Sample records for selected methodological mineralogical

  1. Thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks - selected methodological, mineralogical and textural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttoemme, Kirsti


    The thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks is an important parameter in basin modelling as the main parameter controlling the temperature within a sedimentary basin. This thesis presents measured thermal conductivities, mainly on clay- and mudstone. The measured values are compared with values obtained by using thermal conductivity models. Some new thermal conductivity models are developed based on the measured values. The values obtained are less than most previously published values. In a study of unconsolidated sediments a constant deviation was found between thermal conductivities measured with a needle probe and a divided bas apparatus. Accepted thermal conductivity models based on the geometric mean model fail to predict the thermal conductivity of clay- and mudstone. Despite this, models based on the geometric mean model, where the effect of porosity is taken account of by the geometric mean equation, seem to be the best. Existing models underestimate the textural influence on the thermal conductivity of clay- and mudstone. The grain size was found to influence the thermal conductivity of artificial quartz samples. The clay mineral content seems to be a point of uncertainty in both measuring and modelling thermal conductivity. A good universal thermal conductivity model must include many mineralogical and textural factors. Since this is difficult, different models restricted to specific sediment types and textures are suggested to be the best solution to obtain realistic estimates applicable in basin modelling. 243 refs., 64 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. SHRS RRCL selection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, J E; Delaney, H M


    The CRBRP Safety Related Reliability Program requires a listing of those design items whose failure would impact the ability of the plant for a safe shutdown or shutdown heat removal mission. This listing is referred to as the Reliability Related Components List (RRCL) and heretofore, has been based on sound engineering judgement. As a check for completeness and as a means of providing a probabilistic-based rationale for component selection, this report presents a methodology by which this selection can be made for each of the decay heat removal loops comprising the Shutdown Heat Removal System (SHRS) using existing EG and G fault tree models.

  3. Mineralogy of agricultural soil of selected regions of South Western Karnataka, Peninsular India. (United States)

    Smitha, P G; Byrappa, K; Ranganathaiah, C


    Agricultural soils of selected regions of Southwestern Karnataka, Peninsular India, were subjected to systematic mineralogical characterization along with the study of soil physical properties. Physical properties such as soil texture and micro porosity were studied using particle size analyses and positron annihilation lifetime analysis (PALS) technique, respectively. The latter was used to analyze micro porosity of agricultural soil. Both major and minor minerals were identified and confirmed by some analytical techniques like thin section study, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  4. Selecting the best defect reduction methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barkan, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Defect rates less than 10 parts per million, unimaginable a few years ago, have become the standard of world-class quality. To reduce defects, companies are aggressively implementing various quality methodologies, such as Statistical Quality Control Motorola`s Six Sigma, or Shingo`s poka-yok. Although each quality methodology reduces defects, selection has been based on an intuitive sense without understanding their relative effectiveness in each application. A missing link in developing superior defect reduction strategies has been a lack of a general defect model that clarifies the unique focus of each method. Toward the goal of efficient defect reduction, we have developed an event tree which addresses a broad spectrum of quality factors and two defect sources, namely, error and variation. The Quality Control Tree (QCT) predictions are more consistent with production experience than obtained by the other methodologies considered independently. The QCT demonstrates that world-class defect rates cannot be achieved through focusing on a single defect source or quality control factor, a common weakness of many methodologies. We have shown that the most efficient defect reduction strategy depend on the relative strengths and weaknesses of each organization. The QCT can help each organization identify the most promising defect reduction opportunities for achieving its goals.

  5. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

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    Bartholomay, R.C.


    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. A Selection Methodology for the RTOS Market (United States)

    Melanson, P.; Tafazoli, S.

    In past years, the market of Operating Systems (OS) has been quite active. One of those key markets is to support embedded real-time applications in which the OS must guarantee the timeliness as well as the correctness of the processing. Many OS claim to be Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS), but often, it is only by reviewing the OS specifications or detailed information that one can truly identify the OS that enables real- time applications. Designers are faced with and impressive task when selecting an RTOS for their space mission. Whether for historical reasons or due to the rapid evolution of the RTOS market, it appears that RTOS are not evaluated for each mission but rather imposed. Although reasons for imposing this choice can be well justified, other times one is left to wonder if the lack of evaluation to mission requirements can lead to increased risks down the road. How does one select the proper RTOS for space missions, which will a) meet the requirements, b) correspond with the knowledge and expertise of the staff and c) continue to be a strategic choice for the future? The purpose of this paper is to compare commercially available RTOS that are suitable for space missions requiring hard real-time capabilities. It is our belief that this research identifies the important products for space missions and presents a methodology to select the appropriate RTOS that will meet design requirements and other relevant criteria. Lastly, the paper will present the volatility of the market in the past two years and determine the implications for embedded systems used in space missions. 1

  7. Magnetic properties and opaque mineralogy of rocks from selected seafloor hydrothermal sites at oceanic ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.L. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States) NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)); Harrison, C.G.A. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)); Rona, P.A. (NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)); Haggerty, S.E. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States))


    Magnetic properties (natural remanent magnetization, susceptibility, Curie point temperature, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, and Koeenigsberger ratio) and opaque mineralogy were determined for basalts, diabases, gabbros, peridotites, and serpentinites collected by dredging and submersible from the rift valley at five hydrothermal sites (the Snake Pit hydrothermal field, the Tag hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field on the northern Gorda Ridge). Evidence for unequivocal magnetic mineral modification by hydrothermal action is present only in a small percentage of extrusive basalts but is pervasive in diabases, gabbros, and ultramafic rocks. The studies reveal distinct correlations between magnetization intensity, thermomagnetic behavior, and magnetic mineralogy, grain size, style, and intensity of alteration and rock type. Layer 2A basalts are the source of median valley magnetic anomalies. The magnetic source may shift from the surface to deeper horizons with progressive seafloor aging and enhanced deuteric oxidation in layer 2B dikes and layer 3 gabbros and the formation of magnetite in derpentinized peridotites. This shift is influenced by fluctuations in the Curie isotherm related to the duration of active magma chambers and convective hydrothermal cells. The magnetic and mineralogic properties of oceanic rocks determined show the effects of a wide range of alteration processes that are variously related to depth in oceanic lithosphere, magmatic cooling history, and hydrothermal circulation.

  8. Airfoil selection methodology for Small Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgado Fuentes, Valentin; Troya, Cesar; Moreno, Gustavo


    On wind turbine technology, the aerodynamic performance is fundamental to increase efficiency. Nowadays there are several databases with airfoils designed and simulated for different applications; that is why it is necessary to select those suitable for a specific application. This work presents ...

  9. Efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development (United States)

    Mahayadin, A. R.; Shahriman, A. B.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Z. M.; Faizi, M. K.; Harun, A.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Ibrahim, I.; Saad, M. A. M.; Rani, M. F. H.; Zunaidi, I.; Sahari, M.; Sarip, M. S.; Razali, M. Q. H. A.


    Driving cycle is a series of data points representing the speed of vehicle versus time and used to determine the performance of vehicle in general. One of the critical portions of driving cycle development is route selection methodology. This paper describes the efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development. Previous data from JKR Road Traffic Volume Malaysia (RTVM) in 2015 is studied and analysed to propose the methodology in route selection. The selected routes are then analysed by using Google Maps. For each region, four (4) routes are selected for each urban and rural. For this paper, the selection of route is focused on northern region of Malaysia specifically in Penang. Penang is chosen for this study because it is one of the developed state in Malaysia that has many urban and rural routes. The methods of route selection constructed in this study could be used by other region to develop their own driving cycles.

  10. The effects of AVIRIS atmospheric calibration methodology on identification and quantitative mapping of surface mineralogy, Drum Mountains, Utah (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Dwyer, John L.


