strains can be effectively labeled with the GFP plasmid which can be stable in some isolates for many generations without adversely affecting growth rates.

  14. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse...

  15. Comparison and Analysis of IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 standards for harmonization of seismic qualification of safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ok; Kim, Jong Seog; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Myung Jun

    2011-01-01

    The seismic qualification of safety related equipment in nuclear power plants should demonstrate an equipment's ability to perform its safety function during/or after the time it is subjected to the forces resulting from one SSE. In addition, the equipment must withstand the effects of a number of OBEs, preceding the SSE. IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 present the criteria for establishing procedures demonstrating that the Class 1E equipment can meet its performance requirement during seismic events. Currently, IEEE 344 is used for regulation of nuclear power plant in the United State whereas IEC 60980 is mainly used in Europe. In particular, NPPs of France and China apply with RCC-E and GB that are domestic standards, respectively. Equipment supplier and Utility have difficulties because of different applicable standards. Equipment supplier to export S/R components/equipment to other standard area performs additional seismic qualification. For example, equipment are qualifies according to IEC 60980, RCC-E, GB although they have been qualified in accordance with IEEE 344. Also, utility to attempt power up-rate, life extension of NPP constructed under rules of RCC-E such as Ulchin NPP 1 and 2 has similar difficulties. RCC-E endorses IEC 60980 and GB is almost same as IEC 60980 except minor difference of earthquake environment definition. Therefore this paper surveys the similarities and differences between IEEE 344 and IEC 60980. In addition, this paper considers how the two sets of standards may be used in a complementary fashion to be possible using one or the other standard area

  16. The role of the fire dampers in the event of fire in a nuclear facility. Selection criteria for devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Laborde, J.C.

    1989-10-01

    In nuclear facilities, where unacceptable quantities of radioactive aerosols could be spread in the event of a fire, the ventilation system must be designed so that an underpressure is maintained under such circumstances. This is the reason why the extracting ventilation of the room in which the fire has broken out has generally to be kept going as long as possible. This prevents smoke and radioactive aerosols from spreading to accessways and adjacent rooms. Consequently, the various devices of the ventilation network need to have high fire resistance. Fire dampers can be applied to exhaust air to delay the heat build-up of a major fire. Specialized qualification testing is required for these dampers. The criteria we have used as a basis for specifying the required qualities of installations are defined. The tests that have been performed, or are now in progress, are described. The results obtained so far are given. Devices and arrangements are suggested

  17. PONTIAC (NT-proBNP selected prevention of cardiac events in a population of diabetic patients without a history of cardiac disease): a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsmann, Martin; Neuhold, Stephanie; Resl, Michael; Strunk, Guido; Brath, Helmut; Francesconi, Claudia; Adlbrecht, Christopher; Prager, Rudolf; Luger, Anton; Pacher, Richard; Clodi, Martin

    2013-10-08

    The study sought to assess the primary preventive effect of neurohumoral therapy in high-risk diabetic patients selected by N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Few clinical trials have successfully demonstrated the prevention of cardiac events in patients with diabetes. One reason for this might be an inaccurate selection of patients. NT-proBNP has not been assessed in this context. A total of 300 patients with type 2 diabetes, elevated NT-proBNP (>125 pg/ml) but free of cardiac disease were randomized. The "control" group was cared for at 4 diabetes care units; the "intensified" group was additionally treated at a cardiac outpatient clinic for the up-titration of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists and beta-blockers. The primary endpoint was hospitalization/death due to cardiac disease after 2 years. At baseline, the mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 9 years, duration of diabetes was 15 ± 12 years, 37% were male, HbA1c was 7 ± 1.1%, blood pressure was 151 ± 22 mm Hg, heart rate was 72 ± 11 beats/min, median NT-proBNP was 265.5 pg/ml (interquartile range: 180.8 to 401.8 pg/ml). After 12 months there was a significant difference between the number of patients treated with a RAS antagonist/beta-blocker and the dosage reached between groups (p titration of RAS antagonists and beta-blockers to maximum tolerated dosages is an effective and safe intervention for the primary prevention of cardiac events for diabetic patients pre-selected using NT-proBNP. (Nt-proBNP Guided Primary Prevention of CV Events in Diabetic Patients [PONTIAC]; NCT00562952). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The large soybean (Glycine max) WRKY TF family expanded by segmental duplication events and subsequent divergent selection among subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangjun; Xu, Hongliang; Xiao, Shuyang; Qin, Yajuan; Li, Yaxuan; Yan, Yueming; Hu, Yingkao

    2013-10-03

    WRKY genes encode one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors in higher plants, and its members regulate important biological process such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the soybean genome sequence has been published, functional studies on soybean genes still lag behind those of other species. We identified a total of 133 WRKY members in the soybean genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins and to the phylogenetic tree, the soybean WRKY family could be classified into three groups (groups I, II, and III). A majority of WRKY genes (76.7%; 102 of 133) were segmentally duplicated and 13.5% (18 of 133) of the genes were tandemly duplicated. This pattern was not apparent in Arabidopsis or rice. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or in expression patterns under normal growth conditions, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Furthermore, some critical amino acids were detected using DIVERGE v2.0 in specific comparisons, suggesting that these sites have contributed to functional divergence among groups or subgroups. In addition, site model and branch-site model analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) showed that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these groups. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in groups I, II c, II e, and III. Together, these results contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular evolution of the WRKY gene family in soybean. In this work, all the WRKY genes, which were generated mainly through segmental duplication, were identified in the soybean genome. Moreover, differential expression and functional divergence of the duplicated WRKY genes were two major features of this family throughout their evolutionary history. Positive selection analysis revealed that the different groups have different evolutionary rates

  19. Plot of the transverse mass distributions for events passing the full selection of the H→WW∗→lνlν analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collection

    2013-01-01

    The transverse mass distributions for events passing the full selection of the H→WW∗→lνlν analysis summed over all lep- ton flavours for final states with Njet ≤ 1. The signal is stacked on top of the background. The hatched area represents the total uncertainty on the sum of the signal and background yields from statistical, experimental, and theoretical sources. The residuals of the data with respect to the estimated background are shown, compared to the expected mT distribution of a SM Higgs boson.

  20. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas; Saekerhetsrelaterade platsegenskaper - en relativ jaemfoerelse av Forsmark med referensomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  1. Benefits of a systematic approach to maintenance for safety and safety related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Ayazzudin, S.; Nickerson, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    For safety and safety-related systems, nuclear plants have to balance the requirements of demonstrating the reliability of each system, while maintaining the system and plant availability. With the goal of demonstrating statistical reliability, these systems have extensive testing programs, which often results in system unavailability and this can impact the plant capacity. The inputs to the process are often safety and regulatory related, resulting in programs that provide a high level of scrutiny. In such cases, the value of the application of a Systematic Assessment of Maintenance (SAM) process, such as Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), is questioned. The special case of Standby-Safety systems was discussed in a previous paper, where it was demonstrated how SAM techniques provide useful insight into current system performance, the impact of testing on component and system reliability, and how PSA considerations can be integrated into a comprehensive Maintenance, Surveillance, and Inspection (MSI) strategy. Although the system reliability requirements are an important part of the strategy evaluation, SAM techniques provide a systematic assessment within a broader context. Testing is only one part of an overall strategy focused on ensuring that component function is maintained through a combination of monitoring technologies (including testing), predictive techniques, and intrusive maintenance strategies. Each strategy is targeted to known component degradation mechanisms. This thinking can be extended to safety and safety related systems in general. Over the past 6 years, AECL has been working with CANDU utilities in the development and implementation of a comprehensive and integrated Plant Life Management (PLiM) program. As part of developing a comprehensive plant asset management approach, SAM techniques are used to develop a technical basis that not only works towards ensuring reliable operation of plant systems, but also facilitates the optimization and

  2. Lineage extinction and replacement in dengue type 1 virus populations are due to stochastic events rather than to natural selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing Myat Thu; Lowry, Kym; Jiang Limin; Thaung Hlaing; Holmes, Edward C.; Aaskov, John

    2005-01-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, two clades (B and C; genotype I) of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) appeared in Myanmar (Burma) that were new to that location. Between 1998 and 2000, a third clade (A; genotype III) of DENV-1, which had been circulating at that locality for at least 25 years, became extinct. These changes preceded the largest outbreak of dengue recorded in Myanmar, in 2001, in which more than 95% of viruses recovered from patients were DENV-1, but where the incidence of severe disease was much less than in previous years. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genomes indicated that the two new clades of DENV-1 did not arise from the, now extinct, clade A viruses nor was the extinction of this clade due to differences in the fitness of the viral populations. Since the extinction occurred during an inter-epidemic period, we suggest that it was due to a stochastic event attributable to the low rate of virus transmission in this interval

  3. An Attack Model Development Process for the Cyber Security of Safety Related Nuclear Digital I and C Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khand, Parvaiz Ahmed; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs), the redundant safety related systems are designed to take automatic action to prevent and mitigate accident conditions if the operators and the non-safety systems fail to maintain the plant within normal operating conditions. Presently, there is trend of connecting computer networks of commercial NPPs to corporate local area networks (LANs) to give engineers access to plant data for economic benefits. An increase in plant efficiency of a couple percentage points can translate to millions upon millions of dollars per year. The nuclear industry is also moving in the direction of installing digital controls that would allow for remote operation of plant functions, perhaps within a few years. However, this connectivity may also cause new security problems such as: in 2003, a computer worm named as slammer penetrated a private computer network at Ohio's Davis-Besse nuclear plant and disabled a safety monitoring system called a safety parameter display system (SPDS). Moreover, the present systems were developed with consideration of reliability and safety rather than security. In present scenario, there is a need to model and understand the cyber attacks towards these systems in a systematic way, and to demonstrate that the plant specific procedures and the imposed security controls adequately protect the systems from analyzed cyber security attacks. Attack trees provide a systematic, disciplined and effective way to model and understand cyber attacks towards any type of systems, make it possible to understand risks from deliberate, malicious intrusions from attackers, and make security decisions. Using attack trees the security of large systems can be modeled by considering a security breach as a system failure, and describing it with a set of events that can lead to system failure in a combinatorial way. The attacks towards the system are represented in a tree structure, with an attack that can significantly damage the system operation

  4. An Attack Model Development Process for the Cyber Security of Safety Related Nuclear Digital I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, Parvaiz Ahmed; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs), the redundant safety related systems are designed to take automatic action to prevent and mitigate accident conditions if the operators and the non-safety systems fail to maintain the plant within normal operating conditions. Presently, there is trend of connecting computer networks of commercial NPPs to corporate local area networks (LANs) to give engineers access to plant data for economic benefits. An increase in plant efficiency of a couple percentage points can translate to millions upon millions of dollars per year. The nuclear industry is also moving in the direction of installing digital controls that would allow for remote operation of plant functions, perhaps within a few years. However, this connectivity may also cause new security problems such as: in 2003, a computer worm named as slammer penetrated a private computer network at Ohio's Davis-Besse nuclear plant and disabled a safety monitoring system called a safety parameter display system (SPDS). Moreover, the present systems were developed with consideration of reliability and safety rather than security. In present scenario, there is a need to model and understand the cyber attacks towards these systems in a systematic way, and to demonstrate that the plant specific procedures and the imposed security controls adequately protect the systems from analyzed cyber security attacks. Attack trees provide a systematic, disciplined and effective way to model and understand cyber attacks towards any type of systems, make it possible to understand risks from deliberate, malicious intrusions from attackers, and make security decisions. Using attack trees the security of large systems can be modeled by considering a security breach as a system failure, and describing it with a set of events that can lead to system failure in a combinatorial way. The attacks towards the system are represented in a tree structure, with an attack that can significantly damage the system operation as a

  5. Electric and mechanical basic parameters to elaborate a process for a technical verification of safety related design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuno Fernandez, Mercedes; La Roca Mallofre, GISEL; Bano Azcon, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic process to check a design in order to achieve all the requirements that regulations demand. Nuclear engineers must verify that a design is done according to the safety requirements, and this paper presents how we have elaborated a process to improve the technical project verification. For a faster, better and easier verification process, here we summarize how to select the electric and mechanical basic parameters, which ensure the correct project verification of safety related design modifications. This process considers different aspects, which guarantee that the design preserves the availability, reliability and functional capability of the Structures, Systems and Components needed to operate the Nuclear Power Station with security. Electric and mechanical reference parameters are identified and discussed as well as others related ones, which are critical to safety. The implementation procedure to develop tasks performed in any company that has a quality plan is a requirement. On the engineering business, it is important not to use the personal criteria to do a technical analysis of a project; although, many times it is the checker's criteria and knowledge responsibility to ensure the correct development of a design modification. Then, the checker capabilities are the basis of the modification verification. This kind of procedure's development is not easy, because in an engineering project with important technical contents, there are multiple scenarios, but lots of them have a common basis. If we can identify the technical common basis of these projects, we will make good project verification but there are many difficulties we can encounter along this process. (authors)

  6. Multiple selective events at the PRDM16 functional pathway shaped adaptation of western European populations to different climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliarello, Andrea; De Fanti, Sara; Giuliani, Cristina; Abondio, Paolo; Serventi, Patrizia; Sarno, Stefania; Sazzini, Marco; Luiselli, Donata

    2017-12-30

    Several studies highlighted the role of climate in shaping many human evolutionary processes. This occurred even in relatively recent times, having affected various human phenotypic traits, among which metabolic processes that orchestrate absorption and accumulation of substances to maintain energy homeostasis, that is critical for the survival of individuals in high energy-expenditure environments. To date, most researches have focalized on detection of climatic influence on SNPs' frequency in populations exposed to extreme environmental conditions or by comparing variation patterns between populations from different continents. In this study, we instead explored the genetic background of distinct western European human groups at loci involved in nutritional and thermoregulation processes, to test whether patterns of differential local adaptation to environmental conditions could be appreciated also at a lower geographical scale. Taking advantage from the 1000 Genomes Project data, genetic information for 21 genes involved in nutritional and thermoregulation processes was analysed for three western European populations. The applied Anthropological Genetics methods pointed to appreciable differentiation between the examined groups especially for the PRDM16 gene. Moreover, several neutrality tests suggested that balancing selection has acted on different regions of the gene in people from Great Britain, as well as that more recent positive selection could have also targeted some PRDM16 SNPs in Finn and Italian populations. These series of adaptive footprints are plausibly related to climate variability in both ancient and relatively recent times. Since this locus is involved in thermoregulation mechanisms and adipogenesis, local adaptations mediated by a pathway related to the brown adipose tissue activity could have evolved in response to changing cold temperature exposures of such populations.

  7. Management by regulatory inspection authorities of experience gained from safety related occurrences in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore, E.; Nilsson, R.

    1977-01-01

    A short description is given of the system used by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate to collect information of events occurring in nuclear power plants. The standard forms used by the utilities when reporting the events are described and a motivation given to their lay-out. The evaluation routine is defined and statistics given of events which occurred during the period July 1 1974 to December 31 1976. (author)

  8. Impact of Safety-Related Regulations on Codeine Use in Children: A Quasi-Experimental Study Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Wan; Wang, Ching-Huan; Huang, Wei-I; Ke, Wei-Ming; Chao, Pi-Hui; Chen, Wen-Wen; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Safety concerns regarding potential life-threatening adverse events associated with codeine have resulted in policy decisions to restrict its use in pediatrics. However, whether these drug safety communications have had an immediate and strong impact on codeine use remains in question. We aimed to investigate the impact of the two implemented safety-related regulations (label changes and reimbursement regulations) on the use of codeine for upper respiratory infection (URI) or cough. A quasi-experimental study was performed using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Quarterly data of codeine prescription rates for URI/cough visits were reported, and an interrupted time series design was used to assess the impact of the safety regulations on the uses of codeine among children with URI/cough visits. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore patient and provider characteristics associated with the use of codeine. The safety-related regulations were associated with a significant reduction in codeine prescription rates of -4.24% (95% confidence interval [CI] -4.78 to -3.70), and the relative reduction compared with predicted rates based on preregulation projections was 60.4, 56.6, and 53.2% in the first, second, and third year after the regulations began, respectively. In the postregulation period, physicians specializing in otolaryngology (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.45-1.49), practicing in district hospitals (OR 6.84, 95% CI 5.82-8.04) or clinics (OR 6.50, 95% CI 5.54-7.62), and practicing in the least urbanized areas (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.55-1.64) were more likely to prescribe codeine to children than their counterparts. Our study provides a successful example of how to effectively reduce the codeine prescriptions in children in the 'real-world' settings, and highlights areas where future effort could be made to improve the safety use of codeine. Future research is warranted to explore whether there was a simultaneous decrease in

  9. Testing existing software for safety-related applications. Revision 7.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.; Lawrence, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increasing use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products in digital safety-critical applications is raising concerns about the safety, reliability, and quality of these products. One of the factors involved in addressing these concerns is product testing. A tester's knowledge of the software product will vary, depending on the information available from the product vendor. In some cases, complete source listings, program structures, and other information from the software development may be available. In other cases, only the complete hardware/software package may exist, with the tester having no knowledge of the internal structure of the software. The type of testing that can be used will depend on the information available to the tester. This report describes six different types of testing, which differ in the information used to create the tests, the results that may be obtained, and the limitations of the test types. An Annex contains background information on types of faults encountered in testing, and a Glossary of pertinent terms is also included. This study is pertinent for safety-related software at reactors

  10. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably

  11. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips January 1 - June 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a systematically arranged report on all safety-related occurrences and reacotr trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during the period from January 1 to June 30 1985. It is based on the reports submitted by the utilities to the Swedish Nuclear power Inspectorate according to Technical Specifications. Twice a year since 1974 the Inspectorate has issued a compilation on such reported occurrences and reactor trips. Starting with the compilation of the second half of 1982 some new features have been introduced. The most important change is that the volume of information has been increased. The full test, provided by the utilities when reporting the incidents, is now attached to the codified information and also the layout has been altered to facilitate reading. As in the previous reports the occurrences and reactor trips are arranged both alphabetically by facility name and chronologically by report number for each facility. Electricity generation charts for each facility are also presented. The primary purpose of this report is thus to present all the information furnished by utlities when they submit their reports according the Technical Specifications. The only evaluation made by the Inspecotrate is the categorization on the incidents. Like the previous reports this one also presents frequency of incidents as related to affected component, cause of incident etc. The difference is that only information reported by the utilities is used. This is the reason why a considerable proportion of the incidents are categorized as 'other fault'. (author)

  12. Structure soil structure interaction effects: Seismic analysis of safety related collocated concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Process, Purification and Stack Buildings are collocated safety related concrete shear wall structures with plan dimensions in excess of 100 feet. An important aspect of their seismic analysis was the determination of structure soil structure interaction (SSSI) effects, if any. The SSSI analysis of the Process Building, with one other building at a time, was performed with the SASSI computer code for up to 50 frequencies. Each combined model had about 1500 interaction nodes. Results of the SSSI analysis were compared with those from soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis of the individual buildings, done with ABAQUS and SASSI codes, for three parameters: peak accelerations, seismic forces and the in-structure floor response spectra (FRS). The results may be of wider interest due to the model size and the potential applicability to other deep soil layered sites. Results obtained from the ABAQUS analysis were consistently higher, as expected, than those from the SSI and SSSI analyses using the SASSI. The SSSI effect between the Process and Purification Buildings was not significant. The Process and Stack Building results demonstrated that under certain conditions a massive structure can have an observable effect on the seismic response of a smaller and less stiff structure

  13. Identification of potential safety-related incidents applicable to a breeder fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The current emphasis on safety in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle requires that safety features be identified and included in designs of nuclear facilities at the earliest possible stage. A popular method for the early identification of these safety features is the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. An extension of this analysis is to illustrate the nature of a hazard by its effects in accident situations, that is, to identify what are called safety-related incidents. Some useful tools are described which have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory, SRL, to make Preliminary Hazards Analyses as well as safety analyses of facilities for processing spent nuclear fuels from both power and production reactors. These tools have also been used in safety studies of waste handling operations at the Savannah River Plant. The tools are the SRL Incidents Data Bank and the What If meeting. The application of this methodology to a proposed facility which has breeder fuel reprocessing capability, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) is illustrated

  14. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules

  15. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably.

