WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected radionuclides iodine-129

  1. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  2. Long-lived Radionuclides in the Environment: On the Radioecology of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, Th.; Vahlbruch, J.; Jakob, D.; Synal, H.A.; Schnabel, C.; Lopez-Gutierrez, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, nuclear accidents, and emissions from reprocessing plants have changed the natural abundances of the long-lived radionuclide 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7 Ma) in a sustainable manner. But still today, the radioecology of 129 I is just incompletely known. In this paper, we summarize the results of a long-term project aimed on a comprehensive understanding of the abundances of 129 I and 127 I in Lower Saxony, Germany, and of their pathways through the different environmental compartments to man. To this end, accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. Also the transfer factors for feed-milk and feed-meat transfer were determined both for farm and wild animals. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium 129 I/ 127 I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 10 -13 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10 -6 to 10 -10 . The highest ratios were found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. A differentiation by about a factor of ten between the iodine isotopes was observed for the different air-borne species demonstrating the complexity of

  3. Application of crown ethers to selective extraction and quantitative analysis of technetium 99, iodine 129 and cesium 135 in effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet, P.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of crown ethers are first recalled. Then extraction of technetium 99 is studied in actual radioactive effluents. Quantitative analysis is carried out by liquid scintillation and interference of tritium is corrected. Iodine 129 is extracted from radioactive effluents and determined by gamma spectrometry. Finally cesium 135 is extracted and determined by thermo ionization mass spectroscopy

  4. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  5. Contamination of North Sea and Baltic Sea with long-living iodine-129 and other anthropogenic radionuclides; Kontamination von Nord- und Ostsee mit langlebigem Iod-129 und anderen anthropogenen Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, Luebbert

    2010-10-12

    The radionuclide iodine-129 (T{sub 1/2} = 15.7 Ma) is produced in nature by spontaneous fission of uranium-238 and by cosmic ray induced spallation of xenon. Due to the military and civil use of neutron-induced fission of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 a huge amount of iodine-129 has been released into the environment. The main sources of anthropogenic {sup 129}I are the reprocessing plants in La Hague (France) near the English Channel and in Sellafield (UK) close to the Irish Sea. The natural equilibrium {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios are estimated to 1.5 . 10{sup -12} for the marine hydrosphere and to 3.0 . 10{sup -13} for the terrestrial biosphere respectively. Due to the emissions of anthropogenic iodine-129 the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios have been increased in all compartments of the environment. Surface water samples taken from the English Channel, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Irish Sea, and the North Atlantic give information about anthropogenic changes. Iodine turns out to be a conservative tracer in seawater. The iodine-127 concentrations in seawater except for coastal areas are rather constant (40.7 ± 6.2 ng/g). The observed {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios range between 10{sup -10} and more than 10{sup -6}. The variation of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios is caused by the admixture of anthropogenic iodine-129. Water samples taken far away from the reprocessing plants show the lowest isotopic ratios. The highest {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I-isotopic ratios are found near the reprocessing plants. The transport of {sup 129}I from La Hague has a rather clear pattern. It can be observed along the coasts of France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The iodine-129 emissions from Sellafield can be followed northbound along the Scottish coast. The results of other anthropogenic radionuclides are used for discussing transport processes in the North Sea and the Irish Sea. Large areas in the North Sea are characterised by

  6. Iodine-129 in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Moiseev, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative ratio of aerial and soil entries of 129 I into plants, parameters of its migration in the system of atmosphere-soil-plants-river water, dynamics of transformation and biological availability of 129 I in soil for plants were studied on the basis of field observations and experiments using the radioactive tracers. The doses of human thyroid gland irradiation by 129 I under atmospheric and soil pathways of its transport into diet are estimated. 129 I content in soil due to its systematic, for 50 years, releases into atmosphere is shown to be negligible, agricultural production contamination by 129 I resulting mainly from its fallout onto overground phytomass. The period, needed to achieve 129 I concentration equilibrium in the atmosphere-soil system under constant average 129 I content in the air, varies depending on the soil type from several hundred years (for podzolic soils) up to several thousand years (for chernozem). The 129 I half-accumulation period is equal to 150 years for soddy-podzolic soil and to 700 years for chernozem. In case of 129 I fallout lasting for 100 years the annual increase of its content in overground phytomass due to the transport from soil will account for 0,3% of its atmospheric entry way for soddy-podzolic soil and for 0,1% for chernozem, respectively. For a number of sierozem, yellow soil and calcareous chernozem types this addition is higher (up to 1%). Under constant iodine-129 concentration in air (1 Bq/m3) the absorbed dose for one-year child's thyroid gland in continental area is approximately equal to 2 (Gy/y)/(Bq/m3). The absorbed dose from globally dissipated 129 I under 99% efficiency of gas purification will not exceed 2·10 -7 Gy/y. The input of globally dissipated 129 I, originating from deep underground disposal of nuclear wastes can account for not more than 10 -9 Gy/y. In total, 129 I releases for the coming century is not going to produce limitations for nuclear energetics development. (author)

  7. Radioactivity of French coast of the Channel due to the release of technectium 99 and iodine 129: modelisation and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeau, D.; Patti, F.; Charmasson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive releases of Iodine 129 are controlled by measurements of the radioactivity in the liquid effluents before it is released in to the sea from the outlet of the reprocessing plant of La Hague. The effects on the marine environment are examined by a radioactive survey of Technecium 99 and Iodine 129 in Fucus (common seaweed). This radioactivity is measured along the north coast of France from Roscoff in the west of Brittany to Wimereux close to the Belgian frontier. The theoretical study of dispersion of radionuclides in the Channel has permitted a simulation model of the transfer of pollutants and particularly Technecium 99 and Iodine 129 to be formulated. (author)

  8. Iodine-129 in Seawater Offshore Fukushima: distribution, inorganic speciation, sources, and budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Povinec, Pavel P.; Zhang, Luyuan

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 has released a large amount of radioactive pollutants to the environment. Of the pollutants, iodine-129 is a long-lived radionuclide and will remain in the environment for millions of years. This work first report levels and inorganic speciation of 129...

  9. Tracing the Iodine-129 fallout in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge; Negri, Agustin; Arazi, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Wallner, Anton [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Niello, Jorge Fernandez [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Long-lived {sup 129}I (half-life=15.6 Ma) is produced naturally by irradiation of atmospheric xenon by cosmic neutrons and in the sub-surface by spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, from which the natural inventory of {sup 129}I has been estimated to be around 50,000 kg, only 140 kg of them corresponds to the hydrospheric inventory. Nuclear tests and accidents have added between 45-130 kg. Apart from a global atmospheric fallout component, {sup 129}I has been released from several nuclear fuel reprocessing plants located in the Northern Hemisphere (ca. 6000 kg) which serve as localized sources in oceanographic-tracer experiments. In this presentation, we report results from a study exploring the presence of {sup 129}I in the Southern Hemisphere by determining {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios in water samples (rivers, lakes and shallow sea-water) taken at different latitudes in Argentina including Antarctica. The iodine-127 and iodine-129 concentrations were measured via ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. Distribution of both isotopes can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible sources and regional precipitation patterns. Natural and anthropogenic sources for the Southern Hemisphere and their inventories are discussed. Similar contribution came from natural sources and nuclear tests. Contribution from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants placed in the Northern hemisphere can be neglected. (author)

  10. Investigations on iodine-129 in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.; Oliver, E.; Jakob, D.

    1992-01-01

    In order to detect characteristic regional differences or temporal changes of iodine-129 concentrations in the biosphere, thyroids from humans, grazing livestock and roedeer (Capreolus capreolus L.) are collected in various parts of the world, which are differing in the exposure to I-129 immissions from nuclear sources. For reasons of comparison all samples are analysed for their I-129/I-127 atom ratios. Human thyroids taken from Lower Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany), which is a region not directly affected by reprocessing plants showed I-129/I-127 values between 8x10 -9 and 6x10 -8 for a period from February 1988 to September 1990. Those atom ratios correspond to the level of biospheric I-129 in background areas of Europe exposed to fallout atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during the 1950s and 1960s. Thyroid glands of roedeer taken from the Heby commune in Middle Sweden during spring 1990 showed I-129/I-127 ratios between 2x10 -7 and 4x10 -7 . Two soil samples taken from Krasnaya Gora and Mirny locations in Russia (about 200 km northwest of Chernobyl) exhibited ratios of about 1x10 -6 . According to the Cs-137 levels, the Swedish Heby area as well as both Russian locations were found to be seriously Chernobyl contaminated. Ratios found in human and bovine thyroids collected in the 10th Region in southern Chile (40deg-42degS) indicated values between 1x10 -10 and 9x10 -9 . On the basis of the prenuclear range of I-129/I-127 ratios between 4x10 -11 and 3x10 -9 , which were found in human thyroids analysed in the USA before 1945 the Chilean values can be considered only slightly elevated as compared to those determined in samples of Northern Hemisphere today. (orig.) [de

  11. Iodine-129 separation and determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bate, L.C.; Stokely, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for analysis of iodine-129 in fission product mixtures originating from fuel reprocessing studies and low-level wastes. The method utilizes conventional iodine valence adjustment and solvent extraction techniques to chemically separate iodine-129 from most fission products. The iodine-129 is determined by neutron irradiation and measurement of the 12.4 hour iodine-130 produced by the neutron capture reaction. Special techniques were devised for neutron irradiation of iodine-129 samples in the pneumatic tube irradiation facilities at the High Flux Isotope (HFIR) and Oak Ridge Research (ORR) Reactors. Chemically separated iodine-129 is adsorbed on an anion exchange resin column made from an irradiation container. The loaded resin is then irradiated in either of the pneumatic facilities to produce iodine-130. Sensitivity of the analysis with the HFIR facility (flux: 5x10 14 n/cm 2 /s) and a 100 second irradiation time is approximately 0.03 nanograms. Samples up to 250 ml in volume can be easily processed. (author)

  12. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  13. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  14. Iodine-129 in the European Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R.; Daraoui, A.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R.; Tosch, L. [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover (Germany); Alfimov, V.; Synal, H. -A. [Labor fuer Ionenstrahlphysik, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nies, H.; Herrmann, J.; Goroncy, I. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Due to former atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, accidents in nuclear facilities and releases from nuclear reprocessing plants, the natural occurrence of the radionuclide {sup 129}I has been affected on a long term scale by human activities. Particularly in Western Europe, these changes are continuing due to discharges from the nuclear reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield. A survey is given on the environmental abundances of {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the North Sea, the Northeast Atlantic, as well as on the atmospheric transport of iodine isotopes from the sea to the continent and their pathways to animals and man. Today, the environmental {sup 129}I /{sup 127}I isotope ratios range from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -6} and are far above the pre-nuclear ratio of {approx}10{sup -12}. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments and serve as tracers of the complex environmental chemistry of iodine. (author)

  15. Determination of iodine 129 in vegetables using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Eduardo E.; Thyssen, Sandra M.; Bruno, Hector A.

    1999-01-01

    The developed methodology allows the determination of iodine 129 in vegetables, using neutron activation analysis. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in these matrixes, as well as the bromine 82 originated in the activation process. The experimental method for the determination of iodine 129 by neutron activation analysis involves five steps: 1- digestion by alkaline fusion; 2- pre-irradiation purification of iodine 129 by distillation followed by solvent extraction, and adsorption on activated charcoal by distillation; 3- neutron irradiation; 4- post-irradiation purification of iodine 130 by distillation followed by solvent extraction; 5- gamma spectrometry. A chemical recovery of 95 % is obtained in the distillations, measured using iodine 131 as tracer. The whole process recovery is within 70 % and 85 %. The detection limit is 2 mBq/kg of sample, but several factors affect this value, such as type of vegetable, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. The methodology developed is applied at environmental surveillance with safeguards proposes, in the detection of undeclared reprocessing of irradiated fuel. (authors)

  16. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin, Hou

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129 I/ 127 I was estimated to be ∼ 10 -12 in the ocean and 10 -11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10 -10 . However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129 I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129 I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129 I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129 I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129 I make the accumulation of 129 I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129 I/ 127 I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the

  17. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  18. Environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129 was once thought to be similar, particularly with respect to their soil solubility and biological interactions. Over the past several years, the comparative behavior of these two anions has been studied with respect to their fate in natural environments (both aquatic and terrestrial). The mechanisms studied include physical, chemical and biological parameters that account for differences in soil behavior, cycling between soil and/or air to vegetation, adsorption and metabolism in plants, and their availability and fate following ingestion by animals

  19. Preparation of an apatite-based matrix for the confinement of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the study of the conditioning of iodine 129 from the reprocessing of nuclear wastes. Because of its long half life (1.57 10 7 years), the conditioning of iodine 129 requires a matrix stable during several thousands of years. The study of natural minerals allows the selection of mineral phases having a good long term behaviour. In the first part the policy of nuclear wastes management, and in particular of iodine, is recalled. A naturalistic approach is used to define the best conditioning material and the remarkable properties of apatite in this way are described. In the second part, the preparation and physical-chemical characterization of iodo-apatites are described. A demonstration is made that iodine can penetrate inside vanadate or lead phospho-vanadate apatite-based compounds. The third part deals with the preparation of the conditioning material. The sintering reaction under pressure allows the preparation of composite ceramics including iodo-apatite. A multi-layer coating process is defined: coating of PbI 2 with a Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 layer and a Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 layer. Sintering is performed at 700 deg. celsius under a 25 MPa pressure. (J.S.)

  20. Detection of iodine-129 in some environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagao

    1981-01-01

    The recent accumulation of the long-lived isotope of iodine, 129 I, which is released in environment by the peaceful use of nuclear energy or nuclear test explosion is becoming important in the view point of the internal exposure by the low level radiation. The studies on the detection of determination of 129 I in environmental samples so far published are still very few. The authors tried to detect 129 I in some Japanese seaweeds and soil samples with the aid of the activation method by using the nuclear reaction of 129 I(n, #betta#) 130 I. The samples analysed in this work are tangle (Laminaria japonica) for daily food grown in Hidaka, Hokkaido and uncultivated soil collected in Tokai, Ibaraki Pref. As the #betta#-ray peak indicator for 130 I, cesium oxide and the aged radioisotope product of 131 I are also subjected to the neutron irradiation. From cesium oxide, 130 I is formed by the reaction of 133 Cs(n, α) 130 I. An aged vial of the 131 I product is expected to contain very minute amounts of 129 I which is also produced both by the fission of uranium and neutron capture reaction of tellurium followed by #betta# - -decay. The #betta#-ray spectra for the soil sample, cesium oxide and the aged 131 I vial are shown in Fig. 1. No appreciable peak was found for the seaweeds sample. In the #betta#-ray spectra for irradiated cesium oxide and the aged 131 I vial, several typical peaks for 130 I were observed. By comparing with these peaks, several small peaks which appear at around 418, 536 and 739 keV in the soil sample can be attributed to those of 130 I. The 129 I content in the soil sample is roughly estimated to be 2 x 10 - 10 Bq/g. (author)

  1. Iodine-129 AMS for Earth Science, Biomedical, and National Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G; Brown, T; Tumey, S; Marchetti, A; Vu, A

    2007-01-01

    This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project created the capability to analyze the radionuclide iodine-129 ( 129 I) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the CAMS facility at LLNL, and enhanced our scientific foundation for its application through development of sample preparation technology required for environmental, biomedical, and national security applications. The project greatly improved our environmental iodine extraction and concentration methodology, and developed new techniques for the analysis of small quantities of 129 I. The project can be viewed as having two phases, one in which the basic instrumental and chemical extraction methods necessary for general 129 I analysis were developed, and a second in which these techniques were improved and new techniques were developed to enable broader and more sophisticated applications. The latter occurred through the mechanism of four subprojects that also serve as proof-of-principle demonstrations of our newly developed 129 I capabilities. The first subproject determined the vertical distribution of bomb-pulse 129 I ( 129 Iv distributed globally as fallout from 1950's atmospheric nuclear testing) through 5 meters in the upper vadose zone in the arid southwestern United States. This characterizes migration mechanisms of contaminant 129 I, or 129 I released by nuclear fuel reprocessing, as well as the migration of labile iodine in soils relative to moisture flux, permitting a determination of nutrient cycling. The second subproject minimized the amount of iodine required in an AMS sample target. Because natural iodine abundances are very low in almost all environments, many areas of research had been precluded or made extremely difficult by the demands of sample size. Also, certain sample types of potential interest to national security are intrinsically small - for example iodine on air filters. The result of this work is the ability to measure the 129 I/ 127 I ratio at the 2E-07 level or

  2. Measurement of Iodine-129 in surface soil collected near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Honda, Maki

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 in soil around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and isotopic ratio of radioiodine was estimated. Surface deposition amount of Iodine-129 resulted in 6.7 to 5500 mBq/m"2. The mean isotopic ratio between Iodine-129 and Iodine-131 at the accident was estimated that "1"2"9"I"/"1"3"1I = 26±6 as of March 11 2011. This result was compared to the calculation result of ORIGEN2 code to test the validity of this estimation. (author)

  3. A global-scale dispersion analysis of iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Togawa, Orihiko

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional global chemical transport model, MOZART-2, is applied to investigate the global-sale dispersion of Iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The concentration and deposition of 129 I obtained by MOZART-2 are dispersed all over the Northern Hemisphere. The emission of 129 I to the atmosphere is thus important in considering the transport of 129 I to remote sites. (author)

  4. Environmental behavior and effects of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Wildung, R.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; McFadden, K.M.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to define the environmental behavior of 99 Tc and 129 I, two long-lived radioactive by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle that have received little study. The specific objectives are to (1) determine the soil physicochemical and microbiological factors and physiological parameters that govern the mobility and bioavailability of different chemical forms of 99 Tc and 129 I in terrestrial and aquatic environments and (2) validate and measure food web transport in selected field locations

  5. Standardization of iodine-129 by the TDCR liquid scintillation method and 4π β-γ coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, P.; Bouchard, J.; Chauvenet, B.

    1994-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a long-lived fission product, with physical and chemical properties that make it a good candidate for evaluating the environmental impact of the nuclear energy fuel cycle. To avoid solid source preparation problems, liquid scintillation has been used to standardize this nuclide for a EUROMET intercomparison. Two methods were used to measure the iodine-129 activity: triple-to-double-coincidence ratio liquid scintillation counting and 4π β-γ coincidence counting; the results are in good agreement.

  6. Spatial distribution of Iodine-129 in surface soil around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Tagi, Kazuhiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Saito, Takumi; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Tsuchiya, Yoko; Nakano, Chuichiro; Honda, Maki

    2011-01-01

    Due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, a lot of radioactive materials were released into the environment. Among them, Iodine-131, which has a short half-life of 8 days, is thought to be hardly detected after the accident is concluded. It is very important to research how leaked out Iodine-131 was diffused in order to estimate the health impact of radiation at the time of the accident. On the other hand, Iodine-129, which was leaked out and was thought to act chemically-identically as Iodine-131, has an extremely long half-life of 15.7 million years and we are able to measure it equally after the accident. By following the trail of Iodine-129, it is considered to estimate the distribution of Iodine-131. To do this, at first, it is essential to measure simultaneously Iodine-131 and Iodine-129 in the same sample picked from near-the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant and examine the relation between them (for example, the isotopic ratio of Iodine derived from the nuclear power plant (I-129/I-131)). At this study, we measured Iodine-129 in surface soil within 60 kilometers of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was picked by research team of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo. We discuss Iodine-129 derived from the nuclear power plant by considering the concentration range, the relation of a distance or a direction from the nuclear power plant, and the relation between I-129 and other radioactive nuclides (Cs-134, Cs-137, I-131). Since Iodine-129, which had been leaked out from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Europe, was already transferred to Japan by way of the atmospheric transportation before the accident, it is important to distinguish between Iodine-129 from this accident and from the reprocessing plant. Then, we want to obtain the I-129/I-131 ratio originating in the accident precisely and discuss the

  7. Standard guide for the determination of iodine-129 In uranium oxide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This method covers the determination of iodine-129 (129I) in uranium oxide by gamma-ray spectrometry. The method could also be applicable to the determination of 129I in aqueous matrices. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Optimal buffer gas pressure for laser-induced fluorescence detection of the iodine-129 isotope in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kireev, S.V.; Pit'ko, A.V.; Shnyrev, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric air pressure on the intensity of iodine-129 vapor fluorescence excited by a He-Ne (633 nm) laser is studied. It is shown that to achieve the maximum intensity of fluorescence of molecular iodine-129, it is advantageous, first, to use a 3 He- 20 Ne laser for excitation, and second, to detect atmospheric iodine impurities in the gas mixture under analysis evacuated to 2 x 10 18 - 4 x 10 18 mol/cm 3 . In this case, the sensitivity increases about twofold. 7 refs., 4 figs

  9. Retrospective reconstruction of Iodine-131 distribution through the analysis of Iodine-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Mao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-131 distribution released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was reconstructed through the iodine-129 measurements. From nearly 1,000 surface soil samples iodine was extracted by the pyro hydrolysis method. Extracted iodine was then mixed with carrier, purified and finally collected as silver iodide. Silver iodide sample was pressed into the cathode holder and set at the ion source of the MALT facility, The University of Tokyo. The isotopic ratio 129I/127I was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. From 129I data obtained, 131I deposition map was constructed. There observed various fine structures in the map which could not estimated neither by the simulation nor 137Cs distribution.

  10. Iodine-129 in rabbit thyroids near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, L. Jr.; Bowman, G.C.; Markham, O.D.

    1982-01-01

    The 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios in rabbits collected on the INEL site were larger than ratios in rabbits from a control area. Maximum 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios (9.1 x 10 -4 ) occurred near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Based on rabbit thyroid concentrations, the 129 I appeared to be deposited primarily in the direction of the predominant winds from the ICPP, northeast and southwest. Dose rates from the 129 I to thyroids of INEL rabbits varied from 0.1 to 260 μGy/y (0.01 to 26 mrad/y). Iodine-129 atmospheric releases from the ICPP appeared to have increased the 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios on and near the INEL site. (author)

  11. An Anthropogenic Radioisotope, Iodine 129, As A Tracer For Studying The Northern Limb of The Meridional Overturning Circulation (moc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascard, J. C.; Raisbeck, G.; Yiou, F.; Sequeira, S.; Mork, K. A.

    A number of observations taken during the 1990s, seem to corroborate the fact that the northern limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (the so-called MOC), is undergoing large scale variability. Arctic Sea-Ice thinning, Overflows slackening, Labrador and Greenland Seas Deep Convection weakening, have recently been re- ported. Can this large scale variability be interpreted as a natural variability of the MOC or is it more related to global changes due to anthropogenic effects like green- house gases enhancing Global Warming at High Latitudes ? Iodine 129 resulting from reprocessing nuclear wastes at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK), has penetrated through all the various parts of the MOC from the Source: the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) collecting Iodine 129 from the North Sea, to the Sink: the Greenland- Iceland-Scotland Overflows and ultimately to the North Atlantic Deep Waters via the Deep Western Boundary Current. During recent years, discharges of Iodine 129 have increased drastically and peaks in Iodine 129 concentrations have already been ob- served all along the coast of Norway. In this talk, we will first present the most recent results showing the transfer of Iodine 129 through the various parts of the MOC from the NCC down to the North Atlantic Overflows (Denmark Strait), and second, explain how this results allow us to improve our understanding of the MOC system and in particular its variability. This is an important issue for improving reliability of actual numerical simulations of past, present and future behavior of the MOC, which has strong implications for climate related problems.

  12. Methodology for iodine-129 determination in coniferous plant by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, E.E.; Thyssen, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The measurement methods of iodine-129 ( 129 I) include liquid scintillation counting, mass spectrometry analysis, X-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The combination of long half-life and low radiation energy, limit the sensitivity of a direct measurement in environmental matrixes. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) permits the increase in the sensitivity because of the high thermal neutron cross section of 129 I. The reaction produced is 129 I (n,γ) 130 I and the Eγ (536 keV) of iodine-130 (t 1/2 = 12,6 hours) is measured. The developed methodology allows the determination of 129 I in coniferous needles using NAA. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in the matrix, as well as the Bromine-82 originated in the activation process. The analytical method is divided in six steps: a) digestion by alkaline fusion; b) radiochemical purification of 129 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; c) distillation and adsorption on activated charcoal; d) neutron irradiation; e) radiochemical purification of 130 I by distillation followed by solvent extraction; f) gamma spectrometry. Iodine-131 tracer is added, and a chemical recovery of 95% in the distillations is obtained. The whole process recovery is within 70% and 85%. The detection limit is 0.48 mBq. Several factors affect this value, such as sample type, variety of coniferous, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. (author) [es

  13. The chemical behaviour of iodine-129 in the process of radwaste conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schon, T.

    1993-11-01

    During radwaste reprocessing, elemental I-129 may almost completely be transferred to the dissolver off-gas stream. The AC 6120 adsorbent, consisting of high-heated, amorphous silicic acid impregnated with silver nitrate, proved to be particularly efficient for removing the iodine from the off-gas. In a gas-solid reaction, the elemental iodine is converted into solid silver iodide and silver iodate. The reaction's stoichiometry depends on the loading temperature, with temperatures between 30 and 80 C resulting in a ratio of five between the reaction products of AgI and AgIO 3 , while with temperatures higher than that, up to 150 C, the ratio is three. For assessing the acceptability of the iodine-bearing AC 6120 as a waste product to be emplaced in a salt rock repository, the ratio of the reaction products is one of the main criteria. The products solubility and its complexation reactions with chloride-bearing brines are two other important criteria, especially with a view to the not completely hypothetical accident type of 'water ingress into the salt cavern'. Leaching experiments have shown that in this event, between 30 and over 60% of the waste product's iodine inventory would be leached out within only seven days. Thus AC 6120 is not a candidate adsorbent for immobilization of iodine 129 in a waste product. (orig./HP) [de

  14. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, TsingHai; Jian, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Han; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences; Tsai, Tsuey-Lin [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  15. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  16. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE, IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT, HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-01-01

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU

  17. Iodine-129 depth profiles in soil within 30 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.S.; Nakano, C.; Yamagata, T.; Nagai, H.; Matsushi, Y.; Maejima, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine-129 depth profiles of 13 soil cores were analyzed by AMS to evaluate the distribution and the mobility in soil. The cores were sampled from various fields around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Four cores out of the 13 were collected from almost the same position in Kawauchi village crop field 20 km apart from FDNPP at different times between April 2011 and June 2012 to observe the temporal variation of depth profile of "1"2"9I in soil. On the all of 13 soil cores, clear enhancement of the accident origin "1"2"9I was observed. From the crop field soil cores in Kawauchi village, "1"2"9I inventory was estimated as 43.4±2.7 mBq m"-"2 (3.10x10"1"3 atoms m"-"2). There is positive relationship between relaxation length and the elapsed time since the FDNPP accident. The increase rate of the relaxation length is about 1 cm yr"-"1 which should reflect the downward transfer rate of the Fukushima-derived "1"2"9I. Other 9 cores were collected from various fields including crop fields and man-made soils within 30 km from FDNPP on June 2012. Cumulative "1"2"9I inventory fraction [%] from the surface was calculated. The inventory fraction within top 5 cm varied widely, 65-100% with median 82%. Similarly the inventory fraction within top 10 cm varied 82 to 100% with the median 95%. (author)

  18. Iodine-129 measurements in soil samples from Dolon village near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Tomita, Junpei; Tanaka, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Sakaguchi, Aya; Amano, Hikaru; Kawamura, Hidehisa; Kawamura, Hisao; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I; Whitehead, Neil E; Shinkarev, Sergey; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2008-07-01

    Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, is known to be heavily contaminated by the first USSR atomic bomb test in August 1949. Soil samples around Dolon were taken in October 2005 in an attempt to evaluate internal thyroid dose arising from incorporation of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I). Iodine-129 in soil was measured by using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. The (129)I/(127)I atom ratios measured were in the range from 3.3 x 10(-9) to 3.3 x 10(-7). These values were within the range of the current background level ( approximately 10(-9) to 10(-7)) in the environment, including contributions from the global fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests and local fallout of nuclear facilities. The (129)I atom accumulated level in soil ranged from 1.28 x 10(13) to 1.59 x 10(14) atoms m(-2), the average (8.0 x 10(13)) of which was higher than the background level of (2-5) x 10(13). From the relationship between (129)I and( 137)Cs (corrected for background and decay from 1949 to 2005) accumulated levels, the background level of (129)I and the (129)I/(137)Cs ratio around Dolon were estimated to be (6.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(13) atoms m(-2) and 0.25 +/- 0.16, respectively. This (129)I/(137)Cs ratio is almost similar to the fission yield ratio for (239)Pu fast fission (0.24).