    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) measures reflected light in 224 contiguous spectra bands in the 0.4 to 2.45 micron region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Numerous studies have used these data for mineralogic identification and mapping based on the presence of diagnostic spectral features. Quantitative mapping requires conversion of the AVIRIS data to physical units (usually reflectance) so that analysis results can be compared and validated with field and laboratory measurements. This study evaluated two different AVIRIS calibration techniques to ground reflectance: an empirically-based method and an atmospheric model based method to determine their effects on quantitative scientific analyses. Expert system analysis and linear spectral unmixing were applied to both calibrated data sets to determine the effect of the calibration on the mineral identification and quantitative mapping results. Comparison of the image-map results and image reflectance spectra indicate that the model-based calibrated data can be used with automated mapping techniques to produce accurate maps showing the spatial distribution and abundance of surface mineralogy. This has positive implications for future operational mapping using AVIRIS or similar imaging spectrometer data sets without requiring a priori knowledge.

  11. A case on vendor selection methodology: An integrated approach

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    Nikhil C. Shil


    Full Text Available Vendor selection methodology is a highly researched area in supply chain management l terature and a very significant decision taken by supply chain managers due to technological advances in the manufacturing process. Such research has two basic dimensions: one is related to the identification of variables affecting the performance of the vendors and the other deals with the methodology to be applied. Most of the research conducted in this area deal with the upfront selection of vendors. However, it is very common to have a list of dedicated vendors due to the development of sophisticated production technologies like just in time (JIT, a lean or agile manufacturing process where continuous flow of materials is a requirement. This paper addresses the issue of selecting the optimal vendor from the internal database of a company. Factor analysis, analytical hierarchy process and regression analysis is used in an integrated way to supplement the vendor selection process. The methodology presented here is simply a proposal where every possible room for adjustment is available.

  12. How to Select a Questionnaire with a Good Methodological Quality? (United States)

    Paiva, Saul Martins; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Ortiz, Fernanda Ruffo; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio


    In the last decades, several instruments have been used to evaluate the impact of oral health problems on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of individuals. However, some instruments lack thorough methodological validation or present conceptual differences that hinder comparisons with instruments. Thus, it can be difficult to clinicians and researchers to select a questionnaire that accurately reflect what are really meaningful to individuals. This short communication aimed to discuss the importance of use an appropriate checklist to select an instrument with a good methodological quality. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was developed to provide tools for evidence-based instrument selection. The COSMIN checklist comprises ten boxes that evaluate whether a study meets the standard for good methodological quality and two additional boxes to meet studies that use the Item Response Theory method and general requirements for results generalization, resulting in four steps to be followed. In this way, it is required at least some expertise in psychometrics or clinimetrics to a wide-ranging use of this checklist. The COSMIN applications include its use to ensure the standardization of cross-cultural adaptations and safer comparisons between measurement studies and evaluation of methodological quality of systematic reviews of measurement properties. Also, it can be used by students when training about measurement properties and by editors and reviewers when revising manuscripts on this topic. The popularization of COSMIN checklist is therefore necessary to improve the selection and evaluation of health measurement instruments.



    Alberto De Marco; Muhammad Jamaluddin Thaheem


    Project Risk Management (PRM) is gaining attention from researchers and practitioners in the form of sophisticated tools and techniques to help construction managers perform risk management. However, the large variety of techniques has made selecting an appropriate solution a complex and risky task in itself. Accordingly, this study proposes a practical framework methodology to assist construction project managers and practitioners in choosing a suitable risk analysis technique based on selec...

  14. AHP Methodology Application in Garage-parking Facility Location Selection

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    Aleksandra Deluka-Tibljaš


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of traffic infrastructure facility location by applying the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process multi-criteria analysis methodology. The proposed methodology is applied in a case study to solve the problem of selecting a location for the garage-parking facility in the town of defined characteristics. The paper analyses the characteristics of five potential locations (alternatives, the selection of criteria and measures for assessing the alternatives and presents the input data preparation, the application of the selected method and the analysis results. All the relevant criteria for the analyses were included: the traffic, the economic criteria and those which nowadays are of great significance: the influence of the facility on the environment and the social criteria which is in accordance with the sustainable development principles. The goal of the paper is to present the procedure of the AHP method application on the complex issue of traffic planning and to confirm the adequacy of the chosen method on the traffic facility strategic planning.


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    Sergio Alexandre Simões


    Full Text Available Abstract: Two criteria are usually adopted to select the provider of IT: lower prices or better service qualification of the supplier. This article proposes a strategic approach: the company should hire the provider that best leverage their competitive advantages. This approach implied the need to develop a methodology. To support it, the authors analyzed four models, Porter, RBV (Resource-Based View, Balanced Scorecard and the Weapons and Field Competition. Preferred the latter to be the most complete, qualiquantitative technique and able to accurately align the goals of the IT service firm's to competitive contracting strategy. The methodology was developed and applied to an insurance company and in face of the excellent results, decided to write this article to disclose it.

  16. Methodological Aspects of Project Techniques Selection for Innovation Project Management

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    Anna Yakovleva


    Full Text Available Project Management offers a variety of methodologies which provides managers with different techniques and tools to use during project planning and implementation. At the same time there is a substantial lack of systematized approaches to the management of innovation projects. In this article key factors in the selection of appropriate techniques in innovation project management will first be identified. Theoretical analysis of different project management standards and possibility of their use will then be discussed. In addition how the techniques can be applied will be investigated through academic paper analysis. . This research makes a theoretical contribution to the field of project management by selecting and determining which project management techniques can be adapted and applied to innovation projects. Recommendations for practical application are based on theoretical findings of the research. These include two main factors, which are: influencing the choice of project management techniques and the structure of project selection process. The significance of the results obtained is confirmed by creation of theoretical knowledge, which permits to thoroughly understand and capture issues which may emerge during innovation project planning and implementation, through the use of established project management methodology. Keywords: Project management, Innovation, Project management standard, innovation project, PMBoK, PRINCE2, ICB.

  17. Methodology for Selecting Best Management Practices Integrating Multiple Stakeholders and Criteria. Part 1: Methodology

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    Mauricio Carvallo Aceves


    Full Text Available The implementation of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs could help re-establish the natural hydrological cycle of watersheds after urbanization, with each BMP presenting a different performance across a range of criteria (flood prevention, pollutant removal, etc.. Additionally, conflicting views from the relevant stakeholders may arise, resulting in a complex selection process. This paper proposes a methodology for BMP selection based on the application of multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA methods, integrating multiple stakeholder priorities and BMP combinations. First, in the problem definition, the MCDA methods, relevant criteria and design guidelines are selected. Next, information from the preliminary analysis of the watershed is used to obtain a list of relevant BMPs. The third step comprises the watershed modeling and analysis of the BMP alternatives to obtain performance values across purely objective criteria. Afterwards, a stakeholder analysis based on survey applications is carried out to obtain social performance values and criteria priorities. Then, the MCDA methods are applied to obtain the final BMP rankings. The last step considers the sensitivity analysis and rank comparisons in order to draw the final conclusions and recommendations. Future improvements to the methodology could explore inclusion of multiple objective analysis, and alternative means for obtaining social performance values.

  18. Agile methodology selection criteria: IT start-up case study (United States)

    Micic, Lj


    Project management in modern IT companies is often based on agile methodologies which have several advantages compared to traditional methodologies such is waterfall. Having in mind that clients sometimes change project during development it is crucial for an IT company to choose carefully which methodology is going to implement and is it going to be mostly based on one or is it going got be combination of several. There are several modern and often used methodologies but among those Scrum, Kanban and XP programming are usually the most common. Sometimes companies use mostly tools and procedures from one but quite often they use some of the combination of those methodologies. Having in mind that those methodologies are just a framework they allow companies to adapt it for their specific projects as well as for other limitations. These methodologies are in limited usage Bosnia but more and more IT companies are starting to use agile methodologies because it is practice and common not just for their clients abroad but also starting to be the only option in order to deliver quality product on time. However it is always challenging which methodology or combination of several companies should implement and how to connect it to its own project, organizational framework and HR management. This paper presents one case study based on local IT start up and delivers solution based on theoretical framework and practical limitations that case company has.