  16. Seismic analysis for safety related structures of 900MWe PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant aseismic design becomes more and more important in China due to the fact that China is a country where earthquakes occur frequently and most of plants arc unavoidably located in seismic regions. Therefore, Chinese nuclear safety authority and organizations have worked out a series of regulations and codes related to NPP anti-seismic design taking account of local conditions. The author presents here an example of structural anti-seismic design of 90GM We PWR NPP which is comprised of: ground motion input, including the principles for ground motion determination and time history generation; soil and upper-structure modelling, presenting modeling procedures and typical models of safety related buildings such as Reactor Building, Nuclear Auxiliary Building and Fuel Building; soil-structure interaction analysis; and in-structure response analysis and floor response spectrum generation. With this example, the author intends to give an overview of Chinese practice in NPP structure anti-seismic design such as the main procedures to be followed and the codes and regulations to be respected. (author)

  17. Failure trend analysis for safety related components of Korean standard NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Han, Sang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    The component reliability data of Korean NPP that reflects the plant specific characteristics is required necessarily for PSA of Korean nuclear power plants. We have performed a project to develop the component reliability database (KIND, Korea Integrated Nuclear Reliability Database) and S/W for database management and component reliability analysis. Based on the system, we have collected the component operation data and failure/repair data during from plant operation date to 2002 for YGN 3, 4 and UCN 3, 4 plants. Recently, we provided the component failure rate data for UCN 3, 4 standard PSA model from the KIND. We evaluated the components that have high-ranking failure rates with the component reliability data from plant operation date to 1998 and 2000 for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3, 4 respectively. We also identified their failure mode that occurred frequently. In this study, we analyze the component failure trend and perform site comparison based on the generic data by using the component reliability data which is extended to 2002 for UCN 3, 4 and YGN 3, 4 respectively. We focus on the major safety related rotating components such as pump, EDG etc

  18. Selective activation of the superior frontal gyrus in task-switching: an event-related fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutini, Simone; Scatturin, Pietro; Menon, Enrica; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia; Gamberini, Luciano; Zorzi, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2008-08-15

    In the task-switching paradigm, reaction time is longer and accuracy is worse in switch trials relative to repetition trials. This so-called switch cost has been ascribed to the engagement of control processes required to alternate between distinct stimulus-response mapping rules. Neuroimaging studies have reported an enhanced activation of the human lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus during the task-switching paradigm. Whether neural activation in these regions is dissociable and associated with separable cognitive components of task switching has been a matter of recent debate. We used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure brain cortical activity in a task-switching paradigm designed to avoid task differences, order predictability, and frequency effects. The results showed a generalized bilateral activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus in both switch trials and repetition trials. To isolate the activity selectively associated with the task-switch, the overall activity recorded during repetition trials was subtracted from the activity recorded during switch trials. Following subtraction, the remaining activity was entirely confined to the left portion of the superior frontal gyrus. The present results suggest that factors associated with load and maintenance of distinct stimulus-response mapping rules in working memory are likely contributors to the activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex, whereas only activity in the left superior frontal gyrus can be linked unequivocally to switching between distinct cognitive tasks.

  19. Development of reliability database for safety-related I and C component based on operating experience of KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. C.; Han, S. H.; Min, K. R.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability database for safety-related I and C components has been developed, based on domestic operating experience of total 8.63 years from four units-Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, and Ulchin Units 3 and 4. This plant-specific data of safety-related I and C components has compared with operating experience for CE-supplied plants in U.S.A. As a results, we found that on the whole the domestic reliability data was similar to CE-supplied plants in USA, through lots of failures occurred early in the commercial operation were included in our analyses without percolation

  20. Different underlying mechanisms for face emotion and gender processing during feature-selective attention: Evidence from event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailing; Ip, Chengteng; Fu, Shimin; Sun, Pei

    2017-05-01

    Face recognition theories suggest that our brains process invariant (e.g., gender) and changeable (e.g., emotion) facial dimensions separately. To investigate whether these two dimensions are processed in different time courses, we analyzed the selection negativity (SN, an event-related potential component reflecting attentional modulation) elicited by face gender and emotion during a feature selective attention task. Participants were instructed to attend to a combination of face emotion and gender attributes in Experiment 1 (bi-dimensional task) and to either face emotion or gender in Experiment 2 (uni-dimensional task). The results revealed that face emotion did not elicit a substantial SN, whereas face gender consistently generated a substantial SN in both experiments. These results suggest that face gender is more sensitive to feature-selective attention and that face emotion is encoded relatively automatically on SN, implying the existence of different underlying processing mechanisms for invariant and changeable facial dimensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  2. The safety related aspects of pressure components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindackers, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Over the last two years the safety philosophy for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed considerably, as everyone working in the field perceives. The original and appropriate philosophy of risk minimalisation through graduated safety barriers has been more and more replaced by the utopian goal of total prevention of any damage. The reasons for this development are discussed briefly especially regarding pressure components. The very numerous pressure components of a nuclear power station are not all of equal importance with respect to safety. Although considerable efforts have been made, it has not been possible, to date, to achieve an agreement between operators, manufacturers, licensing authorities, independent experts, and other specialists about the safety related classification of the manifold pressure bearing parts in nuclear power stations. The background of this extremely regrettable situation is explained. In the last part of the paper the author suggests a simple and clear safety philosophy for pressure components in nuclear power stations. This philosophy is orientated both on Safety Regulations of the Radiation Protection Decree ('Strahlenschutzverordnung') of the 13th October 1976 and on the Safety Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations from 21st October 1977. Only a simple, clear framework can make a contribution to the further improvement of the already exceptional safety of nuclear facilities and to the removal of obstacles in the licensing procedure which, taken as a whole, tie up skilled personnel to a senseless degree, involve considerable financial expenditure, and have no relevance for the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  3. Safety-related parameters for the MAPLE research reactor and a comparison with the IAEA generic 10-MW research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, P.A.; Lee, A.G.; Smith, H.J.; Ellis, R.J.

    1989-07-01

    A summary is presented of some of the principle safety-related physics parameters for the MAPLE Research Reactor, and a comparison with the IAEA Generic 10-MW Reactor is given. This provides a means to assess the operating conditions and fuelling requirements for safe operation of the MAPLE Research Reactor under accepted standards

  4. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0098] Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... (NRC) is issuing for public comment Draft Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital...

  5. PGDP [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant]-UF6 handling, sampling, analysis and associated QC/QA and safety related procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This document is a compilation of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant procedures on UF 6 handling, sampling, and analysis, along with associated QC/QA and safety related procedures. It was assembled for transmission by the US Department of Energy to the Korean Advanced Energy Institute as a part of the US-Korea technical exchange program

  6. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents

  7. The importance of the selection of the audiences and the organization of media events within public awareness strategies for tissue banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    The main purpose of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Public Awareness Strategies for Tissue Banks is to provide guidance on organizing and running awareness campaigns, in order to consolidate tissue banking activities. Within the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies for Tissue Banks, there are two important topics, which need to be singled out due to their importance for a successful public and professional awareness campaign. These are the selection of the audiences and the organization of media events within a Communication Strategy. The experience in the field of tissue banking in several countries has shown that interaction between the public, the professional health care staff, the media and the tissue bank personnel is essential if the activities of the banks are to be successful. It must be emphasized however, that any public and professional awareness strategy will not be successful, unless it is considered as part of an integrated system that is adopted by the concerned Government.

  8. Selectivity of primary events in the radiation chemistry of organic solids and polymers as revealed by model studies of ionized molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.

    2006-01-01

    Selectivity of the primary chemical events induced by ionizing radiation in molecular systems is the key issue of basic radiation chemistry, which is crucially important for controlling the radiation sensitivity of various-type organic and polymeric materials and designing new effective approaches to the radiation modification. In the past decade we have demonstrated that many features of selective localization of the radiation-induced effects in molecular solids can be understood on the basis of model studies of the primary ionized molecules in rigid low-temperature matrices. This talk will outline the key results of these studies and possible implications for radiation chemistry of vatious systems. In particular, the following aspects will be considered: (1) Spectroscopic characteristics of ustable ionized molecules in low-temperature matrices and their correlations with the site-selective reactivity. (2) Experimental modeling of the effect of excess energy on the properties of primary ionized molecules in condensed phases. (3) Intramolecular long-range effects with particular impact on the properties of ionized bifunctional molecules of X-(CH 2 ) n -X and X-(CH 2 ) n -Y types. (4) Modeling of intermolecular long-range positive hole transfer between molecular traps with close ionization energy and manifestations of 'fine tuning' effects resulting from conformation variations and intermolecular interactions. Several illustrative examples of correlation between the properties of primary ionized molecules and selectivity of the radiation-chemical transformations in organic solids and macromolecules will be presented. Finally, the problem of prediction of the radiation-chemical behaviour of complex organic systems on the basis of limited spectroscopic information and quantum-chemical data obtained for model systems will be addressed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 06-03-33104) and the Russian Academy of Sciences

  9. Substance use and social, health and safety-related factors among fatally injured drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Blencowe, Tom; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different socio-demographic, health and safety-related factors, and psychoactive substance use among fatally injured drivers in road traffic accidents in Finland during 2006-2008. An accident information register maintained by the Traffic Safety Committee of Insurance Companies (VALT) of the Finnish Motor Insurers' Centre was used as basic data, and the basic data were complemented with further toxicological analytical information retrieved from autopsy reports from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Helsinki University. The data included all the drivers (n=556) who were driving a motor vehicle and who died in a road traffic accident in Finland during 2006-2008. Of all the 556 fatally injured drivers 43% (n=238) had psychoactive substance findings. 51% (n=121) of substance positive drivers had a finding for alcohol only, the rest had a finding for one or more illicit/medicinal drugs impairing driving ability, and possibly also alcohol. Fatally injured drivers with alcohol findings were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than sober drivers (mean age 44 years) or drivers with findings for drugs (mean age 45 years). Socio-demographic background did not differ substantially among drunken/drugged and sober drivers, although drivers with alcohol findings had a slightly lower education and socioeconomic position. Previous substance abuse problems were highly prevalent among drivers with substance findings and mental or both mental and physical health problems were more common among drivers with drug findings. The non-use of safety equipment and driving at a high speed were more common among fatally injured drivers with substance findings. Substance abuse and mental health problems, as well as reckless driving behavior were more pronounced among fatally injured drivers with substance findings when compared to sober drivers. Thus, prevention and early intervention concerning substance abuse, mental health problems and DUI are

  10. Safety related design and economic aspects of HTGRs. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to provide the opportunity to review the status of design and development activities associated with safety related and economic aspects of HTGRs, and to identify pathways which may provide the opportunity for international cooperation in addressing these issues. The HTGR, as a nuclear heat source for the safe, economic and efficient production of electricity and high temperature industrial processes has, within the past few years, become a significantly increasing influence in the future of nuclear power. Nuclear test facilities with the capability of achieving core outlet temperatures to 950 deg. C are presently under construction in China and Japan. These plants will be utilized to support HTGR research and development activities, including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications. Also, major development programmes focusing on the generation of electricity through the direct cycle gas turbine are in progress by ESKOM, the state electric utility of South Africa, and by a consortium of organizations from the Russian Federation, USA, France and Japan. Other national programmes focusing on research and development of the HTGR are underway including the Netherlands, where an evaluation is being completed on a heat and power co-generation plant utilizing a small direct cycle HTR; in Germany, where the primary focus is centered on basic issues of reactor safety and innovative reactor technology; in Indonesia with the evaluation of process heat applications such as coal liquefaction, hydrogen production and high temperature reforming of methane; and in the USA with the recent re-introduction of national support for the HTGR specifically directed to the burning of weapons plutonium. The status information presented in several of the papers is as of the time of drafting. Thus other later material should be referenced for more current status information

  11. Safety related design and economic aspects of HTGRs. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was to provide the opportunity to review the status of design and development activities associated with safety related and economic aspects of HTGRs, and to identify pathways which may provide the opportunity for international cooperation in addressing these issues. The HTGR, as a nuclear heat source for the safe, economic and efficient production of electricity and high temperature industrial processes has, within the past few years, become a significantly increasing influence in the future of nuclear power. Nuclear test facilities with the capability of achieving core outlet temperatures to 950 deg. C are presently under construction in China and Japan. These plants will be utilized to support HTGR research and development activities, including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications. Also, major development programmes focusing on the generation of electricity through the direct cycle gas turbine are in progress by ESKOM, the state electric utility of South Africa, and by a consortium of organizations from the Russian Federation, USA, France and Japan. Other national programmes focusing on research and development of the HTGR are underway including the Netherlands, where an evaluation is being completed on a heat and power co-generation plant utilizing a small direct cycle HTR; in Germany, where the primary focus is centered on basic issues of reactor safety and innovative reactor technology; in Indonesia with the evaluation of process heat applications such as coal liquefaction, hydrogen production and high temperature reforming of methane; and in the USA with the recent re-introduction of national support for the HTGR specifically directed to the burning of weapons plutonium. The status information presented in several of the papers is as of the time of drafting. Thus other later material should be referenced for more current status information

  12. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  13. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se

    2016-01-01

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  14. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J; Neville, Helen J

    2015-06-01

    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) across five age groups: 3-5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M.; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in human children across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, characterizing the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. PMID:26002721

  16. Estimation of average hazardous-event-frequency for allocation of safety-integrity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, Y.; Sato, Y.

    1999-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts of the draft international standard, IEC 61508, is target failure measures to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems, i.e. Safety Integrity Levels. The Safety Integrity Levels consist of four discrete probabilistic levels for specifying the safety integrity requirements or the safety functions to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems. In order to select the Safety Integrity Levels the draft standard classifies Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems into two modes of operation using demand frequencies only. It is not clear which modes of operation should be applied to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems taking into account the demand-state probability and the spurious demand frequency. It is essential for the allocation of Safety Integrity Levels that generic algorithms be derived by involving possible parameters, which make it possible to model the actuality of real systems. The present paper addresses this issue. First of all, the overall system including Electric/Electronic/programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems is described using a simplified fault-tree. Then, the relationships among demands, demand-states and proof-tests are studied. Overall systems are classified into two groups: a non-demand-state-at-proof-test system which includes both repairable and non-repairable demand states and a constant-demand-frequency system. The new ideas such as a demand-state, spurious demand-state, mean time between detections, rates of d-failure and h-failure, and an h/d ratio are introduced in order to make the Safety Integrity Levels and modes of operation generic and comprehensive. Finally, the overall system is simplified and modeled by fault-trees using Priority-AND gates. At the same time the assumptions for modeling are described. Generic algorithms to estimate hazardous-event

  17. IE Information Notice No. 85-08: Industry experience on certain materials used in safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This information notice is being issued to provide licensees and construction permit holders with information pertaining to the behavior of certain materials used in safety-related equipment. The materials, as described below, were observed to have the potential of degrading the operability of safety-related equipment. These observations were made during environmental qualification testing and/or during routine inspection of in-service equipment. The notice describes the following: elastomeric seals used in personnel air locks for the reactor containment systems; epoxy phenolic coating applied to the lower portion of the interior surface of diesel oil storage tanks; the use of Viton elastomer as the seal material in hydrogen recombiner applications; and environmental qualification of ASCO NP valves with Viton and ethylene propylene parts

  18. A Study on Performance Evaluation of Safety-Related Protective Coating for Yonggwang Unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Young; Kim, Young Bum; Lee, Won Sang

    2010-01-01

    Protective coating inside nuclear power plants could find its origin from NRC Reg. Guide 1.82(Rev. 3) regarding current issue for the regulation of foreign materials inside containment building. The current issue for the regulation of foreign materials inside containment considered/determined the current issues only regarding the blockage of sump screen by foreign materials such as coating material, insulator, and other materials, while safety-related coating is separately managed by NRC Reg. Guide 1.54(Rev. 1). In this study, we performed field walk-down to evaluate the as-is condition of protective coating inside containment building which was classified as for structure and for equipment with applying the requirement for safety-related coating

  19. Sophisticated Calculation of the 1oo4-architecture for Safety-related Systems Conforming to IEC61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayek, A; Al Bokhaiti, M; Schwarz, M H; Boercsoek, J

    2012-01-01

    With the publication and enforcement of the standard IEC 61508 of safety related systems, recent system architectures have been presented and evaluated. Among a number of techniques and measures to the evaluation of safety integrity level (SIL) for safety-related systems, several measures such as reliability block diagrams and Markov models are used to analyze the probability of failure on demand (PFD) and mean time to failure (MTTF) which conform to IEC 61508. The current paper deals with the quantitative analysis of the novel 1oo4-architecture (one out of four) presented in recent work. Therefore sophisticated calculations for the required parameters are introduced. The provided 1oo4-architecture represents an advanced safety architecture based on on-chip redundancy, which is 3-failure safe. This means that at least one of the four channels have to work correctly in order to trigger the safety function.