  19. Radioecological studies on plutonium and iodine-129 in the surroundings of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1982-01-01

    Plutonium and 129 I are emitted from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) together with exhaust air and liquid effluents. Plutonium dispersion in the environment was used to calculate the dispersion factors, to determine the rates of deposition on grass and of the total deposition rates, to measure the distribution at depth of plutonium in the soil and to evaluate the contamination of plants and animals in the environment of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant. The plutonium emissions with the liquid effluents were studied to deepen understanding of the process of sedimentation in a river system. Sediments, water samples, aerosols and living organisms from the Altrhein were examined. Factors of transfer to various organisms living in the Altrhein were measured. Most of the 129 I release from WAK goes via the exhaust air: this even applies after installation of an iodine filter into the exhaust air stack. The 129 I contamination of the environmental air, the soil, thyroids and milk was measured. Regarding the milk/air concentration ratio, a mean value of 210 was determined with a scattering range of 50 to 1480. Soil contamination was studied very thoroughly. Iodine-129 is transported into lower soil layers at a very slow rate only, if at all. The contamination of the soil with 129 I remained largely constant during the three years of investigations. The low rates of deposition of 0.02 to 0.05 cm/s indicate that 129 I is released to the environmental air again from plants undergoing the process of rotting. (author)

  20. Iodine-129 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, approximately 0.941 curies of iodine-129 (129I) were contained in wastewater generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with almost all of this wastewater discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Most of the wastewater containing 129I was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; lesser quantities also were discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy collected groundwater samples for 129I from 62 wells in the ESRP aquifer to track concentration trends and changes for the carcinogenic radionuclide that has a 15.7 million-year half-life. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000013±0.0000005 to 1.02±0.04 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and generally decreased in wells near the INTEC, relative to previous sampling events. The average concentration of 129I in groundwater from 15 wells sampled during four different sample periods decreased from 1.15 pCi/L in 1990–91 to 0.173 pCi/L in 2011–12. All but two wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases in concentration, and all but one sample had concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 1 pCi/L. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The decreases in 129I concentrations, in areas around INTEC where concentrations increased between 2003 and 2007, were attributed to less recharge near INTEC either from less flow in the Big Lost River or from less local snowmelt and anthropogenic sources. Although wells near INTEC sampled in 2011–12 showed decreases in 129I concentrations compared with previously collected data, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area

  1. Measurement of Iodine-129 concentration in environmental water samples around Fukushima area - Role of river system in the global iodine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Tokuyama, Hironori; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2013-04-01

    According to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, vast amount of radioactive nuclides including radioactive iodine were spilled out into the environment. There is no question about that detailed observation of distribution of radioactive nuclides and evaluation of the radiation exposure of residents is extremely important. On the other hand, from the view of an elemental dynamics in the environment, this event can be considered as a spike of the radioactive isotope. It is also the case for the iodine. A rare isotope Iodine-129 was widely distributed in a very short time by the FDNPP accident. Iodine-129 directly landing on the soil surface had been trapped in the upper layer of the soil and the depth profile should indicate the migration in and the interaction with the soil. If Iodine-129 was trapped in the woods, it seems to take rather longer time to landing on the ground. Either way, a certain portion of the Iodine-129 should be moving downward and finally washed out by the groundwater or river with a certain rate and transported into the sea. The concentration of Iodine-129 in environmental water samples taken from rivers and ponds are considered to reflect the iodine transportation process by the fluvial system. For the detailed discussion of the role of the fluvial system in the global iodine cycle, Iodine-129 concentration of various water samples collected from Fukushima area was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The results ranged from 3E06 atoms/L to 3E09 atoms/L. Samples from Abukuma area (South West of FDNPP) showed lower concentration. On the other hand, samples collected from North West part (Iitate village and Minami Soma region) showed higher concentration (more than 1E8 atoms/L). Delayed enhancement of Iodine-129 concentration over a year in river systems surrounded by woods was also observed which is considered to correspond to the delayed release from the woods.

  2. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  3. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14 C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210 Po and 210 Pb followed by 226 Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14 C, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Preparation of an apatite-based matrix for the confinement of iodine 129; Mise au point d`une matrice apatitique pour le confinement de l`iode 129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audubert, F

    1995-11-08

    The aim of this thesis is the study of the conditioning of iodine 129 from the reprocessing of nuclear wastes. Because of its long half life (1.57 10{sup 7} years), the conditioning of iodine 129 requires a matrix stable during several thousands of years. The study of natural minerals allows the selection of mineral phases having a good long term behaviour. In the first part the policy of nuclear wastes management, and in particular of iodine, is recalled. A naturalistic approach is used to define the best conditioning material and the remarkable properties of apatite in this way are described. In the second part, the preparation and physical-chemical characterization of iodo-apatites are described. A demonstration is made that iodine can penetrate inside vanadate or lead phospho-vanadate apatite-based compounds. The third part deals with the preparation of the conditioning material. The sintering reaction under pressure allows the preparation of composite ceramics including iodo-apatite. A multi-layer coating process is defined: coating of PbI{sub 2} with a Pb{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 1.6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 0.4} layer and a Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} layer. Sintering is performed at 700 deg. celsius under a 25 MPa pressure. (J.S.). 131 refs.

  5. Study on solubility and leaching property of Iodine-129 waste-forms for geological disposal. Document prepared by other institute, based on the trust contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, A.; Izumi, J. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitao, H. [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ueta, S.; Okada, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Muroi, M. [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    As concern the study on the property of Iodine-129 waste-forms, the solubilities and leachabilities of iodine-sodalite and leachabilities of apatite containing Iodine were measured last year. The results in this year are summarized as follows. 1. Solubility and Leachability of Iodine-sodalite. Leachabilities and solubilities of the synthesized iodine-sodalite by HIP method were measured by means of a long-term leach test in the solution with chloride ions and high pH (12.5). The measured solubilities were within a range of 10{sup -3} - 10{sup -2} mol/L, which were larger compare with the previous values. The leachabilities were 10{sup -6} g/cm{sup 2}/day (powder) and 10{sup -3} g/cm{sup 2}/day (block). After the leach test, the solid phases were analyzed and the alternation was not observed. 2. Leaching Property of Apatite Sample which contains Iodine adsorption medicine. Apatite sample was manufactured from apatite and zeorait which adsorbs iodine matrix by plasma-hotpress. The porosity of the samples was under 5% and release rate of iodine was about 10% at plasma-hotpress manufacturing. The leachabilities of iodine were 10{sup -4} - 10{sup -3} g/cm{sup 2}/d at 56 day soaking period. These values were 1 - 2 digits higher compare with the leachabilities of calcium. It is thought that the iodine selectively is leached from apatite sample. (author)

  6. A review of methods for immobilizing iodine-129 arising from a nuclear fuel recycle plant, with emphasis on waste-form chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1990-07-01

    Possible methods for the separation and immobilization of iodine (mainly iodine-129) in a fuel recycle plant are reviewed, with special emphasis placed on the evaluation of waste forms. A distinction is drawn between waste forms selected by thermodynamic (solubility) or kinetic (dissolution rate) considerations. The most promising solubility-limited waste forms appear to be AgI (or AgI + AgCl) and a combination of Bi 2 O 3 and Bi 5 O 7 I. These materials use relatively scarce metals, Ag and Bi. They also have substantial chemical limitations, such as susceptibility to reductive dissolution and anion-displacement reactions; this calls for special care in the choice of a disposal site. All other organic iodides and iodates considered here and elsewhere appear to be still more limited in this respect. The most promising kinetically limited candidate waste form appears to be iodide-sodalite, but further information is needed on both the fabrication and leaching behaviour of this material. The possibility of disposal in a more soluble but isotopically dilute waste form, employing abundant raw materials, also warrants further consideration

  7. Long-term studies on the leachability of cemented and non-cemented iodine-129 loaded sorption material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempffer, R.; Furrer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaching tests on the load AC 6120 iodine sorption material (12 wt.% Ag) in water and salt brines were performed over a rather long period of time to allow better judgement of the behavior of radioactive waste disposed of in a salt dome. The utilization of capacity of the loaded iodine sorption material from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant (WAK) was 95% related to the amount of silver added. The result of the stationary leaching tests has been a leaching rate of the material not embedded in cement of < 0.1%, whereas the leaching rate of the iodine sorption material embedded in cement has been < 0.01% of the total iodine-129 inventory. After addition of carbon steel to the sorption material embedded in cement the same leaching rates were measured as for material not embedded in cement. The addition of stainless steel exerted but little influence on the leaching rate. (orig.)

  8. Iodine 129 concentration in river and lake water in the Fukushima area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Hironori; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radionuclides, including "1"2"9I, were released into the environment by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. In determination of "1"2"9I, accelerator mass spectrometry is extraordinarily sensitive. We found that river and lake water in Fukushima area contained significant amount of "1"2"9I from the accident, and provided fruitful information for us. The concentration of "1"2"9I in the river and lake water taken in June 2012 ranged from 3.88 x 10"7 atoms/L to 3.32 x 10"9 atoms/L. The concentration of "1"2"9I in samples taken in Kawauchi village and Tamura city located in the west of the nuclear power plant was low, while that in Namie town, Iitate village and Minamisouma city was relatively high. In addition, the concentration of "1"2"9I in samples taken at the same place in December 2011, March 2012 and June 2012 was increased except one sample. This is result from the outflow of "1"2"9I which was attached to the organic matter, and from seasonal changes. To investigate the state of dilution of "1"2"9I in river and lake, it is necessary to take long-term and fixed-point observation. (author)

  9. Health effects due to the release of iodine 129 from the marine outlet for the reprocessing plant located at La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeau, D.; Calmet, D.

    1985-02-01

    The study contained in this report estimates the health effects in terms of doses to the populations due to the release of Iodine 129 from the marine outlet for the reprocessing plant located at La Hague. The release taken into account is due to the normal functioning of the plant, which introduces a consistent contamination of the English channel during the life of the plant which is thirty years. The annual release of Iodine 129, as assumed by the operating staff, is equal to either 1,662.10 12 Bq or 45 Ci. The dose equivalent to the thyroid of the concerned population due to normal consummation of marine products (fish, shell-fish, mollusc) are very low as compared to the 6.10 -4 limit of dose authorized for the public in the actual regulation. The effective dose equivalent has been estimated at 4.27.10 -7 Sv [fr

  10. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at and Near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2003 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2009-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, wastewater containing approximately 0.94 curies of iodine-129 (129I) was generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Almost all of this wastewater was discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) on the INL site. Most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; however, some wastewater also was discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 36 wells used to monitor the Snake River Plain aquifer, and from one well used to monitor a perched zone at the INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000066 +- 0.0000002 to 0.72 +- 0.051 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Many wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases of as much as one order of magnitude in concentration from samples collected during 1990-91, and all of the samples had concentrations less than the Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 pCi/L. The average concentration of 129I in 19 wells sampled during both collection periods decreased from 0.975 pCi/L in 1990-91 to 0.249 pCi/L in 2003. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater after 1988 and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Although water from wells sampled in 2003 near the INTEC showed decreases in concentrations of 129I compared with data collected in 1990-91, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed slight increases. These slight increases may be related to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a mass of water from a particular disposal period. In 2007, the USGS collected samples for

  11. Radionuclide analysis of drinking water in selected secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radionuclide analysis of drinking water in selected secondary schools of Epe ... obtained were in the ranges of (38.3 – 292.8) Bq/L with mean value of 13.4 + 10.8 ... and within the tolerance level indicating minimal radiological health burden.

  12. Assessment of waste management of volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, P.M.; Barbier, M.; Lord, N.; Nainan, D.

    1979-05-01

    This document presents a review of the Technologies for Waste Management of the Volatile Radionuclides of iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium, and carbon-14. The report presents an estimate of the quantities of these volatile radionuclides as are produced in the nuclear power industry. The various technologies as may be used, or which are under investigation, to immobilize these nuclides and to contain them during storage and in disposal are discussed. Also, the alternative disposal options as may be applied to isolate these radioactive wastes from the human environment are presented. The report contains information which was available through approximately January 1978

  13. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide-transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The elements selected for study of their transfer coefficients to eggs, poultry meat, milk and beef were Mo, Tc, Te, and Ba. The radionuclides used in the study were the gamma-emitting radionuclides 99 Mo, /sup 123m/Te and 133 Ba. 133 Ba was selected because 140 Ba- 140 La is produced infrequently and availability was uncertain. 133 Ba has a great advantage for our type of experiment because of its longer physical half-life. 99 Tc is a pure beta-emitter and was used in the first three animal experiments because we could not obtain the gamma-emitting /sup 95m/Tc. A supply of this nuclide was recently obtained, however, for the second cow experiment

  14. Iodine-129. Proceedings of an NEA specialist meeting. Paris, 13-16 June 1977. Iode-129. Compte rendu d'une reunion de specialistes de l'AEN. Paris, 13-16 juin 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In the framework of its programme on effluent releases from the nuclear fuel cycle and its radiological significance, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise meetings of specialists directly involved with research or regulatory aspects of effluent releases in order to note the status of present knowledge in this field. A first meeting of this type on iodine 129 was organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication reproduces papers presented at this meeting.

  15. Criteria for the selection of radionuclides for tumor radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Mease, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of utilizing monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors (radioimmunotherapy, RIT) has stimulated much research activity. From dosimetric and other considerations, the choice of radiolabel is an important factor that needs to be optimized for maximum effectiveness of RIT. This paper reviews and assesses a number of present and future radionuclides that are particularly suitable for RIT based on the various physical, chemical, and biological considerations. Intermediate to high-energy beta emitters' (with and without gamma photons in their emission) are emphasized since they possess a number of advantages over alpha and Auger emitters. Factors relating to the production and availability of candidate radiometals as well as their stable chemical attachment to monoclonal antibodies are discussed. 34 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Background concentrations of selected radionuclides, organic compounds, and chemical constituents in ground water in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, B.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Background concentrations of radionuclides, organic compounds, and other chemical constituents in water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in Idaho were estimated from groundwater sample analyses. Detectable concentrations of transuranic elements should not be present in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer. Background concentrations of tritium generally range from 75 to 150 pCi/L. Strontium-90 and iodine-129 concentrations generally are 0 and from 0.05 pCi/L, respectively. At the INEL, comparison of the mean and median concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and iodine-129 indicates that operations locally have affected concentrations in groundwater. Gross alpha-particle and beta-particle radioactivity in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer ranges from 0 to 5 pCi/L and 0 to 8 pCi/L, respectively. Background gamma radiation in groundwater is attributed to cesium-137, cobalt-60, and potassium-40. Cesium-137 and cobalt-60 concentrations generally are zero in groundwater at the INEL. Naturally occurring concentrations of potassium-40 probably are about 300 pCi/L. Background concentrations of organic compounds in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer generally are less than 0.2 microg/L. Background arsenic and chromium concentrations both are about 2 to 3 microg/L. Barium concentrations are from about 50 to about 70 microg/L. Lead and mercury concentrations generally are less than 5 microg/L and 0.1 microg/L, respectively. Cadmium, selenium, and silver concentrations generally are less than 1 microg/L. Nitrate concentrations range from 0 to about 1.4 mg/L

  17. Iodine 129 measurements by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. Results in seaweeds (Fucus serratus et laminaria digitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, D.; Hebert, D.; Gandon, R.; Solier, L.

    1999-01-01

    A iodine selective radiochemistry method was developed to measure 129 I(period 1,57 x 10 10 7 years) by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. This method avoids using neutron activation analysis or accelerator mass spectrometry. The method is based on iodine extraction from samples in order to obtain an aqueous matrix with no attenuation agent except 127 I(stable isotope). The parallel determination of 127 I allows to correct 129 I measurements for self attenuation and also monitor seasonal changes in iodine metabolism in biological species. Measurements were performed in two seaweed species (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) samples in the area of La Hague reprocessing plant discharge between January and February 1997). Samples from stations close to the point of release (Goury and Herquemoulin), showed 129 I activities around 60 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and around 300 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 300 km away from the realize point, 129 I activities were 10 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and 171 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 127 I concentrations were between 547 and 1,232 mg kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and between 6,624 and 14,296 mg kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. (authors)

  18. Some special considerations in evaluating the impacts of long-lived radionuclides in LLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Cook, J.R.; King, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive program has been conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to assess environmental impacts of both radioactive and nonradioactive (hazardous) waste at its disposal sites to assure compliance with provisions of the National Environmental Protection Act. The objective of the current study is to characterize issues related to long-lived radionuclides in SRP waste. This work includes defining a reasonably attainable data base on parameters affecting leachability, mobility, dosimetry, and other factors that might affect radiological dose consequences. The long-lived radionuclides to be assessed include: certain transuranics, uranium, technetium-99, iodine-129, and carbon-14. The study is scheduled for completion by the end of this year. Preliminary insights and conclusions focusing primarily on neptunium-237, iodine-129, and uranium are discussed in this paper

  19. Selective flotation for the removal of radionuclides from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, Y.Q.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive contaminated soils (10--500 pci/gm) created by defense-related activities at certain Superfund sites, such as Nevada Test Site (NTS), is a current environmental concern. Many of these contaminated sites may require appropriate cleanup and restoration, which could cost billions of dollars and put tremendous pressure on limited financial resources. Therefore, the development of a selective flotation process to separate such radionuclides from contaminated soils should be considered. In this study, both a pure depleted UO 2 sample and three synthetic UO 2 /soil mixtures were used to evaluate surface chemistry features and to examine the possibility for the flotation of fine UO 2 particles from selected soils. It was intended that this model system would be a reasonable representation of contaminated soils such as those found the Nevada Test Site which are reported to be contaminated by PuO 2 fallout. The effect of reagent schedule, particle size distribution, and surface charge are discussed with respect to the flotation separation of the UO 2 /soil mixtures. It was found that both commercial fatty acids and reagent grade sodium oleate are effective collectors for UO 2 flotation provided the pH is adjusted to the range of pH 8--9. The bench-scale flotation results successfully demonstrated that froth flotation technology can be used to remove UO 2 from such model contaminated soils with appropriate flotation chemistry conditions which depend on the soil characteristics and other pretreatment procedures

  20. Radionuclides and selected trace elements in marine protein concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T M; Jokela, T A; Eagle, R J

    1971-12-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements and radionuclides have been measured in marine protein concentrates prepared from surface feeding fishes. As with concentrates prepared from benthic fishes, the /sup 210/Pb-/sup 210/Po pair are the most significant radionuclides present. Concentrations of stable Pb, Co and Ag in certain concentrates are sufficiently high to contribute substantially to estimated current intakes of these elements.

  1. Production of selected cosmogenic radionuclides by muons; 1, Fast muons

    CERN Document Server

    Heisinger, B; Jull, A J T; Kubik, P W; Ivy-Ochs, S; Neumaier, S; Knie, K; Lazarev, V A; Nolte, E

    2002-01-01

    To investigate muon-induced nuclear reactions leading to the production of radionuclides, targets made of C/sub 9/H/sub 12/, SiO /sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, S, CaCO/sub 3/, Fe, Ni, Cu, Gd, Yb and Tl were irradiated with 100 and 190 GeV muons in the NA54 experimental setup at CERN. The radionuclide concentrations were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and gamma -spectroscopy. Results are presented for the corresponding partial formation cross- sections. Several of the long-lived and short-lived radionuclides studied are also produced by fast cosmic ray muons in the atmosphere and at depths underground. Because of their importance to Earth sciences investigations, calculations of the depth dependence of production rates by fast cosmic ray muons have been made. (48 refs).

  2. Evaluation of natural radionuclides in selected regions of Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Mojzes, A.; Nikodemova, D.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakian part of Western Carpathian is an area typical for very various geological structures. This fact is also reflected on values of natural radionuclide concentrations. Our paper was focused on evaluation and collection of data about activities of different natural radionuclides (uranium, thorium and potassium) and on the description of rocks which cause it. For research purposes were offered the results obtained from middle and eastern Slovakia which includes different types of rocks with various values of radioactive concentrations. Consequently these data were processed and shown by maps that represent the values of natural radioactivity in the studied areas. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of natural radionuclides in selected regions of Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakian part of Western Carpathian is an area typical for very various geological structures. This fact is also reflected on values of natural radionuclide concentrations. Our poster was focused on evaluation and collection of data about activities of different natural radionuclides (uranium, thorium and potassium) and on the description of rocks which cause it. For research purposes were offered the results obtained from middle and eastern Slovakia which includes different types of rocks with various values of radioactive concentrations. Consequently these data were processed and shown by maps that represent the values of natural radioactivity in the studied areas. (authors)

  4. Purification of radionuclides for nuclear medicine: The multicolumn selectivity inversion generator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    A new radionuclide generator system has been developed and demonstrated for the production of 212 Bi from 224 Ra/ 212 Pb and for 90 Y from 90 Sr. The new concept, called a Multicolumn Selectivity Inversion Generator, involves the selective retention of the desired daughter radionuclide from a solution of the parent or parents by a primary separation column followed by stripping the daughter radionuclide from the primary column, and immediately without feed adjustment, passing the daughter through a secondary separation (guard) column that retains the parents while the daughter elutes unrestrained. The new generator system minimises the effects of radiation damage to the support material permitting the reliable production of nuclides of high chemical and radionuclidic purity. (author)

  5. Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 129 I, and 137 Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello

  6. Environmental behavior of anionic radionuclides with special regard to their reactions within the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, J.

    1983-04-01

    This report describes the behavior of radioiodine in inanimate nature (atmosphere, soil) as example for radioisotopes that exist in the environment in anionic form. Because of the significance of the longlived radionuclide Iodine-129 for the radiation exposure of man, the study is focussing on the retention process of radioiodine in soil. For a better understanding of some observations on the reaction of radioiodine in soil recorded in literature, the first chapter is dealing with the mechanisms of anion absorption in soil in general. Another chapter explores possible reactions of radioiodine in the atmosphere, based on the assumption that the chemophysical form of radioiodine deposited in soil is not necessarily identical to its original form at the time of release. Further discussed are the major reaction partners of iodine in soil and simultaneously occurring reaction mechanisms as well as the significance of soil types for radioiodine depositions in the soil. Since Iodine-129 is stored in the upper soil layer for a long period of time, due to its extremely long halflife, it may be periodically available to vegetation. The last chapter demonstrates on some examples, which uncertainty factors in the nature may influence the validity of the estimation of radiation exposures from Iodine-129 in the soil by means of an effective residence time. (orig.) [de

  7. Migration of selected radionuclides in the food chain. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanusik, V.; Smajda, B.; Musatovova, O.; Szabova, T.

    1983-01-01

    The migration is described of radiostrontium, radiocesium and radioiodine in the system plant-animal-man, and the impact is monitored of the individual factors on the accumulation of these radionuclides in the organisms of animals and humans. On the basis of data published (NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109) relating to the variability of the parameters of the model, the range is estimated of variations of radiostrontium and radiocesium concentrations in meat and in milk as is the range of variations of the whole-body dose equivalent. (author)

  8. Intercalibration of selected anthropogenic radionuclides for the GEOTRACES Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenna, Timothy C.; Masqué, Pere; Mas, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Program, six laboratories participated in an intercalibration exercise on several anthropogenic radionuclides of interest. The effort was successful for 239,240Pu activity, 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio, and 137Cs activity measured in filtered seawater samples from the Bermuda...... Atlantic Time Series station (BATS) and a site on the continental slope of the Northeastern U.S. A limited number of analyses were reported for 237Np, 241Am, 90Sr, and 238Pu in filtered seawater. Intercalibration of any of the isotopes of interest in filtered particulate matter was unsuccessful due...... to insufficient size of the samples distributed. Methods used were based on traditional radio-counting techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Although the majority of analyses were performed on samples ≥ 60 L, one lab demonstrated the ability to analyze several of the anthropogenic...

  9. Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.; Leonard, M.T.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Kelly, R.F.; Jordan, H.; Schumacher, P.M.; Curtis, L.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report provides the results of source term calculations that were performed in support of the NUREG-1150 study. ''Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants.'' This is the sixth volume of a series of reports. It supplements results presented in the earlier volumes. Analyses were performed for three of the NUREG-1150 plants: Peach Bottom, a Mark I, boiling water reactor; Surry, a subatmospheric containment, pressurized water reactor; and Sequoyah, an ice condenser containment, pressurized water reactor. Complete source term results are presented for the following sequences: short term station blackout with failure of the ADS system in the Peach Bottom plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA for the Surry plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA in the Sequoyah plant; and a very small break with loss of ECC and spray recirculation in the Sequoyah plant. In addition, some partial analyses were performed which did not require running all of the modules of the Source Term Code Package. A series of MARCH3 analyses were performed for the Surry and Sequoyah plants to evaluate the effects of alternative emergency operating procedures involving primary and secondary depressurization on the progress of the accident. Only thermal-hydraulic results are provided for these analyses. In addition, three accident sequences were analyzed for the Surry plant for accident-induced failure of steam generator tubes. In these analyses, only the transport of radionuclides within the primary system and failed steam generator were examined. The release of radionuclides to the environment is presented for the phase of the accident preceding vessel meltthrough. 17 refs., 176 figs., 113 tabs

  10. Selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions with inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear industry produces and stores large volumes of radioactive waste solutions. Removal of radionuclides from the solutions is an important and challenging task for two main reasons: reductions in the volumes of solidified waste, which have to be disposed of, and reductions in the radioactive discharges into the environment. Since the radioactive elements in most waste solutions are in trace concentrations and the waste solutions contain large excesses of inactive metal ions, highly selective separation methods are needed for the removal of radionuclides. A number of inorganic ion exchange materials are very selective to key radionuclides and they can play an important role in solving these problems. The spectrum of nuclear waste solutions is rather wide considering their radionuclide contents, concentrations of interfering salts and acidity/alkalinity. Therefore, several inorganic ions exchangers are needed for the removal of most harmful radionuclides from a variety of solutions. This paper discusses the use and requirements of inorganic ion exchange materials in nuclear waste management. Special attention is paid to the novel ion exchange materials developed in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. (orig.)