  19. Guiding the selection of service-oriented software engineering methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.


    Service-oriented computing is a paradigm for effectively delivering software services in a dynamic environment. Accordingly, many service-oriented software engineering (SOSE) methodologies have been proposed and practiced in both academia and industry. Some of these methodologies share common

  20. Guiding the selection of service-oriented software engineering methodologies


    Gu, Q; Lago,P.


    Service-oriented computing is a paradigm for effectively delivering software services in a dynamic environment. Accordingly, many service-oriented software engineering (SOSE) methodologies have been proposed and practiced in both academia and industry. Some of these methodologies share common features (e. g. cover similar life-cycle phases) but are presented for different purposes, ranging from project management to system modernization, and from business analysis to technical solutions devel...

  1. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul


    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference, volati...

  2. Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.


    The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application.

  3. Selecting a software development methodology. [of digital flight control systems (United States)

    Jones, R. E.


    The state of the art analytical techniques for the development and verification of digital flight control software is studied and a practical designer oriented development and verification methodology is produced. The effectiveness of the analytic techniques chosen for the development and verification methodology are assessed both technically and financially. Technical assessments analyze the error preventing and detecting capabilities of the chosen technique in all of the pertinent software development phases. Financial assessments describe the cost impact of using the techniques, specifically, the cost of implementing and applying the techniques as well as the relizable cost savings. Both the technical and financial assessment are quantitative where possible. In the case of techniques which cannot be quantitatively assessed, qualitative judgements are expressed about the effectiveness and cost of the techniques. The reasons why quantitative assessments are not possible will be documented.

  4. Tracking and sensor data fusion methodological framework and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Wolfgang


    Sensor Data Fusion is the process of combining incomplete and imperfect pieces of mutually complementary sensor information in such a way that a better understanding of an underlying real-world phenomenon is achieved. Typically, this insight is either unobtainable otherwise or a fusion result exceeds what can be produced from a single sensor output in accuracy, reliability, or cost. This book provides an introduction Sensor Data Fusion, as an information technology as well as a branch of engineering science and informatics. Part I presents a coherent methodological framework, thus providing th

  5. Game Methodology for Design Methods and Tools Selection (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Lahonde, Nathalie; Omhover, Jean-françois


    Design process optimisation and intelligence are the key words of today's scientific community. A proliferation of methods has made design a convoluted area. Designers are usually afraid of selecting one method/tool over another and even expert designers may not necessarily know which method is the best to use in which circumstances. This…


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    Dragan Drobnjak


    Full Text Available In the process of explorative research of transversal character on the model of selected volleyball players numbering 345 players of both sexes from 10 to 19 years of age coming from Montenegrin and Serbian clubs, the validity of selected group of morphological, basic and special motorical indicators used as objective indicators for the level and efficiency of young sportists preparation, has been examined. The examined an throphological space was covered with 51 variables (35 original and 16 derived that have undergone standard methods of statistical processing (descriptive statistical analysis, inferential and multivariant statistics resulting in relevant data necessary for conclusions on basic hypothesis of research. The results of research are leading to the following conclusions according to which the morphological – functional space of men and women differs in qualitative manner, can be ascribed to the training factor effect.

  7. Recent advances in direct C–H arylation: Methodology, selectivity and mechanism in oxazole series

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    Cécile Verrier


    Full Text Available Catalytic direct (heteroarylation of (heteroarenes is an attractive alternative to traditional Kumada, Stille, Negishi and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, notably as it avoids the prior preparation and isolation of (heteroarylmetals. Developments of this methodology in the oxazole series are reviewed in this article. Methodologies, selectivity, mechanism and future aspects are presented.

  8. Mineralogy and cultural heritage. (United States)

    Artioli, Gilberto


    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed.

  9. Selective methodology of population dynamics for optimizing a multiobjective environment of job shop production

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    Santiago Ruiz


    Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology based on population genetics to improve the performance of two or more variables in job shop production systems. The methodology applies a genetic algorithm with special features in the individual selection when they pass from generation to generation. In comparison with the FIFO method, the proposed methodology showed better results in the variables makespan, idle time and energy cost. When compared with NSGA II, the methodology did not showed relevant differences in makespan and idle time; however better performance was obtained in energy cost and, especially, in the number of required iterations to get the optimal makespan.

  10. Methodology For The Selection Of Compensation Trade Tools In SMEs

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    Milichovský František


    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to determine which factors of business tools are important in Czech companies. To find these factors, theoretical information from the area of trade tools and data from primary research (obtained via questionnaire were used. These data are applied by a statistical evaluation of selected indicators which could help determine the significance of the indicators in the area being monitored. Activities concerning the management of company finances are also partially incorporated, as due to their close cohesion with business, they cannot be excluded from the field of turnaround management. The business tools described in the paper see excellent usage not only during times of crisis but also in periods of prosperity, when their application provides companies with unique competitive advantages as a way of increasing GDP. The results of the paper confirm the necessity for compensation tools in the business environment and provide the significance level of the compensation tools used. Accurate usage could create an advantage in a global market characterised by high competition.

  11. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.


    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated


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    María Alejandra Castellini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper deals with a problem that Information Technology outsourcing suppliers generally face when selecting a working team technically capable for specific roles in software development projects. A combination of methodologies, interactively integrated, is proposed. They are Soft System Methodology to structure the problem, Repertory Grid for individual interviews and elicitation of the selection criteria, DRV Processes to assess the candidates and to generate knowledge and consensus on the selection process and Linear Programming to assign people to each position. This multimethodology allowed finding a more comprehensive solution than that initially requested by the company, since it helped to establish the necessary transformations for the selection model to operate in the right way, set the competencies to be considered as selection criteria, develop a consensus estimate of the weighted criteria, and award global values to candidates, optimizing the assignment of roles in the group for the project.

  13. Mineralogy in Geotechnical Engineering


    A. Namdar


    The several investigations on soils by different researchers have been executed, but research on soil mechanical propertiesbased on mineralogy is very meager, in this regard the author intention is employee of natural minerals for evaluation of soilcohesion, it may leads to developments of a soil with appropriates characteristics in permeability, transmitting load, resistingagainst deformation and settlement. This paper deals with analysis of soil cohesion based on mineralogy. The result reve...

  14. Knowledge based system and decision making methodologies in materials selection for aircraft cabin metallic structures (United States)

    Adhikari, Pashupati Raj

    Materials selection processes have been the most important aspects in product design and development. Knowledge-based system (KBS) and some of the methodologies used in the materials selection for the design of aircraft cabin metallic structures are discussed. Overall aircraft weight reduction means substantially less fuel consumption. Part of the solution to this problem is to find a way to reduce overall weight of metallic structures inside the cabin. Among various methodologies of materials selection using Multi Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) techniques, a few of them are demonstrated with examples and the results are compared with those obtained using Ashby's approach in materials selection. Pre-defined constraint values, mainly mechanical properties, are employed as relevant attributes in the process. Aluminum alloys with high strength-to-weight ratio have been second-to-none in most of the aircraft parts manufacturing. Magnesium alloys that are much lighter in weight as alternatives to the Al-alloys currently in use in the structures are tested using the methodologies and ranked results are compared. Each material attribute considered in the design are categorized as benefit and non-benefit attribute. Using Ashby's approach, material indices that are required to be maximized for an optimum performance are determined, and materials are ranked based on the average of consolidated indices ranking. Ranking results are compared for any disparity among the methodologies.