  20. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  1. Development of integrated D/B system for the safety-related structures in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M. S.; Song, Y. C.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    The integrated D/B system is developed for digitalizing the history of the safety-related structures of nuclear power plant. It have 5 database which are consist of Generals, Structural and Design, Materials, Construction, Aging and repair information D/B. For efficient operation of the system, we are to set up the outline of the system, find out data field for target structures, and develop utilities. Utilities will be the aging and repair data management program, the close examination management program, the data search engine with various options which help users to find the information quickly, and the data management program restoring, updating and exchanging input data. Development of the integrated D/B system of the safety-related structures will contribute to management of the structures of nuclear power plant with advanced technology

  2. Requirements and analysis of electromagnetic compatibility of safety-related instrumentation and control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sujuan

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art instrumentation and control system and the influence of their application to the electromagnetic compatibility is analyzed. Based on the present situation of nuclear safety in China and relevant experiences from other countries, the author tries to probe into the requirements and test methods about how safety-related instrument and control system to accommodate electromagnetic interference, radio-frequency interference and power surges in the environments of nuclear power plant so as to develop Chinese safety standards

  3. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, K.

    2005-10-01

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  4. Computerized reactor protection and safety related systems in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Though the majority of existing control and protection systems in nuclear power plants use old analogue technology and design philosophy, the use of computers in safety and safety related systems is becoming a current practice. The Specialists Meeting on ''Computerized Reactor Protection and Safety Related Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' was organized by IAEA (jointly by the Division of Nuclear Power and the Fuel Cycle and the Division of Nuclear Installation Safety), in co-operation with Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary and was held from 27-29 October 1997 in Budapest, Hungary. The meeting focused on computerized safety systems under refurbishment, software reliability issues, licensing experiences and experiences in implemented computerized safety and safety related systems. Within a meeting programme a technical visit to Paks NPP was organized. The objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion on R and D, in-plant experiences in I and C important to safety, backfits and arguments for and reservations against the digital safety systems. The meeting was attended by 70 participants from 16 countries representing NPPs and utility organizations, design/engineering, research and development, and regulatory organizations. In the course of 4 sessions 25 technical presentations were made. The present volume contains the papers presented by national delegates and the conclusions drawn from the final general discussion

  5. Guidelines for safety related telecommunications systems on normally attended fixed offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Guidance is given on the design of telecommunications systems required for safety purposes on normally attended offshore installations associated with oil and gas production on the United Kingdom continental shelf. Basic requirements for such equipment are presented as a series of objectives which should be capable of being met in the event of any emergency situation arising. The telecommunications facilities necessary to meet these objectives are identified, together with the role of each facility in controlling the emergency, how each would be used and the design considerations to ensure the facilities will remain operational throughout the emergency. (UK)

  6. Brief Report: Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Reprogramming to Pluripotency Is a Rare Event and Selects for Patient Hematopoietic Cells Devoid of Leukemic Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hee; Salci, Kyle R; Reid, Jennifer C; Orlando, Luca; Tanasijevic, Borko; Shapovalova, Zoya; Bhatia, Mickie

    2017-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming has provided critical insights into disease processes by modeling the genetics and related clinical pathophysiology. Human cancer represents highly diverse genetics, as well as inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity, where cellular model systems capable of capturing this disease complexity would be invaluable. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents one of most heterogeneous cancers and has been divided into genetic subtypes correlated with unique risk stratification over the decades. Here, we report our efforts to induce pluripotency from the heterogeneous population of human patients that represents this disease in the clinic. Using robust optimized reprogramming methods, we demonstrate that reprogramming of AML cells harboring leukemic genomic aberrations is a rare event with the exception of those with de novo mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) mutations that can be reprogrammed and model drug responses in vitro. Our findings indicate that unlike hematopoietic cells devoid of genomic aberrations, AML cells harboring driver mutations are refractory to reprogramming. Expression of MLL fusion proteins in AML cells did not contribute to induced reprogramming success, which continued to select for patient derived cells devoid of AML patient-specific aberrations. Our study reveals that unanticipated blockades to achieving pluripotency reside within the majority of transformed AML patient cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:2095-2102. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Proceedings from Specialists Meeting on human performance in operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference on human performance in operational events is composed of 34 papers, grouped in 11 sessions. After an invited contribution on the human factor in the nuclear industry, the sessions are: session 1 (Operational events: Human performance in operational events - how to improve it?, Human performance research strategies for human performance, The development of a model of control room operator cognition), session 2 (Operational response: A study of the recovery from 120 events, Empirical study of the influence of organizational and procedural characteristics on team performance in the emergency situation using plant simulators, Cognitive skills and nuclear power plant operational decision making), session 3 (PSA for Probabilistic Safety Analysis: A sensitivity study of human errors in optimizing surveillance test interval (STI) and allowed outage time (AOT) of standby safety system, Analysis of Parks nuclear power plant personnel activity during safety related event sequences, An EDF project to update the Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessment PHRA methodology), session 4 (modelling with ATHEANA: Atheana, a technique for human error analysis, an overview of its methodological basis, Common elements on operational events across technologies, Results of nuclear power plant application of new technique for human error analysis), session 5 (Regulatory practice: US.NRC Research and analysis activities concerning human reliability assessment and human performance evaluation, Introduction of simulator-based examinations and its effects on the nuclear industry, Regulatory monitoring of human performance in PWR operation in France), session 6 (Simulation: Human performance in Bavarian nuclear power plant as a preventive element, Human performance event database, Crew situation awareness, diagnoses and performance in simulated nuclear power plant process disturbances), session 7 (Operator aids: Development of a plant navigation system, Operation system

  8. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in nuclear power plans as reported in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1975-05-01

    All abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants reported in 1974 are reviewed and summarized. This bibliography covers the individual reports on each of the 1421 abnormal occurrences reported to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as well as some 455 other documents pertaining to these and other events of note. The review is intended to provide insight as to where additional effort can be expended to improve operations in nuclear power plants. The individual reports, abstracted by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, concern incidents and failures, design or construction deficiencies, and noncompliance citations for license violations. A bibliography is included which contains 100-word abstracts of each incident. For convenience, the bibliography is organized according to type of facility as follows: boiling-water reactors; pressurized-water reactors; non-water-cooled power reactors; and reactors, general. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided for each section. (U.S.)

  9. Gas-Induced Water-hammer Loads Calculation for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungchan; Yoon, Dukjoo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dooyong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Of particular interest, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping following a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas-water, a water-hammer event and the accompanying force imbalances on the piping segments can be sufficient to challenge the piping supports and restraint. This paper describes an method performing to the water-hammer loads to determine the maximum loading that would occur in the piping system following the safety injection signal and to evaluate its integrity. For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the result of the calculation shows the maximum loads of 18,894.2psi, which is smaller than the allowable criteria. Also, the maximum peak axial force imbalances acting on the support is 1,720lbf as above.

  10. Gas-Induced Water-hammer Loads Calculation for Safety Related Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungchan; Yoon, Dukjoo; Lee, Dooyong

    2013-01-01

    Of particular interest, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping following a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas-water, a water-hammer event and the accompanying force imbalances on the piping segments can be sufficient to challenge the piping supports and restraint. This paper describes an method performing to the water-hammer loads to determine the maximum loading that would occur in the piping system following the safety injection signal and to evaluate its integrity. For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the result of the calculation shows the maximum loads of 18,894.2psi, which is smaller than the allowable criteria. Also, the maximum peak axial force imbalances acting on the support is 1,720lbf as above

  11. Power reactor events, May-June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaro, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    Power Reactor Events is a bi-monthly newsletter that compiles operating experience information about commercial nuclear power plants. This includes summaries of noteworthy events and listings and/or abstracts of USNRC and other documents that discuss safety-related or possible generic issues. It is intended to feed back some of the lessons learned from operational experience to the various plant personnel, i.e., managers, licensed reactor operators, training coordinators, and support personnel. Events at the following plants are reported: McGuire Unit 1; Susquehanna Units 1 and 2; Browns Ferry Units 1, 2, and 3; and River Bend Unit 1

  12. Technical basis for evaluating electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference in safety-related I ampersand C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses the development of the technical basis for the control of upsets and malfunctions in safety-related instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems caused by electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI) and power surges. The research was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was sponsored by the USNRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). The motivation for research stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed with the application of advanced I ampersand C systems to nuclear power plants. Development of the technical basis centered around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems known to be the source(s) of EMI/RFI and power surges. First, good EMC design and installation practices need to be established to control the impact of interference sources on nearby circuits and systems. These EMC good practices include circuit layouts, terminations, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, and adequate physical separation. Second, an EMI/RFI test and evaluation program needs to be established to outline the tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and carefully formulated acceptance criteria based on the intended environment to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Third, a program needs to be developed to perform confirmatory tests and evaluate the surge withstand capability (SWC) and of I ampersand C equipment connected to or installed in the vicinity of power circuits within the nuclear power plant. By following these three steps, the design and operability of safety-related I ampersand C systems against EMI/RFI and power surges can be evaluated, acceptance criteria can be developed, and appropriate regulatory guidance can be provided

  13. Major results from safety-related integral effect tests with VISTA-ITL for the SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. S.; Min, B. Y.; Shin, Y. C.; Yi, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of integral effect tests (IETs) was performed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) using the VISTA integral test loop (VISTA-ITL) as a small-scale IET program. Among them this paper presents major results acquired from the safety-related IETs with the VISTA-ITL facility for the SMART design. Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of safety injection system (SIS) line break, shutdown cooling system (SCS) line break and pressurizer safety valve (PSV) line break were successfully performed and the transient characteristics of a complete loss of flowrate (CLOF) was simulated properly with the VISTA-ITL facility. (authors)

  14. Modification and backfitting at the Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 and 2 in safety related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Leif; Nilsson, Ove; Lidh, B.

    1995-05-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Barsebaeck, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 3 refs

  15. Guidelines for evaluation of anchorage adequacy for safety-related equipment typically used on WWER-type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the criteria which should be met when the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety related equipment is performed for the WWER type NPPs. It should be noted that these criteria were developed specifically for anchorage of WWER type equipment and components to the concrete or steel building structures and they cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage details which are typical just for the existing, constructed or reconstructed WWER type NPPs. The screening approach for verifying of equipment anchorage presented in this report is based on a combination of inspections, calculations, and engineering judgement

  16. Structural Aging Program to evaluate continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the Structural Aging (SAG) Program which is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into three technical tasks: Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  17. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  18. Establishing management information system to solve the information management problem of nuclear safety related personnel's qualification management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haipeng; Liu Zhijun; Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid progress of nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization, nuclear safety related personnel play an increasingly important role in ensuring nuclear safety. NNSA personnel qualification management information system conducts a multi-faceted, effective, real-time monitoring and information collection for nuclear safety staff practice unit management, knowledge management, license application, appraisal management or supervision, training management or supervision and certified staff management, and also is a milestone for NNSA to build the state department with 'five-feature' (learning-oriented, service-oriented, economical, innovative, clean-type). (authors)

  19. The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

  20. Structural Aging Program approach to providing an improved basis for aging management of safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into four tasks: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  1. Assessment of inservice conditions of safety-related nuclear plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1995-06-01

    The report is a compilation from a number of sources of information related to the condition Of structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants in the United States. The most significant information came from the hands-on inspection of the six old plants (licensed prior to 1977) performed by the staff of the Civil Engineering and Geosciences Branch (ECGB) in the Division of Engineering of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. For the containment structures, most of the information related to the degraded conditions came from the licensees as part of the Licensing Event Report System (10 CFR 50.73), or as part of the requirement under limiting condition of operation of the plant-specific Technical Specifications. Most of the information related to the degradation of other Structures and civil engineering features was extracted from the industry survey, the reported incidents, and the plant visits. The report discusses the condition of the structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants and provides information that would help detect, alleviate, and correct the degraded conditions of the structures and civil engineering features

  2. Applicable safety-related design and operations considerations from the oil and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, R.J.; Deshotels, R.L.; Master, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fluor Daniel has conducted several hazards and risk analyses on petroleum and chemical facilities. These analyses included qualitative hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies, preliminary hazards analyses, and qualitative fault-tree analysis as well as quantitative event-tree/fault-tree risk analysis. Several design-related problem areas were uncovered as a result of these analyses as well as deficiencies in operations and maintenance. Design deficiency areas include potential common-mode failures associated with redundant functions sharing a common distributed digital control (DDC) logic circuit board and failures in pressure relief systems. Many of the design weaknesses and potential operator errors discussed have a direct counterpart in nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear power reactors. Counterparts that are discussed are common cause/common mode failures in control systems and failures in pressure relief systems. Overpressurization of piping and vessels resulting in rupture is discussed. Mitigating design features and operations procedures that have been implemented in the chemical process industry are described and their applicability to the nuclear industry is discussed

  3. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  4. Network based on statistical multiplexing for event selection and event builder systems in high energy physics experiments; Reseau a multiplexage statistique pour les systemes de selection et de reconstruction d'evenements dans les experiences de physique des hautes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, D

    2000-03-01

    Systems for on-line event selection in future high energy physics experiments will use advanced distributed computing techniques and will need high speed networks. After a brief description of projects at the Large Hadron Collider, the architectures initially proposed for the Trigger and Data AcQuisition (TD/DAQ) systems of ATLAS and CMS experiments are presented and analyzed. A new architecture for the ATLAS T/DAQ is introduced. Candidate network technologies for this system are described. This thesis focuses on ATM. A variety of network structures and topologies suited to partial and full event building are investigated. The need for efficient networking is shown. Optimization techniques for high speed messaging and their implementation on ATM components are described. Small scale demonstrator systems consisting of up to 48 computers ({approx}1:20 of the final level 2 trigger) connected via ATM are described. Performance results are presented. Extrapolation of measurements and evaluation of needs lead to a proposal of implementation for the main network of the ATLAS T/DAQ system. (author)

  5. IEEE Std 382-1985: IEEE standard for qualification of actuators for power operated valve assemblies with safety-related functions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. This standard may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of power-driven valve actuators with safety-related functions Part I describes the qualification process. Part II describes the standard qualification cases and their environmental parameters for the usual locations of safety-related equipment in a nuclear generating station. Part III describes the qualification tests outlined in 6.3.3

  6. The dream-lag effect: selective processing of personally significant events during Rapid Eye Movement sleep, but not during Slow Wave Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, E.; Eichenlaub, J.-B.; Lewis, Penelope A.; Walker, M.P.; Gaskell, M.G.; Malinowski, J.E.; Blagrove, M.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the night after, and then 5-7 nights after events (termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects). In experiment 1, 44 participants kept a daily log for 10. days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs), and major concerns (MCs). Dream reports were collected from REM and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) in the laboratory, or from ...

  7. The Development of the Safety Related Valve Class 1E Electrical Motor, the Target and the Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, I.; Grgic, D.; Fancev, T.; Flegar, Lj.; Novosel, N.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the safety related valves class 1E electric motor is described. The design implemented in order to satisfy the 1E requirements, and a way in which related 1E standards are addressed, are shown. The development was realized in three stages. In the first stage eight motorettes were made and the insulation system was tested. In the second stage the motor was produced in accordance with producer's prototype QA program. In the third stage part of the testing of the produced motor was made. The results of the testing, finished until now, show that produced motor, as well as similarly produced motors, is able to perform its safety function in the design bases accident conditions as requested by class 1E requirements. The rest of the testing (LOCA test) can be made on the same or similar motor in the future. (author)

  8. Technical basis for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Hassan, M.; Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of studies sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. The studies were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The studies address the following: (1) adequacy of the present test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred (i.e., Regulatory Guide-endorsed) standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging for equipment to be located in a benign environment; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach for addressing the impact of smoke in digital equipment qualification programs. Significant findings from the studies form the technical basis for a recommended approach to the environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

  9. Impact of state-of-the-art instrumentation on safety-related experimental studies proposed in containment studies facility (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gole, N.V.; Markandeya, S.G.; Subramaniam, K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conducting an experimental program for safety related studies for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is an extremely laborious and time-consuming task due to several reasons. Requirement for frequent replacements, testing and recalibration of a large number of instruments is one of them. Off-line analysis leading to identification of errors is another. A particular test may have to be abandoned based on such analysis. Following the rapid advances in instrumentation, a larger number of options are now available, which make experimentation easy. CSF is one of the upcoming facilities wherein deployment of state-of-the art became inevitable. This paper discusses in detail the design intent of instrumentation, the state-of-the-art instrumentation provisions made to fulfill it the overall impact of this on successful experimentation

  10. Review of safety related control room function research based on experience from nuclear power plants in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juslin, K.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rinttilae, E.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive human engineering research programme was established in the second half of the 1970's at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The research is performed in cooperation with the utility companies Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and includes topics such as Handling of alarm information, Disturbance analysis systems, Assessment of control rooms and Validation of safety parameter display systems. Reference is also made to the Finnish contribution to the OECD Halden Reactor Project (Halden) and the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA) research projects. In this paper feasible realization alternatives of safety related control room functions are discussed on the basis of experience from the nuclear power plants in Finland, which at present are equipped with extensive process computer systems. A proposal for future power plant information systems is described. It is intended that this proposal will serve as the basis for future computer systems at nuclear power plants in Finland. (author)

  11. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable's insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable's condition

  12. Management of the aging of critical safety-related concrete structures in light-water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant safety-related structures for continued service. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued-service determinations. Objectives, accomplishments, and planned activities under each of these tasks are presented. Major program accomplishments include development of a materials property data base for structural materials as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, a review and assessment of inservice inspection techniques for concrete materials and structures has been complete, and work on development of a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future condition assessment of concrete structures is well under way. 43 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Technical basis for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hassan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Tanaka, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of studies sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. The studies were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The studies address the following: (1) adequacy of the present test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred (i.e., Regulatory Guide-endorsed) standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging for equipment to be located in a benign environment; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach for addressing the impact of smoke in digital equipment qualification programs. Significant findings from the studies form the technical basis for a recommended approach to the environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants.