  11. Ion competition effects on the selective absorption of radionuclides by komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambe, S.; Shinonaga, T.; Ozaki, T.; Enomoto, S.; Yasuda, H.; Uchida, S.

    1999-01-01

    The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides by a multitracer technique. Komatsuna, Brassica rapa var. perviridis, was hydroponically cultivated in a nutrient solution containing a multitracer for 1 day. Nutrient concentration dependence of the selective absorption coefficient of various elements from Be to Re was obtained separately for leaves and roots. The selective absorption coefficients of these elements were, in general, found to decrease with an increase in the concentration of nutrient solutions. Regression equations of the power function for the selective absorption coefficients and the concentration of nutrient solutions were obtained for the leaves and roots. The effects of photon flux and growth stage of plants on the selective absorption coefficients were also studied. It was found that the photon flux influenced the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots but had no significant effect on the selective absorption coefficients for the leaves in 1-day cultivation with the multitracer. The selective absorption coefficients of Mn and Zn in the leaves of the plants at the development stage were higher than those at the maturation stage. For the other elements, no significant effects of the growth stage on the selective absorption coefficients were observed. (author)

  12. Airborne radionuclide waste-management reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.

    1983-07-01

    This report provides the detailed data required to develop a strategy for airborne radioactive waste management by the Department of Energy (DOE). The airborne radioactive materials of primary concern are tritium (H-3), carbon-14 (C-14), krypton-85 (Kr-85), iodine-129 (I-129), and radioactive particulate matter. The introductory section of the report describes the nature and broad objectives of airborne waste management. The relationship of airborne waste management to other waste management programs is described. The scope of the strategy is defined by considering all potential sources of airborne radionuclides and technologies available for their management. Responsibilities of the regulatory agencies are discussed. Section 2 of this document deals primarily with projected inventories, potential releases, and dose commitments of the principal airborne wastes from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. In Section 3, dose commitments, technologies, costs, regulations, and waste management criteria are analyzed. Section 4 defines goals and objectives for airborne waste management

  13. Biomass selection for biosorption study of 226 Ra and 137 Cd radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wilson Cervi da

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to verify the potentialities to apply the biosorption technique to synthetic and real solution containing 226 Ra and 137 Cs, utilizing the seaweed Sargassum sp. and the microorganisms Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Monoraphidium sp. Indeed, the screening of the most effective biomass to remove the radionuclides was also a central objective. 226 Ra was selected due to its high radiotoxicity and the fact that it can be assimilated and incorporated by living organism through substitution og Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , two essential nutrients. On the other hand, the selection of 137 Cs, a radionuclide of medium toxicity, was due to its mobility in the environment, which increases the possibility to be assimilated by the organisms as the essential nutrients Na + and K + . (author)

  14. Selection of dominant radionuclides for Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions from nuclear operations at Hanford since their inception in 1944. A vital step in the estimation of radiation doses is the determination of the source term,'' that is, the quantities of radionuclides that were released to the environment from the various Hanford operations. Hanford operations have at various times involved hundreds of different radionuclides, some in relatively large quantities. Those radionuclides present in the largest quantities, although significant from an operational handling point of view, may not necessarily have been those of greatest concern for offsite radiation dose. This report documents the selection of the dominant radionuclides (those that may have resulted in the largest portion of the received doses) in the source term for Phase 1 of the HEDR Project, that is, for atmospheric releases from 1944 through 1947 and for surface water releases from 1964 through 1966. 15 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Volatility of ruthenium-106, technetium-99, and iodine-129, and the evolution of nitrogen oxide compounds during the calcination of high-level, radioactive nitric acid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimshaw, S.J.; Case, F.N.; Tompkins, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The nitrate anion is the predominant constituent in all high-level nuclear wastes. Formic acid reacts with the nitrate anion to yield noncondensable, inert gases (N 2 or N 2 O), which can be scrubbed free of 106 Ru, 129 I, and 99 Tc radioactivities prior to elimination from the plant by passing through HEPA filters. Treatment of a high-level authentic radioactive waste with two moles of formic acid per mole of nitrate anion leads to a low RuO 4 volatility of about 0.1%, which can be reduced to an even lower level of 0.007% on adding a 15% excess of formic acid. Without pretreatment of the nitrate waste with formic acid, a high RuO 4 volatility of approx. 35% is observed on calcining a 4.0 N HNO 3 solution in quartz equipment at 350 0 C. The RuO 4 volatility falls to approx. 1.0% on decreasing the initial HNO 3 concentration to 1.0 N or lower. It is postulated that thermal denitration of a highly nitrated ruthenium complex leads to the formation of volatile RuO 4 , while decarboxylation of a ruthenium-formate complex leads to the formation of nonvolatile RuO 2 . Wet scrubbing with water is used to remove RuO 4 from the off-gas stream. In all glass equipment, small amounts of particulate RuO 2 are formed in the gas phase by decomposition of RuO 4 . The 99 Tc volatility was found to vary from 0.2 to 1.4% on calcining HNO 3 and HCOOH (formic acid) solutions over the temperature range of 250 to 600 0 C. These unexpectedly low volatilities of 99 Tc are correlated to the high thermal stability limits of various metal pertechnetates and technetates. Iodine volatilities were high, varying from a low of 30% at 350 0 C to a high of 97% at 650 0 C. It is concluded that with a proper selection of pretreatment and operating conditions the 106 Ru and 99 Tc activities can be retained in the calcined solid with recycle of the wet scrubbing solution

  16. The determination of iodine 129 in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, Roger; Cappellini, Liliane; Goujon de Beauvivier, Michel; Jeanmaire, Lucien; Patti, Francois.

    1975-08-01

    Activation analysis was used for the determination of 129 I in thyroids. Iodine is first extracted from the thyroid and irradiated as lead iodate, thus giving enough sensitivity and making it possible to use common laboratory material. The results showed that the present activity levels in France are between 1 and 50 pCi per gram of iodine; the values found in Argentina are clearly lower [fr

  17. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  18. Investigation of the radioecology of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods for I-129 were developed for different sample materials. - The behaviour of I-129 in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant and its release was completely investigated. - A longterm risk for the population caused by I-129 is not excpected. An existing environmental contamination with I-129 is reduced by a half-life of 0,3 y. The exposure of the population via the pasture-cow-milk path until now was overstimated at least by a factor 45. - In the environmental air of Kiel, Stade, Karlsruhe, Gundremmingen and Munich elemental iodine and iodine aerosols were measured. In the environmental air of Karlsruhe CH 3 127 I was determined. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are 35 S, 36 Cl, 45 Ca, 67 Ga, 75 Se, 85 Sr, 109 Cd, 113 Sn, 125 I, 133 Ba, 170 Tm, 169 Yb, 182 Ta, 192 Ir, 198 Au, 201 Tl, 204 Tl, and 236 Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine

  20. Absorption of selected radionuclides. Analysis of a literature study. Resorption ausgewaehlter Radionuklide. Analyse einer Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedler, H D; Kraus, H M

    1979-12-01

    In October 1978, the Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg e.V. published a contribution to part 26 of the model study of radio-ecology at Biblis under the title 'Estimation of the absorption of radionuclides from the gastrointestinal tract in the blood'. Using the example of this contribution, a critical analysis is made to show how a selection of the information contained in various scientific publications and other items of literature can give uncritical readers the impression that all statements made are scientifically well founded.

  1. Evaluation of selected predictive models and parameters for the environmental transport and dosimetry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Etnier, E.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Little, C.A.; Meyer, H.R.; Shaeffer, D.L.; Till, J.E.

    1979-07-01

    Evaluations of selected predictive models and parameters used in the assessment of the environmental transport and dosimetry of radionuclides are summarized. Mator sections of this report include a validation of the Gaussian plume disperson model, comparison of the output of a model for the transport of 131 I from vegetation to milk with field data, validation of a model for the fraction of aerosols intercepted by vegetation, an evaluation of dose conversion factors for 232 Th, an evaluation of considering the effect of age dependency on population dose estimates, and a summary of validation results for hydrologic transport models

  2. Release of iodine radionuclides from gas media in a system of selective block sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Miroshnikov, V.S.; Mel'nikov, V.A.; Chetverikov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme of extracting iodine radionuclides from gas flows in a system of selective sorbents has been developed. The method provides separation of three forms of iodine: the aerosol component, the elementary iodine and organic-iodine compounds. Aerosols are trapped by a mechanical filter made of porous polytetrafluoroethylene with pores of no more than 1 μm. Silver-based sorbents for the elementary iodine are made by sintering the granular polytetrafluoroethylene (the size of granules is 0.1-0.5 mm) with of finely dispersed solver (5% mass). Organic iodine compounds are extracted by a silica sorbent impregnated with silver nitrate. The efficiency of sorbents was tested in gas flows with a known content of 131 I in the form of elementary iodine and methyl iodide. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of sorption of elementary iodine by a metallic-silver sorbent and of methyl iodide by a SiO 2 /AgNO 3 sorbent constitutes no less than 99% at a flow rate of up to 200 l/h. The iodine has been extracted at a flow rate of 100 l/h during 100 hours and for that time the efficiency of the iodine sorbtion has not changed. The suggested variant of extracting iodine radionuclides from gaseous media can be used both for fast control of iodine content in gas blowoffs and for researches aimed at studying the distribution of iodine forms in steam-and-gas media depending on nuclear plant operating conditions

  3. Vertical and horizontal fluxes of selected radionuclides and trace metals off the coast of southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, C.-A.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of our research, within the structure of the CaBS program, is to understand the transport pathways and mass balances of some metabolically-active and inactive chemical species in the Santa Monica/San Pedro (SM/SP) Basin. Our focus is to examine selected trace metals and radionuclides in seawater, sediment trap material, and bottom sediments. Knowledge of the inventories, fluxes, and routes of these nuclides and metals in or among these reservoirs should lead to a cogent model for these elements in SM/SP Basin, which in turn should shed light on the fate and effects of energy-related by-products in a coastal region impacted by intense human activities. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide transfer coefficients. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives are to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef and chicken of four radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either indetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides are 99 Mo, 99 Tc, 140 Ba, and 131 Te. The transfer coefficient for 133 I to eggs was also determined, because again only limited data was available in the literature

  5. Natural radionuclides in select matrices of terrestrial food chain around Kudankulam nuclear power station, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E.M.; Wesley, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Natural radionuclides entering the food chain are mostly derived from the soil. There is a variation in soil radionuclide content in different geographic regions. Uptake of radionuclides by plants also varies from species to species and depends on many factors. Human food and animal feed derived from such regions may have varying levels of radionuclides. Intake of food/feed will be reflected in the next consumer level of the food chain. Such studies are essential around a nuclear power plant where there can be exposure from natural as well as artificial radionuclides. In this study an effort was taken to study the intake and excretion of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels along the soil-grass-cow pathway

  6. Internal Dosimetry Monitoring- Detection Limits for a Selected Set of Radionuclides and Their Translation Into Committed Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.

    2004-01-01

    To harmonize the practice of internal dosimetry monitoring across the country, the Austrian Standards Institute is currently drafting a new set of standards which are concerned with occupational incorporation monitoring of individuals handling non-sealed radioactive material. This set of standards is expected to consist of three parts discussing the general necessity and frequency, the requirements for monitoring institutions, and the determination and rigorous calculation of committed effective dose after incorporation of radioactive material, respectively. Considerations of the requirements for routine monitoring laboratories have led to an evaluation of the detection limits for routine monitoring equipment. For a selected set of radionuclides, these detection limits are investigated in detail. The main emphasis is placed on the decay chains of naturally occurring radionuclides showing some significant potential for being out of equilibrium due to chemical processes in certain mining industries. The radionuclides considered in this paper are 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, and 238U. Given the routine monitoring intervals of the Austrian Standard, these detection limits are translated into information on committed effective dose. This paper investigates whether routine monitoring equipment is sufficient to ensure compliance with EC directive 96/29/Euratom for this selected set of radionuclides. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ''natural'' monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ''cryptogams'' describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants

  8. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  9. NKS NordRisk. Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2008-07-01

    Within the NKS NordRisk project, 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe', the NKS NordRisk Atlas has been developed. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected nuclear risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere. A number of case studies of long-term long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides has been developed, based on two years of meteorological data. Radionuclide concentrations in air and radionuclide depositions have been evaluated and examples of long-term averages of the dispersion and deposition and of the variability around these mean values are provided. (au)

  10. NKS NordRisk. Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havskov Soerensen, J.; Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A. (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, Torben (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    Within the NKS NordRisk project, 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe', the NKS NordRisk Atlas has been developed. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected nuclear risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere. A number of case studies of long-term long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides has been developed, based on two years of meteorological data. Radionuclide concentrations in air and radionuclide depositions have been evaluated and examples of long-term averages of the dispersion and deposition and of the variability around these mean values are provided. (au)

  11. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Grolander, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  12. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  13. Cation-selective extraction column study for the conception of nuclear medical radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streng, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the present work is the conception of a Yttrium-90 radionuclide generator for nuclear medicine applications. Due to its physical properties Yttrium-90 is considered as one of the most useful nuclides for radiotherapeutic cancer treatment. The parent nuclide Strontium-90 is gained during reprocessing of fission products. Thus, the sustained availability of large quantities of Yttrium-90 is limited to a number of research facilities. A radionuclide generator provides an independent Yttrium-90 source and enhances the capacities for radiopharmaceutical research and biomedical applications. The present work focussed on the identification of appropriate column materials for the separation of Strontium and Yttrium. The results for two materials are reported: AnaLig registered Sr-01 and crystalline antimonic acid. Based on the mode of operation of the Technetium-99m generator the aim was to enable the construction of a compact, enclosed apparatus. The projected device comprises a reservoir for the eluant, the ion-exchange column, pipings and radiation shielding. Elution of Yttrium-90 could then be easily performed by connecting evacuated vials to the outlet tube. The prospected concept involves physical and chemical confinements that exclude most of the known processes for Strontium-Yttrium separation. For example no ligands, no oxidizing reactants (e.g. nitric acid) and no organic solvents are to be used, but small volumes of isotonic or buffer solutions and dilute acids respectively. AnaLig registered Sr-01 is a commercially available resin used in extraction chromatography. Its high selectivity for Strontium cations results from the strictly defined cavity of the imbedded cryptand. Determination of weight distribution coefficients, elution studies and pre-generator experiments were carried out. Quantitative separation of Yttrium from Strontium and Zirconium is possible using small volumes of 0,05 M hydrochloric acid as eluant. Furthermore, high flow rates

  14. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  15. Emergency Response Proficiency Test for Japanese Laboratories: Determination of Selected Radionuclides in Water, Soil, Vegetation and Aerosol Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary for compliance with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness in this regard by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, rapid and consistent worldwide response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. In addition, the IAEA coordinates the worldwide network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA). After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, Japan requested the IAEA to organize an emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories with the aim of assessing their capacity to rapidly and accurately measure radionuclides in environmental samples. The IAEA responded to the request by assembling a special sample set covering the main environmental samples and radionuclides of interest in the case of a nuclear emergency situation. Water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filter samples were made available to Japanese laboratories for analysis by gamma ray spectrometry. This report presents the results of the IAEA-TEL-2011-08 emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories on the determination of selected radionuclides in water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filters. The report includes descriptions of the methodologies and data evaluation approach used, as well as summary evaluations of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports of each laboratory. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in their efforts to improve the quality of

  16. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  17. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  18. Selected natural and fallout radionuclides in plant foods around the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E Mahiban; Raj, Y Lenin; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of certain radionuclides were quantified in some plant foods cultivated around Kudankulam, where a mega-nuclear power plant is being established. The activity concentrations were found more in the 'pulses' group and were the lowest in 'other vegetable' category. The annual effective dose was computed based on the activity concentration of radionuclides and it was found to be higher due to the consumption of cereals and pulses. Other vegetables, cereals, pulses and nuts recorded high transfer factors for the radionuclide (228)Ra. Fruits, leafy vegetables, tubers and roots, and palm embryo registered high transfer factors for (226)Ra. Group-wise activity concentration, radiation dose to the public and soil-plant-to-transfer factor are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosphere transport of radionuclides. First modelling by using a selected example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundi, A.

    1984-12-01

    The dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and their uptake by man via various nutritional pathways is studied using a compartment model. The sample environment is the area of the lower Limmat and Aare valleys. General considerations of the compartmental description of the biosphere are made. The problem of the description of surface features, in particular soil, sediment and water, is studied in detail using the code BIOPATH. This study is intended to be an example of how a model of the biosphere could be constructed. It is shown that this is a reasonable model to calculate the spreading of radionuclides in the biosphere and that it indicates the relative significance of individual compartments, pathways and radionuclides. Calculated values of doses to man, however, should not be used as reference data for safety analyses. (author)

  20. Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include 14 C, 60 Cl, 59,63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include 7,10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 93 Mo, 109,113m Cd, and 121m,126 Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations

  1. Short description of the BIOS-model, and selection of biosphere parameters to be used in radionuclide transport and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, E.J. de; Koester, H.W.; Vries, W.J. de.

    1990-02-01

    In the framework of the PACOMA-project (Performance assessment of confinements for medium and alpha waste), initiated by the European Commission, possible future radiation doses, due to contamination of the biosphere by radionuclides originating from radioactive waste disposed in salt-formations, were calculated. In all cases considered radionuclides coming out of the geosphere enter a river. For the biosphere calculations the BIOS-model, developed by the NRPB in England, is used. A short description of the model, as well as of the adjustments made at the RIVM to calculate the total individual and collective doses and the subdoses of different exposure pathways is given. The values of biosphere parameters selected for the model are presented, together with the literature consulted. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Assessment of fetal activity concentration and fetal dose for selected radionuclides based on animal and human data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Biokinetic data of selected radionuclide compounds from investigations in man and animal were taken from literature references with the purpose to provide a basis for a comparative assessment of fetal and adult radiation doses after intake or administration of radionuclides. The following ratios of fetal to adult doses were derived from human data: 0.5 for caesium 137 and total body, 2.3 for iron 59 and liver, 0.06 - 0.3 - 1.1 for iodine 131 and thyroid, and 0.1 - 0.3 for strontium 90 and bone. The ratios of activity concentrations in fetal and adult tissues are of considerable variability - up to three orders of magnitude. Further studies on fetal and adult biokinetics specifically designed for comparative dose assessment are indispensable. 106 refs.; 6 tabs

  3. Selected natural and fallout radionuclides in plant foods around the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E. Mahiban; Raj, Y. Lenin; Wesley, S. Godwin; Rajan, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of certain radionuclides were quantified in some plant foods cultivated around Kudankulam, where a mega-nuclear power plant is being established. The activity concentrations were found more in the ‘pulses’ group and were the lowest in ‘other vegetable’ category. The annual effective dose was computed based on the activity concentration of radionuclides and it was found to be higher due to the consumption of cereals and pulses. Other vegetables, cereals, pulses and nuts recorded high transfer factors for the radionuclide 228 Ra. Fruits, leafy vegetables, tubers and roots, and palm embryo registered high transfer factors for 226 Ra. Group-wise activity concentration, radiation dose to the public and soil-plant-to-transfer factor are discussed in detail. Highlights: ► Fallout radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) were below the limit of detection. ► 228 Ra activities were higher than 226 Ra activity concentrations. ► ‘Pulses’ group (leguminous grains) was the highest accumulator of radium nuclides. ► 228 Ra transfer factor was higher in few groups while 226 Ra was higher in others.

  4. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  5. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra), radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and potassium-40 ( 40 K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H in ), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  6. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural radionuclides (226Ra and 40K) in selected Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Phonchanthuek, Endu; Prasandee, Kamonkhuan

    2018-04-01

    A soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is an important parameter that could be used to estimate radionuclides levels in medicinal plants. This work reports concentrations of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) and TFs in six Thai medicinal plants grown in central Thailand using an HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. Either root, leaf, or flower parts of each medicinal plant were selected for use in the investigation according to their practical uses in traditional medicine. The results showed that due to K being essential in plants, 40 K had higher arithmetic means of activity concentrations and geometric means of TFs (geometric standard deviations in parentheses) of 610 ± 260 Bq kg -1 dry weight (DW) and 2.0 (1.4), respectively, than 226 Ra, which had the activity concentrations and TFs of 4.8 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 DW and 0.17 (1.8), respectively. The results also showed that the leaves of medicinal plants had higher activity concentrations and TFs than root and flower parts, probably due to higher metabolic activities in leaves. Furthermore, there was good agreement between the results from the current work and other similar reports on medicinal plants. The information obtained from this work could strengthen knowledge of natural radionuclides in plants and particularly increase available TF data on Thai medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategy for a consistent selection of radionuclide migration parameters for the Belgian safety and feasibility case-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Salah, S.; Brassinnes, S.; Van Geet, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the strategy for the selection of retention and migration parameters for safety-relevant nuclides that was developed in the framework of the Belgian Safety and Feasibility Case SFC-1. A geochemical database containing state-of-the-art retention and migration parameters of all safety-relevant radionuclides, is ideally based on a thermodynamic understanding and an ability to accurately describe the geochemical and transport behaviour of all these radionuclides under the geochemical conditions that are considered for a reference host formation. In Belgium, this reference formation is Boom Clay. The parameters will be used in Performance Assessment (PA) calculations, and therefore must also be adapted to PA models. Since these models currently use only a four parameters for every radionuclide, the whole geochemical and transport behaviour must be comprised to a very limited parameter set that describe on the one hand chemical retention within the Boom Clay formation, and on the other hand transport through the Boom Clay formation. Chemical retention considers two concepts: 1) a concentration limit (S), which represents the mobile concentration of a nuclide present in the aqueous phase under undisturbed far field Boom Clay conditions; 2) a retardation (R/Kd) factor, which represents the uptake of a mobile nuclide by the inorganic and organic phases present in the Boom Clay formation. For mobility/migration two additional concepts are introduced: 3) the diffusion accessible porosity (η), which is the total physical space available for transport of a nuclide. The maximum value of η is limited by the water content of the formation; 4) the pore diffusion coefficient (Dp), which represents the transport velocity of a nuclide in a diffusion-dominated system. Within the framework of SFC-1, primary focus is laid on the compilation of parameter ranges, instead of individual &apos

  8. Radionuclide content of selected root vegetables as influenced by culinary preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Doswell, A.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    A greenhouse study involving root vegetables (carrot, red beet, and turnips) was conducted primarily to evaluate the effect of culinary processing (light washing, scrubbing, and peeling) on the radionuclide content of the edible portions. In terms of concentration ratio of the radionuclides left in roots after peeling, the trend follows: 90 Sr> 137 Cs>> 234 U congruent with 238 U≥ 238 Pu. The actinide contents in the roots were apparently due to surface adherence of the contaminated soil particulates as indicated by the diminution of the contents upon brushing the surface, which were further decreased by peeling the skin. Rigorous culinary processing of roots, such as scrubbing or peeling, could substantially diminish the contents of the actinides, but not of the more mobile 90 Sr and 137 Cs

  9. Radionuclide content of selected root vegetables as influenced by culinary preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriano, D.C.; Doswell, A.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W

    2000-07-01

    A greenhouse study involving root vegetables (carrot, red beet, and turnips) was conducted primarily to evaluate the effect of culinary processing (light washing, scrubbing, and peeling) on the radionuclide content of the edible portions. In terms of concentration ratio of the radionuclides left in roots after peeling, the trend follows: {sup 90}Sr>{sup 137}Cs>>{sup 234}U congruent with {sup 238}U{>=}{sup 238}Pu. The actinide contents in the roots were apparently due to surface adherence of the contaminated soil particulates as indicated by the diminution of the contents upon brushing the surface, which were further decreased by peeling the skin. Rigorous culinary processing of roots, such as scrubbing or peeling, could substantially diminish the contents of the actinides, but not of the more mobile {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs.

  10. Distribution of selected natural radionuclides in soil of the district Ziar nad Hronom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Slovakia like a part of a difficult geological structure of the Western Carpathians is a typical place with a different field of radioactivity. The district Ziar nad Hronom belongs to regions which are characteristic by their high values of radioactivity in comparison with Slovakia. It is due to a geological background which is mostly compound from neovulcanites. In this area were measurement concentrations of uranium-238, thorium- 232 and potassium-40. Consequently, these values were shown by maps which reflect distribution of chosen radionuclides. Sequential research was focus on demographic processing. There turned out that in this area is increased number of deaths in particular due to malignancies. This fact can be affected by natural radionuclides which exist in this area. (authors)

  11. Measurement of sorption ratios for selected radionuclides on various geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.; Coles, D.G.; Weed, H.C.

    1978-09-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine the sorptive characteristics of a variety of rocks and minerals with respect to several radionuclides of interest. This information will be used in the determination of the rates of radionuclide migration from nuclear waste repositories. The R/sub d/ values can be arranged according to the following inequalities: Pu greater than Cs, except for biotite; Cs greater than Sr, except for limestone; Sr greater than Tc. The exceptions are considered significant for Pu vs Cs on biotite, but not for Cs vs Sr on limestone. The low R/sub d/ values for Tc indicate that within the limits of measurement it is not sorbed under the experimental conditions studied

  12. Total Inventory of Selected Radionuclides in Old Solvent Tanks S1 Through S22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The total inventory of fourteen radionuclides, three metals, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been calculated for the twenty-two Old Solvent Tanks (OSTs). The inventory calculations are based upon extensive characterization data of the multiple liquid and sludge samples taken from the OSTs. In addition, the total inventory of sixteen actinides (including error) has been calculated. The actinide inventory will be useful for criticality safety considerations

  13. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  14. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well

  15. The management of carbon-14 and iodine-129 wastes - a site specific survey of current and future arisings, possible management options and potential impact with respect to the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, A.