  15. The teacher's role in selecting a methodological approach to the interpretation of a literary work

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    Stakić Mirjana M.


    Full Text Available The paper looks at the teacher's role in selecting a methodological approach to the interpretation of a literary work. The choice of methodological approach is dependent on: 1 the semiotic structure of the literary text; 2 the specific educational goals of interpretation; 3 the students' age, psychophysical abilities and knowledge, and 4 the planned circumstances of instruction. In selecting a method of interpretation, the teacher should take into consideration not only these factors, but also contemporary literary theory and its methodological apparatus. This can be a challenging task whose fulfillment does not guarantee that the interpretation will be successful, since the validity and functionality of the methodological approach cannot be established in theory but rather through teaching practice. It is up to the teacher to be creative, because a literary work cannot be interpreted by means of a single method but always through a combination of methods, certain of which have their origins in literary theory. There is a widespread belief among teachers that these methods, which have the status of technical/special methods in literary methodology, cannot be used in the first four grades of elementary school. This paper offers an example illustrating that the interpretive model can be used as early as first grade. A teacher's knowledge, as well as their creativity in selecting a method and their openness to creative methodological combinations and skill in applying them, directly affect the effectiveness of interpretation, either succeeding in developing a fondness for books and reading, or, failing that, resulting in a permanent loss of interest in the world of literature.

  16. Investment in selective social programs: a proposed methodological tool for the analysis of programs’ sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Barahona Montero


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate sustainability of Selective Social Programs (SSP, based on the relationship between economic growth and human development posed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP.  For such purposes, the Circle of Sustainability is developed, which is comprised of 12 pillars. Each pillar is evaluated based on its current status and impact.  Combining both results allows to assesses sustainability of these programs and identify areas of focus. Therefore, this methodology helps to better channel available efforts and resources.

  17. Methodological development for selection of significant predictors explaining fatal road accidents. (United States)

    Dadashova, Bahar; Arenas-Ramírez, Blanca; Mira-McWilliams, José; Aparicio-Izquierdo, Francisco


    Identification of the most relevant factors for explaining road accident occurrence is an important issue in road safety research, particularly for future decision-making processes in transport policy. However model selection for this particular purpose is still an ongoing research. In this paper we propose a methodological development for model selection which addresses both explanatory variable and adequate model selection issues. A variable selection procedure, TIM (two-input model) method is carried out by combining neural network design and statistical approaches. The error structure of the fitted model is assumed to follow an autoregressive process. All models are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo method where the model parameters are assigned non-informative prior distributions. The final model is built using the results of the variable selection. For the application of the proposed methodology the number of fatal accidents in Spain during 2000-2011 was used. This indicator has experienced the maximum reduction internationally during the indicated years thus making it an interesting time series from a road safety policy perspective. Hence the identification of the variables that have affected this reduction is of particular interest for future decision making. The results of the variable selection process show that the selected variables are main subjects of road safety policy measures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Mineralogy in Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namdar


    Full Text Available The several investigations on soils by different researchers have been executed, but research on soil mechanical propertiesbased on mineralogy is very meager, in this regard the author intention is employee of natural minerals for evaluation of soilcohesion, it may leads to developments of a soil with appropriates characteristics in permeability, transmitting load, resistingagainst deformation and settlement. This paper deals with analysis of soil cohesion based on mineralogy. The result revealedcohesion of a plastic soil could be improve by mineral presented in an non plastic soil, and also carbonate has negative affecton soil cohesion and some other soil minerals also have same affect on cohesion that required to be more investigate.

  19. Large area scene selection interface (LASSI): Methodology of selecting landsat imagery for The Global Land Survey 2005 (United States)

    Franks, S.; Masek, J.G.; Headley, R.M.K.; Gasch, J.; Arvidson, T.


    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorec-tified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004 to 2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat-7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm’s sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  20. Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI). Methodology of Selecting Landsat Imagery for the Global Land Survey 2005 (United States)

    Franks, Shannon; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Headley, Rachel M.; Gasch, John; Arvidson, Terry


    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorectified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004-2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm's sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  1. Materials selection as an interdisciplinary technical activity: basic methodology and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrante M.


    Full Text Available The technical activity known as Materials Selection is reviewed in its concepts and methodologies. Objectives and strategies are briefly presented and two important features are introduced and discussed; (i Merit Indices: a combination of materials properties, which maximises the objectives chosen by the designer and (ii Materials Properties Maps: a bi-dimensional space whose coordinates are pairs of properties in which materials can be plotted and compared directly in terms of their merit indices. A general strategy for the deduction of these indices is explained and a formal methodology to establish a ranking of candidate materials when multiple constraints intervene is presented. Finally, two case studies are discussed in depth, one related to materials substitution in the context of mechanical design and a less conventional case linking material selection to physical comfort in the home furniture industry.

  2. Mineralogy: A Historical Review. (United States)

    Hazen, Robert M.


    Reviews changing concepts of the origins, properties, and classification of minerals. Emphasis is placed on developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during which time the interwoven advances of chemistry, physics, crystallography, and high-temperature, high-pressure studies transformed mineralogy from a qualitative to a…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Six representative geophagic clayey soils from Botswana were mineralogically characterized using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), optical microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results of identified mineral phases revealed quartz (SiO2) as the most dominant in all samples constituting ...

  4. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  5. The Methodology of Selecting the Transport Mode for Companies on the Slovak Transport Market (United States)

    Černá, Lenka; Zitrický, Vladislav; Daniš, Jozef


    Transport volume in the Slovak Republic is growing continuously every year. This rising trend is influenced by the development of car industry and its suppliers. Slovak republic has also a geographic strategy position in middle Europe from the side of transport corridors (east-west and north-south). The development of transport volume in freight transport depends on the transport and business processes between the European Union and China and it is an opportunity for Slovak republic to obtain transit transport flows. In the Slovak Republic, road transport has a dominant position in the transport market. The volume of road transport has gradually increased over the past years. The increase of road transport is reflected on the highways and speed roads in regions which have higher economic potential. The increase of rail transport as seen on the main rail corridors is not as significant as in road transport. Trade globalization also has an influence on the increase of transport volume in intermodal transport. Predicted increase in transport volume for this transport mode is from 2,3 mil ton per year at present to 8 mil ton in the year 2020. Selection of transport mode and carrier is an important aspect for logistic management, because companies (customers) want to reduce the number of carriers which they trade and they create the system of several key carriers. Bigger transport volume and more qualitative transport service give a possibility to reduce transport costs. This trend is positive for carriers too, because the carriers can focus only on the selected customers and provide more qualitative services. The paper is focused on the selection of transport mode based on the proposed methodology. The aims of the paper are, definition of criteria which directly influence the selection of transport modes, determination of criteria based on the subjectively methods, creation of process for the selection of transport modes and practical application of proposed

  6. Methodology for Selecting Best Management Practices Integrating Multiple Stakeholders and Criteria. Part 2: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvallo Aceves


    Full Text Available The selection of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs for mitigating the effects of urbanization on the hydrological cycle could be a complex process due to conflicting stakeholder views, and varying levels of performance of BMPs across a range of criteria (runoff reduction, erosion control, etc.. Part 1 of this article proposed a methodology based on the application of multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA methods, which was tested here on a residential stormwater network in the Montreal area. The case study considered green roofs, rain gardens, rain barrels and pervious pavement over a range of economic, social, and water quality and quantity criteria by applying 4 MCDA methods under three different stakeholder views. The results indicated Elimination et Choix Traduisant la Réalité (ELECTRE III to be the most appropriate method for the methodology, presenting flexibility concerning threshold values, criteria weights, and showing shared top choices across stakeholders (rain gardens, and rain gardens in combination with pervious pavement. The methodology shows potential for more formal applications and research opportunities. Future work may lie in the inclusion of multiple objective optimization, better stakeholder engagement, estimation of economic benefits, water quality modeling, long-term hydrological simulations, and estimating real BMP pollutant removal rates.