  14. Conceptual design of an integrated information system for safety related analysis of nuclear power plants (IRIS Phase 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, K.; Zehnder, P.; Galperin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report deals with a conceptual design of an integrated information management system, called PSI-IRIS, as needed to assist the analysts for reactor safety related investigations on Swiss nuclear power plants within the project STARS. Performing complicated engineering analyses of an NPP requires storage and manipulation of a large amount of information, both data and knowledge. This information is characterized by its multi-disciplinary nature, complexity, and diversity. The problems caused by inefficient and lengthy manual operations involving the data flow management within the framework of the safety related analysis of an NPP, can be solved by applying computer aided engineering (CAE) principles. These principles are the basis for the design of the integrated information management system PSI-IRIS presented in this report. The basic idea is to create a computerized environment, which includes both database and functional capabilities. The database of the PSI-IRIS consists of two parts, an NPP generic database (GDB) and a collection of analysis results (CASE L IB). The GDB includes all technical plant data and information needed to generate input decks for all computer codes utilized within the STARS project. The CASE L IB storage contains the accumulated knowledge, input decks, and result files of the NPP transient analyses. Considerations and analysis of the data types and the required data manipulation capabilities as well as operational requirements resulted in the choice of an object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) as a development platform for solving the software engineering problems. Several advantages of OODBMS's over conventional relational database management systems were found of crucial importance, especially providing the necessary flexibility for different data types and the potential for extensibility. (author) 15 figs., tabs., 20 refs

  15. The ear, the eye, earthquakes and feature selection: listening to automatically generated seismic bulletins for clues as to the differences between true and false events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Arehart, E.; Louie, J. N.; Witzleben, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Listening to the waveforms generated by earthquakes is not new. The recordings of seismometers have been sped up and played to generations of introductory seismology students, published on educational websites and even included in the occasional symphony. The modern twist on earthquakes as music is an interest in using state-of-the-art computer algorithms for seismic data processing and evaluation. Algorithms such as such as Hidden Markov Models, Bayesian Network models and Support Vector Machines have been highly developed for applications in speech recognition, and might also be adapted for automatic seismic data analysis. Over the last three years, the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has supported an effort to apply computer learning and data mining algorithms to IDC data processing, particularly to the problem of weeding through automatically generated event bulletins to find events which are non-physical and would otherwise have to be eliminated by the hand of highly trained human analysts. Analysts are able to evaluate events, distinguish between phases, pick new phases and build new events by looking at waveforms displayed on a computer screen. Human ears, however, are much better suited to waveform processing than are the eyes. Our hypothesis is that combining an auditory representation of seismic events with visual waveforms would reduce the time it takes to train an analyst and the time they need to evaluate an event. Since it takes almost two years for a person of extraordinary diligence to become a professional analyst and IDC contracts are limited to seven years by Treaty, faster training would significantly improve IDC operations. Furthermore, once a person learns to distinguish between true and false events by ear, various forms of audio compression can be applied to the data. The compression scheme which yields the smallest data set in which relevant signals can still be heard is likely an

  16. Working Safely at Some Times and Unsafely at Others: A Typology and Within-Person Process Model of Safety-Related Work Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beus, Jeremy M; Taylor, William D

    2017-06-22

    Why do individuals choose to work safely in some instances and unsafely in others? Though this inherently within-person question is straightforward, the preponderance of between-person theory and research in the workplace safety literature is not equipped to answer it. Additionally, the limited way in which safety-related behaviors tend to be conceptualized further restricts understanding of why individuals vary in their safety-related actions. We use a goal-focused approach to conceptually address this question of behavioral variability and contribute to workplace safety research in 2 key ways. First, we establish an updated typology of safety-related behaviors that differentiates behaviors based on goal choice (i.e., safe vs. unsafe behaviors), goal-directedness (i.e., intentional vs. unintentional behaviors), and the means of goal pursuit (i.e., commission vs. omission and promotion vs. prevention-focused behaviors). Second, using an expectancy-value theoretical framework to explain variance in goal choice, we establish within-person propositions stating that safety-related goal choice and subsequent behaviors are a function of the target of safety-related behaviors, the instrumentality and resource requirement of behaviors, and the perceived severity, likelihood, and immediacy of the threats associated with behaviors. Taken together, we define what safety-related behaviors are, explain how they differ, and offer propositions concerning when and why they may vary within-persons. We explore potential between-person moderators of our theoretical propositions and discuss the practical implications of our typology and process model of safety-related behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A prospective study on a cohort of horses and ponies selected for participation in the European Eventing Championship : reasons for withdrawal and predictive value of fitness tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van den Broek, Jan; Welling, Emile; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh - Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eventing is generally recognized as a challenging equestrian discipline and wastage figures for this discipline are relatively high. There is a need for information that provides insight into the causes of wastage and withdrawal from competition, for animal welfare and economic reasons.

  18. Prevalence of Topical Corticosteroids Related Adverse Drug Events and Associated Factors in Selected Community Pharmacies and Cosmetic Shops of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlet Tsegaye

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Majority of the topical corticosteroids were obtained without prescription for the purpose of beautification rather than treatment. A higher proportion of cosmetic users reported to have experienced at least one adverse event. There needs to consider safety concerns related to topical corticosteroids use in the city.

  19. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355: Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below.

  20. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  1. The dream-lag effect: Selective processing of personally significant events during Rapid Eye Movement sleep, but not during Slow Wave Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, E; Eichenlaub, J-B; Lewis, P A; Walker, M P; Gaskell, M G; Malinowski, J E; Blagrove, M

    2015-07-01

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the night after, and then 5-7 nights after events (termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects). In experiment 1, 44 participants kept a daily log for 10 days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs), and major concerns (MCs). Dream reports were collected from REM and Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) in the laboratory, or from REM sleep at home. The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation of PSEs into REM dreams collected at home, but not for MDAs or MCs. No dream-lag effect was found for SWS dreams, or for REM dreams collected in the lab after SWS awakenings earlier in the night. In experiment 2, the 44 participants recorded reports of their spontaneously recalled home dreams over the 10 nights following the instrumental awakenings night, which thus acted as a controlled stimulus with two salience levels, high (sleep lab) and low (home awakenings). The dream-lag effect was found for the incorporation into home dreams of references to the experience of being in the sleep laboratory, but only for participants who had reported concerns beforehand about being in the sleep laboratory. The delayed incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, an alternative emotion processing or emotional impact of events account, distinct from memory consolidation, is supported by the finding that SWS dreams do not evidence the dream-lag effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of event selection on jetlike correlation measurement in d + Au  collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calder'on de la Barca S'anchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-04-01

    Dihadron correlations are analyzed in √{sNN} = 200 GeV d + Au collisions classified by forward charged particle multiplicity and zero-degree neutral energy in the Au-beam direction. It is found that the jetlike correlated yield increases with the event multiplicity. After taking into account this dependence, the non-jet contribution on the away side is minimal, leaving little room for a back-to-back ridge in these collisions.

  3. Whole genome analysis of selected human and animal rotaviruses identified in Uganda from 2012 to 2014 reveals complex genome reassortment events between human, bovine, caprine and porcine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwogi, Josephine; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Karamagi, Charles; Byarugaba, Denis K; Namuwulya, Prossy; Baliraine, Frederick N; Desselberger, Ulrich; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2017-01-01

    Rotaviruses of species A (RVA) are a common cause of diarrhoea in children and the young of various other mammals and birds worldwide. To investigate possible interspecies transmission of RVAs, whole genomes of 18 human and 6 domestic animal RVA strains identified in Uganda between 2012 and 2014 were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The backbone of the human RVA strains had either a Wa- or a DS-1-like genetic constellation. One human strain was a Wa-like mono-reassortant containing a DS-1-like VP2 gene of possible animal origin. All eleven genes of one bovine RVA strain were closely related to those of human RVAs. One caprine strain had a mixed genotype backbone, suggesting that it emerged from multiple reassortment events involving different host species. The porcine RVA strains had mixed genotype backbones with possible multiple reassortant events with strains of human and bovine origin.Overall, whole genome characterisation of rotaviruses found in domestic animals in Uganda strongly suggested the presence of human-to animal RVA transmission, with concomitant circulation of multi-reassortant strains potentially derived from complex interspecies transmission events. However, whole genome data from the human RVA strains causing moderate and severe diarrhoea in under-fives in Uganda indicated that they were primarily transmitted from person-to-person.

  4. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  5. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  6. Seismic simulation and functional performance evaluation of a safety related, seismic category I control room emergency air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, D.K.; Porco, R.D.; Choi, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Under a nuclear contract MSA was required to design, manufacture, seismically test and functionally test a complete Safety Related, Seismic Category I, Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System before shipment to the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Station in Rowe, Massachusetts. The installation of this system was required to satisfy the NRC requirements of NUREG-0737, Section III, D.3.4, ''Control Room Habitability''. The filter system tested was approximately 3 ft. wide by 8 ft. high by 18 ft. long and weighed an estimated 8300 pounds. It had a design flow rate of 3000 SCFM and contained four stages of filtration - prefilters, upstream and downstream HEPA filters and Type II sideload charcoal adsorber cells. The filter train design followed the guidelines set forth by ANSI/ASME N509-1980. Seismic Category I Qualification Testing consisted of resonance search testing and triaxial random multifrequency testing. In addition to ANSI/ASME N510-1980 testing, triaxial response accelerometers were placed at specific locations on designated prefilters, HEPA filters, charcoal adsorbers and test canisters along with accelerometers at the corresponding filter seal face locations. The purpose of this test was to demonstrate the integrity of the filters, filter seals, and monitor seismic response levels which is directly related to the system's ability to function during a seismic occurrence. The Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System demonstrated the ability to withstand the maximum postulated earthquake for the plant site by remaining structurally sound and functional

  7. Implementation of digital safety related I and C systems at nuclear power plants. A systematic approach to training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, Peter; Schoenfelder, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In the past, refurbishment or modernization projects at nuclear power plants (NPP) dealing with the AREVA product for safety related digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems, i.e. TELEPERM registered XS (TXS), regularly led to the development and implementation of different project specific training courses. They mostly dealt with a basic introduction to TELEPERM registered XS, as well as project specific engineering of TELEPERM registered XS and maintenance of the TELEPERM registered XS system supplied with the project. However, it gradually emerged that diverse training needs of different personnel involved in refurbishment or modernization projects as well as in new build projects had to be considered in more detail. Additionally, each target group, e.g. project managers, project engineers, technical engineers, commissioning engineers, operating and maintenance personnel, will have to work with TELEPERM registered XS at different phases within a project. Consequently, it became necessary to take into account the diverse training and project needs. According to the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) process as developed and promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a job and task analysis was performed. After identification of related training needs and redesigning as well as modification or development of appropriate training material, a comprehensive, standardized TELEPERM registered XS training offer is now available at the AREVA Reactor Training Center. This training offer can be easily adapted to project or customer specific requirements. (orig.)

  8. Investigations of safety-related parameters applying a new multi-group diffusion code for HTR transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasselmann, S.; Druska, C.; Lauer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy spectra of fast and thermal neutrons from fission reactions in the FZJ code TINTE are modelled by two broad energy groups. Present demands for increased numerical accuracy led to the question of how precise the 2-group approximation is compared to a multi-group model. Therefore a new simulation program called MGT (Multi Group TINTE) has recently been developed which is able to handle up to 43 energy groups. Furthermore, an internal spectrum calculation for the determination of cross-sections can be performed for each time step and location within the reactor. In this study the multi-group energy models are compared to former calculations with only two energy groups. Different scenarios (normal operation and design-basis accidents) have been defined for a high temperature pebble bed reactor design with annular core. The effect of an increasing number of energy groups on safety-related parameters like the fuel and coolant temperature, the nuclear heat source or the xenon concentration is studied. It has been found that for the studied scenarios the use of up to 8 energy groups is a good trade-off between precision and a tolerable amount of computing time. (orig.)

  9. A Development of the Calibration Tool Applied on Analog I/O Modules for Safety-related Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the calibration tool for analog input/output(I/O) modules. Those modules are components in POSAFE-Q which is a programmable logic controller(PLC) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. In this paper, performance improvement of analog I/O modules is presented by developing and applying the calibration tool for each channel in analog I/O modules. With this tool, the input signal to an analog input module and the output signal from an analog output module are able to be satisfied with a reference value of sensor type and an accuracy of all modules. With RS-232 communication, the manual calibration tool is developed for analog I/O modules of an existing and up-to-date version in POSAFE-Q PLC. As a result of applying this tool, the converted value is performant for a type of input sensor and an accuracy of analog I/O modules

  10. Guards: An approach safety-related systems using cots example of MMI and reactor automation in nuclear submarine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, M.

    1998-01-01

    For at least 10 years, the nuclear industry designs and licences specific digital safety-critical systems (IEC 1226 class A). One key issue for future programs is to design and licence safety-related systems providing more complex functions and using Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components. This issue is especially raised for Reactor automation and Man-Machine-Interface. The usual I and C (Instrumentation and Control) organisation for these functions is based on redundancy between a commercial, up-to-date, unclassified > system and a simplified classified > system using traditional technologies. It clearly appears that such organisation is not satisfying from the point of view of people who have actually to operate these systems: The operator is supposed not to trust the normal system and rely on the back-up system which is less helpful and that he use very few. This paper presents a new approach to that problem using COTS components in low-level layers, safety architecture and mechanisms at medium level layer (GUARDS architecture developed in the current ESPRIT project number 20716), and a pre-validated functional layer. The aim of this solution is to comply with the > IEC 1226 class B requirements, at lower overall cost (design, implementation, licensing, long term confidence). This approach is illustrated by its application in Man-Machine-Interface (MMI) for our future program of Nuclear submarine. (author)

  11. The application of VMEbus system to the safety related parameters indication and alarm system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Kwon; Koo, In Soo; Jang, Gwi Sook; Shin, Jae Hwal

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the basic feature, the status of technical development, and it`s application for the VMEbus which has been utilized in industrial application such as controller, robotics, automation control. The application software of VMEbus is also reviewed. The design considerations are presented when applying the system to the instrumentation and control technique of nuclear power plants. The conceptual design of safety related parameter using the integrated VMEbus system. The results indicate that the application of VMEbus has advantages such as easy maintenance, accurate and reliable operation, easy expansion and upgrade. Also, the integrated VMEbus system is capable of limited real-time processing because it can be processed by multi-processors and can reduce the effort of software development by using off-the-shelf software. However, the adoption of digital system is produced problems such as software common mode failure, EMI and RFI, and verification and validation methods of off-the-shelf hardware and software. To resolve these problems in the future, further research are required. (author). 7 tabs., 19 figs., 24 refs.

  12. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable`s insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable`s condition.