    1988-06-01

    Part 1 - A site-specific survey, by the Harwell Laboratory, of current and future gaseous, liquid and solid arisings of 14 C and 129 I at UK nuclear installations, is presented in the form of tables and maps. In the tables the arisings are characterised in terms of quantity, activity and accompanying radionuclides. Management options discussed are: dispersal in the environment; capture and retention of arisings from power stations, reprocessing plants, and industrial sites producing pharmaceuticals and research materials; direct disposal of unprocessed spent fuel elements in an underground repository. Comparative costings of the various options are given. Part 2 - The information in part 1 is used by the National Radiological Protection Board as the basis for an examination of the effects that various management options would have on the radiological impact of 14 C and 129 I on the public. Comparison is made between different types of discharge, and disposal as a solid waste to various kinds of repository, in terms of their health detriment costs. Emphasis is placed on illustrating the use of a decision analysis methodology for assessment of the different waste management strategies. (author)

  16. The study of selective accumulation of radionuclides cesium 137, strontium 90 and cerium 144 in the cellular compartments of charophyta algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Moteyunene, E.B.; Gudavichene, N.A.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    The study of the accumulation of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 144 Ce in separate compartments of Chara algae (cellular wall, protoplasm, vacuoles), testifies to the fact that the entrance and accumulation level of the radionuclides depend upon the selective permeability of the cellular wall and plasmalemma, which is regulated both by the ratio of the chemical analogues of the radionuclides in the medium, and by the level of cellular metabolism [fr

  17. Selected radionuclides. Tritium, carbon-14, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine, caesium 137, radon, plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The release of radioactive materials to the environment potentially exposes populations to ionizing radiation and increases the risk of incurring deleterious health effects. The associations of released amounts to effects establish the health criteria for radionuclides. This report provides background information in establishing such health criteria for 14 C, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, Radon, Plutonium, Iodine and Tritium, including environmental behaviour, sources, transport to man and dosimetry. A brief summary of the general aspects of radiation effects and of radiation protection considerations is presented

  18. Radionuclide movement in soils and uptake by plants. A selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Talmage, S.S.; McMullin, B.B.

    1975-08-01

    This bibliography covers the world literature from 1948 to 1975 and contains 1397 references to information on how various chemical, physical, and biological factors influence the movement of radionuclides in soil and uptake by plants. Much of the data is related to the major fission products in radioactive fallout, with emphasis on 137 Cs and 90 Sr. References are included to data on nearly all fission products, a large number of biologically important activation products, and various naturally occurring radioactive nuclides such as uranium and thorium. Subject, author, geographic location, taxon, and permuted title indexes are included. (U.S.)

  19. Dynamic sorption data of selected radionuclides in sediment-water-systems from the Gorleben region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 48 sediment-water-systems from the Gorleben region about 300 continuous-flow-column experiments were performed with 10 radionuclides. To simulate conditions as close as possible to natural ones (as regards the bedding of sediments, speed of filtration, environment, and microbiology - if necessary) for the sediment-groundwater-systems, the ranges of retardation factors for fresh, mixed and salt water systems were specified. For the investigated sand-water-systems, a comparison of the results obtained from continuous-flow-column and batch experiments for 85Sr and 134Cs was made. (orig.) [de

  20. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  1. The activity of selected gamma radionuclides in the Tatra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubica Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesium is naturally occurring active metal, represented by one stable isotope 133Cs, and number of artificial, unstable, isotopes. The most common artificial isotope of cesium is 137Cs, present in the environment of the Tatra Mountains due to nuclear weapon testing in late `50, and nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl in 1986. However in recent years the growth in biofuels use for power generation can be the next source of 137Cs emission. Burning wood cultivated on grounds contaminated by 137Cs can introduce secondary emission of this isotope to the atmosphere.This paper presents the results of determination of gamma emitting radionuclides artificial 137Cs and natural 40K in soil samples from the Tatra Mountains. Results show some differences in the vertical distribution of examined radionuclides. It was found that the change of activity of 137Cs in the soil samples depends mostly on the soil density and on the concentration of organic material. The state of “zero” 137Cs activity was developed in the form of maps.

  2. Half-lives for selected actinides and long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    Long-lived actinide nuclides are of interest for their use in nuclear reactors, for nuclear reactor burnup studies in waste management, and for safeguard applications, e.g., α counting is used to determine the amount of material present. Some long-lived radionuclides are of interest for their use in determining geological ages using various dating methods, and in calculating the cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites. Recommended values are presented for both the total half-life and for the spontaneous fission half-life of /sup 232-236,238/U, of /sup 236,238-242,244/Pu, of /sup 241,242m,243/Am, and of /sup 242-248,250/Cm. Problems with the presentation of uncertainties are discussed. The impact of the revised 14 C half-life on the carbon dating technique and various 14 C ages is discussed. The possible primordial occurrence of 92 Nb is now definitely ruled out. Based on examination of the 26 Al half-life, the calculated value for the cosmic-ray exposure age of meteorites remains too high compared to the age calculated using other radionuclide half-life values. 204 Pb, which was once thought to be radioactive, is shown to be stable. 37 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.

    1980-04-01

    The programme carried out critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides ( 60 Co, 63 Ni, 59 Fe, 54 Mn, sup(110m)Ag, 106 Ru and 144 Ce) and assessed population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The following topics are covered under the programme. (i) Demographic study of dietary habits and consumption data for Tarapur population. (ii) Concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in food products. (iii) Determination of radionuclides in sea water, silt, marine algae and marine organisms at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) Site. (iv) Behaviour of radionuclides released to marine environment. (v) Evaluation of critical exposure pathway. (vi) Population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station

  4. Integrated report on radionuclide migration at the Savannah River shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    The impact of the SRP Solid Radioactive Waste Burial Ground on the environment has been studied since the early 1970s in four subtasks: subsurface monitoring of groundwater, lysimeter tests of waste, soil-water chemistry effects, and radionuclide transport modeling. This document summarizes and integrates the results of the four subtasks. More information has been gathered on the behavior of radionuclides in a solid waste disposal facility located in a humid region than from any other waste disposal site in the world. The design of closure for the SRP Burial Ground has been given a firm technical basis. The limiting pathways for radionuclide migration have been determined to be infiltrating rainwater and root penetration. Closure designs must therefore address both these factors. The designs for new storage/disposal facilities have also been given a firm technical basis. The major conclusions are that tritium will be stored for decay and not allowed to contact the groundwater, waste containing long-lived radionuclides such as iodine-129 must be stored for later geologic disposal, and above and below ground concrete vaults should be used for disposal of other low-level radioactive waste. 61 refs., 18 figs. 8 tabs

  5. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in selected rocks from Hetaunda area, Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallova, G.

    2010-01-01

    The specific activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K were measured in rock samples from the Hetaunda area, central Nepal, by using gamma spectrometry. The specific activities were found to be in the range of 17 - 95 Bq.kg -1 for 238 U, 24 - 260 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th and 32 - 541 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. From these data absorbed dose rates in air and annual effective doses were calculated and compared with respective data from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) compilation. The results from our study open the door to the safe applicability of most of the investigated materials as a cheep building material. (author)

  6. Industrial constraints in the selection of radionuclides and the development of new radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    During the past twenty years, the number of new radiolabeled molecules that have been published weekly in specialized nuclear medicine journals is quite amazing. On the other hand, one can only be astonished when it is compared to the number of new radiopharmaceuticals that came on the market during the same period. A good science is not sufficient to transform a molecule in a marketed drug. The budget required to demonstrate with a larger number of patients the value of the molecule linked to a limited market potential discourages investors to enter in this area. In fact, there are a series of other limitations and constraints that have to be taken into account before deciding to start clinical trials. This paper tries to identify all the difficulties that are encountered by radiopharmaceutical industries. They include the choice of the best but not necessary ideal radionuclide, the analysis of the market viability in the frame of the overall competition, the increasing safety constraints when working with multi-doses, the investment in usually non existing manufacturing tools for a worldwide access to the new drug, as well as the limiting regulatory aspects with yearly increasing constraints. Unfortunately it must be noted that each of these criteria is mainly driven by financial parameters and an expectation of a certain return on investment. This analysis can help research centers to better control and orient their programs and to explain the reasons of the lack of interest by industry for some even a priori interesting molecules, targets, radionuclides or indications. (author)

  7. Estimates of external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors for selected radionuclides released from fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    This report provides a tabulation of both external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors using radioactive decay data in the updated Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for selected 26 radionuclides and all their daughter radionuclides of potential importance in safety assessments of fusion facilities. The external dose-rate conversion factors for 21 target organs are tabulated for three exposure modes that are immersion in contaminated air, irradiation at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface and immersion contaminated water. For internal exposure, committed dose equivalents, based on the methodology of ICRP Publication 30, in the same target organs per intake of unit activity are given for the inhalation and ingestion exposure pathways. The data presented here is intended to be generally used for safety assessments of fusion reactors. Comparisons of external effective dose-rate conversion factors and committed effective dose equivalents are made with the previous data from the independent data bases to provide quality assurance on our calculated results. There is generally good agreement among data from the independent data bases. The differences in the values of both effective dose-rate and dose conversion factors appeared are primarily due to differences in calculational methodology, the use of different radioactive decay data, and compilation errors. (author)

  8. Natural and artificial radionuclides in selected Styrian soils and plants before and after the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, G; Gries, A [Graz Univ. (Austria); Mueller, H J; Oswald, K [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Reaktorphysik

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on natural radioactivity due to the uptake of {sup 40}K and the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. Selected examples show the concentrations of radionuclides in soils, lower and higher plants before and after the Chernobyl accident. The changes in the amount of radioactivity which have occurred during the vegetation periods of 1987 and 1988 have been investigated. It is also demonstrated how the conditions have changed in the following two periods of growth. In leaves of deciduous trees which were directly contaminated in 1986 natural radioactivity is sometimes higher than artificial one today. This has not been observed in conifers, because the needles contaminated in 1986 have not yet been shed. The {sup 137}Cs activity in mosses and lichens has hardly decreased. It is therefore possible to produce autoradiographs at the Styrian test site locations. Within the same genus of fungi, Cs-discriminating and Cs-accumulating species have been noted. In the latter, radioactivity has probably increased since 1986. (author).

  9. S values for selected radionuclides and organs with the heart wall and heart contents as source organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.L.; Watson, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The generalized heart model of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, Revised has no separation of heart wall from heart contents, and no phi values were listed for heart as either a source or target organ. Because of this, the heart model of the heterogeneous phantom for dosimetry calculations was revised and a description of this model and specific absorbed fractions will be published in MIRD Pamphlet No. 13. The purpose of this study is to use the specific absorbed fractions from MIRD-13 and decay scheme data to produce tables of S values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) for selected radionuclides with the heart wall and heart contents as the source organs. As in the MIRD reports the activity is assumed to be uniformly distributed in the source organs. The phi values for the photon energies of a given radionuclide were found by lineraly interpolating between the energies listed in MIRD-13. When the source and target are the same, all nonpenetrating radiations are assumed to be absorbed in the organ in which they originate. For organs with walls and with the contents as the source, the dose to the wall from nonpenetrating radiations is assumed to be half of the dose to the contents

  10. Selection of critical group in relation to the release of radionuclides from nuclear spent fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In respect of internal radiation due to the coastal release of radionuclides, survey on marine food consumption is most useful for the selection of critical group. Species of marine organisms they usually eat is fully over 100 in the coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture where the fuel reprocessing plant is located. Though it gives only a spot datum, one day's consumption survey a season is of convenience to obtain cooperation from housewives and is of use to pick up critical organisms and those who eat much of them. However, long-term survey is required to estimate ordinary intake of the critical foods or those who are supposed critical people. One day's consumption survey makes it easy to perform the subsequent long-term one

  11. An independent method for data selection of long-life radionuclides (actinides and fission products) in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, M.; Merceron, T.

    1994-01-01

    An independent method for data selection of long-life radio-nuclides based on the electronegativity equalization principle is proposed to predict the speciation of metal cations as a function of the solution pH. Hydrolysis, condensation and complexation reactions of metal cations in aqueous media are, by this simple model, unified and can be analyzed in terms of electronegativities, oxidation states and coordination numbers with a specific PC software. This paper describes the thermodynamical basis and the underlying concepts of the model in relation to aqueous actinide chemistry of elements such as U and Tc. It is then shown that the model could provide a complementary approach to existing softwares based on thermodynamic data bases allowing to make intelligent and reasonnable choices for the various complexes to consider in complex geochemical codes. (orig.)

  12. Concentrations of radionuclides and selected stable elements in fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two types of fruits and vegetables collected from two commercial supermarkets have been analyzed for their radionuclidic and stable-element composition. A specific gamma-emitting isotope analysis was performed on each sample for 40 K, 60 Co, 95 Zr-Nb, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 232 Th. The concentration of the stable elements in each sample were determined using multi-element neutron-activation analysis (Al, Ag, Au, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mn, Mo, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, Zn, Zr) and atomic absorption (Cd, Ni, Pb). Information on the composition of a typical diet is used to estimate the radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fruits and vegetables. The stable-elemental compositions of the foodstuffs analyzed were compared with estimated values assuming foliar deposition and long-term buildup of effluents from a large modern coal-fired steam plant. It is tentatively concluded that for the general case of a precipitator-equipped, coal-fired steam plant, no toxic levels of trace elements in foodstuffs are expected as a result of the plant operation

  13. Isotopically selective RIMS of rare radionuclides by double-resonance excitation with cw lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushaw, B.A.; Munley, J.T.

    1990-09-01

    Double-resonance, Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) using two single-frequency dye lasers and a CO 2 laser for photoionization has been shown to be both extremely sensitive and highly selective. Measurements on the radioisotope 210 Pb have demonstrated optical selectivity in excess of 10 9 and detection limits of less than 1 femtogram

  14. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  15. Best-basis estimates of solubility of selected radionuclides in sludges in Hanford single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Defined Waste (HDW) model (Rev. 4) (Agnew et al. 1997) projects inventories (as of January 1, 1994) of 46 radionuclides in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. To model the distribution of the 46 radionuclides among the 177 tanks, it was necessary for Agnew et al. to estimate the solubility of each radionuclide in the various waste types originally added to the single-shell tanks. Previous editions of the HDW model used single-point solubility estimates. The work described in this report was undertaken to provide more accurate estimates of the solubility of all 46 radionuclides in the various wastes

  16. Best-basis estimates of solubility of selected radionuclides in sludges in Hanford single-shell tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-02-24

    The Hanford Defined Waste (HDW) model (Rev. 4) (Agnew et al. 1997) projects inventories (as of January 1, 1994) of 46 radionuclides in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. To model the distribution of the 46 radionuclides among the 177 tanks, it was necessary for Agnew et al. to estimate the solubility of each radionuclide in the various waste types originally added to the single-shell tanks. Previous editions of the HDW model used single-point solubility estimates. The work described in this report was undertaken to provide more accurate estimates of the solubility of all 46 radionuclides in the various wastes.

  17. Iodine-129 in aquatic organisms near nuclear fuels processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.G.

    1975-04-01

    Concentrations of 129 I in two aquatic habitats near nuclear fuel processing plants were highest in algae and crustaceans. These two forms may be useful in future monitoring of 129 I. There is some indication of an increase in atom ratios and specific activity in aquatic organisms over that in water and sediments. Additional measurements should be made to verify this conclusion. Efforts should continue to measure the possible long term build-up of 129 I in aquatic environments receiving effluents from fuels reprocessing plants. Even at very low rates of release to the environment, the long physical half-life of 129 I creates the potential for build-up of this nuclide to significant levels. (U.S.)

  18. Translocation of iodine-129 in soil and transfer to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.

    1989-01-01

    The translocation of I-129 in the soil and its long-term transfer from soil to plant have been investigated using an undisturbed soil column and a pasture on a river bank. The I-129 profiles in the soils of the monolith and the pasture exhibit clear differences in the distribution of radioiodine after 52 and 47 months, respectively. At those times after surface contamination of both soil types 88% (monolith) and 66% (pasture) of the total I-129 activity were found in the top soil layer of 10 cm, indicating that translocation in the pasture soil is faster than in the monolith. Apart from soil-specific parameters this behaviour may be explained by anaerobic conditions created in the soil due to high water levels in the nearby river attecting the chemical form of iodine. The distribution of stable iodine was found rather homogeneous in both soils with mean contents of 3 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in the upper 15 cm and 4 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in deeper layers in case of the monolith. For the pasture soil the corresponding values are about 4 and 5 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. Transfer factors plant/soil (dry weight basis) of I-129 obtained from the monolith 39 g and 52 months after contamination are 1.5x10 -3 and 2.1x10 -3 , respectively. Data from the pasture 35 and 47 months after contamination show values of 9.0x10 -3 and 8.4x10 -3 , respectively. Transfer factors of stable iodine are significantly higher in both soils yielding an average value of 1.0 for the monolith and 0.3 for the pasture. Delay constants (related to a top soil layer of 10 cm) calculated for I-129 using data obtained from the long-term translocation processes to deeper soil layers in the monolith and in the pasture show values of 1x10 -9 s -1 and 4x10 -9 s -1 , respectively. (orig.) [de

  19. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hou, XL.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, SP.; Kučera, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2002), s. 331-343 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : lodine-129 * Baltic sea * neutron activation analysis * seawater Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2002

  20. Determining criteria for the disposal of iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1980-10-01

    The basic consideration in the disposal of the 129 I produced by the nuclear power industry is that humans must be protected from unacceptable radiation risks. Existing standards prescribe maximum concentrations in air and water and, more recently, a maximum release per unit of electrical power production. The global quantity, distribution, and rate of movement of 127 I (natural iodine), naturally produced 129 I, and anthropogenic 129 I are examined. The 129 I released earlier as a result of nuclear activities over the past few decades is not uniformly dispersed. But the possibility of much greater dispersion exists and, therefore, of much greater dilution than was previously attempted. The potential for dilution with respect to either the 129 I concentration or the 129 I/ 127 I ratio far exceeds the minimum required for acceptable exposure to mankind. For utilizing the dilution principle, it is preferable to package and dispose of 129 I separately from other fission products. The deep ocean is seen to be the logical location for ultimate disposal. A set of 14 basic items is described that can be used to set criteria for storage and disposal of 129 I. It is suggested that preliminary standards be developed on these and perhaps other items to apply to (1) temporary storage and transportation, (2) disposal to a dry environment with a time limitation on calculated behavior, and (3) disposal to the deep ocean with complete release permitted in 10 3 yr. Early quantification of some of these items will permit better decisions on further research and development needed for iodine removal or control, fixation, and disposal

  1. Methods of iodine-129 analysis for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Nomura, Tamotsu; Kinoshita, Mutsumi

    1976-01-01

    Some methods for the analysis of I-129 in the environment are described. Iodide ion in seawater is coprecipitated with chloride ion by silver citrate powder, and that in seaweeds and in sediment is sublimated by heating at about 900 0 C in O 2 atmosphere, and then the iodine is trapped in cooled NaOH and NaHSO 3 mixed solution. The trapped iodine is precipitated with AgNO 3 solution for γ-/X-ray spectrometry (detection limit asymptotically equals 30 pCi), or extracted into toluene scintillater solution for liquid scintillation counting. The decomposition of AgI is necessary for low level I-129 measurement; The AgI was transfered in a flask, added with 2N H 2 SO 4 and Zn sand, and decomposed by stirring for 2 hr. Filtered the solution, added 0.5 g of NaNO 2 and toluene scintillater to extract the iodine then added 1 ml of 2-methyl 1-butene to decolorize, the solution is measured by a liquid scintillation counter (detection limit asymptotically equals 1 pCi). This method can be applied for monitoring of low level radioactive water waste. (auth.)

  2. Iodine-129 in human thyroids and seaweed in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of I-129 and the ratios of I-129/I-127 in normal human thyroids collected in Tianjin, China, and some seaweed samples from the Chinese coast were determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean I-129/I-127 ratio in these thyroids was found to be 1.13 x 10(-9), which is two...... orders of magnitude higher than the level of the pre-nuclear era, but one order of magnitude lower than the level in Europe in the post-nuclear era. There is no significant difference between the ratio of I-129/I-127 in the thyroids for the post-nuclear era from China and other areas, which...

  3. The folate receptor as a molecular target for tumor-selective radionuclide delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, C.-Y.; Mathias, Carla J.; Green, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    The cell-membrane folate receptor is a potential molecular target for tumor-selective drug delivery, including radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates for diagnostic imaging. We review here some background on the folate receptor as tumor-associated molecular target for drug delivery, and briefly survey the literature on tumor-targeting with radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates

  4. Anion concurrence and anion selectivity in the sorption of radionuclides by organotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnsen, Julia G.

    2007-01-01

    Some long-lived and radiologically important nuclear fission products, such as I-129 (half-life t 1/2 = 1,6 . 10 7 a), Tc-99 (t 1/2 = 2,1 . 10 5 a), and Se-79 (t 1/2 = 6,5 . 10 4 a) are anionic in aqueous environments. This study focuses on the adsorption of such anions to organoclays and the understanding of the selectivity of the process. The organoclays used in this study were prepared from a bentonite (MX-80) and a vermiculite clay, and the cationic surfactants hexadcylpyridium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium, and benzethonium. Surfactant adsorption to the bentonite exceeds the cation exchange capacity of the clay, with the surplus positive charge being balanced by the co-adsorption of chloride. The interlayer distance of the bentonites is increased sufficiently to contain bi- and pseudotrimolecular structures of the surfactants. Adsorption experiments were carried out using the batch technique. Anion adsorption of iodide, perrhenate, selenite, nitrate, and sulphate is mainly due to ion exchange with chloride. As an additional adsorption mechanism, the incorporation of inorganic ion pairs into the interlayer space of the clay is proposed as a result of experiments showing differences in the adsorption levels of sodium and potassium iodide. Anion adsorption results show a clear selectivity of the organoclays, with the affinity sequence being: ReO - 4 > I - > NO - 3 > Cl - > SO 2- 4 > SeO 2- 3 . This sequence corresponds to the sequence of increasing hydration energies of the anions, thus selectivity could be due to the process of minimization of free energy of the system. (orig.)

  5. Transfer factors of some selected radionuclides (radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn) from soil to leaf vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1995-01-01

    Transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) have been studied by radiotracer experiments using Andosol as a representative of Japanese soils. The transfer factors of radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn for edible parts of vegetables (average of five vegetables) were 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. These values should be used in safety assessment for Japanese agricultural environment. The transfer factors of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The transfer factors of Cs for different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather homogeneous. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, transfer factors of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones. The distribution ratios of the elements between soil-solution and soil were in the order Sr>Mn>Cs>Co>Zn, whereas the distribution ratios of the elements between plant and soil-solution were in the order Zn>Cs>Mn>Co>Sr. These results indicate that the selectivity for Sr by plants from the soil-solution was low and that for Zn was very high. (author)

  6. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  7. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1986-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10 -14 m 2 s -1 for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10 -10 m 2 s - include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO 4 - , iodide, I - , and selenite, SO 3 -2 . Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10 -12 m 2 s -1 . The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere

  8. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid-plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10/sup -14/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/ for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10/sup -10/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/ include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO/sub 4//sup -/, iodide, I/sup -/, and selenite, SeO/sub 3//sup -2/. Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10/sup -12/ m/sup 2/s/sup -1/. The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ocean floor sediment as a repository barrier: comparative diffusion data for selected radionuclides in sediments from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, F.; Sabau, C.; Friedman, A.; Fried, S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective diffusion coefficients for selected radionuclides have been measured in ocean floor sediments to provide data for the assessment of barrier effectiveness in subseabed repositories for nuclear waste. The sediments tested include illite-rich and smectite-rich red clays from the mid-plate gyre region of the Pacific Ocean, reducing sediment from the continental shelf of the northwest coast of North America, and Atlantic Ocean sediments from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain and the Great Meteor East region. Results show extremely small effective diffusion coefficients with values less than 10 -14 m 2 s -1 for plutonium, americium, curium, thorium, and tin. Radionuclides with high diffusion coefficients of approximately 10 -10 m 2 s -1 include the anionic species pertechnetate, TcO 4 - , iodide, I - , and selenite, SeO 3 -2 . Uranyl(VI) and neptunyl(V) ions, which are stable in solution, have diffusion coefficients around 10 -12 m 2 s -1 . The diffusion behavior of most radionuclides is similar in the oxygenated Pacific sediments and in the anoxic sediments from the Atlantic. An exception is neptunium, which is immobilized by Great Meteor East sediment, but has high mobility in Southern Nares Abyssal Plain sediment. Under stagnant conditions a 30 m thick sediment layer forms an effective geologic barrier isolating radionuclides in a subseabed repository from the biosphere. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; )

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products o f the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions

  11. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  12. Technical basis for selecting radionuclide concentrations for use in Hanford tank basis for interim operation source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a radiological source term for waste tanks at the Hanford Site Nuclear Reservation. It describes the methodology used to identify the most important radionuclides, determine appropriate concentrations, and define unit liter doses. An example of how unit liter doses are used is given

  13. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  14. A Generic Procedure for the Assessment of the Effect of Concrete Admixtures on the Sorption of Radionuclides on Cement: Concept and Selected Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaus, M.A.; Laube, A.; Van Loon, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    A screening procedure is proposed for the assessment of the effect of concrete admixtures on the sorption of radionuclides by cement. The procedure is both broad and generic, and can thus be used as input for the assessment of concrete admixtures which might be used in the future. The experimental feasibility and significance of the screening procedure are tested using selected concrete admixtures: i.e. sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates, lignosulfonates, and a plasticiser used at PSI for waste conditioning. The effect of these on the sorption properties of Ni(II), Eu(III) and Th(IV) in cement is investigated using crushed Hardened Cement Paste (HCP), as well as cement pastes prepared in the presence of these admixtures. Strongly adverse effects on the sorption of the radionuclides tested are observed only in single cases, and under extreme conditions: i.e. at high ratios of concrete admixtures to HCP, and at low ratios of HCP to cement pore water. Under realistic conditions, both radionuclide sorption and the sorption of isosaccharinic acid (a strong complexant produced in cement-conditioned wastes containing cellulose) remain unaffected by the presence of concrete admixtures, which can be explained by the sorption of them onto the HCP. The pore-water concentrations of the concrete admixtures tested are thereby reduced to levels at which the formation of radionuclide complexes is no longer of importance. Further, the Langmuir sorption model, proposed for the sorption of concrete admixtures on HCP, suggests that the HCP surface does not become saturated, at least for those concrete admixtures tested. (author)

  15. A Generic Procedure for the Assessment of the Effect of Concrete Admixtures on the Sorption of Radionuclides on Cement: Concept and Selected Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M.A.; Laube, A.; Van Loon, L.R