  7. A two-phase methodology for technology selection and system design (United States)

    Bard, Jonathan F.; Feinberg, Abe


    A two-phase methodology that can be used to guide R&D managers in the evaluation and selection of competing technologies is presented. Deterministic multiattribute utility theory is used in the first phase to rank the technological alternatives; the example presented involves the evaluation of electric and hybrid passenger vehicles. In all, 39 individuals from eight automotive firms were interviewed to assess their risk preferences and attitudes toward the vehicle design. In the second phase, the decision-maker must allocate a fixed amount of resources to different projects for the technology selected, some of which may be undertaken in parallel, to maximize a given measure of performance. When parallel funding is pursued the best outcome is chosen. The problem is formulated as a probabilistic network and solved heuristically using Monte Carlo simulation. Results are presented for two decision-makers and three budget options. In each case, the heuristic finds the optimal allocation of funds.

  8. A Negative Selection Immune System Inspired Methodology for Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbines. (United States)

    Alizadeh, Esmaeil; Meskin, Nader; Khorasani, Khashayar


    High operational and maintenance costs represent as major economic constraints in the wind turbine (WT) industry. These concerns have made investigation into fault diagnosis of WT systems an extremely important and active area of research. In this paper, an immune system (IS) inspired methodology for performing fault detection and isolation (FDI) of a WT system is proposed and developed. The proposed scheme is based on a self nonself discrimination paradigm of a biological IS. Specifically, the negative selection mechanism [negative selection algorithm (NSA)] of the human body is utilized. In this paper, a hierarchical bank of NSAs are designed to detect and isolate both individual as well as simultaneously occurring faults common to the WTs. A smoothing moving window filter is then utilized to further improve the reliability and performance of the FDI scheme. Moreover, the performance of our proposed scheme is compared with another state-of-the-art data-driven technique, namely the support vector machines (SVMs) to demonstrate and illustrate the superiority and advantages of our proposed NSA-based FDI scheme. Finally, a nonparametric statistical comparison test is implemented to evaluate our proposed methodology with that of the SVM under various fault severities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. A. Facchini


    Full Text Available The application of lipases in various fields has been notably increased in the last few decades and qualitative/quantitative improvements need to be done. However, many methodologies of screening are described in order to find a good lipase producer and statistical optimization is a necessary tool to improve lipase production. In this work, an isolation of filamentous fungi lipase producers and a transesterification capacity screening was evaluated. Four fungi were chosen to the transesterification reaction assays and the best fungus selected was submitted to a submerged fermentation. Parameters of the culture medium were optimized using response surface methodology. Selected liquid medium was SR at 30 °C, 72 h, 100 rpm. Corn oil was the best carbon source and together with Tween 80 increased two-fold the lipase activity. After the experimental design, the new medium optimized were 3.5-fold higher than the original liquid medium and was composed by 0.5% corn oil, 0.012% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.015% KH2PO4, 0.05% NH4H2PO4. Hence, the lipase produced proved its transesterification capacity and can be used for biodiesel production.

  10. Methodology for the selection of weapons mounted on light terrain wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan V. Donevski


    Full Text Available Nowadays, a number of light terrain wheeled vehicles are used for various purposes. Their basic performances are related to achieving high average speed off roads and to overcoming various obstacles. This type of vehicles is mainly used for commercial purposes. Models of these vehicles have been modernized and upgraded during the time but their basic purpose remains the same. However, nowadays there is a need to use these vehicles for other purposes. This is carried out through the process of conversion. The conversion means that a vehicle changes its purpose by the application of various technical solutions. One of conversions is related to the application of weapons on the vehicle chassis. The weapon mounting is connected with various problems such as vehicle stiffness, weapon precision, presence of various oscillations, overall vehicle layout and crew deployment. In order to mount weapons efficiently, the methodology of its selection is proposed. It consists of several phases and the most important of them are the following ones: the consideration of performances of modern light terrain wheeled vehicles, analysis of weapons convenient for application, creation of the vehicle-platform-weapon system mathematical model, analysis of the dynamic characteristics of the created model and the selection of the best solution, experimental research and analysis of theoretical and experimental results. The realization of the proposed methodology will considerably improve the quality of the design of vehicle- platform-weapon systems.

  11. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  12. Non-coplanar automatic beam orientation selection in cranial IMRT: a practical methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants LLC, 130 Forest Hill Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Li Sicong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Kapellenstrasse 12, 85622 Feldkirchen (Germany)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    This paper proposes a method for automatic selection of beam orientations in non-coplanar cranial IMRT. Methods of computer vision, beam's eye view techniques and neural networks are used to define a new geometry-based methodology that leads to treatment plans for cranial lesions that are comparable in quality to those generated by experienced radiation physicists. The automatic beam selection (ABS) process can be carried out in clinically useful computation times, in 1 min or less for most cases. In the process of describing the ABS process, it is shown that the cranial beam orientation optimization problem is mathematically ill posed, with the expectation that a large number of solutions will lead to similar results. Nevertheless, there are better and worse solutions and we show that the proposed ABS process, by its design, has to lead to one of the better ones. We have carried out extensive tests with 14 patients with beam selection tasks ranging from the rather simple to quite complex. The ABS process has always yielded optimizations with results that are considered good for clinic use. Seven-beam coplanar optimizations for some of the patients have also been investigated. Comparisons with non-coplanar optimizations indicate in which cases the simpler coplanar plans can be used to advantage. Parameters used in the comparisons are dose-volume histograms, minimum and maximum PTV doses, equivalent uniform doses for the PTV and OARs, and treatment volume, conformity and normal tissue indices. It is felt that the current ABS methodology is ready for extensive clinical tests.

  13. Feature selection and classification methodology for the detection of knee-joint disorders. (United States)

    Nalband, Saif; Sundar, Aditya; Prince, A Amalin; Agarwal, Anita


    Vibroarthographic (VAG) signals emitted from the knee joint disorder provides an early diagnostic tool. The nonstationary and nonlinear nature of VAG signal makes an important aspect for feature extraction. In this work, we investigate VAG signals by proposing a wavelet based decomposition. The VAG signals are decomposed into sub-band signals of different frequencies. Nonlinear features such as recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) are extracted as features of VAG signal. A total of twenty-four features form a vector to characterize a VAG signal. Two feature selection (FS) techniques, apriori algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA) selects six and four features as the most significant features. Least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) and random forest are proposed as classifiers to evaluate the performance of FS techniques. Results indicate that the classification accuracy was more prominent with features selected from FS algorithms. Results convey that LS-SVM using the apriori algorithm gives the highest accuracy of 94.31% with false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.0892. The proposed work also provided better classification accuracy than those reported in the previous studies which gave an accuracy of 88%. This work can enhance the performance of existing technology for accurately distinguishing normal and abnormal VAG signals. And the proposed methodology could provide an effective non-invasive diagnostic tool for knee joint disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A methodology for cascade selection for co-product removal in the ω-transaminase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janes, Kresimir; Gernaey, Krist; Tufvesson, Pär

    approach has the advantage that the theoretical yield is 100% compared to 50% for the former [1]. However, a major challenge for asymmetric synthesis is the unfavourable thermodynamic equilibrium for many of the most interesting reactions. Meeting the feasibility criteria that are typical for most...... for choosing a feasible cascade system that will remove co-product to meet process requirements under process relevant conditions will be presented. Decisions are based on thermodynamic constraints, kinetics, selectivity, stability, pH change, cascade enzyme compatibility and downstream processing....... The methodology has been applied to an ω-transaminase system which is thermodynamically challenged and enzymatic ISCPR is deployed to shift the equilibrium. The enzymes proposed for co-product removal are dehydrogenases: lactate dehydrogenase (EC, alanine dehydrogenase (EC, yeast alcohol...