  13. The application of VMEbus system to the safety related parameters indication and alarm system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Kwon; Koo, In Soo; Jang, Gwi Sook; Shin, Jae Hwal.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the basic feature, the status of technical development, and it's application for the VMEbus which has been utilized in industrial application such as controller, robotics, automation control. The application software of VMEbus is also reviewed. The design considerations are presented when applying the system to the instrumentation and control technique of nuclear power plants. The conceptual design of safety related parameter using the integrated VMEbus system. The results indicate that the application of VMEbus has advantages such as easy maintenance, accurate and reliable operation, easy expansion and upgrade. Also, the integrated VMEbus system is capable of limited real-time processing because it can be processed by multi-processors and can reduce the effort of software development by using off-the-shelf software. However, the adoption of digital system is produced problems such as software common mode failure, EMI and RFI, and verification and validation methods of off-the-shelf hardware and software. To resolve these problems in the future, further research are required. (author). 7 tabs., 19 figs., 24 refs

  14. New method for selection and characterization of single-source events in Ni+Ni collisions at 32 A.MeV; Nouvelle methode de selection et caracterisation des evenements monosource dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 32 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskay-Wallez, Anne-Marie [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-07-13

    The study of heavy ion collisions, with the help of such efficient multi-detectors as INDRA, has shown the persistence of reactions leading to single-source events, up to bombarding energies higher than the Fermi one. These events could help characterizing an expected phase transition in nuclear matter. Whatever interesting they may be, the single-source events correspond to a small part of the total cross section, which makes them difficult to isolate and therefore to analyze. That is why different selection means have been tested - thanks to the 'Simon' event generator - on a simulated Ni + Ni at 32 A{center_dot}MeV sample, before any application to the INDRA experimental data. As the known methods based on global variables did not prove effective, a set of new 4-dimensional quantities has been built, whose main advantage lies in a better description of physical events. From a Discriminant Analysis performed on 625 of these new 'moments' proceeds a highly discriminant variable, called D{sub 625}. The experimental cross section associated with D{sub 625}-selected single-source events amounts to 170 mb at 32 A{center_dot}MeV. Such quasi-fusion events are shown to disappear at about 60 A{center_dot}MeV. As regards the deexcitation mode of the 32 A{center_dot}MeV Ni + Ni single-source events, an extensive experimental study and comparisons of the data with two reference models seem to confirm the hypothesis of a transition between fusion-evaporation and simultaneous multifragmentation mechanisms. (author)

  15. New method for selection and characterization of single-source events in Ni+Ni collisions at 32 A.MeV; Nouvelle methode de selection et caracterisation des evenements monosource dans les collisions Ni+Ni a 32 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskay-Wallez, Anne-Marie [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-07-13

    The study of heavy ion collisions, with the help of such efficient multi-detectors as INDRA, has shown the persistence of reactions leading to single-source events, up to bombarding energies higher than the Fermi one. These events could help characterizing an expected phase transition in nuclear matter. Whatever interesting they may be, the single-source events correspond to a small part of the total cross section, which makes them difficult to isolate and therefore to analyze. That is why different selection means have been tested - thanks to the 'Simon' event generator - on a simulated Ni + Ni at 32 A{center_dot}MeV sample, before any application to the INDRA experimental data. As the known methods based on global variables did not prove effective, a set of new 4-dimensional quantities has been built, whose main advantage lies in a better description of physical events. From a Discriminant Analysis performed on 625 of these new 'moments' proceeds a highly discriminant variable, called D{sub 625}. The experimental cross section associated with D{sub 625}-selected single-source events amounts to 170 mb at 32 A{center_dot}MeV. Such quasi-fusion events are shown to disappear at about 60 A{center_dot}MeV. As regards the deexcitation mode of the 32 A{center_dot}MeV Ni + Ni single-source events, an extensive experimental study and comparisons of the data with two reference models seem to confirm the hypothesis of a transition between fusion-evaporation and simultaneous multifragmentation mechanisms. (author)

  16. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category I systems for Palisades nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-10-01

    The technical evaluation is presented of Consumers Power Company's Palisades nuclear power plant to determine whether the failure of any non-Category I (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Consumers Power Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  17. Event-related potential correlates of selective processing in early- and continuously-treated children with phenylketonuria : Effects of concurrent phenylalanine level and dietary control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Verkerk, Paul H.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Licht, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This Study focused on important characteristics of attentional (selective) processing in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU). Seven to 14-year-old children with PKU were allocated to high phenylalanine (Phe) and low Phe groups and compared with control children on amplitudes and

  18. Event-related potential correlates of selective processing in early- and continuously-treated children with phenylketonuria: Effects of concurrent phenylalanine level and dietary control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneville, L.M.J. de; Huijbregts, S.C.J.; Spronsen, F.J. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Licht, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on important characteristics of attentional (selective) processing in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU). Seven to 14-year-old children with PKU were allocated to high phenylalanine (Phe) and low Phe groups and compared with control children on amplitudes and

  19. Individual Differences in Neural Mechanisms of Selective Auditory Attention in Preschoolers from Lower Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Neville, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention, the ability to enhance the processing of particular input while suppressing the information from other concurrent sources, has been postulated to be a foundational skill for learning and academic achievement. The neural mechanisms of this foundational ability are both vulnerable and enhanceable in children from lower…

  20. Effects of extreme rainfall events on the distribution of selected emerging contaminants in surface and groundwater: The Guadalete River basin (SW, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Candela, Lucila; Torres-Fuentes, Nivis; Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; Paniw, Maria; González-Mazo, Eduardo

    2017-12-15

    This study is focused on the Guadalete River basin (SW, Spain), where extreme weather conditions have become common, with and alternation between periods of drought and extreme rainfall events. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur when heavy rainfall events exceed the capacity of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), as well as pollution episodes in parts of the basin due to uncontrolled sewage spills and the use of reclaimed water and sludge from the local WWTP. The sampling was carried out along two seasons and three campaigns during dry (March 2007) and extreme rainfall (April and December 2010) in the Guadalete River, alluvial aquifer and Jerez de la Frontera aquifer. Results showed minimum concentrations for synthetic surfactants in groundwater (contaminants increased in December 2010 as the heavy rainfall caused the river to overflow. In surface water, surfactant concentrations showed similar trends to groundwater observations. In addition to surfactants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed in the third campaign, 22 of which were detected in surface waters. Two fragrances (OTNE and galaxolide) and one analgesic/anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen) were the most abundant PPCPs (up to 6540, 2748 and 1747ng·L -1 , respectively). Regarding groundwater, most PPCPs were detected in Jerez de la Frontera aquifer, where a synthetic fragrance (OTNE) was predominant (up to 1285ng·L -1 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in social marketing: health- and safety-related behaviour among oil sands workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L; Watson, L; Wheeler, M; Jhangri, G S

    1996-08-01

    This is the first round in a series of surveys conducted in Fort McMurray as part of the Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in social marketing. This component of the survey was intended to focus on the most prominent group of employed workers in the community and to compare their patterns of response with the community as a whole. Respondents to the survey were overwhelmingly male (96%), married (72.9%) and living in households of two to five persons (87.9%). They were predominantly aged 30-44 (55%) and graduates of high school (53.5%). Younger male workers (below age 30) were more likely to have a high school diploma (78.3%) or some additional technical or vocational training (21.7% compared to 12.5% overall) and to be unmarried or separated. Attitudes toward safety-related behaviours were stronger than for respondents from the community as a whole. Approximately 70-100% of all age groups and both sexes showed strong agreement with attitudes involving child car seats and the unacceptability of drinking and driving. These attitudes include strong advocacy of vigorous enforcement of occupational health and safety standards. However, they showed a variability similar to the community as a whole in behaviour at home compared to work, generally reporting more consistent use of personal protection on the job than in their own homes, particularly hearing protection. Even so, they were much less likely to perform stretching and warm-up exercises prior to exertion than community residents in general. The potential may exist to transfer the technology and attitudes from workplace health and safety to community safety. One possible strategy to accomplish this is to involve workers in this industry directly in community initiatives. This strategy may be generalizable to any community in which there are major employers who place a heavy emphasis on risk control and occupational health and safety.

  2. Do you see what I see? Effects of national culture on employees' safety-related perceptions and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Tristan W; Riseborough, Karli M; Krauss, Autumn D

    2015-05-01

    Growing international trade and globalization are increasing the cultural diversity of the modern workforce, which often results in migrants working under the management of foreign leadership. This change in work arrangements has important implications for occupational health and safety, as migrant workers have been found to be at an increased risk of injuries compared to their domestic counterparts. While some explanations for this discrepancy have been proposed (e.g., job differences, safety knowledge, and communication difficulties), differences in injury involvement have been found to persist even when these contextual factors are controlled for. We argue that employees' national culture may explain further variance in their safety-related perceptions and safety compliance, and investigate this through comparing the survey responses of 562 Anglo and Southern Asian workers at a multinational oil and gas company. Using structural equation modeling, we firstly established partial measurement invariance of our measures across cultural groups. Estimation of the combined sample structural model revealed that supervisor production pressure was negatively related to willingness to report errors and supervisor support, but did not predict safety compliance behavior. Supervisor safety support was positively related to both willingness to report errors and safety compliance. Next, we uncovered evidence of cultural differences in the relationships between supervisor production pressure, supervisor safety support, and willingness to report errors; of note, among Southern Asian employees the negative relationship between supervisor production pressure and willingness to report errors was stronger, and for supervisor safety support, weaker as compared to the model estimated with Anglo employees. Implications of these findings for safety management in multicultural teams within the oil and gas industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection of Suitable DNA Extraction Methods for Genetically Modified Maize 3272, and Development and Evaluation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for 3272.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize, 3272. We first attempted to obtain genome DNA from this maize using a DNeasy Plant Maxi kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini kit, which have been widely utilized in our previous studies, but DNA extraction yields from 3272 were markedly lower than those from non-GM maize seeds. However, lowering of DNA extraction yields was not observed with GM quicker or Genomic-tip 20/G. We chose GM quicker for evaluation of the quantitative method. We prepared a standard plasmid for 3272 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf), which is required to calculate the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (the ABI 7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (the ABI7500). The determined Cf values were 0.60 and 0.59 for the ABI 7900 and the ABI 7500, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, a blind test was conducted as part of an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined values were similar to those in our previous validation studies. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.5% or less, and we concluded that the developed method would be suitable and practical for detection and quantification of 3272.

  4. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  5. Maps showing predicted probabilities for selected dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese threshold events in depth zones used by the domestic and public drinking water supply wells, Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Celia Z.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2018-01-31

    The purpose of the prediction grids for selected redox constituents—dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese—are intended to provide an understanding of groundwater-quality conditions at the domestic and public-supply drinking water depths. The chemical quality of groundwater and the fate of many contaminants is influenced by redox processes in all aquifers, and understanding the redox conditions horizontally and vertically is critical in evaluating groundwater quality. The redox condition of groundwater—whether oxic (oxygen present) or anoxic (oxygen absent)—strongly influences the oxidation state of a chemical in groundwater. The anoxic dissolved oxygen thresholds of water, making drinking water undesirable with respect to taste, staining, or scaling. Three dissolved manganese thresholds, supply water wells. The 50 µg/L event threshold represents the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) benchmark for manganese (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2017; California Division of Drinking Water, 2014), whereas the 300 µg/L event threshold represents the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) health-based screening level (HBSL) benchmark, used to put measured concentrations of drinking-water contaminants into a human-health context (Toccalino and others, 2014). The 150 µg/L event threshold represents one-half the USGS HBSL. The resultant dissolved oxygen and dissolved manganese prediction grids may be of interest to water-resource managers, water-quality researchers, and groundwater modelers concerned with the occurrence of natural and anthropogenic contaminants related to anoxic conditions. Prediction grids for selected redox constituents and thresholds were created by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) modeling and mapping team.

  6. The effects of interstimulus interval on event-related indices of attention: an auditory selective attention test of perceptual load theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Hilary; Barrett, Sophia; Duff, Martin; Barnhardt, Jack; Ritter, Walter

    2008-03-01

    We examined the impact of perceptual load by manipulating interstimulus interval (ISI) in two auditory selective attention studies that varied in the difficulty of the target discrimination. In the paradigm, channels were separated by frequency and target/deviant tones were softer in intensity. Three ISI conditions were presented: fast (300ms), medium (600ms) and slow (900ms). Behavioral (accuracy and RT) and electrophysiological measures (Nd, P3b) were observed. In both studies, participants evidenced poorer accuracy during the fast ISI condition than the slow suggesting that ISI impacted task difficulty. However, none of the three measures of processing examined, Nd amplitude, P3b amplitude elicited by unattended deviant stimuli, or false alarms to unattended deviants, were impacted by ISI in the manner predicted by perceptual load theory. The prediction based on perceptual load theory, that there would be more processing of irrelevant stimuli under conditions of low as compared to high perceptual load, was not supported in these auditory studies. Task difficulty/perceptual load impacts the processing of irrelevant stimuli in the auditory modality differently than predicted by perceptual load theory, and perhaps differently than in the visual modality.

  7. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  8. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  9. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in pressurized-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1976-07-01

    The bibliography presented contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1975. The report includes 1097 abstracts, arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor, that describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies experienced at the facilities. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables summarizing the information contained in the bibliography are presented. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). A few of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail

  10. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1976. The report includes 1,253 abstracts that describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. They are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are provided. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). Three of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail

  11. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in pressurized-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1976. Included are 1264 abstracts that describe incidents, failures, and design construction deficiencies experienced at the facilities. They are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables summarizing the information contained in the bibliography are presented. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). A few of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail

  12. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1977-08-02

    This bibliography contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1976. The report includes 1,253 abstracts that describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. They are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are provided. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). Three of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail.

  13. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in pressurized-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1977-08-01

    The bibliography contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1976. Included are 1264 abstracts that describe incidents, failures, and design construction deficiencies experienced at the facilities. They are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables summarizing the information contained in the bibliography are presented. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). A few of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail.

  14. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1976-07-01

    The bibliography presented contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1975. The report includes 1169 abstracts, arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor, that describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are provided. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). Seven of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail.

  15. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in pressurized-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1976-07-01

    The bibliography presented contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1975. The report includes 1097 abstracts, arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor, that describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies experienced at the facilities. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables summarizing the information contained in the bibliography are presented. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). A few of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail.

  16. Annotated bibliography of safety-related occurrences in boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.L.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1976-07-01

    The bibliography presented contains 100-word abstracts of reports to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water reactor nuclear power plants in 1975. The report includes 1169 abstracts, arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor, that describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. Key-word and permuted-title indexes are provided to facilitate location of the subjects of interest, and tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are provided. The information listed in the tables includes instrument failures, equipment failures, system failures, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction). Seven of the unique events that occurred during the year are reviewed in detail

  17. Synergistic behaviour of nuclear radiation, temperature-humidity extremes and LOCA situation on safety and safety-related equipment in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.D.; Bora, J.S.; Prakash, Ravi; Agarwal, Vivek; Sundersingh, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The general philosophy for the instrumentation in nuclear power plants is based on the use of equipment/instruments which are capable of continuous satisfactory operation over a long period of time with minimum attention. Long term reliability under varying service conditions is of prime importance. The reliability of nuclear power plant depends on the reliability of safety and safety-related electronic instruments/ equipment used for performing the crucial tasks. The electrical and electronic systems/ circuits/ components of the equipment used in reactor safety systems (e.g. reactor protection system, emergency core cooling system, etc.) and reactor safety-related systems (e.g. reactor containment isolation and cooling system, reactor shutdown system, etc.) are responsible for safe and reliable operation of a nuclear power plant. The performance of reactor safety and safety-related equipment/instruments viz. pressure and differential pressure transmitter, amplifier for ion chamber, etc. has been evaluated under synergistic atmosphere including LOCA to find out the critical link in the circuits and subsequent modifications are suggested. The mathematical representation of the generated database has been done to estimate the life span of the instruments and accordingly the guidelines has been prepared for the operational staff to avoid the forced outage of the plant. All the details are included and mathematical models are presented to predict the future performances

  18. Safety related to the implantation of jugular catheters for haemodialysis and usefulness of PA chest X rays post procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Cesar A; Chacon, Jose Arnob; Mauricio Villota, Duvan

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to determine how safe the implantation of transient double lumen jugular catheters is for hemodialysis in patients with renal disease, and who require dialysis therapy and Posterior Anterior (PA) chest X-Ray post procedure. Design: observational descriptive study. Site: renal units at RTS Ltda. Sucursal Caldas (Hospital Santa Sofia y Hospital Infantil Rafael Henao Toro de la Cruz Roja). Patients: all patients with renal disease in whom it was necessary to do hemodyalitic therapy with implantation of a jugular catheter, with medical records of the events and complications that occurred during the procedure, with subsequent control AP chest X Ray and that showed reports made by the radiologist or physician who carried out the procedure, about the findings in the chest X Ray. Patients with renal disease, in whom jugular catheters had been inserted: Methods: variables such as age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI) etiology of the renal failure,time of evolution of the disease, indications for insertion, priority of catheter insertion, type of catheter inserted, amount of punctures, physician who carried out the procedure and patient's co-morbidities were analyzed. The events considered as complicated were analyzed as well as if there was any relationship with co-morbidities and the analyzed variables. Findings in the PA chest X-Ray were recorded and their relationship with the difficulties encountered during the procedure. A bi-variance analysis was done. The dependent and independent variables were classified in the nominal measurement scale. Results: 774 clinical histories were reviewed. 562 were excluded due to lack of variables and impossibility to read the notes. Men older than de 55 (45,7%). 212 (97.1%) patients with diagnosis of chronic renal disease (CRD) and in whom 238 procedures were carried out. seven patients (2,85%) had acute renal failure (ARF). The fi rst indication for central catheter insertion was in patients with chronic uremia

  19. Improving software requirements specification for safety-related systems using the fault tree developed by an object-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the fault tree analysis is presented. The new fault tree integrates structural and behavioral models of a system. Information on the system structure is captured in the name of each gate and basic event of the fault tree. Information on the system behavior is captured in their description. Behavior is expressed using the axiomatic notation based on first order predicate logic. The new fault tree is a useful model for analysis and improvement of software requirements specification. The benefit of such improvements is reduced probability of failures in specification, which in turn results in increased reliability of the software.(author)

  20. Innovation Marketing Strategy of Selected Sporting Events

    OpenAIRE

    Zezula, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh modernizace marketingové strategie, která je tvořena za pomocí dat získaných z předešlého ročníku Moravské ligy Taekwon-Do ITF. Úvodní část práce obsahuje teoretická východiska, která jsou nezbytná ke zpracování praktické části. Objasňuje terminologii marketingu, marketingové strategie. Praktická část je následně tvořena analýzou předchozího ročníku, přičemž výsledky slouží jako podklady pro samotnou inovaci marketingové strategie. The aim of this thesis is ...

  1. IAEA/NEA incident reporting system (IRS). Reporting guidelines. Feedback from safety related operating experience for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. These guidelines have been jointly developed and approved by the NEA/IAEA

  2. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  3. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  4. Top event prevention analysis: A deterministic use of PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Blanchard, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of Top Event Prevention Analysis. The analysis finds prevention sets which are combinations of basic events that can prevent the occurrence of a fault tree top event such as core damage. The problem analyzed in this application is that of choosing a subset of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) for testing under the Generic Letter 89-10 program such that the desired level of safety is achieved while providing economic relief from the burden of testing all safety-related valves. A brief summary of the method is given, and the process used to produce a core damage expression from Level 1 PRA models for a PWR is described. The analysis provides an alternative to the use of importance measures for finding the important combination of events in a core damage expression. This application of Top Event Prevention Analysis to the MOV problem was achieve with currently available software

  5. CESAS: Computerized event sequence abstracting system outlines and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Kobayashi, K.; Fujiki, K.