    2004-03-01

    A screening procedure is proposed for the assessment of the effect of concrete admixtures on the sorption of radionuclides by cement. The procedure is both broad and generic, and can thus be used as input for the assessment of concrete admixtures which might be used in the future. The experimental feasibility and significance of the screening procedure are tested using selected concrete admixtures: i.e. sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates, lignosulfonates, and a plasticiser used at PSI for waste conditioning. The effect of these on the sorption properties of Ni(II), Eu(III) and Th(IV) in cement is investigated using crushed Hardened Cement Paste (HCP), as well as cement pastes prepared in the presence of these admixtures. Strongly adverse effects on the sorption of the radionuclides tested are observed only in single cases, and under extreme conditions: i.e. at high ratios of concrete admixtures to HCP, and at low ratios of HCP to cement pore water. Under realistic conditions, both radionuclide sorption and the sorption of isosaccharinic acid (a strong complexant produced in cement-conditioned wastes containing cellulose) remain unaffected by the presence of concrete admixtures, which can be explained by the sorption of them onto the HCP. The pore-water concentrations of the concrete admixtures tested are thereby reduced to levels at which the formation of radionuclide complexes is no longer of importance. Further, the Langmuir sorption model, proposed for the sorption of concrete admixtures on HCP, suggests that the HCP surface does not become saturated, at least for those concrete admixtures tested. (author)

  16. Selection of optimum ROI for dual radionuclide analysis of 55Fe-63Ni and 63Ni-60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya, S.; Prabhath Ravi, K.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Rao, D.D.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dual label counting in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) enables simultaneous activity determination of two radionuclides. Dual counting procedure for 3 H and 14 C has been well established. There are several other nuclides like 63 Ni (E β- =67keV), 55 Fe (6 keV X-ray and auger electron) which are often chemically separated using detailed procedures with high decontamination factors (DF) and quantified using LSC. Despite the laborious separations, traces of these nuclides in the chemically separated fractions can mutually make their quantification difficult due to overlap of counts from both radionuclides in the spectrum, which gets further complicated in presence of traces of 60 Co. For dual label counting technique, it is essential to establish the discriminator setting at which there will be spillover of counts from both radionuclides in the two counting regions required for the inclusion method. The objective of the current work is to establish two counting ROI's for dual counting of (i) 63 Ni- 55 Fe and (ii) 63 Ni- 60 Co in a TDCR based LSC system

  17. Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mattigod, Shas V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Powers, Laura [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the

  18. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  19. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  20. Laboratory studies of radionuclide distributions between selected groundwaters and geologic media. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    During FY-1980, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory contributions to the Waste/Rock Interactions Technology program were primarily in the areas of migration-rate studies using crushed rock, whole core, and fractured core columns; parametric studies of variables which may influence radionuclide sorption-desorption behavior; and initial studies of actinide chemistry in near-neutral solutions and Eh control. Batch experiments in both air and a controlled atmosphere (nitrogen, less than or equal to 0.2 ppM oxygen, less than or equal to 20 ppM carbon dioxide) for the sorption of several radionuclides on granite and argillite were completed. These data also provided informaton on the effects of other parameters, such as particle size and contact time. All nine elements studied had different sorption ratios for argillite when measured under the controlled atmosphere than when measured in air, except possibly for americium where any effect was smaller than the standard deviations. As expected, strontium, cesium, and barium are least affected by the presence or absence of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Columns of crushed rock and solid and cracked cores were used to study the migration of radionuclides through such materials. In general, sorption ratios measured by batch techniques are 2 to 3 times greater than those for columns; however, a wide variation in behavior was observed, depending upon the element and the mineralogy. Work has begun on a system wherein traced groundwater is circulated through a crushed rock column; this should provide a link between the usual, single-pass, crushed rock columns and the batch experiments. Materials characterization has continued, and techniques for the determination of Fe(II) in silicate rocks and groundwater have been made operational. Work on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has been started

  1. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  2. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides for use in waste management system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal on the deep ocean bed. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. No single option is clearly the best from the radiological point of view. However, in conjunction with waste inventory data the results may be used to provide a preliminary view of the relative radiological merits of the various disposal options. (author)

  3. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  4. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  6. Evaluation of DOE radionuclide solubility data and selected retardation parameters: description of calculational and confirmatory experimental activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Clark, R.J.; Cutshall, N.H.; Johnson, J.S.; Kessler, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    An experimentally oriented program has been initiated to support the NRC analysis and licensing activities related to high-level nuclear waste repositories. The program will allow the NRC to independently confirm key geochemical values used in the site performance assessments submitted by the DOE candidate repository site projects. Key radionuclide retardation factor values, particularly radionuclide solubility and sorption values under site specific geochemical conditions, are being confirmed. The initial efforts are being directed toward basalt rock/groundwater systems relevant to the BWIP candidate site in the Pasco Basin. Future work will consider tuff (NNWSI candidate site in Yucca Mountain) and salt (unspecified ONWI bedded or domal salt sites) rock/groundwater systems. Initial experimental results with technetium have confirmed the BWIP values for basalt/groundwater systems under oxic redox conditions: high solubility and no sorption. Under reducing redox conditions, however, the experimental work did not confirm the proposed technetium values recommended by BWIP. In the presence of hydrazine to establish reducing conditions, an apparent solubility limit for technetium of about 5E-7 mol/L was encountered; BWIP recommended calculated values of 1E-12 or greater than or equal to 1E-14 mol/L. Experimental evidence concerning sorption of reduced technetium species is incomplete at this time. Equilibrium speciation and saturation indices were calculated for well water data sets from BWIP using the computer code PHREEQUE. Oversaturation was indicated for hematite and quartz in all data sets. Near surface samples were undersaturated with respect to calcite, but most deep samples were oversaturated with respect to calcite and other carbonate minerals

  7. Studies on separation, conversion and transmutation of long-living radionuclides. A contribution to advanced disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The future role and acceptance of nuclear energy will be decisively determined by the safe operation of existing and future facilities and by convincing solutions for nuclear waste management. With respect to the long half-lives of some radionuclides (actinides and fission products) and the related question as to whether the release of radionuclides from a repository can be prevented over very long periods of time, alternatives to the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels are discussed internationally. As a potential complementary solution, the technological option with partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered. This method separates and converts the long-lived radionuclides into stable, short-lived nuclides via neutron reactions in dedicated facilities. Against this background, the first main chapter of the present work looks at the chemical separation of actinides from high-level reprocessing wastes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the processes at the molecular level, basic investigations were also performed on separating actinides(III) via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extraction. At the same time, reversible processes were developed and tested on the laboratory scale with the aid of mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. The subsequent chapter focuses on separating the long-lived fission product iodine-129 from radioactive wastes as well as from process effluents arising from reprocessing. As part of this work, different simple chemical and physical techniques were developed for complete recovery with respect to transmutation or conditioning in host matrices that are sufficiently stable for final storage. Its high mobility and radiological properties make iodine-129 relevant for the long-term safety assessment of final repositories. In addition, transmutation experiments on iodine-127/129 targets were performed using high-energy protons (145-2600 MeV). Due to the expected low cross sections (<100 mb), transmutation with protons

  8. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  9. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  10. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo[a]pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs

  11. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-01-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for 99 Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for 99 Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for 133 Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for 95 Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for 95 Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude

  12. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  14. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Development of long-lived radionuclide partitioning technology - Preparation of ion exchanges for selective separation of radioactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Joong; Jeong, Hae In; Shim, Min Sook [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Ion exchanger contained nitrogen-oxygen donor macrocyclic units was synthesized, and immobilization process was carried out by adsorption of the exchanger to silica gel. The binding constants were measured with acid concentration. From the binding constants, selectivity for Pt(II) ion and acid concentration of eluents were determined. The most optimum conditions for the separation were also determined from investigating the effects of amount of immobile phase and column length. And liarit aza-crown ethers were synthesized and selectively separated Cs/Sr ion from mixed metal solution. 37= refs., 24 tabs., 40 figs. (author)

  16. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  17. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  18. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  19. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  20. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  1. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  2. Biomass selection for biosorption study of {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cd radionuclides; Selecao de biomassas para o estudo da biossorcao dos radionuclideos {sup 226} Ra e {sup 137} Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wilson Cervi da

    2003-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to verify the potentialities to apply the biosorption technique to synthetic and real solution containing {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cs, utilizing the seaweed Sargassum sp. and the microorganisms Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Monoraphidium sp. Indeed, the screening of the most effective biomass to remove the radionuclides was also a central objective. {sup 226} Ra was selected due to its high radiotoxicity and the fact that it can be assimilated and incorporated by living organism through substitution og Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}, two essential nutrients. On the other hand, the selection of {sup 137} Cs, a radionuclide of medium toxicity, was due to its mobility in the environment, which increases the possibility to be assimilated by the organisms as the essential nutrients Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. (author)

  3. Cation-selective extraction column study for the conception of nuclear medical radionuclide generators; Untersuchung kationenselektiver Extraktionssaeulen zur Konzeption nuklearmedizinischer Radionuklidgeneratoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng, Roman

    2012-07-09

    The topic of the present work is the conception of a Yttrium-90 radionuclide generator for nuclear medicine applications. Due to its physical properties Yttrium-90 is considered as one of the most useful nuclides for radiotherapeutic cancer treatment. The parent nuclide Strontium-90 is gained during reprocessing of fission products. Thus, the sustained availability of large quantities of Yttrium-90 is limited to a number of research facilities. A radionuclide generator provides an independent Yttrium-90 source and enhances the capacities for radiopharmaceutical research and biomedical applications. The present work focussed on the identification of appropriate column materials for the separation of Strontium and Yttrium. The results for two materials are reported: AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 and crystalline antimonic acid. Based on the mode of operation of the Technetium-99m generator the aim was to enable the construction of a compact, enclosed apparatus. The projected device comprises a reservoir for the eluant, the ion-exchange column, pipings and radiation shielding. Elution of Yttrium-90 could then be easily performed by connecting evacuated vials to the outlet tube. The prospected concept involves physical and chemical confinements that exclude most of the known processes for Strontium-Yttrium separation. For example no ligands, no oxidizing reactants (e.g. nitric acid) and no organic solvents are to be used, but small volumes of isotonic or buffer solutions and dilute acids respectively. AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 is a commercially available resin used in extraction chromatography. Its high selectivity for Strontium cations results from the strictly defined cavity of the imbedded cryptand. Determination of weight distribution coefficients, elution studies and pre-generator experiments were carried out. Quantitative separation of Yttrium from Strontium and Zirconium is possible using small volumes of 0,05 M hydrochloric acid as eluant. Furthermore, high

  4. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. J.; Song, M. C.; Hwang, G. H.; Lee, C. M.; Yuk, D. S.; Lee, S. C.

    2004-02-01

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : reassessment of selection criteria and final selection of target radionuclides, establishment of detailed radionuclide evaluation methods for each target radionuclide, development of requirement and fulfillment guidelines for the assessment methods of the assay-target radionuclide inventory

  5. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Song, M. C.; Hwang, G. H.; Lee, C. M.; Yuk, D. S.; Lee, S. C. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : reassessment of selection criteria and final selection of target radionuclides, establishment of detailed radionuclide evaluation methods for each target radionuclide, development of requirement and fulfillment guidelines for the assessment methods of the assay-target radionuclide inventory.

  6. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  7. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples

  8. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Edwards, Daniel D.; Campbell, Linford J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, four domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, three dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concen- trations exceeded their respective laboratory reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Ethylbenzene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample.

  9. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1992-03-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  10. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  11. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  12. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith Korsholm, Ulrik; Astrup, Poul; Lauritzen, Bent

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project "Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe". The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere...... spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion....

  13. Use of thermodynamic sorption models to derive radionuclide Kd values for performance assessment: Selected results and recommendations of the NEA sorption project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, M.; Davis, J.A.; Olin, M.; Payne, T.E.; Tweed, C.J.; Askarieh, M.M.; Altmann, S.

    2006-01-01

    For the safe final disposal and/or long-term storage of radioactive wastes, deep or near-surface underground repositories are being considered world-wide. A central safety feature is the prevention, or sufficient retardation, of radionuclide (RN) migration to the biosphere. To this end, radionuclide sorption is one of the most important processes. Decreasing the uncertainty in radionuclide sorption may contribute significantly to reducing the overall uncertainty of a performance assessment (PA). For PA, sorption is typically characterised by distribution coefficients (Kd values). The conditional nature of Kd requires different estimates of this parameter for each set of geochemical conditions of potential relevance in a RN's migration pathway. As it is not feasible to measure sorption for every set of conditions, the derivation of Kd for PA must rely on data derived from representative model systems. As a result, uncertainty in Kd is largely caused by the need to derive values for conditions not explicitly addressed in experiments. The recently concluded NEA Sorption Project [1] showed that thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) are uniquely suited to derive K d as a function of conditions, because they allow a direct coupling of sorption with variable solution chemistry and mineralogy in a thermodynamic framework. The results of the project enable assessment of the suitability of various TSM approaches for PA-relevant applications as well as of the potential and limitations of TSMs to model RN sorption in complex systems. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

  14. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  15. Development of a new generation of waste form for entrapment and immobilization of highly volatile and soluble radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Murphy, Andrew Wilson; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Turnham, Rigney; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole; Tellez, Hernesto; Miller, Andy; Xiong, Yongliang; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-01-01

    The United States is now re-assessing its nuclear waste disposal policy and re-evaluating the option of moving away from the current once-through open fuel cycle to a closed fuel cycle. In a closed fuel cycle, used fuels will be reprocessed and useful components such as uranium or transuranics will be recovered for reuse. During this process, a variety of waste streams will be generated. Immobilizing these waste streams into appropriate waste forms for either interim storage or long-term disposal is technically challenging. Highly volatile or soluble radionuclides such as iodine ( 129 I) and technetium ( 99 Tc) are particularly problematic, because both have long half-lives and can exist as gaseous or anionic species that are highly soluble and poorly sorbed by natural materials. Under the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD), we have developed a suite of inorganic nanocomposite materials (SNL-NCP) that can effectively entrap various radionuclides, especially for 129 I and 99 Tc. In particular, these materials have high sorption capabilities for iodine gas. After the sorption of radionuclides, these materials can be directly converted into nanostructured waste forms. This new generation of waste forms incorporates radionuclides as nano-scale inclusions in a host matrix and thus effectively relaxes the constraint of crystal structure on waste loadings. Therefore, the new waste forms have an unprecedented flexibility to accommodate a wide range of radionuclides with high waste loadings and low leaching rates. Specifically, we have developed a general route for synthesizing nanoporous metal oxides from inexpensive inorganic precursors. More than 300 materials have been synthesized and characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area measurements, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The sorption capabilities of the synthesized materials have been quantified by using stable isotopes I and

  16. Immobilization and bonding scheme of radioactive iodine-129 in silver tellurite glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheong Won; Pyo, Jae-Young; Park, Hwan-Seo; Yang, Jae Hwan; Heo, Jong

    2017-08-01

    Silver tellurite glasses with melting temperatures disposal site. Iodine waste loading in glasses was as high as 12.64 wt% of all metallic elements and 11.21 wt% including oxygen. Normalized elemental releases obtained from the product consistency test were well below US regulation of 2 g/m2. Iodines are surrounded by four Ag+ ions forming [Ag4I]3+ units that are further connected to tellurite network through bonds with non-bridging oxygens.

  17. New technique for determination of long-lived radioisotopes, Iodine-129, using multiparameter coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Oshima, Masumi; Toh, Yosuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Kushita, Kosuke; Ueno, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Multiparameter coincidence γ-ray spectrometry based on g-g coincidence is widely used in the field of nuclear structure studies, and has produced many successful results. In this study, feasibility of the method for neutron activation analysis of long lived iodine isotope, 129 I, was investigated. (author)

  18. Partition of iodine (129I and 127I) isotopes in soils and marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Violeta; Roos, Per; Aldahan, Ala

    2011-01-01

    Natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids and humin, plays a key role in determining the fate and mobility of radioiodine in soil and sediments. The radioisotope 129I is continuously produced and released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and as a biophilic element, its......–60% of the total 129I are associated with organic matter in soil and sediment samples. At a soil/sediment pH below 5.0–5.5, 127I and 129I in the organic fraction associate primarily with the humic acid while at soil/sediment pH > 6 129I was mostly found to be bound to fulvic acid. Anoxic conditions seem...... environmental mobility is strongly linked to organic matter. Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years), 129I builds up in the environment and can be traced since the beginning of the nuclear era in reservoirs such as soils and marine sediments. Nevertheless, partition of the isotope between the different...

  19. Iodine-129 in the environment of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    129 I has been analyzed in both aqueous and soil samples to characterize the environmental impact of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reprocessing operations. 129 I was quantified by a neutron activation procedure with γ-ray spectrometric detection [Ge(Li)]. For many samples, natural iodine ( 127 I) was also quantified. A wide range of samples can be accommodated by a combustion-based preirradiation isolation technique. 129 I amounts as low as 3.8 fCi can be determined with counting times of less than 30 minutes (s/sub rel/ = 10%). Deposition of 129 I in the environment via aqueous and airborne emissions has been studied. Data from analysis of seepage basin contents, spring water, on-plant streams, and the Savannah River show that 129 I from the seepage basins migrates easily through the soil with the groundwater, eventually reaching the Savannah River. Annual aqueous release rates were estimated to be 16 to 27 mCi/year. Data from analysis of soils from distances up to 159 km from SRP show above background levels of 129 I in both the minimum and maximum airborne transport directions. The soil results are compared with a wind dispersion model. The vertical distribution of 129 I in the soil was determined to a depth of 61 cm

  20. Iodine-129 in thyroids and tellurium isotopes in meteorites by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.

    1978-06-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentration of fissiogenic 129 I and the value of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in thyroids of man, cow, and deer from Missouri. Deer thyroids show an average value of 129 I/ 127 I = 1.8 x 10 -8 and an average concentration of 3 x 10 -3 pCi 129 I per gram of thyroid (wet weight). Thyroids of cows and humans show successively lower values for the 129 I/ 127 I ratio and the 129 I content because their diets dilute fission-produced 129 I in the natural iodine cycle with mineral iodine. The results of analyses on a few thyroids from other geographic areas are also reported. The isotopic compositions of tellurium, krypton, and xenon were determined in acid-resistant residues of the Allende meteorite. Neutron activation and γ-counting were used to determine the relative abundances of six tellurium isotopes, and mass spectrometry was used to determine the isotopic compositions of krypton and xenon in aliquots of the same residues. Nucleogenetic anomalies were observed in the isotopic compositions of these three elements. The presence of isotopically distinct components of tellurium, krypton, and xenon in these residues provides strong support for the suggestion that our solar system formed directly from the debris of a supernova

  1. Comments on the paper 'Radiation doses from iodine-129 in the environment' by J. K. Soldat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Jr, J C [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    Reference is made to a recent article by Soldat entitled 'Radiation Doses from /sup 129/I in the Environment' (Health Phys. Jan 1976) in which it is claimed that human and bovine consumption estimates were used in arriving at /sup 129/I thyroid doses which do not conform to observed consumption data. It is claimed that the disparity between the consumption data for milk, leafy vegetable and beef and the feed intake estimates for beef cattle is sufficient to produce /sup 129/I thyroid dose estimates that are considerably elevated. Using consumption data here advocated a modified table of thyroid dose estimates from unit concentrations of /sup 129/I in air is presented.

  2. Iodine-129 in Snow and Seawater in the Antarctic: Level and Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Shan; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic 129I has been released to the environment in different ways and chemical species by human nuclear activities since the 1940s. These sources provide ideal tools to trace the dispersion of volatile pollutants in the atmosphere. Snow and seawater samples collected in Bellingshausen...... sites in the Southern Hemisphere. This feature indicates that 129I in Antarctic snow mainly originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing from 1945 to 1980; resuspension and re-emission of the fallout 129I in the Southern Hemisphere maintains the 129I level in the Antarctic atmosphere. 129I...

  3. Studies of dynamic and static leaching of cemented and uncemented sorption material loaded with iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, J.

    1989-05-01

    Leaching tests with water and brines were conducted on AC 6120 iodine sorption material (12 wt.% Ag) in order to improve the assessment of the behaviour of radioactive waste stored in a repository mine (salt or iron ore). As a result of the dynamic and static leaching tests, the leached fraction of I-129 in the uncemented material was found to be -1 %, while that of the cemented iodine sorption material was found to be -2 %. After ordinary steel had been added to the cemented sorption material, the leached fractions found were identical to those measured in uncemented material. The addition of stainless steel had only little influence on the leached fraction. (author)

  4. Distribution of Iodine-129 in off the coast of Fukushima and North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.; Yamagata, T.; Nagai, H.; Aoyama, M.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2013-01-01

    We measured "1"2"9I concentration in seawater samples which were collected in off Fukushima and North Pacific. High "1"2"9I concentrations were observed in samples from stations off Fukushima (BD02, 03) located 30 km away from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP). In these stations, "1"2"9I inventory down to 100 m water depth was not decrease since three month after the F1NPP accident. In adjacent stations off Fukushima (BD01, 04), "1"2"9I concentrations were almost identical to those observed in seawater collected in the Kuroshio region before the F1NPP accident. In the North Pacific (BD05∼17), "1"2"9I concentrations in surface seawater were 2 times higher than those in the Kuroshio region. (author)

  5. Distribution of Iodine-129 in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean between Jan and Feb 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kuwabara, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of "1"2"9I from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident, we measured "1"2"9I concentration at three stations: Oyashio-area, transition-area and Kuroshio-area in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Accident-derived "1"2"9I in surface seawaters was detected at all stations and the highest concentration was observed at the transition-area, 550 km east of the FNPP. The depth profiles show that the accident-derived "1"2"9I was penetrated to 150 m and 200 m depths at the Oyashio-area and transition area, respectively. At the Kuroshio-area, "1"2"9I showed a maximum around 400 - 500 m depth (σ_0=26.0 - 26.2). This is probably due to the isopycnal mixing of surface seawater around 37 N. The highest inventory of accident-derived "1"2"9I was observed at Kuroshio-area. (author)

  6. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...... from 0.10 to 0.30, with an average of 0.18, and no correlation between I-129/Cs-137 ratio and the distance from Chernobyl reactor to sampling location was observed. It seems feasible to use the I-129/Cs-137 ratio to reconstruct the deposition pattern of I-131 in these areas. The association of I-129...... and (CS)-C-137 in the Chernobyl soil and Irish Sea sediment was investigated by a sequential extraction method. Similar speciation of I-129 in the Chernobyl soil and Irish Sea sediment was found. Approximately 70% of I-129 is bound to oxides and organic matter, and 10-20% is in the readily available phase...

  7. A review on speciation of iodine-129 in the environmental and biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Violeta; Aldahan, Ala

    2009-01-01

    As a long-lived beta-emitting radioisotope of iodine, I-129 is produced both naturally and as a result of human nuclear activities. At present time, the main part of I-129 in the environment originates from the human nuclear activity, especially the releases from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessi...

  8. Determination of iodine 129 in environmental samples from Austria by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karg, V.; Schoenfeld, T.

    1986-11-01

    For various types of samples (thyroids from humans, from game and cows; ground water, snow and air filters) the 129 I-contents, expressed as 129 I/ 127 I-ratio (R), were determined by neutron activation analysis. The method utilises the neutron induced reactions 129 I(n, γ) 130 I and 127 I(n, 2n) 126 I. Four main steps are involved: 1. Separation of iodine from the sample and conversion to a form suitable for neutron irradiation. 2. Irradiation in a reactor. 3. Chemical processing of the irradiated material, i.e. separation of radio-iodine with addition of carrier. 4. Measurement of activities of 130 I and 126 I with a gammaspectrometer. The 129 I/ 127 I-ratio (R) is then obtained by comparing with the activities produced in a reference sample (usually with R = 1.0 x 10 -8 ) which is irradiated simultaneously. Details of the method are presented in the report. R-values between 0.6 x 10 -8 and 39 x 10 -8 were found. The highest values were those of snow and game thyroids. Ground water contained very little 129 I. The results confirm the expectation that 129 I enters the biosphere mainly via air and precipitation. (Author)

  9. A review on speciation of iodine-129 in the environmental and biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xiaolin [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, NUK-202, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)], E-mail: xiaolin.hou@risoe.dk; Hansen, Violeta [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, NUK-202, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Aldahan, Ala [Department of Earth Science, Uppsala University, SE-758 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Possnert, Goeran [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lind, Ole Christian [Norwegian University of Life Science, N-1432, As (Norway); Lujaniene, Galina [Institute of Physics, Savanoriu 231, LT-0230 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-01-26

    As a long-lived beta-emitting radioisotope of iodine, {sup 129}I is produced both naturally and as a result of human nuclear activities. At present time, the main part of {sup 129}I in the environment originates from the human nuclear activity, especially the releases from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios have being reached to values of 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -4} in the environment from 10{sup -12} in the pre-nuclear era. In this article, we review the occurrence, sources, inventory, and concentration level of {sup 129}I in environment and the method for speciation analysis of {sup 129}I in the environment. Measurement techniques for the determination of {sup 129}I are presented and compared. An overview of applications of {sup 129}I speciation in various scientific disciplines such as radiation protection, waste depository, and environmental sciences is given. In addition, the bioavailability and radiation toxicity (dose to thyroid) of {sup 129}I are discussed.

  10. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hou, XL.; Fogh, CL.; Kučera, Jan; Andersson, KG.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, SP.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 308, 1, 2, 3 (2003), s. 97-109 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : iodine * neutron activation analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2003

  11. Some basic advantages of accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and iodine-129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The blanket of accelerator-driven facility designed for I-129 transmutation doesn`t contain fissile and fertile materials. So the overheating of iodine compounds transmuted is practically excluded. The efficacy of I-129 transmutation is estimated. Curium being accumulated in nuclear reactors can be incinerated in blanket of accelerator-driven facility. The deep depletion of curium diluted with inert material can be achieved.

  12. Iodine-129 as a long-lived tracer in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Ernst, T.; Szidat; Schnabel, C.; Synal, H.-A.