  15. Methodology for selection of attributes and operating conditions for SVM-Based fault locator's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Johan Arredondo Arteaga


    Full Text Available Context: Energy distribution companies must employ strategies to meet their timely and high quality service, and fault-locating techniques represent and agile alternative for restoring the electric service in the power distribution due to the size of distribution services (generally large and the usual interruptions in the service. However, these techniques are not robust enough and present some limitations in both computational cost and the mathematical description of the models they use. Method: This paper performs an analysis based on a Support Vector Machine for the evaluation of the proper conditions to adjust and validate a fault locator for distribution systems; so that it is possible to determine the minimum number of operating conditions that allow to achieve a good performance with a low computational effort. Results: We tested the proposed methodology in a prototypical distribution circuit, located in a rural area of Colombia. This circuit has a voltage of 34.5 KV and is subdivided in 20 zones. Additionally, the characteristics of the circuit allowed us to obtain a database of 630.000 records of single-phase faults and different operating conditions. As a result, we could determine that the locator showed a performance above 98% with 200 suitable selected operating conditions. Conclusions: It is possible to improve the performance of fault locators based on Support Vector Machine. Specifically, these improvements are achieved by properly selecting optimal operating conditions and attributes, since they directly affect the performance in terms of efficiency and the computational cost.

  16. Geochemistry and mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, I.; Dimovic, S.; Orta, M.M.; Alba, M.D.; Alvero, R.; Becerro, A.I.; Castro, M.A.; Chain, P.; Escudero, A.; Naranjo, M.; Pavon, E.; Trillo, J.M.; Vejsada, J.; Vokal, A.; Zadvernyuk, H.P.; Fedorenko, Y.G.; Zlobenko, B.P.; Koromyslichenko, T.I.; Battaglia, S.; Cervelli, M.; Millot, R.; Girard, J.P.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Muurinen, A.; Carlsson, T.; Chain, P.; Alba, M.D.; Becerro, A.I.; Castro, M.A.; Escudero, A.; Gonzalez-Carrascosa, T.; Hurtado, S.; Pavon, E.; Villa, M.; Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.; Bourg, A.C.M.; Marques Fernandes, M.; Rabung, Th.; Dahn, R.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.; Breynaert, E.; Maes, A.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, I.A.; Vancluysen, J.; Credoz, A.; Bildstein, O.; Jullien, M.; Raynal, J.; Petronin, J.C.; Trotignon, L.; Pokrovsky, O.; Jacquier, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Vuillaume, A.L.; Wittebroodt, Ch.; Ly, J.; Page, J.; Savoye, S.; Pitsch, H.; Jacques, D.; Wang, L.; Galunin, E.; Chain, P.; Alba, M.D.; Vidal, M.; Grandia, F.; Domenech, C.; Arcos, D.; Duro, L.; Bruno, J.; Andre, L.; Pauwels, H.; Azaroual, M.; Albrecht, A.; Romero, M.A.; Aerts, S.; Boven, P.; Van Geet, M.; Boever, P. de; Alonso, U.; Albarran, N.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Truche, L.; Berger, G.; Guillaume, D.; Jacquot, E.; Tournassat, Ch.; Lerouge, C.; Brendle, J.; Greneche, J.M.; Touzelet, St.; Blanc, Ph.; Gaucher, E.C.; Thoenen, T.; Klinkenberg, M.; Kaufhold, S.; Dohrmann, R.; Siegesmund, S.; Liu, D.J.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Weber, T.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Bildstein, O.; Combarieu, G. de; Frugier, P.; Menut, D


    This session gathers 52 articles (posters) dealing with: the influence of natural sorbents immobilization of spent ion exchange resins in cement; the chemical stability of rare-earth silicate; the mineralogical heterogeneity of Rokle bentonite and radionuclide adsorption: A case study for cesium; the rheological and sorption properties of clay-polymer composites; the clay mineral interactions with leachate solutions in landfills; the lithium isotope fractionation during adsorption onto mineral surfaces; the sorption of Sr{sup 2+} onto mixed smectite / illite clays; Eh and pH in the pore water of compacted bentonite; the chemical interaction of {sup 152}Eu with the clay barrier; the modeling of the acid-base surface chemistry of Montmorillonite; a time resolved laser fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of lanthanide/actinide sorption on clay minerals: influence of carbonate complexation; the structure elucidation and occurrence of Tc(IV) pyrogallol complexes; the geochemistry of Se(0) under boom clay conditions; an experimental and modelling study of pure secondary silicate minerals reactivity in geological CO{sub 2} sequestration conditions; an experimental evaluation of a retention model for major groundwater elements on the Tournemire argillite; modelling the long term interaction of cementitious pore water with Boom clay; the sorption-desorption of radionuclides and analogues in clays suitable for barriers; the modelling of the Redox evolution in the tunnel backfill of a high level nuclear waste repository; the reactivity of nitrates in the different storage compartments of type-b wastes; an investigation into the biodiversity of sulphate reducing bacteria in Boom clay; the colloid generation mechanisms from compacted bentonite under different geochemical conditions; the experimental reduction of aqueous sulphate by hydrogen in the context of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite; cation exchanged Fe(II) and Sr as compared to other divalent cations

  17. Application of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor


    Kozhanova O.S.; Nesterova T.V.; Gnutova N.P.; Gnutov E.I.


    Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams an...

  18. 49 The Geology and Mineralogy of Clay Occurrences Around Kutigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. This paper reports the geology and mineralogy of the clay occurrences around Kutigi. The methodology of research includes detailed mapping of the area, collection of clay samples and laboratory analysis using X- ray diffraction. Field results show that clays in Kutigi are deposited as alluvial deposit from braided ...

  19. The Geology and Mineralogy of Clay Occurrences Around Kutigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the geology and mineralogy of the clay occurrences around Kutigi. The methodology of research includes detailed mapping of the area, collection of clay samples and laboratory analysis using X- ray diffraction. Field results show that clays in Kutigi are deposited as alluvial deposit from braided and ...

  20. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna


    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....

  1. Application of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhanova O.S.


    Full Text Available Purpose: motivation of methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises considering compatibility factor. Material: in the research 40 high qualification sportswomen of 17-23 yrs age with sport experience of 11-16 years participated. With cluster analysis 10 gymnasts with morphological indicators, meeting modern standards of group exercises were selected. Results: we found 5 generalized factors, which characterize structure of selection to teams and determines 72% of dispersion. Influence of kinds and connected with them criteria of compatibility on efficiency of gymnasts’ competition functioning were also determined. The authors substantiated methodological approach to selection of sportswomen to calisthenics teams for group exercises, considering compatibility factor. Conclusions: in selection to calisthenics teams for group exercises it is purposeful to realize complex registration of compatibility kinds, considering gymnasts’ similar features by recommended indicators.