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose of efficient utilization of the safety-related event information on the nuclear power plants, a new computer software package CESAS has been under development. CESAS is to systematically abstract the event sequence, that is a series of sequential and causal relationships between occurrences, from the event description written in natural language of English. This system is designed to be based on the knowledge engineering technique utilized in the field of natural language processing. The analytical process in this system consists of morphemic, syntactic, semantic, and syntagmatic analyses. At this moment, the first version of CESAS has been developed and applied to several real event descriptions for studying its feasibility. This paper describes the outlines of CESAS and one of analytical results in comparison with a manually-extracted event sequence

  6. Evaluation of the influence of a postulated lubrication oil fire on safety related cables in the top shield platform of PFBR RCB by using FDS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Jayasuriya, C.; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Top deck of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) primary system houses redundant safety related systems like Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanisms (CSRDM), Diverse Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (DSRDM), subassembly outlet sodium temperature measurement system and central canal plug. These systems protrude out from the reactor through the Control Plug (CP), which is supported on the Top Shield (TS) of PFBR. Control and instrumentation signal cables and power cables of these safety related systems that are coming out from the CP are routed through Top Shield Platform (TSP, which is concentric with Reactor Vault (RV) at EL 34.1 m above the TS) to the peripheral local instrumentation control centers via the cable junction boxes supported on TS. Influence approach fire hazard analysis (FHA) has been carried out to evaluate the condition of redundant safety related cables under the scenario of a postulated oil fire in the TSP using Fire Dynamics Simulator code (FDS, Version 5). FDS is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based fire analysis code and it is developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. In this paper the details of the model developed and the results of the analysis carried out are discussed. In TSP, a postulated oil fire scenario with complete inventory of a primary sodium pump (PSP) lubrication oil leak (200 lt) has been considered at 30 m elevation on the TS. Computational model with the geometry of TSP and with other important structural components on TS like PSPs, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), large rotating plug (LRP), small rotating plug (SRP), CP and etc. has been developed along with a fire of 1800 kW/m 2 heat release rate in the vicinity of the PSP1. Numerical simulation has been carried out to evaluate this oil fire influence on the typical safety related cables routed at 34 m elevation. It has been found that the surface temperature of the cables that are routed directly above the fire only crosses the ignition

  7. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  8. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures

  9. Safety analyses for transient behavior of plasma and in-vessel components during plasma abnormal events in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analyses on plasma abnormal events have been performed using a hybrid code of a plasma dynamics model and a heat transfer model of in-vessel components. Several abnormal events, e.g., increase in fueling rate, were selected for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and transient behavior of the plasma and the invessel components during the events was analyzed. The physics model for safety analysis was conservatively prepared. In most cases, the plasma is terminated by a disruption or it returns to the original operation point. When the energy confinement improves by a factor of 2.0 in the steady state, which is a hypothetical assumption under the present plasma data, the maximum fusion power reaches about 3.3 GW at about 3.6 s and the plasma is terminated due to a disruption. However, the results obtained in this study show the confinement boundary of ITER can be kept almost intact during the abnormal plasma transients, as long as the cooling system works normally. Several parametric studies are needed to comprehend the overpower transient including structure behavior, since many uncertainties are connected to the filed of the plasma physics. And, future work will need to discuss the burn control scenario considering confinement mode transition, system specifications, experimental plans and safety regulations, etc. to confirm the safety related to the plasma anomaly. (author)

  10. Geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  11. Thermal overload protection for electric motors on safety-related motor-operated valves: Generic Issue II.E.6.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, O.

    1988-06-01

    NRC regulatory positions, as stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106, Revision 1, have been identified by the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) as potential contributors to valve motor burnout. AEOD is particularly concerned about the allowed policy of bypassing thermal overload devices during normal or accident conditions. Regulatory Guide 1.106 favors compromising the function of thermal overload devices in favor of completing the safety-related action of valves. The purpose of this study was to determine if the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 1.106 is appropriate and, if not, to recommend the necessary changes. This report describes thermal overload devices commonly used to protect safety-related valve operator motors. The regulatory guidelines stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106 along with the limitations of thermal overload protection are discussed. Supplements and alternatives to thermal overload protection are also described. Findings and conclusions of several AEOD reports are discussed. Information obtained from the standard review plan, standard technical specifications, technical specifications from representative plants, and several papers are cited

  12. Study of fundamental safety-related aspects in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear installations. Pt. 2. Safety considerations and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, T.; Thierfeldt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The procedures used so far for the examination of selected decommissioning projects in expert opinions on safety, in particular of nuclear power plants, were screened, with special emphasis on the examination of safety considerations, i.e. analysis of possible accidents. Generic examinations on safety in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear installations were used to assess safety considerations. Different approaches were taken with regard to the selection of analysed accidents and determination of parameters defining activity release and assumptions in safety opinions. Therefore it seems to be appropriate to establish a scenario to be used for nuclear power plant accident analyses, which covers the range of radiologically relevant accidents during decommissioning activities. Although it might be controversially discussed, because of specific plant designs (test and prototype reactors as well as first power reactors), to establish such a radiologically covering accident scenario for older nuclear power plants, it seems to be no problem for modern light water reactors. The radiologically most relevant possible accident in a decommissioned nuclear power plant is fire in the plant. Parameter values and assumptions are suggested which determine the source term in the event of a fire in the plant. Inspite of a conservative determination of parameter values and assumptions, an environmental dose commitment of less than 50 mSv is to be expected for the resulting source term. (orig.) [de

  13. Inelastic seismic behavior of post-installed anchors for nuclear safety related structures: Generation of experimental database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadik, Vinay, E-mail: vinay.mahadik@iwb.uni-stuttgart.de; Sharma, Akanshu; Hofmann, Jan

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experiments for evaluating seismic behavior of anchors were performed. • Two undercut anchor products in use in nuclear facilities were considered. • Monotonic tension, shear and cycling tension tests at different crack widths. • Crack cycling tests at constant, in-phase and out-of phase tension loads. • Characteristics for the two anchors as a function of crack width were identified. - Abstract: Post installed (PI) anchors are often employed for connections between concrete structure and components or systems in nuclear power plants (NPP) and related facilities. Standardized practices for nuclear related structures demand stringent criteria, which an anchor has to satisfy in order to qualify for use in NPP related structures. In NPP and related facilities, the structure–component interaction in the event of an earthquake depends on the inelastic behavior of the concrete structure, the component system and also the anchorage system that connects them. For analysis, anchorages are usually assumed to be rigid. Under seismic actions, however, it is known that anchors may undergo significant plastic displacement and strength degradation. Analysis of structure–component interaction under seismic loads calls for numerical models simulating inelastic behavior of anchorage systems. A testing program covering different seismic loading scenarios in a reasonably conservative manner is required to establish a basis for generating numerical models of anchorage systems. Currently there is a general lack of modeling techniques to consider the inelastic behavior of anchorages in structure–component interaction under seismic loads. In this work, in view of establishing a basis for development of numerical models simulating the inelastic behavior of anchors, seismic tests on two different undercut anchors qualified for their use in NPP related structures were carried out. The test program was primarily based on the DIBt-KKW-Leitfaden (2010) guidelines

  14. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed

  15. The specific tasks of RF TSO - FSUE VO 'Safety', related with Implementation of obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kapralov, E.

    2010-01-01

    It was more than 20 years ago that IAEA discussed the issue pertaining to the need in scientific and engineering support to the regulatory body. The Convention on Nuclear Safety being the keystone in assurance of the global nuclear safety and security regime was adopted in 1994. It is pointed out that two independent organizations supervised by Rostechnadzor have been established within the Russian TSO system, FSUE VO 'Safety' being one of them. The tasks of the organization comprise obligatory certification of equipment as well as acceptance of equipment before its delivery to the NPP both in Russia and in the countries constructing the power units based on the Russian designs. The acceptance procedure has been set forth in the new Russian document at the level of the federal rules and regulations for nuclear safety assurance. As far as its implementation decision is concerned, a task for selection and training of personnel has been set and allocated on the Training and Methodological Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety established with the support of FSUE VO 'Safety', which provides training programmes and specific lecture courses in the wide range of the relevant topics. (author)

  16. SU-F-P-10: A Web-Based Radiation Safety Relational Database Module for Regulatory Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, C; Ramsay, B; Konerth, S; Roller, D; Ramsay, A [Dade Moeller Health Group, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Maintaining compliance with Radioactive Materials Licenses is inherently a time-consuming task requiring focus and attention to detail. Staff tasked with these responsibilities, such as the Radiation Safety Officer and associated personnel must retain disparate records for eventual placement into one or more annual reports. Entering results and records in a relational database using a web browser as the interface, and storing that data in a cloud-based storage site, removes procedural barriers. The data becomes more adaptable for mining and sharing. Methods: Web-based code was written utilizing the web framework Django, written in Python. Additionally, the application utilizes JavaScript for front-end interaction, SQL, HTML and CSS. Quality assurance code testing is performed in a sequential style, and new code is only added after the successful testing of the previous goals. Separate sections of the module include data entry and analysis for audits, surveys, quality management, and continuous quality improvement. Data elements can be adapted for quarterly and annual reporting, and for immediate notification of user determined alarm settings. Results: Current advances are focusing on user interface issues, and determining the simplest manner by which to teach the user to build query forms. One solution has been to prepare library documents that a user can select or edit in place of creation a new document. Forms are being developed based upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission federal code, and will be expanded to include State Regulations. Conclusion: Establishing a secure website to act as the portal for data entry, storage and manipulation can lead to added efficiencies for a Radiation Safety Program. Access to multiple databases can lead to mining for big data programs, and for determining safety issues before they occur. Overcoming web programming challenges, a category that includes mathematical handling, is providing challenges that are being overcome.

  17. SU-F-P-10: A Web-Based Radiation Safety Relational Database Module for Regulatory Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, C; Ramsay, B; Konerth, S; Roller, D; Ramsay, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Maintaining compliance with Radioactive Materials Licenses is inherently a time-consuming task requiring focus and attention to detail. Staff tasked with these responsibilities, such as the Radiation Safety Officer and associated personnel must retain disparate records for eventual placement into one or more annual reports. Entering results and records in a relational database using a web browser as the interface, and storing that data in a cloud-based storage site, removes procedural barriers. The data becomes more adaptable for mining and sharing. Methods: Web-based code was written utilizing the web framework Django, written in Python. Additionally, the application utilizes JavaScript for front-end interaction, SQL, HTML and CSS. Quality assurance code testing is performed in a sequential style, and new code is only added after the successful testing of the previous goals. Separate sections of the module include data entry and analysis for audits, surveys, quality management, and continuous quality improvement. Data elements can be adapted for quarterly and annual reporting, and for immediate notification of user determined alarm settings. Results: Current advances are focusing on user interface issues, and determining the simplest manner by which to teach the user to build query forms. One solution has been to prepare library documents that a user can select or edit in place of creation a new document. Forms are being developed based upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission federal code, and will be expanded to include State Regulations. Conclusion: Establishing a secure website to act as the portal for data entry, storage and manipulation can lead to added efficiencies for a Radiation Safety Program. Access to multiple databases can lead to mining for big data programs, and for determining safety issues before they occur. Overcoming web programming challenges, a category that includes mathematical handling, is providing challenges that are being overcome.

  18. Screening of external hazards for NPP with bank type reactor. Modeling of safety related systems and equipment for RBMK. Probabilistic assessment of NPP safety on aircraft impact. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostarev, V.

    1999-01-01

    This progress report was produced within the frame of IAEA research project on screening the hazards for NPP with bank type reactor. It covers the following tasks; development of the model for the primary loop system of RBMK; developing the models for safety related equipment of RBMK; developing of models for safety related models of EGP-6 type reactor (Bilibinskaya Nuclear Co-generated heat and Power Plant); and probabilistic assessment of NPP safety on aircraft impact

  19. Validation and application of the system code TRACE for safety related investigations of innovative nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Wadim

    2011-12-19

    of these changes and, on the other hand, the success of the new implemented routines and functions. The predictions using the modified TRACE version were close to the experimental data. After validating the modified TRACE version, two design studies related to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) were investigated. In the first one, a core of a lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) was analyzed. To include the interaction between the thermal hydraulic and the neutron kinetic due to temperature and density changes, the TRACE code was coupled to the program system ERANOS2.1. The results gained with that coupled system are in accordance with theory and helped to identify sub-assemblies with the highest loads concerning fuel and cladding temperature. The second design which was investigated was the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). Since the design of the HPLWR is not finalized, optimization of vital parameters (power, mass flow rate, etc.) are still ongoing. Since most of the parameters are affecting each other, an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was performed. The uncertainty analysis showed the upper and lower boundaries of selected parameters, which are of importance from the safety point of view (e.g., fuel and cladding temperature, moderator temperature). The sensitivity study identified the most relevant parameters and their influence on the whole system.

  20. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...... evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending...... computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific...

  1. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Multijet Exotics Search Event Display - 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Run 279984, Event 1079767163 A 10 jet event selected in the search for strong gravity in multijet final states (CERN-PH-EP-2015-312). The scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT) of the event is 4.4 TeV. Run 282712, Event 474587238 The event with the largest scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT) selected in the search for strong gravity in multijet final states (CERN-PH-EP-2015-312). The HT of the event is 6.4 TeV.

  2. Development of methodologies for optimization of surveillance testing and maintenance of safety related equipment at NPPs. Report of a research coordination meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first meeting of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Development of Methodologies for Optimization of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs, held at the Agency Headquarters in Vienna, from 16 to 20 December 1996. The purpose of this Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was that all Chief Scientific Investigators of the groups participating in the CRP presented an outline of their proposed research projects. Additionally, the participants discussed the objective, scope, work plan and information channels of the CRP in detail. Based on these presentations and discussions, the entire project plan was updated, completed and included in this report. This report represents a common agreed project work plan for the CRP. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F.

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail

  4. Standard practice for qualification of journeyman painters for application of coatings to concrete surfaces of safety-related areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice provides a standard qualifying method for journeyman painters to verify their proficiency and ability to attain the required quality for application of specified coatings to concrete surfaces in safety-related areas in a nuclear facility. Variations or simplifications of the practice set forth herein may be appropriate for special coating work such as maintenance. It is not the intent of this practice to mandate a singular basis for all qualifications. Evaluation of the journeyman painter being qualified in accordance with this practice, shall be by qualified agents as specified in 4.1. Reports shall be prepared as specified in Section 5, and qualification as specified in Section 6. It is the intent of this practice to judge only the ability of the journeyman painter to apply specified coatings with the proper tools and equipment

  5. Standard practice for qualification of journeyman painters for application of coatings to steel surfaces of safety-related areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice provides a standard qualifying method for journeyman painters to verify their proficiency and ability to attain the required quality for application of specified coatings to steel surfaces in safety-related areas in a nuclear facility. Variations or simplifications of the practice set forth herein may be appropriate for special coating work such as maintenance or qualifications of equipment suppliers shop personnel. It is not the intent of this practice to mandate a singular basis for all qualifications. Evaluation of the journeyman painter being qualified in accordance with this practice, shall be by qualified agents as specified in 4.1. Reports shall be prepared as specified in Section 5, and certification as specified in Section 6. It is the intent of this practice to judge only the ability of the journeyman painter to apply specified coatings with the proper tools and equipment. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  6. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail.

  7. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  8. Feasibility study and uncertainties in the validation of an existing safety-related control circuit with the ISO 13849-1:2006 design standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jocelyn, Sabrina; Baudoin, James; Chinniah, Yuvin; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In industry, machine users and people who modify or integrate equipment often have to evaluate the safety level of a safety-related control circuit that they have not necessarily designed. The modifications or integrations may involve work to make an existing machine that does not comply with normative or regulatory specifications safe. However, how can a circuit performing a safety function be validated a posteriori? Is the validation exercise feasible? What are the difficulties and limitations of such a procedure? The aim of this article is to answer these questions by presenting a validation study of a safety function of an existing machine. A plastic injection molding machine is used for this study, as well as standard ISO 13849-1:2006. Validation consists of performing an a posteriori (post-design) estimation of the performance level of the safety function. The procedure is studied for two contexts of use of the machine: in industry, and in laboratory. The calculations required by the ISO standard were done using Excel, followed by SIStema software. It is shown that, based on the context of use, the estimated performance level was different for the same safety-related circuit. The variability in the results is explained by the assumptions made by the person undertaking the validation without the involvement of the machine designer. - Highlights: • Validation of the performance level of a safety function is undertaken. • An injection molding machine and ISO 13849-1:2006 standard are used for the procedure. • The procedure is undertaken for two contexts of use of the machine. • In this study, the performance level depends on the context of use. • The assumptions made throughout the study partially explain this difference

  9. The CBM first-level event selector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuveland, Jan de; Lindenstruth, Volker [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The CBM experiment currently under construction at GSI/FAIR is designed to study QCD predictions at high baryon densities. The CBM First-Level Event Selector (FLES) is the central event selection system of the experiment. Designed as a high-performance computer cluster, its task is an online analysis of the physics data including full event reconstruction at an incoming data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. The CBM detector systems are free-running and self-triggered, delivering time-stamped data streams. As there is no inherent event separation, traditional approaches for global event building and event selection are not directly applicable. Instead of event building, the FLES combines the data from approximately 1000 input links to self-contained, overlapping processing intervals and distributes them to compute nodes. It employs a high-bandwidth InfiniBand network as well as dedicated custom FPGA input boards providing time-addressed access to buffered data. Subsequently, specialized event selection algorithms analyze these processing intervals in 4-D, identify events, and select those relevant for storage depending on the chosen CBM setup and selection scenario. This presentation outlines the design of the CBM First-level Event Selector and summarizes the results from first prototype systems.