    2002-01-01

    129 I is an important tracer of human activities as well of environmental processes. However, its potential can only be exploited if the 129 I abundances in and the pathways between the different environmental compartments are known. Until today, our knowledge of the radioecology of 129 I is still insufficient. Results are presented from a long-term project which shall improve this situation. 129 I and 127 I abundances were investigated in precipitation, surface and ground waters from Lower Saxony, Germany, and in soil samples from various European locations. From the analysis of 129 I in rain, 129 I annual deposition densities were determined for the time period from 1997- 1999. We conclude that 129 I deposition rates in Switzerland and Germany increased by three orders of magnitude since 1950 and changed just little after 1987. The different 129 I/ 127 I ratios in precipitation, surface and ground waters allow to estimate mean residence times of iodine in surface soil zones. From the analysis of soils, 129 I deposition densities at various places of Europe were determined. Thereby, the 129 I natural equilibrium deposition density as well as that of the fall-out from atmospheric weapon tests was estimated. Elevated 129 I abundances in Ukrainian soils contaminated by Chernobyl fall-out provide a basis for retrospective dosimetry of the radiation exposure due to 131 I. Soil profiles from Germany exhibit the influence of ongoing emissions from European reprocessing plants and demonstrate the complexity of iodine migration. Biospheric 129 I/ 127 I ratios in Germany are an order of magnitude lower than in precipitation. Because of the disequilibrium of iodine isotopes in the different compartments further detailed investigations of the pathways of 129 I through the environment to man are considered necessary. (author)

  13. Iodine-129, Iodine-127 and Caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraoui, A.; Michel, R.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R.; Synal, H.-A.; Alfimov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for 129 I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for 127 I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for 137 Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of 137 Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41 × 1.5 ±1 ) kBq m −2 (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of 129 I in these soils was (109 × 1.5 ±1 ) mBq m −2 . The dominant sources of 129 I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The 129 I/ 127 I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10 −7 and 10 −10 , i.e. 10 2 –10 5 times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The 129 I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m −2 and 2 mBq m −2 . In these soils, the observed 129 I/ 127 I ratios were about 10 −12 . The soils from Chile allow the determination of the 129 I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral 129 I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m −2 . Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of 137 Cs, 127 I and of 129 I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of 127 I, 129 I, and 137 Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for 137 Cs. - Highlights: ► I-129 from European reprocessing plants drastically changed its natural abundances. ► We report here inventories of the Cs-137 and I-129 in Bavaria and Chile. ► The dominant sources of I-129 in Bavaria are the European reprocessing plants. ► The dominant sources of I-129 in Chile are the atmospheric nuclear test. ► I-129 and I-127 demonstrates the complex migration in the soil profiles.

  14. Iodine-129 in the environment of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant: Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauschild, J.; Aumann, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A field investigation of the transfer of 129 I and of natural 127 I in the soil-pasture-cow-milk/meat pathway has been carried out at a dairy farm situated 5400 m to the north of the small Karlsruhe nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Soil and herbage samples were collected during the period between April 1986 and April 1987. Milk samples were collected during the 1986 grazing season. The concentrations of 129 I and 127 I were determined in all soil, herbage and milk samples. (author)

  15. Derivation of radioecological parameters from the long-term emission of iodine-129. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, T.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Vahlbruch, J.; Synal, H.A.; Schnabel, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this project, the distribution and behaviour of 129 I and 127 I in the environment and its pathways through the environment to man were comprehensively investigated in order to provide a basis for estimating the radiation exposure to man due to releases of 129 I. To this end, the actual situation in Lower Saxony, Germany, was studied for exemplary regions near to and far from the coast of the North Sea. Accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes, 129 I and P 127 I, in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. From the analytical results radioecological parameters for the long-term behaviour of 129 I in the pedo- and biosphere were derived. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium 129 I/ 127 I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 x 10 -13 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10 -6 to 10 -10 . The highest ratios are found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. The results are discussed with respect to their radiological relevance and in view of the general protection of the environment, i.e. air, water, soil and the biosphere. (orig.)

  16. Iodide and iodate sodalites for the long-term storage of iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1979-01-01

    There exist several proposals for the storage of 129 I. None of these propose the use of a mineral with demonstrated geologic stability. The work described in this paper has identified the minerals iodide and iodate sodalites [Na 8 (AlSiO 4 ) 6 I 2 /(IO 3 ) 2 ] as good candidates for the long-term storage of 129 I. 4 tables

  17. Iodine-129 dose to the world population from the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Till, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the 15.7 million-year half life for 129 I and the mobility of iodine in the environment, releases of 129 I result in potential radiological impacts on the entire world population essentially in perpetuity. This paper presents estimates of dose to the world population from releases of 129 I by the world nuclear power industry during the years 1975 to 2020

  18. Report on the intercomparison of determination of selected radionuclides and trace elements in water (W-1, W-2 and W-3, 1975-76)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-12-01

    Water is one of the most common materials which are analyzed for the purpose of monitoring of environmental pollution. While being an apparently 'easy' matrix it can in fact pose serious problems even for an experienced analyst. Trace elements and radionuclides may 'disappear' from aqueous solutions due to adsorption on container walls and some of them due to volatilization, bacterial action, etc. Preconcentration techniques such as evaporation and freeze-drying may also lead to considerable losses of some elements. On the other hand, when the vessels employed for storing the water samples have not been adequately cleaned, some trace elements may be 'added' to the solution. The above mentioned difficulties can probably, at least in part, account for the fact that only a small part of the participating laboratories sent in their results before the original deadline. Even after setting the new deadline (30 January 1976) the results were flowing in very sluggishly over a period of a few months what obviously delayed the preparation of this report. Altogether 46 laboratories participated in the W-1 and W-2 runs and 35 in the W-3 run but only a few determined all or most of radionuclides or trace elements, respectively. The present intercomparisons were intended to provide the opportunity of checking up the analytical performance for the laboratories dealing with low level activity measurements in water as well as for those engaged in trace multielement analysis.

  19. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  20. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  1. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  2. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Korsholm, U.; Havskov Soerensen, J.; Astrup, P.; Lauritzen, B.

    2011-04-01

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe'. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere. The atmospheric dispersion model calculations cover a period of 30 days following each release to ensure almost complete deposition of the dispersed material. The atlas contains maps showing the total deposition and time-integrated air concentration of Cs-137 and I-131 based on three years of meteorological data spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion. (Author)

  3. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Korsholm, U.; Havskov Soerensen, J. (Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Astrup, P.; Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-04-15

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe'. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere. The atmospheric dispersion model calculations cover a period of 30 days following each release to ensure almost complete deposition of the dispersed material. The atlas contains maps showing the total deposition and time-integrated air concentration of Cs-137 and I-131 based on three years of meteorological data spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion. (Author)

  4. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  5. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  6. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, I. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf Inc. D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Seitz, G. [Institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the precision engineering and electrical industry, D-50941 Koeln (Germany); Hartmann, M. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  7. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, I.; Seitz, G.; Hartmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  8. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  9. Radionuclide getters in the near-field chemistry of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-06-01

    The solubility of many radionuclides in a radwaste repository will be limited by the high pH of the cement based system. However, the inclusion of specific sorbing media, within the cement backfill, offers the ability to improve the retention of the more mobile radionuclides, such as caesium and iodine; thereby further reducing their environmental impact. This programme of work is intended to assess the radionuclide sorption efficiency of selected inorganic getters incorporated in cement. (author)

  10. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  11. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Preliminary study on the establishment of the radionuclide declaration methods for radionuclides in LILW radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Lee, K. J.; Jung, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary study on declaration methods has been done for each radionuclide in LILW radwaste drum in Korean NPPs. View from the preliminary establishment of radio nuclide declaration methods, The selection of assessment target nuclide through the qualitative method and preliminary criteria for routine declaration methods in each radio nuclide was derived. First of all, selection criteria and preliminary assessment method for each target radionuclide was surveyed and investigated. And, the selection criteria and selected the target radio nuclides from the basis on criteria was derived. And the preliminary suggestion about the declaration methods for each target radio nuclide was established

  13. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  14. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  15. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-01

    to improved monitoring while simultaneously reducing costs. This paradigm is being tested at the SRS F-Area where an innovative passive remedial system is being monitored and evaluated over the long term prior to traditional regulatory closure. Contaminants being addressed at this site are uranium, strontium-90, iodine-129, and tritium. We believe that the proposed strategies will be more effective in early identification of potential risks; these strategies will also be cost effective because controlling variables are relatively simple to measure. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate large cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance

  16. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    to improved monitoring while simultaneously reducing costs. This paradigm is being tested at the SRS F-Area where an innovative passive remedial system is being monitored and evaluated over the long term prior to traditional regulatory closure. Contaminants being addressed at this site are uranium, strontium-90, iodine-129, and tritium. We believe that the proposed strategies will be more effective in early identification of potential risks; these strategies will also be cost effective because controlling variables are relatively simple to measure. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate large cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance.

  17. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  18. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  19. Radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in the selected building materials used for the construction of dwellings in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S U; Rafique, M; Jabbar, A; Matiullah

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the finding of a study undertaken to determine the naturally occurring radionuclides present in commonly used building materials for dwellings and workplaces in four districts of the Punjab Province, Pakistan. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. A total of 80 samples of building materials were collected from various manufacturers and suppliers of the studied area. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in building samples, and results ranged from minimum values of 9 ± 1, 9 ± 2 and 27 ± 8 Bq kg(-1) to maximum values of 106 ± 5, 133 ± 5 and 914 ± 21 Bq kg(-1) with mean values of 42 ± 3, 48 ± 3 and 376 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From the measured activity concentrations, equivalent radium (Ra(eq)), terrestrial absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated and found to range from 52 ± 7 to 274 ± 15 Bq kg(-1), 23 ± 3 to 130 6 nGy h(-1), 0.15 ± 0.02 to 0.80 ± 0.03 mSv, 0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.2 ± 0.02 to 0.98 ± 0.05, respectively. These results were comparable to the results of similar studies undertaken locally and in other countries. The samples considered were safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard.

  20. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  1. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  2. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  3. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  4. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  5. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  6. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.

    1980-11-01

    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  8. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  9. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  10. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  11. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  12. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  13. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  14. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  15. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  16. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  17. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  18. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River

  20. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  2. Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Parzyck, D.C.; Wilcox, W.H.; Kercher, J.R.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-11-01

    This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

  3. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 3: miscellany of radionuclides (Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, I, Se, Sb, Pu, Am, and others)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Garcia, C.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.

    2009-01-01

    New best estimates for the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) for a set of radionuclides are proposed, based on a selective data search and subsequent calculation of geometric means. The K d best estimates are calculated for soils grouped according to the texture and organic matter content. For a limited number of radionuclides this is extended to consider soil cofactors affecting soil-radionuclide interaction, such as pH, organic matter content, and radionuclide chemical speciation. Correlations between main soil properties and radionuclide K d are examined to complete the information derived from the best estimates with a rough prediction of K d based on soil parameters. Although there are still gaps for many radionuclides, new data from recent studies improve the calculation of K d best estimates for a number of radionuclides, such as selenium, antimony, and iodine.

  4. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  5. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  9. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  10. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  11. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  12. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  13. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  14. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  15. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  16. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  17. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  18. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  19. Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1981-07-01

    Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m 3 /h (15-ft 3 /min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed

  20. Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pence, D T; Kirstein, B E

    1981-07-01

    Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m/sup 3//h (15-ft/sup 3//min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed.

  1. Radionuclide solubilities to be used in SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sellin, P.

    1992-06-01

    We have performed thermodynamic calculations in order to assess the solubility limits (source term) for selected radionuclides. Equilibrium solubilities for U, Pu, Np, Am, Th, Ra, Sn, Tc, Zr, Sn, Ni, Sm, Pa, Nb and Pd have been calculated in four waters, representing average fresh and saline granitic groundwaters under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. The results from the calculations have been compared with the measured radionuclide concentrations in natural waters as well as in spent fuel leaching tests. (26 refs.)

  2. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting

  3. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  4. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  5. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  8. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  9. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  10. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  11. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  12. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  13. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  14. Criteria of reference radionuclides for safety analysis of spent fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    1998-01-01

    Study on the criteria for reference radionuclides selection for assessment on spent fuel disposal have done. The reference radionuclides in this study means radionuclides are predicted to contribute of the most radiological effect for man if spent fuel waste are discharged on deep geology formation. The research was done by investigate critically of parameters were used on evaluation a kind of radionuclide. Especially, this research study of parameter which relevant disposal case and or spent fuel waste on deep geology formation . The research assumed that spent fuel discharged on deep geology by depth 500-1000 meters from surface of the land. The migration scenario Radionuclides from waste form to man was assumed particularly for normal release in which Radionuclides discharge from waste form in a series thorough container, buffer, geological, rock, to fracture(fault) and move together with ground water go to biosphere and than go into human body. On this scenario, the parameter such as radionuclides inventory, half life, heat generation, hazard index based on maximum permissible concentration (MPC) or annual limit on intake (ALI) was developed as criteria of reference radionuclides selection. The research concluded that radionuclides inventory, half live, heat generated, hazard index base on MPC or ALI can be used as criteria for selection of reference Radionuclide. The research obtained that the main radionuclides are predicted give the most radiological effect to human are as Cs-137, Sr-90, I-129, Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240. The radionuclides reasonable to be used as reference radionuclides in safety analysis at spent fuel disposal. (author)

  15. Metabolic behaviour of some radionuclides in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, B.

    1978-01-01

    The author has taken up the difficult task of reviewing the literature on the metabolic behaviour of some radioactive substances in different animal species, especially in domestic animals. Scope and amount of the material available on this subject field very soon induced the author to restrict herself to the more 'classical' radionuclides of iodine, cesium and strontium, as well as to a rather topical group of radioactive substances, the transuranium elements. With a total of about 800 titles cited from the literature, and by means of numerous examples of experiments, skilfully selected and analyzed, various essential differences in the metabolic behaviour of the radionuclides in the different animal species are shown. The extraordinary difficulties arising in comparing the different relevant results and possible methods for a unified approach are presented. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Sorption of radionuclides on a soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1979-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground has been discussed, and this paper emphasized significance of the investigation for underground water flow and for the prediction of radionuclides through a stratified aquifer using column experiments to evaluate the internal radiation dose. Distributions and redistributions of radionuclides in a sandy layer were observed to identify the sorption model which predicts the behavior, and the underground water flow in the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka Group was investigated as an example, by mean of the measurement of 222 Rn concentration, the pumping technique and the tracer technique using the activation analysis. Then, the estimation of radioactive concentration in the underground water was worked out for the boundary condition of steady state inflow of liquid wastes and of which the 90 Sr are leached from the solidified body, moreover, the equation which easily evaluates the suitability of the disposal site was proposed. These approach may be useful for the actual site selection of radioactive wastes disposal. (author)

  17. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  18. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  19. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  20. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  1. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  2. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  3. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  4. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  5. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  6. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Determination of low specific activity iodine-129 off-gas concentrations by GC separation and negative ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Rankin, R.A.; McManus, G.J.; Nielsen, R.A.; Delmore, J.E.; Hohorst, F.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    This document is the final report of the laboratory development of a method for determining the specific activity of the /sup 129/I emitted from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The technique includes cryogenic sample collection, chemical form separation, quantitation by gas chromatography, and specific activity measurement of each chemical species by negative ionization mass spectrometry. The major conclusions were that both organic and elemental iodine can be quantitatively collected without fractionation and that specific activity measurements as low as one atom of /sup 129/I per 10/sup 5/ atoms of /sup 127/I are possible.

  8. Reply to J. C. Thompson, Jr. 's comments on the paper 'Radiation doses from iodine-129 in the environment'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J K [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, Wash. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    Reference is made to comments by Thompson (Health Phys.; 31: 287 (1976)) on the present author's paper on 'Radiation Doses from /sup 129/I in the Environment' (Health Phys; Jan 1976) concerning the human and bovine consumption data that were used to arrive at thyroid dose estimates. Clarification is given of the diet and consumption data used in the original work and the sources of such data cited. Should modified diet data be accepted the thyroid dose estimates from unit concentrations of /sup 129/I in air originally tabulated could easily be altered in proportion to the diet assumed.

  9. IODES, Calculating the Estimation of Dose to the World Population from Releases of Iodine-129 to the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: IODES is a dynamic linear compartment model of the global iodine cycle which estimates long-term doses and dose commitments to the world population from releases of 129 I to the environment. The global environment is divided into different compartments comprising the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and terrestrial biosphere. The global transport of iodine is described by means of time-invariant fractional transfer rates between the environmental compartments. The fractional transfer rates for 129 I are determined primarily from available data on compartment inventories and fluxes for naturally occurring stable iodine and from data on the global hydrologic cycle. The dose to the world population is estimated from the calculated compartment inventories of 129 I, the known compartment inventories of stable iodine, a pathway analysis of the intake of iodine by a reference individual, dose conversion factors for inhalation and ingestion, and an estimate of the world population. For an assumed constant population of 12.21 billion beyond the year 2075, the estimated population dose commitment is 2 x 105 man-rem/Ci. 2 - Methods: IODES calculates 129 I inventories in the different environmental compartments and individual and population doses as a function of time after a release to the environment by solving a set of simultaneous first-order linear differential equations using numerical methods. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The subroutine LSODE for solving the differential equations is provided online at the ORNL computer center and, thus, is not included in the IODES code package. If the LSODE routine is not available to the user, then an appropriate differential equation routine must be supplied by the user, and the initialization of parameters and the call statement for LSODE in the main program must be changed accordingly

  10. Iodine-129 and Iodine-127 speciation in groundwater at the Hanford Site, U.S.: iodate incorporation into calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Saijin; Yeager, Chris; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Site, the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States, has large radioactive waste plumes containing high 129I levels. The geochemical transport and fate of radioiodine depends largely on its chemical speciation that is greatly affected by environmental factors. This study reports, for the first time, the speciation of stable and radioactive iodine in the groundwater from the Hanford Site. Iodate was the dominant species and accounts for up to 84%, followed by organo-iodine and minimal levels of iodide. The relatively high pH and oxidizing environment may have prevented iodate reduction. Our results identified that calcite precipitation caused by degassing of CO2 during deep groundwater sampling incorporated between 7 to 40% of dissolved iodine (including 127I and 129I) that was originally in the groundwater, transforming dissolved to particulate iodate during sampling. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying iodine incorporation by calcite, laboratory experiments were carried out to replicate this iodine sequestering processes. Two methods were utilized in this study, 1) addition of sodium carbonate; 2) addition of calcium chloride followed by sodium carbonate where the pH was well controlled at ~8.2, which is close to the average pH of Hanford Site groundwater. It was demonstrated that iodate was the main species incorporated into calcite and this incorporation process could be impeded by elevated pH and decreasing ionic strength in groundwater. This study provides critical information for predicting the long-term fate and transport of 129I at the Hanford Site and reveals a potential means for improved remediation strategies of 129I

  11. Determination of low specific activity iodine-129 off-gas concentrations by GC separation and negative ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Rankin, R.A.; McManus, G.J.; Nielsen, R.A.; Delmore, J.E.; Hohorst, F.A.; Murphy, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    This document is the final report of the laboratory development of a method for determining the specific activity of the 129 I emitted from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The technique includes cryogenic sample collection, chemical form separation, quantitation by gas chromatography, and specific activity measurement of each chemical species by negative ionization mass spectrometry. The major conclusions were that both organic and elemental iodine can be quantitatively collected without fractionation and that specific activity measurements as low as one atom of 129 I per 10 5 atoms of 127 I are possible

  12. Effect of interfering reactions on the determination of iodine-129 concentrations in the enviroment by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filistovich, V.; Nedvetskajte, T.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the interfering reactions sup(235)U(n, f) sup(129)In(n, γ)sup(130)I, sup(128)Te(n, γ)sup(129)Te, sup(129)Te(Tsub(1/2)sup(βsup(-))=69.6 min) sup(129)I(n, γ)sup(130)I and sup(127)I(3n, γ)sup(130)I on the measurements by the activation analysis method of the background sup(129)I concentrations in the environment has been investigated. The calculations have shown that these reactions may result in considerable errors. A pretreatment of samples before their irradiation in a reactor is therefore needed. It is recommended to use the destructive distillation method. A nomogram is given with the help of which it is possible to determine the optimal time for the sample irradiation in the reactor after the sup(127)I concentrations have bee nevaluated in the samples, because the considerable amount of the sup(129)I can be generated from the sup(127)I by the triple neutron capture

  13. Iodine budget in surface waters from Atacama: Natural and anthropogenic iodine sources revealed by halogen geochemistry and iodine-129 isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, Fernanda; Reich, Martin; Snyder, Glen; Pérez-Fodich, Alida; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Daniele, Linda; Fehn, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Iodine enrichment in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile is widespread and varies significantly between reservoirs, including nitrate-rich “caliche” soils, supergene Cu deposits and marine sedimentary rocks. Recent studies have suggested that groundwater has played a key role in the remobilization, transport and deposition of iodine in Atacama over scales of millions-of-years. However, and considering that natural waters are also anomalously enriched in iodine in the region, the relative source contributions of iodine in the waters and its extent of mixing remain unconstrained. In this study we provide new halogen data and isotopic ratios of iodine ("1"2"9I/I) in shallow seawater, rivers, salt lakes, cold and thermal spring water, rainwater and groundwater that help to constrain the relative influence of meteoric, marine and crustal sources in the Atacama waters. Iodine concentrations in surface and ground waters range between 0.35 μM and 26 μM in the Tarapacá region and between 0.25 μM and 48 μM in the Antofagasta region, and show strong enrichment when compared with seawater concentrations (I = ∼0.4 μM). In contrast, no bromine enrichment is detected (1.3–45.7 μM for Tarapacá and 1.7–87.4 μM for Antofagasta) relative to seawater (Br = ∼600 μM). These data, coupled to the high I/Cl and low Br/Cl ratios are indicative of an organic-rich sedimentary source (related with an “initial” fluid) that interacted with meteoric water to produce a mixed fluid, and preclude an exclusively seawater origin for iodine in Atacama natural waters. Iodine isotopic ratios ("1"2"9I/I) are consistent with halogen chemistry and confirm that most of the iodine present in natural waters derives from a deep initial fluid source (i.e., groundwater which has interacted with Jurassic marine basement), with variable influence of at least one atmospheric or meteoric source. Samples with the lowest isotopic ratios ("1"2"9I/I from ∼215 to ∼1000 × 10"

  14. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  15. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  16. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  17. Microorganisms as potential vectors of the migration of radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yves, A.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of our work are the study of the sorption of radionuclides by bacteria as the first step in the microorganism-metal interaction. The latter involves the fixation of ions on a surface layer and it results in the immobilization of the metal, thus possibly being the primary step of bioaccumulation. After a rapid presentation of the direct and indirect mechanisms of the interactions, we shall present our experiments of radionuclide biosorption by bacteria. A salient feature of biosorption is the selectivity of the adsorption of some radionuclides from a composed solution. For example, Andres et al. (1993, 1995) have shown that Mycobacterium smegmatis, from a composed solution containing uranium, thorium, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium, selectively adsorbs thorium ions. The sequence of preferential fixation is: Th 4+ > UO 2 2+ > La 3+ = Eu 3+ = Yb 3+ . This selectivity is a function of the cell wall organization and of the speciation of the metal in the solution. Yet, each species of bacteria has characteristic and specific cell wall layer composition and organization. Moreover, the culture and the environmental conditions change the surface layer properties. Another parameter in the migration of radionuclides is the transfer from the soil to the microorganisms. In column experiments, Gd, and likely the rare earths, in general, adsorbed on sand can be removed with a suspension of bacteria (Thouand and Andres 1997). These examples will be discussed and serve as a basis to illustrate the diversity of the interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides

  18. Movement of radionuclides through unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Sousa, F.N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages of the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone above the fluctuations of the water table have been recognized for some time. However, most the numerical models used to simulate the environmental impact of a shallow land burial site assume that the soils surrounding the waste forms are saturated; this assumption may lead, in many cases, to unrealistic large leach and water flow rates. The main purpose of this study was the development of a procedure which could give a reliable prediction on the movement of radionuclides from shallow land burial sites located in the unsaturated zone. In order to accomplish this objective three different soils having different sand, silt, and clay fractions were selected and characterized. These soils were then used to fill a number of flow columns that were used in tests designed to provide input data for the flow and transport models. A one-dimensional finite element model was developed in order to simulate the water flow and radionuclide transport through unsaturated soils. The results obtained showed that the model accurately described the transport of radionuclides through saturated-unsaturated soils. Simulations were done, for all three soils, involving different degrees of soil saturation, and the results showed that assuming the soils are always saturated may lead to nuclide transport times which are orders of magnitude larger than the real ones, depending on the clay percentage present in the soil

  19. Review Paper of Radionuclide Monitoring in Food Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Fadzilah Yusof; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Wo, Y.M.; Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary

    2011-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides into the atmospheric and aquatic environments may occur as the result of a nuclear or radiological accident. Monitoring of the accidental release at its source and especially direct monitoring of the environmental contamination with radionuclides is necessary for assessment and application of public protective actions and longer term countermeasures as well as emergency workers' protection. In areas historically contaminated with long lived radionuclides monitoring it is essential to protect the public and substantiation of any radiological incidents. Also, dietary pathways can be contaminated with radioactive materials resulting from natural occurrence or man-made applications especially during routine operation, accidents and migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste disposal repositories into the biosphere. Therefore, efforts should be made to determine the presence of radionuclides in a potentially high radiation area especially in operational nuclear facilities. This paper will review the strategies for food monitoring that has been adapted in most countries to obtain baseline data for future reference. Also, this study is discussing the type of food selection commonly collected as sample for radionuclide analysis in different countries over the years. Sampling procedure and analysis also included in this review for better understanding of the analysis. Stake holders' involvement is considered as an important asset in the establishment of monitoring strategies. As a conclusion, future plans for food monitoring programme in Malaysia are recommended as a preparation to embark on the Nuclear Power Plant programme. (author)

  20. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  1. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  2. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  3. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A.; Lehtovaara, J.

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ( 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ( 210 Pb, 210 Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210 Pb and 210 Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137 Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  4. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function.