  2. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails:;;; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail:


    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  3. Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Methodological Approach (United States)

    Kosmas, C.; Kairis, Or.; Karavitis, Ch.; Ritsema, C.; Salvati, L.; Acikalin, S.; Alcalá, M.; Alfama, P.; Atlhopheng, J.; Barrera, J.; Belgacem, A.; Solé-Benet, A.; Brito, J.; Chaker, M.; Chanda, R.; Coelho, C.; Darkoh, M.; Diamantis, I.; Ermolaeva, O.; Fassouli, V.; Fei, W.; Feng, J.; Fernandez, F.; Ferreira, A.; Gokceoglu, C.; Gonzalez, D.; Gungor, H.; Hessel, R.; Juying, J.; Khatteli, H.; Khitrov, N.; Kounalaki, A.; Laouina, A.; Lollino, P.; Lopes, M.; Magole, L.; Medina, L.; Mendoza, M.; Morais, P.; Mulale, K.; Ocakoglu, F.; Ouessar, M.; Ovalle, C.; Perez, C.; Perkins, J.; Pliakas, F.; Polemio, M.; Pozo, A.; Prat, C.; Qinke, Y.; Ramos, A.; Ramos, J.; Riquelme, J.; Romanenkov, V.; Rui, L.; Santaloia, F.; Sebego, R.; Sghaier, M.; Silva, N.; Sizemskaya, M.; Soares, J.; Sonmez, H.; Taamallah, H.; Tezcan, L.; Torri, D.; Ungaro, F.; Valente, S.; de Vente, J.; Zagal, E.; Zeiliguer, A.; Zhonging, W.; Ziogas, A.


    An approach to derive relationships for defining land degradation and desertification risk and developing appropriate tools for assessing the effectiveness of the various land management practices using indicators is presented in the present paper. In order to investigate which indicators are most effective in assessing the level of desertification risk, a total of 70 candidate indicators was selected providing information for the biophysical environment, socio-economic conditions, and land management characteristics. The indicators were defined in 1,672 field sites located in 17 study areas in the Mediterranean region, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Based on an existing geo-referenced database, classes were designated for each indicator and a sensitivity score to desertification was assigned to each class based on existing research. The obtained data were analyzed for the various processes of land degradation at farm level. The derived methodology was assessed using independent indicators, such as the measured soil erosion rate, and the organic matter content of the soil. Based on regression analyses, the collected indicator set can be reduced to a number of effective indicators ranging from 8 to 17 in the various processes of land degradation. Among the most important indicators identified as affecting land degradation and desertification risk were rain seasonality, slope gradient, plant cover, rate of land abandonment, land-use intensity, and the level of policy implementation.

  4. Methodology and issues of integral experiments selection for nuclear data validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ivanova


    Full Text Available Nuclear data validation involves a large suite of Integral Experiments (IEs for criticality, reactor physics and dosimetry applications. [1] Often benchmarks are taken from international Handbooks. [2, 3] Depending on the application, IEs have different degrees of usefulness in validation, and usually the use of a single benchmark is not advised; indeed, it may lead to erroneous interpretation and results. [1] This work aims at quantifying the importance of benchmarks used in application dependent cross section validation. The approach is based on well-known General Linear Least Squared Method (GLLSM extended to establish biases and uncertainties for given cross sections (within a given energy interval. The statistical treatment results in a vector of weighting factors for the integral benchmarks. These factors characterize the value added by a benchmark for nuclear data validation for the given application. The methodology is illustrated by one example, selecting benchmarks for 239Pu cross section validation. The studies were performed in the framework of Subgroup 39 (Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files established at the Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD.

  5. Methodology and issues of integral experiments selection for nuclear data validation (United States)

    Tatiana, Ivanova; Ivanov, Evgeny; Hill, Ian


    Nuclear data validation involves a large suite of Integral Experiments (IEs) for criticality, reactor physics and dosimetry applications. [1] Often benchmarks are taken from international Handbooks. [2, 3] Depending on the application, IEs have different degrees of usefulness in validation, and usually the use of a single benchmark is not advised; indeed, it may lead to erroneous interpretation and results. [1] This work aims at quantifying the importance of benchmarks used in application dependent cross section validation. The approach is based on well-known General Linear Least Squared Method (GLLSM) extended to establish biases and uncertainties for given cross sections (within a given energy interval). The statistical treatment results in a vector of weighting factors for the integral benchmarks. These factors characterize the value added by a benchmark for nuclear data validation for the given application. The methodology is illustrated by one example, selecting benchmarks for 239Pu cross section validation. The studies were performed in the framework of Subgroup 39 (Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files) established at the Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD).

  6. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server


    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  7. The Encyclopedia of Mineralogy (United States)

    Rapp, George, Jr.

    This volume is the tenth in the ambitious Encyclopedia of Earth Science series. In addition to the standard short encyclopedia-style articles, it contains an alphabetical list of 3000 mineral species, groups, varieties, and mineraloids (which, following Fleischer, is called a glossary); this glossary presents basic physical and chemical properties for each entry.Editor Keith Frye has made a major effort, detailed in the preface, to assist the reader/user in avoiding many of the pitfalls in mineral nomenclature. For example, the book presents the names of valid mineral species in lower-case italic type, the names of series or groups in boldface italic letters, while varieties (and synonyms) are set in roman typeface. The worthwhile preface also contains a list, with addresses and date of first publication, of the world's 178 most important journals where mineral data are published. Also included are lists of the important mineral reference books and textbooks on mineralogy. The articles include one on museums with a 32-page table of museums with addresses, size of collection, and specialties.

  8. Mineralogy of asbestos. (United States)

    Sporn, Thomas A


    The term asbestos collectively refers to a group of naturally occurring fibrous minerals which have been exploited in numerous commercial and industrial settings and applications dating to antiquity. Its myriad uses as a "miracle mineral" owe to its remarkable properties of extreme resistance to thermal and chemical breakdown, tensile strength, and fibrous habit which allows it to be spun and woven into textiles. Abundant in nature, it has been mined considerably, and in all continents save Antarctica. The nomenclature concerning asbestos and its related species is complex, owing to the interest held therein by scientific disciplines such as geology, mineralogy and medicine, as well as legal and regulatory authorities. As fibrous silicates, asbestos minerals are broadly classified into the serpentine (chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, anthophyllite, actinolite) groups, both of which may also contain allied but nonfibrous forms of similar or even identical chemical composition, nonpathogenic to humans. Recently, fibrous amphiboles, not historically classified or regulated as asbestos (winchite, richterite), have been implicated in the causation of serious disease due to their profusion as natural contaminants of vermiculite, a commercially useful and nonfibrous silicate mineral. Although generally grouped, classified, and regulated collectively as asbestos, the serpentine and amphibole groups have different geologic occurrences and, more importantly, significant differences in crystalline structures and chemical compositions. These in turn impart differences in fiber structure and dimension, as well as biopersistence, leading to marked differences in relative potency for causing disease in humans for the group of minerals known as asbestos.

  9. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkata Rao


    Full Text Available A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011 (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549 proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the optimal solution without assigning the relative importance between the facility layout design selection attributes. This note discusses the mathematical validity and the shortcomings of the PSI method.

  10. Influence of physico-chemistry and mineralogy on the occurrence of geohelminths in geophagic soils from selected communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and their possible implication on human health. (United States)

    Sumbele, Irene U; Ngole, Veronica Mpode; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E


    Geophagic soils from selected communities in Eastern Cape, South Africa were characterised to determine their properties and geohelminth content. The soils were coarse-textured with cation exchange capacity values ranging from 6.35 to 18.94 cmol (+)/kg. Quartz was the dominant mineral in the samples with SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3(t) having the highest concentrations among major element oxides. The soil properties, mineralogical composition, and low amounts of particle binding substances may favour the survival of geohelminth ova in the soils. Seven of the samples contained at least one of the following geohelminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis. The presence of these geohelminths in the soils was attributed to agricultural and sanitary practices inherent in the communities and the soil properties. Communities need to be sensitised on the importance of safe sanitary and animal husbandry practices to reduce the prevalence of helminth infection among geophagists.

  11. A methodology to select a group of species among 131 tropical (colombian) species for bowed timber applications




    We present a methodology of selecting wood species for architectural purposes, especially when a curved shape is required. First, a mechanical criterion is associated with a morphology, more specifically a characteristic value of stress-strain relation is associated with the attitude of wood for bowing. Second, a filtering is done using data of wood in the green state and in the dry state, and then the wood selection is refined by using relevant criteria related to environment and economic co...