  10. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  11. Aging and service wear of hydraulic and mechanical snubbers used on safety-related piping and components of nuclear power plants. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S H; Heasler, P G; Dodge, R E

    1986-02-01

    This report presents an overview of hydraulic and mechanical snubbers used on nuclear piping systems and components, based on information from the literature and other sources. The functions and functional requirements of snubbers are discussed. The real versus perceived need for snubbers is reviewed, based primarily on studies conducted by a Pressure Vessel Research Committee. Tests conducted to qualify snubbers, to accept them on a case-by-case basis, and to establish their fitness for continued operation are reviewed. This report had two primary purposes. The first was to assess the effects of various aging mechanisms on snubber operation. The second was to determine the efficacy of existing tests in determining the effects of aging and degradation mechanisms. These tests include breakaway force, drag force, velocity/ acceleration range for activation in tension or compression, release rates within specified tension/compression limits, and restricted thermal movement. The snubber operating experience was reviewed using licensee event reports and other historical data for a period of more than 10 years. Data were statistically analyzed using arbitrary snubber populations. Value-impact was considered in terms of exposure to a radioactive environment for examination/ testing and the influence of lost snubber function and subsequent testing program expansion on the costs and operation of a nuclear power plant. The implications of the observed trends were assessed; recommendations include modifying or improving examination and testing procedures to enhance snubber reliability. Optimization of snubber populations by selective removal of unnecessary snubbers was also considered. (author)

  12. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  13. Advances in safety related maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The maintenance of systems, structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs) plays an important role in assuring their safe and reliable operation. Worldwide, NPP maintenance managers are seeking to reduce overall maintenance costs while maintaining or improving the levels of safety and reliability. Thus, the issue of NPP maintenance is one of the most challenging aspects of nuclear power generation. There is a direct relation between safety and maintenance. While maintenance alone (apart from modifications) will not make a plant safer than its original design, deficient maintenance may result in either an increased number of transients and challenges to safety systems or reduced reliability and availability of safety systems. The confidence that NPP structures, systems and components will function as designed is ultimately based on programmes which monitor both their reliability and availability to perform their intended safety function. Because of this, approaches to monitor the effectiveness of maintenance are also necessary. An effective maintenance programme ensures that there is a balance between the improvement in component reliability to be achieved and the loss of component function due to maintenance downtime. This implies that the safety level of an NPP should not be adversely affected by maintenance performed during operation. The nuclear industry widely acknowledges the importance of maintenance in NPP safety and operation and therefore devotes great efforts to develop techniques, methods and tools to aid in maintenance planning, follow-up and optimization, and in assuring the effectiveness of maintenance

  14. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  15. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  16. Analysis of system and of course of events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Kersting, E.J.; Puetter, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the system and of the course of events is used to determine the frequency of core melt-out accidents and to describe the safety-related boundary conditions of appropriate accidents. The lecture is concerned with the effect of system changes in the reference plant and the effect of triggering events not assessed in detail or not sufficiently assessed in detail in phase A of the German Risk Study on the frequency of core melt-out accidents, the minimum requirements for system functions for controlling triggering events, i.e. to prevent core melt-out accidents, the reliability data important for reliability investigations and frequency assessments. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Radiation protection at industrial radiography in Germany exposures and unusual events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Haeusler, U.; Frasch, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany safety related events in the use and transportation of radioactive materials as well as in the operation of accelerators are registered. The analysis of these events reveals their causation and allows this conclusions on avoidable errors. In this paper, a special insight is given into events in the field of gamma radiography which is a technical application of ionising radiation for non destructive testing of materials. Conclusions from analysis are drawn. In addition, the occupational radiation exposure of workers is presented taking into account that industrial radiography is performed under particular working conditions with different risks. (orig.)

  18. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  19. Root cause analysis of relevant events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Silvia S.; Vidal, Patricia G.

    2000-01-01

    During 1998 the research work followed more specific guidelines, which entailed focusing exclusively on the two selected methods (ASSET and HPIP) and incorporating some additional human behaviour elements based on the documents of reference. Once resident inspectors were incorporated in the project (and trained accordingly), events occurring in Argentine nuclear power plants were analysed. Some events were analysed (all of them from Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plant), concluding that the systematic methodology used allows us to investigate also minor events that were precursors of the events selected. (author)

  20. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Event-by-event fluctuations of mean transverse momentum in Au·Au ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report results on event-by-event fluctuations in mean transverse momentum in ... 0.150 < pt < 2.0 GeV/c are selected for the analysis. ... for gamma distribution are the mean event multiplicity, M , and the mean and variance of.

  2. Systems for reporting unusual events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Many Member States with nuclear power programmes have established, and are operating, systems for collecting, assessing and disseminating information on safety related events in nuclear power plants. The Agency has recognized the importance of such systems and of achieving compatibility between them. It also recognizes the advantage to be derived from international efforts to exchange operational experience on a worldwide basis. In response to requests put forward during the Special Session of the IAEA General Conference held in September 1986, and to the recommendations made by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear safety and the exchange of information on operating experience, the IAEA has been following a two-step approach. Firstly, it continues to assist Member States to establish, improve or harmonize their national systems for collecting, assessing and disseminating safety related operational experience, and secondly, it continues to reinforce the IAEA system for reporting unusual events with safety significance (IAEA Incident Reporting System - IAEA-IRS). Although the prime objective of both activities is to assist regulatory bodies and operating organizations to improve operational safety, operating organizations may also benefit if a similar approach is used to improve equipment reliability and plant availability. The present Guide contains a recommended scheme based on national and international practice applicable to the management of safety related operational experience in nuclear power plants. The user will have to adapt this guidance for specific national conditions and practices. It is important to realize however that for an effective exchange of information through the IAEA-IRS it is a prerequisite to follow the procedures given in the relevant part of this Guide

  3. Application of the Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication Process for Procurement of Nuclear Safety Related Items at Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heruc, Z.; Pozar, J.

    1998-01-01

    CGI procurement is a process whereby parts are brought without imposing Appendix B Quality Assurance requirements on the supplier, and than dedicated for use in safety-related applications. The dedication process involves 1) based upon required safety function, an engineering evaluation to identify critical characteristic of the item and specification of acceptance criteria; and 2) quality control activities to ensure the item(s) supplied meets the acceptance criteria specified. CGI Dedication supports the supply of certified components/parts for the plant operation in an environment where the number of nuclear qualified suppliers diminishes. It requires a more active role of the plant personnel, therefore presenting an additional burden on human resources, but at the same time increases the technical KNOW-HOW and improves the confidence of test and inspection data presented in the certificates. Very often it is also cost beneficial. This paper is a continuation to last year presentation of the introduction of this method into NEK's procurement process and presents the current approach and some practical examples. (author)

  4. Improvement of risk informed surveillance test interval for the safety related instrument and control system of Ulchin units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Lee, Yun Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of various methodologies necessary for the licensing of the risk informed surveillance test interval(STI) improvement for the safety related I and C systems in UCN 3 and 4, for instance, reactor protection system (RPS), engineered safety features actuation system (ESFAS), ESF auxiliary relay cabinet (ARC), and core protection calculator (CPC). The technical adequacy of the methodology was sufficiently verified through the application to the following STI changes. o CPC channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months including safety channel and log power test) o RPS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o RPS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months. 1 month for RPS manual actuation test) o ESFAS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESFAS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESF auxiliary relay test (change from 1 month to 3 months with staggered test. Manual actuation at the ESF ARC is added as a backup of ESF actuation signals during emergency operation

  5. Improvement of risk informed surveillance test interval for the safety related instrumentation and control system of Yonggwang units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Lee, Yun Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of various methodologies necessary for the licensing of the risk informed surveillance test interval(STI) improvement for the safety related I and C systems in YGN 3 and 4, for instance, reactor protection system (RPS), engineered safety features actuation system (ESFAS), ESF auxiliary relay cabinet (ARC), and core protection calculator (CPC). The technical adequacy of the methodology was sufficiently verified through the application to the following STI changes. o CPC channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months including safety channel and log power test) o RPS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o RPS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months. 1 month for RPS manual actuation test) o ESFAS channel functional test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESFAS logic and trip channel test (change from 1 month to 3 months) o ESF auxiliary relay test (change from 1 month to 3 months with staggered test. Manual actuation at the ESF ARC is added as a backup of ESF actuation signals during emergency operation

  6. Correlation of horizontal and vertical components of strong ground motion for response-history analysis of safety-related nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin-Nan, E-mail: ynhuang@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Wen-Yi, E-mail: b01501059@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The correlation of components of ground motion is studied using 1689 sets of records. • The data support an upper bound of 0.3 on the correlation coefficient. • The data support the related requirement in the upcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4. - Abstract: Design standards for safety-related nuclear facilities such as ASCE Standard 4-98 and ASCE Standard 43-05 require the correlation coefficient for two orthogonal components of ground motions for response-history analysis to be less than 0.3. The technical basis of this requirement was developed by Hadjian three decades ago using 50 pairs of recorded ground motions that were available at that time. In this study, correlation coefficients for (1) two horizontal components, and (2) the vertical component and one horizontal component, of a set of ground motions are computed using records from a ground-motion database compiled recently for large-magnitude shallow crustal earthquakes. The impact of the orientation of the orthogonal horizontal components on the correlation coefficient of ground motions is discussed. The rules in the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 for the correlation of components in a set of ground motions are shown to be reasonable.

  7. Conceptual and safety-related questions in the final storage of radioactive waste - a comparison of various types of host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, U.

    2005-01-01

    The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in early November published the synthesis report (BfS 2005) about the conceptual and safety-related specific questions associated with the final storage of radioactive waste. In addition to a condensed version of twelve individual projects, the report contains a description of the results of the peer review and the workshops carried out, in particular an evaluation comparing different types of host rock in Germany. The whole project constitutes a comprehensive documentation of the current state of the art. Findings are expressed at a general level referring neither to the suitability of any specific repository site nor to that of salts as a repository formation, but covering all potential repository formations in deep geologic strata in Germany. The limits to and possibilities of, generic comparisons of various types of host rock are shown. It si seen that, in principle, none of the host rock varieties in Germany would be preferable to others. Numerous problems can be solved only for specific sites, thus requiring site comparisons. While some questions indicate a need for regulatory treatment, the need for basic research is considered to be low. The contribution presents the main findings made in each of the specific projects and the evaluations by the Office. (orig.)

  8. NRC Information Notice No. 92-27: Thermally induced accelerated aging and failure of ITE/Gould a.c. relays used in safety-related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    On November 23, 1991, while performing an eighteen month engineered safety features operability test, the licensee for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, noted that control power was interrupted to three safety-related motor operated valves (MOVs). The valves were located in the charging, component cooling water, and steam generator atmospheric dump systems. The licensee inspected the valves' control power circuitry and determined that three normally energized auxiliary relays had failed. These relays provided control power alarms and thermal overload protection for the MOVs. The relay failures rendered each valve inoperable. The relays, which had been in service for about seven years, were class J10 relays with J20M magnet block assemblies and standard G10JA126, 120V, 60 cycle coil assemblies manufactured by the ITE/Gould Manufacturing Company. Inspection of the relays revealed that the movable plastic armature carrier, which surrounds the core and coil, and the retainer for the magnet yoke assembly were discolored, brittle and severely cracked. Insulation degradation was severe, allowing electrical shorts to develop within the coils. The licensee concluded that the failures resulted from the thermal aging of the coil assemblies and plastic parts near the coil assemblies

  9. Requirements to be taken into account in the design, qualification startup and operation of electrical equipment for safety-related electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to provide the rules to be respected in order that safety-related electrical systems can perform its function under plausible operating conditions

  10. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls for safety related nuclear facilities: Design for in-plane forces and out-of-plane moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Amit H.; Malushte, Sanjeev R.; Sener, Kadir C.; Lai, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Steel-concrete (SC) composite walls being considered and used as an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) walls in safety-related nuclear facilities due to their construction economy and structural efficiency. However, there is a lack of standardized codes for SC structures, and design guidelines and approaches are still being developed. This paper presents the development and verification of: (a) mechanics based model, and (b) detailed nonlinear finite element model for predicting the behavior and failure of SC wall panels subjected to combinations of in-plane forces. The models are verified using existing test results, and the verified models are used to explore the behavior of SC walls subjected to combinations of in-plane forces and moments. The results from these investigations are used to develop an interaction surface in principle force (S p1 –S p2 ) space that can be used to design or check the adequacy of SC wall panels. The interaction surface is easy to develop since it consists of straight line segments connecting anchor points defined by the SC wall section strengths in axial tension, in-plane shear, and compression. Both models and the interaction surface (for design) developed in this paper are recommended for future work. However, in order to use these approaches, the SC wall section should be detailed with adequate shear connector and tie bar strength and spacing to prevent non-ductile failure modes

  11. Unusual events regarding losses and finds of radioactive materials in Germany in the years 1991 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, I.; Czarwinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany safety related events in the use and transportation of radioactive materials as well as in the operation of accelerators are registered completely. Registration and licensing of radioactive sources and the system of notification of the authorities of unusual events are presented. The analysis of these events demonstrates their causation and allows the conclusion on avoidable errors. Especially events like losses and theft of radioactive materials on the one hand and the finds of such sources in public domain on the other hand are analysed in detail. Conclusions (lessons learned) are drawn. (author)

  12. Unusual events regarding losses and finds of radioactive materials in Germany in the years 1991 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, I; Czarwinski, R [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In Germany safety related events in the use and transportation of radioactive materials as well as in the operation of accelerators are registered completely. Registration and licensing of radioactive sources and the system of notification of the authorities of unusual events are presented. The analysis of these events demonstrates their causation and allows the conclusion on avoidable errors. Especially events like losses and theft of radioactive materials on the one hand and the finds of such sources in public domain on the other hand are analysed in detail. Conclusions (lessons learned) are drawn. (author) 3 refs, 3 figs

  13. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  14. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur; Miano, Sandra C.

    2015-01-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  15. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category 1 systems for the San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Victor, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of Southern California Edison Company's San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1, to determine whether the failure of any non-Category 1 (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Southern California Edison Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  16. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category 1 systems for the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epps, R.C.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine whether the failure of any non-Class I (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might adversely affect the performance of the safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility, or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection system as well as measures taken by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  17. Event Displays for the Visualization of CMS Events

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher Duncan

    2010-01-01

    During the last year the CMS experiment engaged in consolidation of its existing event display programs. The core of the new system is based on the Fireworks event display program which was by-design directly integrated with the CMS Event Data Model (EDM) and the light version of the software framework (FWLite). The Event Visualization Environment (EVE) of the ROOT framework is used to manage a consistent set of 3D and 2D views, selection, user-feedback and user-interaction with the graphics windows; several EVE components were developed by CMS in collaboration with the ROOT project. In event display operation simple plugins are registered into the system to perform conversion from EDM collections into their visual representations which are then managed by the application. Full event navigation and filtering as well as collection-level filtering is supported. The same data-extraction principle can also be applied when Fireworks will eventually operate as a service within the full software framework.

  18. Event Display for the Visualization of CMS Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Eulisse, G.; Jones, C. D.; Kovalskyi, D.; McCauley, T.; Mrak Tadel, A.; Muelmenstaedt, J.; Osborne, I.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Yagil, A.

    2011-12-01

    During the last year the CMS experiment engaged in consolidation of its existing event display programs. The core of the new system is based on the Fireworks event display program which was by-design directly integrated with the CMS Event Data Model (EDM) and the light version of the software framework (FWLite). The Event Visualization Environment (EVE) of the ROOT framework is used to manage a consistent set of 3D and 2D views, selection, user-feedback and user-interaction with the graphics windows; several EVE components were developed by CMS in collaboration with the ROOT project. In event display operation simple plugins are registered into the system to perform conversion from EDM collections into their visual representations which are then managed by the application. Full event navigation and filtering as well as collection-level filtering is supported. The same data-extraction principle can also be applied when Fireworks will eventually operate as a service within the full software framework.

  19. Event Display for the Visualization of CMS Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerdick, L A T; Eulisse, G; Jones, C D; McCauley, T; Osborne, I; Kovalskyi, D; Tadel, A Mrak; Muelmenstaedt, J; Tadel, M; Tu, Y; Yagil, A

    2011-01-01

    During the last year the CMS experiment engaged in consolidation of its existing event display programs. The core of the new system is based on the Fireworks event display program which was by-design directly integrated with the CMS Event Data Model (EDM) and the light version of the software framework (FWLite). The Event Visualization Environment (EVE) of the ROOT framework is used to manage a consistent set of 3D and 2D views, selection, user-feedback and user-interaction with the graphics windows; several EVE components were developed by CMS in collaboration with the ROOT project. In event display operation simple plugins are registered into the system to perform conversion from EDM collections into their visual representations which are then managed by the application. Full event navigation and filtering as well as collection-level filtering is supported. The same data-extraction principle can also be applied when Fireworks will eventually operate as a service within the full software framework.

  20. Automated Testing of Event-Driven Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Svenning

    may be tested by selecting an interesting input (i.e. a sequence of events), and deciding if a failure occurs when the selected input is applied to the event-driven application under test. Automated testing promises to reduce the workload for developers by automatically selecting interesting inputs...... and detect failures. However, it is non-trivial to conduct automated testing of event-driven applications because of, for example, infinite input spaces and the absence of specifications of correct application behavior. In this PhD dissertation, we identify a number of specific challenges when conducting...... automated testing of event-driven applications, and we present novel techniques for solving these challenges. First, we present an algorithm for stateless model-checking of event-driven applications with partial-order reduction, and we show how this algorithm may be used to systematically test web...

  1. Measurements of the event shapes and underlying event in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Astalos, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The high-energy pp collisions at the LHC provide unique opportunity to study particle flow and event shapes of the hadronic final state particles. Evolution of the event shape variables, such as the transverse thrust, thrust minor and transverse sphericity have been studied for minimum bias events. Particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event have been measured using calorimeter jet events. Separate inclusive jet and exclusive dijet event selections are included in this study for various observables. The data are compared with predictions from several MC simulations.