  5. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function

  6. Correlation Water Velocity and TSS with Natural Radionuclides Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Harningsih; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    Correlation water velocity and TSS with natural radionuclides activity has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to correlation water velocity and TSS with radionuclides on water and sediment samples in alongside river Code Yogyakarta. This research selected radionuclides, for examples Ra-226, Pb-212, Ac- 228, and K-40. Election of this radionuclides to spread over gamma gross composition alongside river of Code. Gamma gross influenced by water velocity and TSS, so that require to correct between water velocity and TSS to radionuclides. Sampling water and sediment conducted when dry season of August, 2006 at 11 locations, start from Boyong Bridge until Pacar Bridge. Result of analysis showed that water velocity range from 8-1070 L/dt and TSS range from 2.81 E-06 - 8.02 E-04 mg/L. The accumulation of radionuclides in water samples non correction water velocity for Ra-226: 0.302-2.861 Bq/L, Pb-212: 0.400-3.390 Bq/L, Ac- 228: 0.0029-0.0047 Bq/L and K-40: 0.780-9.178 Bq/L. The accumulation of radionuclide in water samples correction water velocity for Ra-226: 1.112-70.454 Bq/L, Pb-212: 0.850-77.113 Bq/L, Ac-228: 0.7187- 60.859 Bq/L and K-40: 2.420-208.8 Bq/L. While distribution of radionuclide in sediment for the Ra-226: 0.0012-0.0211 Bq/kg, Pb-212: 0.0017-0.0371 Bq/kg, Ac-228: 0.0021-0.0073 Bq/kg and K-40: 0.0006-0.0084 Bq/kg. (author)

  7. Distribution coefficients for radionuclides in aquatic environments. Volume 2. Dialysis experiments in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibley, T.H.; Nevissi, A.E.; Schell, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to obtain new information that can be used to predict the fate of radionuclides that may enter the aquatic environment from nuclear power plants, waste storage facilities or fuel reprocessing plants. Important parameters for determining fate are the distribution of radionuclides between the soluble and particulate phases and the partitioning of radionuclides among various suspended particulates. This report presents the results of dialysis experiments that were used to study the distribution of radionuclides among suspended sediments, phytoplankton, organic detritus, and filtered sea water. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium distribution of (59)Fe, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (106)Ru, (137)Cs, (207)Bi, (238)Pu, and (241)Am in marine system. Diffusion across the dialysis membranes depends upon the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides, proceeding quite rapidly for ionic species of (137)Cs and (60)Co but much more slowly for radionuclides which occur primarily as colloids and solid precipitates such as (59)Fe, (207)Bi, and (241)Am. All the radionuclides adsorb to suspended particulates although the amount of adsorption depends upon the specific types and concentration of particulates in the system and the selected radionuclide. High affinity of some radionuclides - e.g., (106)Ru and (241)Am - for detritus and phytoplankton suggests that suspended organics may significantly affect the eventual fate of those radionuclides in marine ecosystems

  8. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Colin, P.L. (Hawaii Inst. of Marine Biology, Honolulu (USA)); Buddemeier, R.W. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.); Suchanek, T.H. (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., St. Croix, Virgin Islands (USA). West Indies Lab.)

    1985-02-21

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  9. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Suchanek, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. (author)

  10. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  11. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  12. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  13. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  14. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  15. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  16. Leaching of artificial radionuclide out of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, R.V.; Osipova, I.V.; Sergeev, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides induced by neutron bombardment in natural silicates and silicophosphate of rare earth elements and calcium, is studied using gamma-spectrometry. It is shown that solution of minerals under the effect of artificial subsoil water at 75 deg C is incongruent character: difference in leaching of cobalt and actinides reaches value equal to two magnitudes. Behaviour of lanthanides as analogs of transplutonium elements is of special interest. Essential role of specimen microphase composition is pointed out. The suggested methodological approach is efficient at selection of matricies for fixaton of radioactive wastes

  17. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  18. Radionuclide measurements using resonantly enhanced collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes development of a laser-enhanced collisional ionization method for direct radionuclide measurements that are independent of radioactive decay. The technique uses two nitrogen-laser-pumped dye lasers to selectively excite the target isotope to an electronic state near the ionization threshold. The excited actinide atoms then undergo collisions with a buffer gas and are efficiently ionized. The resulting ions can be detected by conventional methods. The attributes of this approach include highly sensitive isotope analysis with relatively inexpensive lasers and a simple vacuum system. 9 refs., 3 figs

  19. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  20. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  1. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  2. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  4. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  5. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  6. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  7. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  8. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  9. Macrocyclic complexes of radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkowska, A.; Bilewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of radiometal-labeled small complexes and biomolecules as diagnostic and therapeutic agents is a relatively new area of medical research. Radiopharmaceuticals are radiolabeled molecules designed to deliver ionizing radiation doses to specific disease sites. Between the targeting biomolecule and a radionuclide a bifunctional ligand is inserted, one end of which is covalently attached to the targeting molecule either directly or through a linker whereas the other strongly coordinates a metallic radionuclide. Selection of a bifunctional ligand is largely determined by the nature and oxidation state of a metal ion. The metal chelate can significantly affect the tumor uptake and biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals based on small biomolecules. This is because in many cases the metal chelate contributes greatly to the overall size and lipophilicity of the radiopharmaceutical. Therefore, the design and selection of the ligand is very important for the development of a clinically useful therapeutic agent. The requirement for high thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the metal complex is often achieved through the use of macrocyclic ligands with a functionalized arm for covalent bonding to the biomolecule. In this review synthesis of bifunctional macrocyclic ligands and properties of radionuclide macrocyclic complexes used in nuclear medicine are presented. We describe results in two areas: substituted macrocyclic aza ligands for chelation of hard metal cations, and macrocycles containing sulphur for complexation of soft metal cations. Special attention was paid to stability of the complexes as well as to their lipophilicity, which affect biological properties of the formed radiopharmaceuticals. We also include a forecast of the near-term opportunities that are likely to determine practice in the next few years. (authors)

  10. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  11. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by means of GIS techniques. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work ...

  12. Effect of Organic Pollutants on Migration of Radionuclides in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, R.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study the effect of organic pollutants on the mobility of selected heavy metal (pb 2+ ) and radionuclide ( 60 Co) in an Egyptian agricultural soil and in a clay fraction separated from the soil. The effect of presence of natural organic compounds such as humic acid is also studied

  13. External exposure from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding factors have been calculated by the point kernel method by Riso National Laboratory for indoor residences in selected European single-family and multistory houses and outdoor residences in built-up urban areas. Parametric variations (thickness of outer and inner walls, floors and roofs) have been performed to identify the most important factors responsible for affording protection indoors against plume gamma radiation. Recommendations have been made for representative shielding factors. G S F considers three types of buildings: a house of prefabricated parts, a two storey semi-detached house, and a houseblock in two different urban surroundings. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo photon transport code SAM-CE. Shielding factors are calculated for the living rooms, basements and outside locations of the buildings. In France a representative sample of about twenty dwellings is defined in each of the 31 French 'departements' where a survey on housing characteristics has been conducted. Using Monte-Carlo techniques the shielding factors are calculated in these houses. The shielding factor distribution for a radionuclide is summarized in each 'departement' by a conservative average and by the two extreme values: the worst shielded apartment and the best one's. Furthermore two experimental campaigns have been made to validate the computer codes. These results are discussed not only according to the respective calculation method, but also to the considered housing characteristics. The differences which come from the methods are not negligible, but they are small compared to those which come from the housing characteristics. For similar main house parameters, a relatively good agreement between the results from the different calculation methods is found

  14. Concentration and speciation of radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The paper will describe three examples dealing with the measure of some natural (U, Th, 2 10Pb, 4 0K) and artificial ( 1 37Cs, 9 0Sr, 2 39 +2 40Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides in environmental samples such as mosses, sediments, soils. Extraction chromatography, liquid extraction, selective precipitation and electroplating were used to isolate the radionuclides, except for gamma emitters which were detected by gamma spectrometry. Alpha spectrometry were used to measure the alpha emitters and low background beta detector to measure the beta emitters

  15. The computer model development for radionuclide migration analysis in geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1998-01-01

    1-D numerical model for safety assessment of spent fuel disposal have been developed. The numerical solution with planar geometric was developed in order to solve mass transport in heterogenous geological media. In this paper, Crank-Nicolson method was discussed for solving of radionuclide migration equation. Demonstration was done for calculation of concentration distribution of several radionuclides in the exclusion zone. It was concluded that the exclusion zone was an important concept should be adopted in determination of disposal site. Site should be selected as far as possible from fracture or as long as possible exclusion zone. (author)

  16. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  17. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  18. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  19. Chemistry of groundwater and the migration process of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olteanu, Mirela; Popa, Aurelia; Crina, Bucur

    2001-01-01

    Establishing the criteria of selection of a host site for final repository of low and intermediate radioactive waste is based upon the study of two major components, the radioactivity diffusion in disposal site and the environmental impact. The hydrological characteristics of geological formation are the main factors that control radionuclides moving (migration), because, in general, the water is the natural way for dissolving and transport of these in environment. In interaction of the water with environment, the water is present like a dynamic and complex system, which contents dissolved or suspension of mineral and organic substances. Knowing the water-soil system interaction mechanism, the physical-chemical characteristics of each component in this system, the mobility in time of radionuclides, from the repository in environment can be estimated. In migration, the main problem is determination of transport rate of radionuclides in environment. (authors)

  20. Results of radionuclide ventriculography in normal children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Krejcir, M.; Ruth, C.

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the range of normal values in radionuclide ventriculography, 53 normal children and adolescents were selected in retrospect. All were exdamined by radionuclide angiocardiography on account of clinical and echocardiographical suspicion of congenital heart disease with a left-to-right shunt; a significant shunt was, however, excluded. In all patients, after equilibration of the radiopharmaceutical the ventricular function was examined by radionuclide ventriculography. The usual volume, time and rate characteristics were evaluated. The normal range was defined as the mean ±2 standard deviations which is 47 to 72% for the ejection fraction of the left ventricle and 31 to 56% for the ejection fraction of the right ventricle. (author). 2 tabs., 18 refs

  1. Oceanic distributions of radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Data on the transport of fallout radionuclides in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are reviewed. Relevance of water column fallout data to the disposal of radioactive waste in marine locations is discussed. It is pointed out that regional patterns of delivery of soluble radionuclides must be assumed to persist at least for decades, in spite of the homogenizing action of ocean current systems and that, although there are delays in relation to density discontinuities in the water column, particle-associated radionuclides are generally delivered directly to the sediment surface. The chemistry of particle association appears increasingly complex, in relation both to the element selectivity among kinds of particles, and the stability of the associations once formed, and regional conditions may lead to retention of Pu (and possibly other nuclides) in discrete layers or throughout the water column, in opposition to its general tendency to associate with particles

  2. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  3. The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1998-01-01

    The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management. The selection of the principal radionuclides in the high level waste (HLW) management was developed in order to improve the disposal scenario of HLW. In this study the unified criteria for selection of the principal radionuclides were proposed as; (1) the value of hazard index estimated by annual limit of intake (ALI) for long-term tendency,(2) the relative dose factor related to adsorbed migration rate transferred by ground water, and (3) heat generation in the repository. From this study it can be concluded that the principal radionuclides in the HLW management were minor actinide (MA=Np, Am, Cm, etc), Tc, I, Cs and Sr, based on the unified basic criteria introduced in this study. The remaining short-lived fission product (SLFPs), after the selected nuclides are removed, should be immobilized and solidified in a glass matrix. Potential risk due to the remaining SLFPs can be lower than that of uranium ore after about 300 year. (author)

  4. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten μl of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca * and Te * tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc * , Co * , Zn * , Se * , Rb * , and Eu * were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be * , Mn * , Sr * , Y * , Ba * , Ce * , Pm * , Gd * , Hf * , Yb * , Lu * , Os * , Ir * , and Pt * remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant tissues, though their translocation was considerably influenced by the plant species. (author)

  5. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  6. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  7. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  8. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  9. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  10. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  11. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  12. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  13. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  14. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  15. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  16. Decontamination of organic wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, T.J.; Pimblott, S.M.; Brown, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical oxidation treatment has been developed by Arvia Technology for organic wastes containing radionuclides, in which GIC-bisulphate is used as an adsorbent and electrode. Significant work has been carried out in the irradiation of graphite for medical and nuclear applications and in the use of carbonaceous adsorbents but knowledge of the applicability of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) in these roles is limited. This project will attempt to fill this gap. It will investigate the suitability of GIC-bisulphate as an adsorbent in an electrochemical treatment process for radioactive organic liquids. The process was initially used to treat waste-water from non-nuclear operations and now requires technical knowledge and research to adapt the treatment for the nuclear industry. Adsorption processes involving organic wastes containing mobile radionuclides such as 137 Cs are difficult to understand. The effects of gamma radiation on the chemistry of water and organics could complicate the treatment process further. To ensure the suitability and effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation treatment for radioactive organic wastes, the following effects are being investigated: -) radiolytic degradation of GIC-bisulphate in solution, -) leaching of intercalated ions due to gamma radiation, -) effect of gamma radiation on the adsorption of organics by GIC-bisulphate, -) changes in the sorption behaviour of radioactive contaminants, -) distribution coefficients of contaminants in organic and aqueous phases, and -) selective or competitive adsorption on graphite surface sites

  17. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  18. Development of TIGER code for radionuclide transport in a geochemically evolving region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    In a transuranic (TRU) waste geological disposal facility, using cementitious materials is being considered. Cementitious materials will gradually dissolve in groundwater over the long-term. In the performance assessment report of a TRU waste repository in Japan already published, the most conservative radionuclide migration parameter set was selected considering the evolving cementitious material. Therefore, a tool to perform the calculation of radionuclide transport considering long-term geochemically evolving cementitious materials, named the TIGER code, Transport In Geochemically Evolving Region was developed to calculate a more realistic performance assessment. It can calculate radionuclide transport in engineered and natural barrier systems. In this report, mathematical equations of this code are described and validated with analytical solutions and results of other codes for radionuclide transport. The more realistic calculation of radionuclide transport for a TRU waste geological disposal system using the TIGER code could be performed. (author)

  19. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  1. Radionuclides in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I in cow's milk from all Nordic countries for the NWF and the post-Chernobyl periods have previously been collated in an excel database. In 2004 the database was further extended by including new data from Finland, Sweden and Norway. In order to explain the time development of contamination in different Nordic regions dual regression analyses of some selected time-series were performed. Since the NWF period was subject to similar investigations in previous year's report, the present study focused on the post-Chernobyl period (1986-). Effective ecological half lives of Cs- 137 in milk from 12 regions were estimated. The fast component (T1) was about 1 year for all series (except Sandnessjoeen in Norway), while the slow component (T2) was more variable (7-13 years) - and in some cases not applicable. (au)

  2. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  3. Advances in process research by radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, A.; Vogg, H.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications and transformations of materials and their technical implementation in process systems require movement of materials. Radionuclide techniques can greatly help in understanding and describing these mechanisms. The specialized measuring technique is demonstrated by three examples selected from various fields of process technology. Radioactive tracer studies performed on a rotary kiln helped, inter alia, to establish a subdivision into process zones and to pinpoint areas of dust generation. Mixing and feeding actions were studied in a twin screw extruder equipped with a special screw and mixer disk arrangement. Tracer experiments conducted in two secondary settling basins indicate the differences in the mechanisms of movement of the aqueous phase if the mean residence time and the residence time distribution may be influenced not only by hydraulic loads, but also by design variants of the overflow flumes. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  5. Vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Chonkic, Lj.; Veskovic, M.; Hadzhic, V.

    1990-01-01

    Pedological profiles were opened at selected representative locations on different geomorphic types and in certain soil layers down to 3 m depth. The mechanical composition, hydro physical and chemical features were studied. The vertical distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs was analyzed during 1988 and 1989. The parameter alpha of the exponential dependence of activity concentration vs. depth were calculated for the three soil types, as well as the activity concentration of 137 Cs at depths of 1 and 3 m. The extent of 137 Cs migration was evaluated at these depths and it is shown that the coefficient α is proportional to the reciprocal of the time elapsed from the surface contamination. (author)

  6. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the 'generator' scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  7. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  8. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  9. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  10. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  11. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  12. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  13. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  15. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  16. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  17. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ( 238 U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 238 U can be found, and 238 U behavior in the environment and in the human body

  18. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  19. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  20. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  1. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  2. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  3. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Realistic assessment of the radiological impact due to radionuclide releases to the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    2007-01-01

    Radioecological models are inherently associated with uncertainties, since ecological parameters are subject to a more or less pronounced variability; furthermore, the knowledge of the exposure conditions is - even in the best case - incomplete. To keep models simple and widely applicable and to avoid at the same time underestimations, parameters are selected with a conservative bias. However, conservative results are not appropriate for decision making and optimisation. To discuss the prevention of overly conservative models, in this paper, some selected processes are analysed that are involved in the transfer of radionuclides in the environment as e.g. interception of radionuclides deposited during precipitation by vegetation, systemic transport of radionuclides, migration of radionuclides in soil and speciation in soil. These processes are characterized, and it is discussed which factors should be integrated in modelling to achieve more realistic results. (author)

  5. Physical and chemical factors influencing radionuclide behaviour in arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Vidal, M.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Cremers, A.; Wauters, J.; Valcke, E.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides integrates plant physiological and soil chemical aspects. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors affecting the equilibrium of the radionuclides between solid and soil solution phases. Desorption and adsorption studies were applied to the podsolic and peat soils considered in the ECP-2 project. In the desorption approach, both sequential extraction and 'infinite bath' techniques were used. In the adsorption approach, efforts were directed at predicting Cs and Sr-K D on the basis of soil properties and soil solution composition. Desorption approach predicts time-dynamics of transfer with time but it is un sufficient for comparatively predicting transfer. Adsorption studies informs about which are the key factors affecting radionuclide transfer. For Sr, availability depends on the CEC and on the concentration of the Ca + Mg in the soil solution. For Cs, availability is mainly dependent on the partitioning between FES -frayed edge sites-, which are highly specific and REC -regular exchange complex-, with low selectivity for Cs. Moreover, availability depends on the K and NH 4 , levels in the soil solution and fixation properties of the soil. Considering these factors, the calculation of the in situ K D values helps to predict the relative transfer of radionuclides. The calculation of the K D of the materials that could be used as countermeasures could permit the prediction of its suitability to decrease transfer and therefore to help in producing cleaner agricultural products

  6. Estimates of potential radionuclide migration at the Bullion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikowski, T.H.

    1992-04-01

    The Bullion site in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site has been selected for an intensive study of the hydrologic consequences of underground testing, including subsequent radionuclide migration. The bulk of the chimney and cavity lie in zeolitized tuffs of low hydraulic conductivity, while the base of the cavity may extend downward into more conductive rhyolite flows. A mathematical analog to the Bullion setting is used here to estimate expected radionuclide migration rates and concentrations. Because of a lack of hydrologic data at the site, two contrasting scenarios are considered. The first is downward-transport, in which downward hydraulic gradients flush chimney contents into the conductive underlying units, enhancing migration. The other is upward-transport, in which upward gradients tend to drive chimney contents into the low-conductivity zeolitized tuffs, discouraging migration. In the downward-transport scenario, radionuclide travel times and concentrations are predicted to be similar to those encountered at Cheshire, requiring approximately 10 years to reach a proposed well 300 m downgradient. The upward transport scenario yields predicted travel times on the order of 2,000 years to the downgradient well. The most likely scenario is a combination of these results, with vertical movement playing a limited role. Radionuclides injected directly into the rhyolites should migrate laterally very quickly, with travel times as in the downward-transport scenario. Those in the zeolitized tuff-walled portion of the chimney should migrate extremely slowly, as in the upward-transport scenario

  7. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  8. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  9. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  10. Radionuclide study of the joints in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonnikov, A.I.; Drozdovskij, B.Ya.; Ivanov, Yu.N.; Romagin, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic opportunities of scintigraphy with sup(113m)In- eluate in 49 rheumatoid arthritis patients with prevalent knee joint affections at the exudative-proliferative period of the disease have been studied. Selective accumulation of radionuclide in the inflammatory tissue forms the basis of the method. It is shown that the scintigraphic study (scintiscanning) with sup(113m)In allows to differentiate between the exudative ad exudative-proliferative stages of rheumatoid arthritis and to assess the results of medicamentary treatment

  11. Positron emitting radionuclides for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchbank, S.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Sharpey-Shafer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In South Africa there are currently two projects underway to supply and utilise positron emitting radionuclides for imaging in clinical nuclear medicine facilities. The advantages and applications of such radio nuclides are numerous and well known. However the premier initial application will be to employ 1BF, at first in the compound fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F)-FDG, for patients with cancers and neoplasms. The two projects are sited at iThemba LABS, where production of a generator supplying 66 Ga and the provision of ( 18 F]-FDG, are in an advanced state of planning; the former already fully financed by the Innovation Fund of the National Research Foundation. The two positron emitting radionuclides, 18 F and 68 Ge, will be produced using a cyclotron induced reaction on 1802 and Ga, respectively, at iThemba LABS. The 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator consists of an anion exchanger loaded with 68 Ge, which decays to 68 Ga. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals, ( 18 F]-FDG and 68 Ga citrate, will be produced by the Radionuclide Production Group of iThemba LABS, using well described methods. However the structures and processes to be used in the generator to provide 68 Ga are novel and will be explained. Initially provision of the CBF]-FDG will be to selected clinical medicine facilities in the Western Cape and Gauteng. It should be noted that the logistical problems of providing this radiopharmaceutical (which are much complicated by its short half life of 109.7 min) to Gauteng, were shown to be surmountable in the 1970s, by a regular delivery of 18 F between Gauteng and Cape Town, after the advent of a commercial service using jet aircraft. The obvious requirement that there should be appropriate nuclear medicine facilities to image patients, at the sites to which the positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals will be supplied, has been addressed. Proposed solutions will be outlined, in terms of a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) camera and a gamma

  12. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  13. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  14. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  15. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  16. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99 Mo- 99m Tc, 188 W- 188 Re and 68 Ge- 68 Ga. 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. 99m Tc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99m Tc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99 Mo- 99m Tc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99m Tc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99 Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al 2 O 3 . The yields of 99m Tc from experimental generators remained high

  17. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  18. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  19. Radionuclide evaluation of the liver in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Razzak, M.; El-Ashmawy, A.

    1982-01-01

    Hepatic involvement in diabetes has been previously demonstrated in experimental animals and in patients by clinical examination as well as by autopsy. The aim of the present work is to investigate the extent and type of hepatic involvement in diabetics by radionuclide scanning which is objective and not liable to the errors and difficulties inherent in the method of physical examination. The present study was performed on 40 diabetics, comprising 24 females and 16 males, aged between 17 and 80 years. Scanning was performed with 99m - Tc sulphur colloid using a rectilinear scanner and the gamma camera. The liver size was assessed from the scan pictures by the application of certain measurements and by surface area determination. The obtained results demonstrated marked discrepancy between the liver size as determined clinically and that evaluated by radionuclide scanning. By scintiscanning, the incidence of hepatic enlargement varied according to the parameter used. It amounted to 48% on the basis of the maximum vertical dimension and 37% with hepatic surface area measurement. Using the vertical dimension at halfway between the xiphoid and right lateral hepatic margin, the incidence of liver enlargement was 35%. Uneven distribution of radioactivity was seen in the right and/or left lobe in 20/40 patients. Furthermore, in 10 patients the ratio of hepatic to splenic radioactivity was below one. These changes could be explained by fatty infiltration and/or cirrhosis. Accordingly, hepatic scanning could be used to select diabetes having abnormal scan picture whether regarding liver dimensions or distribution of radioactivity and subjecting them to liver biopsy in order to define the nature of liver involvement. (Author)

  20. Decontamination of radionuclides on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuleev, P.V.; Andrews, W.S.; Creber, K.A.M.; Velicogna, D.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of materials can become contaminated by radionuclides, either from a terrorist attack or an industrial or nuclear accident. The final disposition of these materials depends, in large part, on the effectiveness of decontamination measures. This study reports on investigations into the decontamination of a selection of building materials. The aim has been to find an effective, easy-to-use and inexpensive decontamination system for radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, considering both the chemical and physical nature of these potential contaminants. The basic method investigated was surface washing, due to its ease and simplicity. In the present study, a basic decontamination formulation was modified by adding isotope-specific sequestering agents, to enhance the removal of cesium(I) and cobalt(II) from such construction materials as concrete, marble, aluminum and painted steel. Spiking solutions contained 134 Cs or 60 Co, which were prepared by neutron activation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility at the Royal Military College of Canada. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the decontamination efficiency. The results showed that the addition of sequestering agents generally improved the radiological decontamination. Although the washing of both cesium and cobalt from non-porous materials, such as aluminum and painted steel, achieved a 90-95 % removal, the decontamination of concrete and marble was more challenging, due to the porous nature of the materials. Nevertheless, the removal efficiency from 6-year-old concrete increased from 10 % to approximately 50 % for cobalt(II), and from 18 to 55 % for cesium(I), with the use of isotope binding agents, as opposed to a simple water wash. (author)

  1. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  2. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  3. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  4. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  5. Dosimetric characterization of radionuclides for systemic tumor therapy: Influence of particle range, photon emission, and subcellular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Ericsson, Thomas; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Various radionuclides have been proposed for systemic tumor therapy. However, in most dosimetric analysis of proposed radionuclides the charged particles are taken into consideration while the potential photons are ignored. The photons will cause undesirable irradiation of normal tissue, and increase the probability of toxicity in, e.g., the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties according to particle range, photon emission, and subcellular radionuclide distribution, of a selection of radionuclides used or proposed for radionuclide therapy, and to investigate the possibility of dividing radionuclides into groups according to their dosimetric properties. The absorbed dose rate to the tumors divided by the absorbed dose rate to the normal tissue (TND) was estimated for different tumor sizes in a mathematical model of the human body. The body was simulated as a 70-kg ellipsoid and the tumors as spheres of different sizes (1 ng-100 g). The radionuclides were either assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the entire tumor and normal tissue, or located in the nucleus or the cytoplasm of the tumor cells and on the cell membrane of the normal cells. Fifty-nine radionuclides were studied together with monoenergetic electrons, positrons, and alpha particles. The tumor and normal tissue were assumed to be of water density. The activity concentration ratio between the tumor and normal tissue was assumed to be 25. The radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons combined with a low photon contribution, and the alpha emitters showed high TND values for most tumor sizes. Electrons with higher energy gave reduced TND values for small tumors, while a higher photon contribution reduced the TND values for large tumors. Radionuclides with high photon contributions showed low TND value for all tumor sizes studied. The radionuclides studied could be divided into four main groups according to their TND values: beta emitters, Auger electron

  6. Identification of key radionuclides in a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Wood, B.J.

    1980-05-01

    Radionuclides were identified which appear to pose the greatest potential hazard to man during long-term storage of nuclear waste in a repository mined in the Columbia Plateau basalt formation. The criteria used to select key radionuclides were as follows: quantity of radionuclide in stored waste; biological toxicity; leach rate of the wastes into groundwater; and transport rate via groundwater flow. The waste forms were assumed to be either unreprocessed spent fuel or borosilicate glass containing reprocessed high-level waste. The nuclear waste composition was assumed to be that from a light water reactor. Radionuclides were ranked according to quantity, toxicity, and release rate from the repository. These rankings were combined to obtain a single list of key radionuclides. The ten most important radionuclides in order of decreasing hazard are: 99 Tc, 129 I, 237 Np, 226 Ra, 107 Pd, 230 Th, 210 Pb, 126 Sn, 79 Se, and 242 Pu. Safety assessment studies and the design of engineered barriers should concentrate on containment of radionuclides in this list

  7. EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACCUMULATION IN SOIL DUE TO LONG-TERM IRRIGATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wesley Wu

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide accumulation in soil due to long-term irrigation is an important part of the model for predicting radiation dose in a long period of time. The model usually assumes an equilibrium condition in soil with a constant irrigation rate, so that radionuclide concentration in soil does not change with time and can be analytically solved. This method is currently being used for the dose assessment in the Yucca Mountain project, which requires evaluating radiation dose for a period of 10,000 years. There are several issues associated with the method: (1) time required for the equilibrium condition, (2) validity of constant irrigation rate, (3) agricultural land use for a long period of time, and (4) variation of a radionuclide concentration in water. These issues are evaluated using a numerical method with a simple model built in the GoldSim software. Some key radionuclides, Tc-99, Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 are selected as representative radionuclides. The results indicate that the equilibrium model is acceptable except for a radionuclide that requires long time to accumulate in soil and that its concentration in water changes dramatically with time (i.e. a sharp peak). Then the calculated dose for that radionuclide could be overestimated using the current equilibrium method

  8. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  9. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  10. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  11. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  12. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  13. Capacity study of sorption of radionuclides 137Cs, 233U, 75Se and 60Co in concrete and mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, H.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Alonso, U.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.; Lopez, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider and mortar similar in composition to those used in the storage of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of the Cabril (Cordoba) and presents the results of tests of selected radionuclides sorption.