  2. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Probabilistic analysis of external events with focus on the Fukushima event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollasko, Heiko; Jockenhoevel-Barttfeld, Mariana; Klapp, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    External hazards are those natural or man-made hazards to a site and facilities that are originated externally to both the site and its processes, i.e. the duty holder may have very little or no control over the hazard. External hazards can have the potential of causing initiating events at the plant, typically transients like e.g., loss of offsite power. Simultaneously, external events may affect safety systems required to control the initiating event and, where applicable, also back-up systems implemented for risk-reduction. The plant safety may especially be threatened when loads from external hazards exceed the load assumptions considered in the design of safety-related systems, structures and components. Another potential threat is given by hazards inducing initiating events not considered in the safety demonstration otherwise. An example is loss of offsite power combined with prolonged plant isolation. Offsite support, e.g., delivery of diesel fuel oil, usually credited in the deterministic safety analysis may not be possible in this case. As the Fukushima events have shown, the biggest threat is likely given by hazards inducing both effects. Such hazards may well be dominant risk contributors even if their return period is very high. In order to identify relevant external hazards for a certain Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) location, a site specific screening analysis is performed, both for single events and for combinations of external events. As a result of the screening analysis, risk significant and therefore relevant (screened-in) single external events and combinations of them are identified for a site. The screened-in events are further considered in a detailed event tree analysis in the frame of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) to calculate the core damage/large release frequency resulting from each relevant external event or from each relevant combination. Screening analyses of external events performed at AREVA are based on the approach provided

  4. Perceiving Event Dynamics and Parsing Hollywood Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James E.; Brunick, Kaitlin L.; Candan, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    We selected 24 Hollywood movies released from 1940 through 2010 to serve as a film corpus. Eight viewers, three per film, parsed them into events, which are best termed subscenes. While watching a film a second time, viewers scrolled through frames and recorded the frame number where each event began. Viewers agreed about 90% of the time. We then…

  5. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  6. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  7. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, R.J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.ed [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ramirez, E. [Physics Department, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient q extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting q to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  8. Event-by-event fluctuations at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, Harald; Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marn, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Slvova, J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Appelshauser, Harald; Sako, Hiro

    2005-01-01

    Results on event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and net charge in Pb-Au collisions, measured by the CERES Collaboration at CERN-SPS, are presented. We discuss the centrality and beam energy dependence and compare our data to cascade calculations.

  9. Improving safety-related knowledge, attitude and practices of nurses handling cytotoxic anticancer drug: pharmacists' experience in a general hospital, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Chan Huan; Sooaid, Nor Suhada; Yun, Cheng Yi; Sriraman, Malathi

    2013-01-01

    An increasing trend of cytotoxic drug use, mainly in cancer treatment, has increased the occupational exposure among the nurses. This study aimed to assess the change of nurses' safety-related knowledge as well as attitude levels and subsequently to assess the change of cytotoxic drug handling practices in wards after a series of pharmacist-based interventions. This prospective interventional study with a before and after design requested a single group of 96 nurses in 15 wards actively providing chemotherapy to answer a self-administered questionnaire. A performance checklist was then used to determine the compliance of all these wards with the recommended safety measures. The first and second assessments took 2 months respectively with a 9-month intervention period. Pharmacist-based interventions included a series of technical, educational and administrative support measures consisting of the initiation of closed-system cytotoxic drug reconstitution (CDR) services, courses, training workshops and guideline updates. The mean age of nurses was 32.2∓6.19 years. Most of them were female (93.8%) and married (72.9%). The mean knowledge score of nurses was significantly increased from 45.5∓10.52 to 73.4∓8.88 out of 100 (p<0.001) at the end of the second assessment. Overall, the mean practice score among the wards was improved from 7.6∓5.51 to 15.3∓2.55 out of 20 (p<0.001). The pharmacist-based interventions improved the knowledge, attitude and safe practices of nurses in cytotoxic drug handling. Further assessment may help to confirm the sustainability of the improved practices.

  10. Regulatory standpoints on the design-basis capability of safety-related motor-operated valves(MOVs) and power-operated gate valves(POGVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. T.; Kum, O. H.

    1999-01-01

    The weakness in the design-basis capability of Motor-Operated Valves(MOVs) and the susceptibility to Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding phenomena of Power-Operated Gate Valves(POGVs) have been major concerns to be resolved in the nuclear society in and abroad since Three Mile Island accident occurred in the USA in 1979. Through detailed analysis of operating experience and regulatory activities, some MOVs and POGVs have been found to be unreliable in performing their safety functions when they are required to do so under certain conditions, especially under design-basis accident conditions. Further, it is well understood that these safety problems may not be identified by the typical valve in-service testing(IST). USNRC has published three Generic Letters, GL 89-10, GL 95-07, and GL 96-05, requiring nuclear plant licensees to take appropriate actions to resolve the problems mentioned above. Korean nuclear regulatory body has made public an administration measure called 'Regulatory recommendation to verify safety functions of the safety-related MOVs and POGVs' on June 13, 1997, and in this administration measure Korean utility is asked to submit written documents to show how it assure design-basis capability of these valves. The following are among the major concerns being considered from a regulation standpoint. Program scope and implementation priority, dynamic tests under differential pressure conditions, accuracy of diagnostic equipment, torque switch setting and torque bypass percentage, weak link analysis, motor actuator sizing, corrective actions taken to resolve pressure locking and thermal binding susceptibility, and a periodic verification program for the valves once design-basis capability has been verified

  11. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1977, volume I--introduction, summary of operating experience; changes, tests, experiments, and safety-related maintenance; effluent releases; data tabulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A chronological operating sequence including shutdowns and occurrences during the year which required load reductions or resulted in non-load related incidents is given. Data are presented concerning plant and procedure changes, tests, experiments, safety related maintenance, effluent releases and personnel radiation exposures

  12. Probabilistic safety analysis for fire events for the NPP Isar 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, H.; Hristodulidis, A.

    2007-01-01

    The 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis for Fire Events' (Fire-PSA KKI2) for the NPP Isar 2 was performed in addition to the PSA for full power operation and considers all possible events which can be initiated due to a fire. The aim of the plant specific Fire-PSA was to perform a quantitative assessment of fire events during full power operation, which is state of the art. Based on simplistic assumptions referring to the fire induced failures, the influence of system- and component-failures on the frequency of the core damage states was analysed. The Fire-PSA considers events, which will result due to fire-induced failures of equipment on the one hand in a SCRAM and on the other hand in events, which will not have direct operational effects but because of the fire-induced failure of safety related installations the plant will be shut down as a precautionary measure. These events are considered because they may have a not negligible influence on the frequency of core damage states in case of failures during the plant shut down because of the reduced redundancy of safety related systems. (orig.)

  13. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  14. Sex differences in the events that elicit jealousy among homosexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, Hinke A. K.; Poel, Gerda A.; Laverman, Teunis, T. G.; Schrier, Michiel; Buunk, Bram P.

    2008-01-01

    When individuals are asked which event would upset them more - a partner's emotional infidelity or a partner's sexual infidelity- among heterosexuals more men than women select a partner's sexual infidelity as the most upsetting event, whereas more more women than men select a partner's emotional infidelity as the most upsetting event. Because homosexuals' mating psychology is unlike that of heterosexuals, the present study examinend which of these two events is more upsetting in a sample of ...

  15. Dynamics of Charged Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In three spacetime dimensions the world volume of a magnetic source is a single point, an event. We make the event dynamical by regarding it as the imprint of a flux-carrying particle impinging from an extra dimension. This can be generalized to higher spacetime dimensions and to extended events. We exhibit universal observable consequences of the existence of events and argue that events are as important as particles or branes. We explain how events arise on the world volume of membranes in M theory, and in a Josephson junction in superconductivity.

  16. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  17. Event by event physics in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christakoglou, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are fundamental for the study of the QGP phase transition. The ALICE experiment is well suited for precise event-by-event measurements of various quantities. In this article, we review the capabilities of ALICE to study the fluctuations of several key observables such as the net charge, the temperature, and the particle ratios. Among the observables related to correlations, we review the balance functions and the long range correlations.

  18. Safety-related Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technology Elements R and D (SINTER) Network and Global HTGR R and D Network (GHTRN). Strategic benefits of international networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Lensa, W.

    1998-01-01

    Action on 'Safety-related Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technology Elements - R and D - (SINTER) Network' both aim at the identification of priority items for sustainable innovations of nuclear technologies and work-shared European collaboration structures. Such an approach can also be realised for future R and D on HTGR-related R and D under the umbrella of the IAEA as already proposed by the 'International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR)' in 1996 and illustrated in this paper for the construction of a 'Global HTGR R and D Network (GHTRN)'. 3 refs

  19. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Approved by the Management Executive Committee. - 1 - ... Event ‒ represents activities related to IDRC operations and may include both ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management.

  20. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  1. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  2. A Mosque event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2017-01-01

    and public imaginations attached to it. And they are connected to a specific event – the opening of the mosque. In the first part, a conceptual framework is presented bringing together literature on three notions: encounters, visibility and the event. Following this, the paper explores the opening event...

  3. On semirecurrent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1984-01-01

    In some problems of the mathematical theory of particle counters, film or filmless measurements of track ionization in high energy physics,queueing theory, random walks, etc., the classes of emirecurrent and m-semirecurrent events, which generalize the recurrent events and the recurrent events with delay, appeared. In the paper their basic properties, and some relationships between them are shown

  4. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    report is to (1) present and discuss current understandings of gas retention and release mechanisms for deep sludge in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste storage tanks; and (2) to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to deep sludge gas release events (DSGRE) in the near term to support the Hanford C-Farm retrieval mission. A secondary purpose is to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to DSGREs in the longer term to support the mission to retrieve waste from the Hanford Tank Farms and deliver it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The potential DSGRE issue resulted in the declaration of a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). C-Farm retrievals are currently proceeding under a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) that only allows tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106 sludge levels of 192 inches and 195 inches, respectively. C-Farm retrievals need deeper sludge levels (approximately 310 inches in 241-AN-101 and approximately 250 inches in 241-AN-106). This effort is to provide analytical data and justification to continue retrievals in a safe and efficient manner

  5. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  6. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-01-01

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events

  7. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyadi, Eko H., E-mail: e.riyadi@bapeten.go.id [Center for Regulatory Assessment of Nuclear Installation and Materials, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  8. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  9. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  10. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-Category I systems for Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-08-01

    Three separate reviews of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 were conducted by the FPLCO between 1972 and 1975. Initially, at the request of NBC in 1972, the FPLCO reviewed several water systems as sources of flooding. Subsequently, as a result of an abnormal occurrence, the drainage system was reviewed. Finally, the facilities were again reviewed at NRC's request and both the potential sources of flooding and safety-related equipment which could be damaged by flooding were identified. The sources of flooding and the appropriate safety equipment are discussed. An evaluation is presented of measures that were taken by FPLCO to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  11. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, C.; Brarda, L.; Frank, M.; Franek, B.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Köstner, S.; Moine, G.; Neufeld, N.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Suman, S.

    2008-07-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed.

  12. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, C; Brarda, L; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Koestner, S; Moine, G; Neufeld, N; Somogyi, P; Stoica, R; Suman, S; Franek, B; Galli, D

    2008-01-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed

  13. Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)

  14. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  15. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  16. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  17. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  18. The Establishment of Object Selection Criteria for Effect Analysis of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) in Operating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Song Hae; Ryu, Hosun; Kim, Minyi; Lee, Euijong [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) can be used as a strategic weapon by inducing damaging voltage and currents that the electrical circuits are not designed to withstand. EMPs are lethal to electronic systems. All EMP events have three common components: a source, coupling path, and receptor. It can also travel across power grids, destroying electronics as it passes in less than a second. There have been no research studies on the effect analysis for EMP in domestic nuclear power plants and power grids. To ensure the safety of operating nuclear power plants in this environment, the emission of EMP is needed for the effect analysis and safety measures against EMPs. Actually, it is difficult and inefficient to conduct the effect analysis of EMP with all the equipment and systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Therefore, this paper presents the results of establishing the object selection criteria for the effect analysis of EMP in operating nuclear power plants through reviewing previous research in the US and the safety related design concepts in domestic NPPs. It is not necessary to ensure the continued operation of the plant in intense multiple EMP environments. The most probable effect of EMP on a modern nuclear power plant is an unscheduled shutdown. EMP may also cause an extended shutdown by the unnecessary activation of some safety related systems. In general, EMP can be considered a nuisance to nuclear plants, but it is not considered a serious threat to plant safety. The results of EMP effect analysis show less possibility of failure in the tested individual equipment. It was also confirmed that there is no possibility of simultaneous failure for devices in charge of the safety shutdown in the NPP.

  19. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  20. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  1. Sex differences in the events that elicit jealousy among homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, Hinke A. K.; Poel, Gerda A.; Laverman, Teunis, T. G.; Schrier, Michiel; Buunk, Bram P.

    2008-01-01

    When individuals are asked which event would upset them more - a partner's emotional infidelity or a partner's sexual infidelity- among heterosexuals more men than women select a partner's sexual infidelity as the most upsetting event, whereas more more women than men select a partner's emotional

  2. Sex differences in the events that elicit jealousy among homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, H.; Poel, G.A.; Haverman, T.TG; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    When individuals ale asked which event would upset them more-a partner's emotional infidelity or a partner's sexual infidelity-among heterosexuals more men than women select a partner's sexual infidelity as the most distressing event, whereas more women than men select a partner's emotional

  3. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  4. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  5. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA)

  6. The siting record: An account of the programs of federal agencies and events that have led to the selection of a potential site for a geologic respository for high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1996-03-01

    This record of siting a geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and spent fuel describes the many investigations that culminated on December 22, 1987 in the designation of Yucca Mountain (YM), as the site to undergo detailed geologic characterization. It recounts the important issues and events that have been instrumental in shaping the course of siting over the last three and one half decades. In this long task, which was initiated in 1954, more than 60 regions, areas, or sites involving nine different rock types have been investigated. This effort became sharply focused in 1983 with the identification of nine potentially suitable sites for the first repository. From these nine sites, five were subsequently nominated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as suitable for characterization and then, in 1986, as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), three of these five were recommended to the President as candidates for site characterization. President Reagan approved the recommendation on May 28, 1986. DOE was preparing site characterization plans for the three candidate sites, namely Deaf Smith County, Texas; Hanford Site, Washington; and YM. As a consequence of the 1987 Amendment to the NWPA, only the latter was authorized to undergo detailed characterization. A final Site Characterization Plan for Yucca Mountain was published in 1988. Prior to 1954, there was no program for the siting of disposal facilities for high-level waste (HLW). In the 1940s and 1950s, the volume of waste, which was small and which resulted entirely from military weapons and research programs, was stored as a liquid in large steel tanks buried at geographically remote government installations principally in Washington and Tennessee.

  7. The siting record: An account of the programs of federal agencies and events that have led to the selection of a potential site for a geologic respository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1996-03-01

    This record of siting a geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and spent fuel describes the many investigations that culminated on December 22, 1987 in the designation of Yucca Mountain (YM), as the site to undergo detailed geologic characterization. It recounts the important issues and events that have been instrumental in shaping the course of siting over the last three and one half decades. In this long task, which was initiated in 1954, more than 60 regions, areas, or sites involving nine different rock types have been investigated. This effort became sharply focused in 1983 with the identification of nine potentially suitable sites for the first repository. From these nine sites, five were subsequently nominated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as suitable for characterization and then, in 1986, as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), three of these five were recommended to the President as candidates for site characterization. President Reagan approved the recommendation on May 28, 1986. DOE was preparing site characterization plans for the three candidate sites, namely Deaf Smith County, Texas; Hanford Site, Washington; and YM. As a consequence of the 1987 Amendment to the NWPA, only the latter was authorized to undergo detailed characterization. A final Site Characterization Plan for Yucca Mountain was published in 1988. Prior to 1954, there was no program for the siting of disposal facilities for high-level waste (HLW). In the 1940s and 1950s, the volume of waste, which was small and which resulted entirely from military weapons and research programs, was stored as a liquid in large steel tanks buried at geographically remote government installations principally in Washington and Tennessee

  8. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Brarda, L; Frank, M; Franek, B; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; Van Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Köstner, S; Moine, G; Neufeld, N; Somogyi, P; Stoica, R; Suman, S

    2008-01-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. ...

  9. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  10. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  11. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  12. The Blayais event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the main events occurred to the Blayais installation during the year 2000. For each events, the detailed chronology, the situation analysis, the crisis management and the public information are provided. Some recommendations are also provided by the nuclear safety authorities. (A.L.B.)

  13. Level 2 probabilistic event analyses and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneham, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an example of quantification of a severe accident phenomenological event is given. The performed analysis for assessment of the probability that the debris released from the reactor vessel was in a coolable configuration in the lower drywell is presented. It is also analysed the assessment of the type of core/concrete attack that would occur. The coolability of the debris ex-vessel evaluation by an event in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Containment Event Tree (CET) and a detailed Decomposition Event Tree (DET) developed to aid in the quantification of this CET event are considered. The headings in the DET selected to represent plant physical states (e.g., reactor vessel pressure at the time of vessel failure) and the uncertainties associated with the occurrence of critical physical phenomena (e.g., debris configuration in the lower drywell) considered important to assessing whether the debris was coolable or not coolable ex-vessel are also discussed

  14. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered

  15. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered.

  16. Development and first application of an operating events ranking tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šimić, Zdenko; Zerger, Benoit; Banov, Reni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method using analitycal hierarchy process for ranking operating events is developed and tested. • The method is applied for 5 years of U.S. NRC Licensee Event Reports (1453 events). • Uncertainty and sensitivity of the ranking results are evaluated. • Real events assessment shows potential of the method for operating experience feedback. - Abstract: The operating experience feedback is important for maintaining and improving safety and availability in nuclear power plants. Detailed investigation of all events is challenging since it requires excessive resources, especially in case of large event databases. This paper presents an event groups ranking method to complement the analysis of individual operating events. The basis for the method is the use of an internationally accepted events characterization scheme that allows different ways of events grouping and ranking. The ranking method itself consists of implementing the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) by means of a custom developed tool which allows events ranking based on ranking indexes pre-determined by expert judgment. Following the development phase, the tool was applied to analyze a complete set of 5 years of real nuclear power plants operating events (1453 events). The paper presents the potential of this ranking method to identify possible patterns throughout the event database and therefore to give additional insights into the events as well as to give quantitative input for the prioritization of further more detailed investigation of selected event groups

  17. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  18. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  19. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  20. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.