  14. Comparison of biospheric models of radionuclides transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Carrasco, E.

    1992-01-01

    The international BIOMOVS A4 exercise has made possible that a set of biospheric transfer models could predict the daily radionuclide concentration in soils, forage and some animal products (cow milk and beef) after the Chernobyl accident. The aim was to compare these predictions with experimental results in 13 locations around the world. The data provided were essentially the daily air contamination and precipitation and some site-dependent parameters. It was a blind test, the locations and experimental measures were not revealed in advance. Twenty-three models (quasi-steady state and time-dependent models) were involved in the study. In this paper an explicit criterion has been used in order to select the models that better fitted the experimental results. In nine selected locations a comparative analysis between these models has been carried out for obtaining the structural and parametric coincidences that could explain their relatively good performance. The first evidence obtained has been that a wide set of models were able to predict the order of magnitude of the nuclides time-integrated concentrations in several important biospheric comportments. But only a few models, all of them with a 'dynamical' structure, fitted the daily behavior with the reasonable agreement. The dynamical structure of the five most successful models at predicting for Caesium 137 (CIRCLE, ECOSYS, PATHWAY, PRYMA and RAGTIME) shows some common patterns that may be relevant for a better modelling of nuclear accident scenarios. (author)

  15. Interaction of radionuclides with diluvium loams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyanov, V.V.; Guskov, A.V.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Karlina, O.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Primary goal of this research was to study the interaction of radioactive liquid waste with diluvium loams. A geology-hydro-geological characterisation of the RADON-site facility, located in the Southern Region of Russia, is given. According to the results of laboratory and field studies, the hydro-geological parameters of diluvium loams were designed, and their mineral and grain structures were investigated. It was established, that loams have low filtration properties. Definition of filtration coefficients (Kf) under laboratory conditions has shown low values (hydraulic gradient J=10, Kf = 8.10 -4 m/day). But the field experiment has shown, that Kf values vary from 0.1 up to 0.04 m/day with a gradient of J=1! (It is important to point at the selection of the initial data for modelling migration). Mineral structure: quartz - 43 %, montmorillonite - 28 %, hydro-micas - 17 %, iron hydroxides - 5 %, feldspar - 3,7 %, kaolinite - 2 %, carbonates - 1 %, organics - 0,3 %. The content of minerals known as good sorbents, makes up to 52 %. Laboratory experiments dedicated to the determination of sorption isotherms for various radionuclides were carried out. As a result, distribution coefficients (Kd) for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were determined. Geology-hydro-geological and radiochemical data were used for the schematization of the system. Then, the mathematical modelling and forecasting of radionuclide migration was carried out. Two conservative scenarios were considered - full destruction of the waste matrices + water flow (lateral and vertical direction). As migrating components 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were considered. 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu have different mobility due to their Kd ranging from tens and hundreds up to thousand ml/g depending on the properties of the diluvium loams. Initial radionuclide concentrations were as follow: 137 Cs -1.32.10 8 Bq/l, 60 Co - 2.52.10 7 Bq/l, 90 Sr - 1.81.10 7 Bq/l, 238 Pu - 7.78.10 6

  16. A statistical study on scaling factors for radionuclide assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Myun

    1993-02-01

    To comply with the classification requirements listed in 10 CFR 61, operators of nuclear power plants are recommended to identify and quantify the concentration of several nuclids in low-level radioactive wastes(LLWs). Much of the specified radionuclides can not be easily measured in routine plant analyses. Many indirect methods has been suggested to determine the radionuclide concentrations upon which the waste classification is based. Such indirect methods include the use of scaling factors which infer the concentration of one radionuclide from another which can be measured easily. In this study, correlation analysis is performed to find out the important variables. Regression equations are attempted to provide a means of indirectly determining the concentration of the difficult-to-measure nuclides based on the result of the correlation analysis. Then residual analysis and the corresponding stepwise procedure are followed to check the regression model and select the best regression equation. The regression equation whose log mean dispersion is smaller than 10 is suggested as the appropriate correlation formula. Most of the quadratic regression equations are turned out to be able to use as a correlation formula. But, TRUs show log mean dispersions which are much larger than 10. It is concluded that the mechanisms of their formation and disappearance are much more complex. And it is also difficult to select the key nuclide. In the case of TRUs, further study is required to find out the relevant correlation formula

  17. Evaluation of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in TEMAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver, F.; Vazquez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability study of the best countermeasures for the restoration of environments contaminated by the accidental liberation of radionuclides, requires the assessment of the space and the temporal flow of radionuclides. The objective of the multinational project TEMAS (Techniques and Management Strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences), that is carried out under EU-CIEMAT contract n. TI4-CT95-0021, is the development of management tool that provides the necessary support in the selection of the best strategies of environmental restoration after a nuclear accident, considering all the possible affected environments (urban, agricultural, semi natural and forest). In the forest environment,CIEMAT is working with the University of Lund (Sweden) and the Physical Science Faculty of the University of Seville in the prognosis of the distribution of Cesium and Strontium in forest ecosystems and through the associated production systems. This paper summarizes the study of the response of two different models, FORM and FORESTPATH to predict the radionuclides flow in the event of an accidental contamination of a forest. The comparison of results has been carried out over a period of 100 years after deposition on a coniferous forest. Although the approaches are different, the results obtained (using generic parameters) indicate that either model could to be selected for the analysis of the intervention in TEMAS. (Author) 14 refs

  18. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten {mu}l of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca{sup *} and Te{sup *} tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc{sup *}, Co{sup *}, Zn{sup *}, Se{sup *}, Rb{sup *}, and Eu{sup *} were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be{sup *}, Mn{sup *}, Sr{sup *}, Y{sup *}, Ba{sup *}, Ce{sup *}, Pm{sup *}, Gd{sup *}, Hf{sup *}, Yb{sup *}, Lu{sup *}, Os{sup *}, Ir{sup *}, and Pt{sup *} remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant

  19. Removal of heavy metals and radionuclides by seeded magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Norrell, G.; Hemmings, R.L.; Bradbury, D.; Dunn, M.J.; Kalinauskas, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of traces of heavy metal or radionuclide contamination from solution at high flow rate presents a considerable technical challenge. Low flow methods of treatment such as particle gravity settling require expensive large volume equipment, whereas traditional methods of filtration can cause significant energy costs. Magnetic filtration can be used to provide a low cost method of solid-liquid separation at high flow rate, provided contaminants can be selectively bound to a magnetic solid particle. This paper describes the use of such selective magnetic particles made up of inorganic particles coupled with organic polymers

  20. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  1. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  3. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  4. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  6. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  7. Economic and technical assay of the application of radionuclide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, F.G.

    1976-05-01

    The dynamically loaded components of combustion engines undergo wear during operation as a function of the operating points and the operating parameters selected. Radionuclide measurement methods developed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the LIT laboratory of Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung allow to determine the wear of machine components during operation, contrary to conventional length measurement techniques. In the first part of this work the existing wear problems will be analyzed and investigations will be made into the capacities of conventional and radionuclide measurement methods. Based on this, a cost-benefit analysis system was developed for evaluation under technical and economical aspects of the use of different measurement methods allowing to solve detailed wear problems. This system furnishes results on the respective optimum wear measurement method relating to the actual problem and taking into account the relevant technical and economical boundary conditions. (orig.) [de

  8. Association of radionuclides with streambed sediments in White Oak Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Cerling, T.E.

    1979-09-01

    Radionuclides are found in much higher concentrations on streambed sediment than in the water of White Oak Creek. Selective extraction of sediments demonstrates that 60 Co is immobilized in a nonexchangeable form in the ferromanganese hydrous oxide coatings on the sediments; 90 Sr occurs predominantly in an exchangeable form on clay, iron oxides, and ferromanganese hydrous oxides; 137 Cs occurs in a nonexchangeable and strongly bound form on clays which compose the dominant rock (Conasauga shale) in the watershed. The fine-gravel to coarse-sand size fraction of streambed sediments is the most suitable fraction for radionuclide analysis because of its abundance in the sediment and its high concentration of radionuclides compared to larger and smaller size fractions. A preliminary survey of all major tributes in White Oak Creek shows that radionuclide analysis of streambed sediments is a very useful technique to locate sources of radioactive contamination

  9. Applications of extraction chromatography in the development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of 212 Bi, 90 Y, and 213 Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators

  10. Natural radionuclides in an eucalyptus forest located in the south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, F.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    2001-01-01

    Eucalyptus forests can be considered as the main source of raw material for the pulp industry of Spain. This environment was selected for a radioactivity study because natural and artificial radionuclides can be transferred into the pulp mills, associated with raw material, wood and barks, where they are concentrated by industrial processes, becoming a cause of doses. Radionuclide concentration of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 234 U, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th) were determined by alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. Well-established radiochemical procedures were applied to environmental samples in order to isolate these radionuclides. A comparison between 228 Th activity, determined by gamma-spectrometry, and 232 Th activity, determined by alpha-spectrometry, was used as quality control parameter for analyses. The concentration factors were finally evaluated from experimental data.

  11. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  12. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  13. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  14. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  15. Concentration of radionuclides in uranium tailings and its uptake by plants at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Lal; Soni, Prafulla

    2010-01-01

    Mining and processing of uranium ore was started in several parts of eastern Singhbhum, viz. Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar (Jharkhand) in 1968. Radioactivity in the mine tailings has to be consolidated so that it does not emanate in the atmosphere or enter the food chain. Hence, the area has been covered with 30 cm thick soil cover followed by development of plant species that do not have any socioeconomic relevance in the area. Seven native plant species of forestry origin, viz. Colebrookea oppositifolia, Dodonaea viscosa, Furcraea foetida, Imperata cylindrica, Jatropha gossypifolia, Pogostemon benghalense and Saccharum spontaneum have been selected for experimental trials. Distribution and concentration of radionuclides have been evaluated in a tailing pond at different depths in soil and tailings. Radionuclide uptake in each of the selected plant species has been evaluated and discussed in this article. The highest concentration of radionuclides has been found in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among the seven species tried, J. gossypifolia and F. foetida have the lowest uptake (below detectable limits), while S. spontaneum and P. benghalense have comparatively higher uptake. However, radionuclide concentration in all the tried species is significantly low compared to species of natural occurrence which have higher radionuclides uptake and accumulation. (author)

  16. Concentration of radionuclides in uranium tailings and its uptake by plants at Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Lal; Soni, Prafulla [Ecology and Environment Div., Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India)

    2010-01-10

    Mining and processing of uranium ore was started in several parts of eastern Singhbhum, viz. Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar (Jharkhand) in 1968. Radioactivity in the mine tailings has to be consolidated so that it does not emanate in the atmosphere or enter the food chain. Hence, the area has been covered with 30 cm thick soil cover followed by development of plant species that do not have any socioeconomic relevance in the area. Seven native plant species of forestry origin, viz. Colebrookea oppositifolia, Dodonaea viscosa, Furcraea foetida, Imperata cylindrica, Jatropha gossypifolia, Pogostemon benghalense and Saccharum spontaneum have been selected for experimental trials. Distribution and concentration of radionuclides have been evaluated in a tailing pond at different depths in soil and tailings. Radionuclide uptake in each of the selected plant species has been evaluated and discussed in this article. The highest concentration of radionuclides has been found in tailings > soil cover on tailings > roots of selected plant species > shoots of all the selected species. These results show that among the seven species tried, J. gossypifolia and F. foetida have the lowest uptake (below detectable limits), while S. spontaneum and P. benghalense have comparatively higher uptake. However, radionuclide concentration in all the tried species is significantly low compared to species of natural occurrence which have higher radionuclides uptake and accumulation. (author)

  17. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  18. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  19. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  20. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  1. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  2. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  3. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  4. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  5. Quality assurance in radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.; Voelkle, H.; Wershofen, H.; Wilhelm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors are members of an ad-hoc working group preparing a contribution to the procedures manual (''Loseblattsammlung'') dealing with quality assurance and quality control in radionuclide laboratories. The Loseblattsammlung is edited by the working group ''Environmental Monitoring'' of the German-Swiss Radiological Protection Association. The intention of the manual under preparation is not to give a procedure on how to establish a quality management system allowing for an accreditation in accordance with the international standard DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 04 (''ISO 17025'') [1] but to compile routine quality control procedures necessary for reliable measurements and to give tips to the practitioner on how to keep both the extent and the frequency of procedures on a reasonable level. A short version of the Loseblatt is presented here. (orig.)

  6. Placental transfer of other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.-E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper comments upon some basic principles of the transfer of radioactive substances in human beings to the embryo and fetus and their age-dependence. These principles may apply to the main effects currently known from the uptake, accumulation, retention and excretion of those radioactive substances, which may be of special interest in assessing the dose and therefore the risk of exposure in nuclear medicine, in connection with environmental problems of nuclear power production as well as nuclear explosions. As an example the age-dependence of several typical radionuclides and their age-dependence during the development of the human embryo and fetus and its correlation to observations on several animal species are presented. 30 refs.; 5 figs

  7. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  8. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  9. Radionuclide diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.I.; Gerasimov, V.G.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Narkevich, B.Ya.; Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Krotovskij, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenesis of vasculogenic impotence is most adequately revealed by modern methods of the investigation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of erection with the enhancement of arterial perfusion of corpora cavernosa by artificial sexual stimulation. Radionuclide diagnostic methods effectively differ from the methods of radiocontrast phalloangiography by the simplicity of investigation and the absence of traumatism for a patient. The authors have proposed a mathematical model of a process of filling in the functioning volume of the penile vascular bed with a radiopharmaceutical prepation against the background of erection induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine hydrochloride solution. Parameters of the model determine the ratio of blood flow volumetric rates in the penis at rest and when erect

  10. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  11. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  12. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  13. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  14. Radionuclides of Chernobyl origin in the plants of Western Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabovskyy, V.; Dzendzelyuk, O.; Kateryncuk, I.; Furgala, Yu.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of studies for the radionuclide contents in the plants originated from the territories under the influence of Chernobyl disaster, which have been performed for 1994-2003 with gamma-spectrometric methods. Samples of plants for researches have been taken from the territories of Volyn and Rivne regions and analysed by using a gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a low-level Ge(Li) detector. The radiocaesium contamination density of the soils varies from 2 kBq/m 2 up to 18 kBq/m 2 . The features of radiocaesium accumulation by the representatives of different kinds of plants from the Shatsk National Natural Park (Volyn region) and the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transition have been analysed, including mosses and lichens, medicinal herbs, as well as some kinds of berries. For eliminating the influence of seasonal variations, the samples for testing the radionuclide contamination have been taken annually at the first half of July. In order to determine the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer factors (defined as a ratio of isotope content in the plant to the relevant content in the top 20 cm layer of the soil), the soil samples from the places of vegetation of the plants have been selected and their contamination density have been determined, too. The values of the obtained transfer factors has allowed us to arrange the plants under test into a number of groups according to the capacity of radiocaesium absorption, with very weak, weak, moderate, strong and very strong accumulation levels. In particular, the leaves of blueberry, red blueberry, great blueberry, crystal tea ledum and ling should be referred to the group of plants with a strong accumulation level. Different vegetative organs of plants also manifest different capacities to absorb the radiocaesium. In case of blueberry, for example, the vegetative organs can be arranged in a following series: leaf-root-berry-corms, according to decreasing accumulation of the radio-caesium. As a matter of

  15. Behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil-plant systems of the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, C.; Papanicolaou, E.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project are the selection of regions in Greece with high degree of contamination and sampling of the main soil types - in various depths - and of the cultivated or indigenous plants grown on them; determination of the physicochemical parameters of the soil samples and the radionuclide concentration, especially of 137 Cs, in the soil and plant samples; greenhouse experimentation with selected soil types and main agricultural crops to establish uptake rates, and laboratory studies to investigate translocation of radionuclides within undisturbed soil columns; correlation of analytical and experimental data and calculation of transfer factors from soil to plants and various products. (R.P.) 12 refs

  16. Evaluation of the absorbed doses in conditions of external and internal contamination with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, K.; Stojanovic, D.; Markovic, P.

    1981-01-01

    In experimental conditions of contamination with radionuclides of the skin and skin injuries, an evaluation of the degree of local irradiation in decontamined region and doses absorbed in organs of selective accumulating was carried out by use of mathematical models and tissue-equivalent thermoluminescent dosemeters. The evaluation of the absorbed doses based on conception, that in adequate analyses of decontamination effect, as a most efficient medico-prophilactic measure from local and total irradiation, should be taken into account the total body burden of the penetrated radionuclide, selective accumulating in critical organs or tissues, as well as the residual radioactivity in decontaminated region. (author)

  17. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  18. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  19. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  20. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry

  1. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    loci of the maxima of Y(E,ΔE) curves are present in most cases. As a relevant conclusion, use of target thickness larger than the 'effective' value, is unsuitable from technological point of view, due to larger power density deposited by the beam in target material itself, instead of target cooling system. Finally, this set of Thick-Target Yields and maxima permits calculating the optimum irradiation conditions to produce radionuclides with higher as possible yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity. In order to join the advantages of the accurate knowledge of thin-target excitation functions and cross-sections of radionuclide of interest and its radioisotopic impurities, very selective radiochemical separations were optimized to separate the radionuclide itself from the irradiated target without any addition of isotopic carrier. A large number of very high specific activity radionuclides for environmental, toxicological and biomedical research applications have been produced in No Carrier Added form, by medium energy proton, deuteron and alpha accelerating cyclotrons. Some practical examples of radionuclides produced recently are presented. (author)

  2. Comparative study of the radionuclide uptake and distribution within plants for barley and maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the Cs-134 and Sr-85 uptake by three barley and two maize varieties were investigated in a water culture experiment. In barley, the maximum differences were about 30% for cesium and 50% for strontium. The differences between the maize varieties were negligible. The maximum difference between the varieties of the two species of crops was approximately 30% for cesium and 1 70% for strontium with higher radionuclide uptake by maize. All barley varieties accumulated cesium nearly 3.5 times more effectively than strontium, whereas for the maize varieties, cesium was accumulated about 2 times more effectively. There is a large difference in the radionuclide distribution within the plants: the amount of radiocesium in the green part of plants of both species was approximately 30% of the total, while for radiostrontium it was about 80%. As a result, approximately the same amount of the radionuclides were present in the green part of plants, despite the large difference in the uptake of the radionuclides by the whole plants. It is concluded that crop selection as a provision to reduce radionuclide contamination of the food chain should only be applied taking into account the different radionuclide distributions within the plants

  3. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ''uranium'' and 4n+3 ''actinium'' decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides

  4. Dispersion of long-lived radionuclides from uranium mining, milling and fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.L.

    1990-11-01

    The principal aim of the study was to gain further insight into the environmental dispersion of long-lived U series radionuclides from selected part of the nuclear fuel cycle and to assess the resulting exposure of members of the public. The specific objectives of this study were: 1. To determine the levels of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of two U deposits in Sweden and to establish whether U prospecting had generated significant radiological impact on man. 2. To investigate the spatial distributions of long-lived U series radionuclides caused by the dispersion of dust from the Ranger open-pit U mine in Australia. 3. To study the uptakes of long-lived U and T series radionuclides by the waterlily in order to facilitate assessment of natural exposures to the public and predictions of exposures arising from consumption of the plant due to any subsequent discharges of water from the Ranger U mine. 4. To investigate the spatial distributions of U isotopes in environmental air as a result of the release of radionuclides from the ABB-ATOM nuclear fuel factory at Vaesteraas in Sweden. In these investigations special emphasis was given to - activity ratio techniques suitable for distinguishing between natural and operation-related concentrations and for facilitating determination of the source of radionuclide uptake in the waterlily, and - the use of passive air samplers such as 'sticky vinyl' and bioindicators in investigating the aerial dispersion of radionuclides. (author)

  5. Uptake of some radionuclides by woody plants growing in the rainforest of Western Ghats in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P.K.; Chandar Shekar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K, and the fallout radionuclide 210 Po to different wild plant species in the rainforest of Western Ghats was analyzed. A number of physiologically different plants from the top storey and understorey, such as shrubs and epiphytes, were compared. The concentrations of these radionuclides in the plants and soil were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer and an alpha counter, and were found to vary widely within plants and between species. The soil-plant ratios also varied between species while Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants exhibited preferential uptake of these radionuclides. As a result, the dust particles trapped in the root systems of epiphytes could be used as bioindicators of fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. - Highlights: • Predominant plants species of the region were selected for analysis. • CR Model was employed to these plants spices. • Two plants were indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. • Bioindicator was identified in the Western Ghats Environment

  6. Change in radionuclide content of crops as a result of food preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Nicholson, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides, including 3 H, 14 C and 35 S, are periodically and routinely discharged from nuclear powered electricity generation sites and it is important to assess the radiological impact of such discharges on humans due to food consumption. Foodstuffs may be cooked before being eaten and this can change their radionuclide content. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a range of domestic food preparation techniques on the radionuclide contents of a range of food types. Radionuclide concentrations of tritium (free tritium, HTO, and organically bound tritium, (OBT), 14 C and 35 S were examined in a selection of fruit and vegetables that would form part of a typical diet. The foodstuffs included blackberries, broad beans, cabbages, carrots and potatoes (at two stages of development). The preparation techniques included boiling (potatoes, carrots, broad beans), roasting (potatoes), steaming (cabbage), or stewing (blackberries). In general, the radionuclide concentrations were reduced at the crops by at least 30% after preparation using any of the cooking techniques. The concentrations of 35 S fell by at least 60%, and this radionuclide showed the greatest reductions in the levels of HTO and 35 S. The results of this work indicate that the effects of cooking should be considered when assessing the dose received from the intake of foodstuffs. (Author)

  7. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  9. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  10. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  11. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  12. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  13. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  14. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  15. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  16. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.V.; Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10 4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 10 2 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- 32 P, M- 131 I, M- 99 Mo+ 99m Tc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2+ ) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6+ ). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134 , 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co and 129 I in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)

  17. GIS Modelling of Radionuclide Transport from the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakay, L.; Zakarin, E.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the software complex GIS-project MigRad (Migration of Radionuclide) was developed, tested and applied for the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site/ polygon (Republic of Kazakhstan), where since 1961, in total 348 underground nuclear explosions were conducted. The MigRad is oriented on integration of large volumes of different information (mapping, ground-based, and satellite-based survey): and also includes modeling on its base local redistribution of radionuclides by precipitation and surface waters and by long-range transport of radioactive aerosols. The existing thermal anomaly on territory of the polygon was investigated in details, and the object-oriented analysis was applied for the studied area. Employing the RUNOFF model, the simulation of radionuclides migration with surface waters was performed. Employing the DERMA model, the simulation of long-term atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition patterns for cesium was conducted from 3 selected locations (Balapan, Delegen, and Experimental Field). Employing geoinformation technology, the mapping of the of the high temperature zones and epicenters of radioactive aerosols transport for the territory of the test site was carried out with post-processing and integration of modelling results into GIS environment. Contamination levels of pollution due to former nuclear explosions for population and environment of the surrounding polygon territories of Kazakhstan as well as adjacent countries were analyzed and evaluated. The MigRad was designed as instrument for comprehensive analysis of complex territorial processes influenced by former nuclear explosions on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. It provides possibilities in detailed analyses for (i) extensive cartographic material, remote sensing, and field measurements data collected in different level databases; (ii) radionuclide migration with flows using accumulation and redistribution of soil particles; (iii) thermal anomalies

  18. A new approach to nuclear fuel safeguard enhancement through radionuclide profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Aaron Dawon

    The United States has led the effort to promote peaceful use of nuclear power amongst states actively utilizing it as well as those looking to deploy the technology in the near future. With the attraction being demonstrated by various countries towards nuclear power comes the concern that a nation may have military aspirations for the use of nuclear energy. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established nuclear safeguard protocols and procedures to mitigate nuclear proliferation. The work herein proposed a strategy to further enhance existing safeguard protocols by considering safeguard in nuclear fuel design. The strategy involved the use of radionuclides to profile nuclear fuels. Six radionuclides were selected as identifier materials. The decay and transmutation of these radionuclides were analyzed in reactor operation environment. MCNPX was used to simulate a reactor core. The perturbation in reactivity of the core due to the loading of the radionuclides was insignificant. The maximum positive and negative reactivity change induced was at day 1900 with a value of 0.00185 +/- 0.00256 and at day 2000 with -0.00441 +/- 0.00249, respectively. The mass of the radionuclides were practically unaffected by transmutation in the core; the change in radionuclide inventory was dominated by natural decay. The maximum material lost due to transmutation was 1.17% in Eu154. Extraneous signals from fission products identical to the radionuclide compromised the identifier signals. Eu154 saw a maximum intensity change at EOC and 30 days post-irradiation of 1260% and 4545%, respectively. Cs137 saw a minimum change of 12% and 89%, respectively. Mitigation of the extraneous signals is cardinal to the success of the proposed strategy. The predictability of natural decay provides a basis for the characterization of the signals from the radionuclide.

  19. Characterization of released radionuclides in the gas phase during cutting and dissolution of irradiated fuel elements of CANDU type reactors at EUREX pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, G.; Castellani, F.; Curzio, G.; Gentili, A.; Pieve, L.

    1982-01-01

    This article deals with measurements on off-gas during reprocessing of Pickering spent fuel elements. On-line equipment, samplers and analysis systems are described. Airborne particulates collected on filters and iodine 129 collected on impregnated charcoal are analyzed by gamma spectrometry, krypton 85 is analyzed by on-line gamma counting and tritium by radiochromatography. Activity and concentration are given for each isotope during mechanical process and dissolution and for the gaseous effluent in the different sampling points. Results are compared with activity in the spent fuel calculated by the ORIGEN code

  20. Research progess on treatment of cancer with targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jiawen; Zhang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    The new development and situation of targeted radionuclide therapy in oncology is described, which include radioimmunotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, gene therapy and radionuclide labled chemotherapeutics therapy. The application research on labled carrier of those therapy is emphasized. Meanwhile, the research progess of indomethacin and its combined with targeted radionuclide therapy is also described. (authors)