  12. [The method of selection of the residents in Spain. Analysis of the examination MIR and offer of a new methodology]. (United States)

    Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso; Villena, Victoria; Alen, José F; Jiménez-Roldan, Luis; Munárriz, Pablo M; Blanco, Antonio; Jorge, Lucía; García Seoane, Jorge


    The method for selecting medical graduates for residency positions has a strong influence on teaching and learning strategies in medical schools. The methodology currently used in Spain does not seem appropriate for ranking the candidates or improving curriculum development. Thus, and taking into account the most consistent methodologies used in the United Kingdom and USA, we have designed a new method to be used in our country. To analyze the limitations of the methodology used in Spain, and propose a new one aimed to improve the accuracy of selection itself and avoiding the negative influence of the current method on curricular development. In addition, we emphasize the necessity of improving teaching and learning in the clinical context to assure that graduating students reach an adequate level of clinical competence. The method for selecting candidates to residency post currently used in Spain, which relies mainly on testing theoretical knowledge, should be changed for an alternative methodology taking into account student,s performance through the course and assessing his/her ability for clínical contextualization of knowledge and level of clinical competence. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Selecting Health Care Improvement Projects: A Methodology Integrating Cause-and-Effect Diagram and Analytical Hierarchy Process. (United States)

    Testik, Özlem Müge; Shaygan, Amir; Dasdemir, Erdi; Soydan, Guray

    It is often vital to identify, prioritize, and select quality improvement projects in a hospital. Yet, a methodology, which utilizes experts' opinions with different points of view, is needed for better decision making. The proposed methodology utilizes the cause-and-effect diagram to identify improvement projects and construct a project hierarchy for a problem. The right improvement projects are then prioritized and selected using a weighting scheme of analytical hierarchy process by aggregating experts' opinions. An approach for collecting data from experts and a graphical display for summarizing the obtained information are also provided. The methodology is implemented for improving a hospital appointment system. The top-ranked 2 major project categories for improvements were identified to be system- and accessibility-related causes (45%) and capacity-related causes (28%), respectively. For each of the major project category, subprojects were then ranked for selecting the improvement needs. The methodology is useful in cases where an aggregate decision based on experts' opinions is expected. Some suggestions for practical implementations are provided.

  14. Mineralogy of meteorite groups (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.


    Approximately 275 mineral species have been identified in meteorites, reflecting diverse redox environments, and, in some cases, unusual nebular formation conditions. Anhydrous ordinary, carbonaceous and R chondrites contain major olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase; major opaque phases include metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and chromite. Primitive achondrites are mineralogically similar. The highly reduced enstatite chondrites and achondrites contain major enstatite, plagioclase, free silica and kamacite as well as nitrides, a silicide and Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Na-, Cr-, K- and Ti-rich sulfides. Aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites contain major amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates, complex organic compounds, magnetite, various sulfates and sulfides, and carbonates. In addition to kamacite and taenite, iron meteorites contain carbides, elemental C, nitrides, phosphates, phosphides, chromite and sulfides. Silicate inclusions in IAB/IIICD and IIE irons consist of mafic silicates, plagioclase and various sulfides, oxides and phosphates. Eucrites, howardites and diogenites have basaltic to orthopyroxenitic compositions and consist of major pyroxene and calcic plagioclase and several accessory oxides. Ureilites are made up mainly of calcic, chromian olivine and low-Ca clinopyroxene embedded in a carbonaceous matrix; accessory phases include the C polymorphs graphite, diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite as well as metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and halides. Angrites are achondrites rich in fassaitic pyroxene (i.e., Al-Ti diopside); minor olivine with included magnesian kirschsteinite is also present. Martian meteorites comprise basalts, lherzolites, a dunite and an orthopyroxenite. Major phases include various pyroxenes and olivine; minor to accessory phases include various sulfides, magnetite, chromite and Ca-phosphates. Lunar meteorites comprise mare basalts with major augite and calcic plagioclase and anorthositic breccias with major calcic plagioclase. Several meteoritic phases formed

  15. Mineralogy of Meteorite Groups (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.


    Approximately 275 mineral species have been identified in meteorites, reflecting diverse redox environments, and, in some cases, unusual nebular formation conditions. Anhydrous ordinary, carbonaceous and R chondrites contain major olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase; major opaque phases include metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and chromite. Primitive achondrites are mineralogically similar. The highly reduced enstatite chondrites and achondrites contain major enstatite, plagioclase, free silica and kamacite as well as nitrides, a silicide and Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Na-, Cr-, K- and Ti-rich sulfides. Aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites contain major amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates, complex organic compounds, magnetite, various sulfates and sulfides, and carbonates. In addition to kamacite and taenite, iron meteorites contain carbides, elemental C, nitrides, phosphates, phosphides, chromite and sulfides. Silicate inclusions in IAB/IIICD and lIE iron meteorites consist of mafic silicates, plagioclase and various sulfides, oxides and phosphates. Eucrites, howardites and diogenites have basaltic to orthopyroxenitic compositions and consist of major pyroxene and calcic plagioclase and several accessory oxides. Ureilttes .are made up mainly of calcic, chromian olivine and low-Ca clinopyroxene embedded in a carbonaceous matrix; accessory phases include the C polymorphs graphite, diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite as well as metallic Fe-Ni, troilite and halides. Angrites are achondrites rich in fassaitic pyroxene (i.e. , AI-Ti diopside); minor olivine with included magnesian kirschsteinite is also present. Martian meteorites comprise basalts, Iherzolites, a dunite and an orthopyroxenite. Major phases include various pyroxenes and olivine; minor to accessory phases include various sulfides, magnetite, chromite and Ca-phosphates. Lunar meteorites comprise mare basalts with major augite and calcic plagioclase and anorthositic breccias with major calcic plagioclase. Several meteoritic

  16. Effect of methodological and ecological approaches on heterogeneity of nest-site selection of a long-lived vulture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Moreno-Opo

    Full Text Available The application of scientific-based conservation measures requires that sampling methodologies in studies modelling similar ecological aspects produce comparable results making easier their interpretation. We aimed to show how the choice of different methodological and ecological approaches can affect conclusions in nest-site selection studies along different Palearctic meta-populations of an indicator species. First, a multivariate analysis of the variables affecting nest-site selection in a breeding colony of cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus in central Spain was performed. Then, a meta-analysis was applied to establish how methodological and habitat-type factors determine differences and similarities in the results obtained by previous studies that have modelled the forest breeding habitat of the species. Our results revealed patterns in nesting-habitat modelling by the cinereous vulture throughout its whole range: steep and south-facing slopes, great cover of large trees and distance to human activities were generally selected. The ratio and situation of the studied plots (nests/random, the use of plots vs. polygons as sampling units and the number of years of data set determined the variability explained by the model. Moreover, a greater size of the breeding colony implied that ecological and geomorphological variables at landscape level were more influential. Additionally, human activities affected in greater proportion to colonies situated in Mediterranean forests. For the first time, a meta-analysis regarding the factors determining nest-site selection heterogeneity for a single species at broad scale was achieved. It is essential to homogenize and coordinate experimental design in modelling the selection of species' ecological requirements in order to avoid that differences in results among studies would be due to methodological heterogeneity. This would optimize best conservation and management practices for habitats and species in

  17. Effect of methodological and ecological approaches on heterogeneity of nest-site selection of a long-lived vulture. (United States)

    Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Fernández-Olalla, Mariana; Margalida, Antoni; Arredondo, Ángel; Guil, Francisco


    The application of scientific-based conservation measures requires that sampling methodologies in studies modelling similar ecological aspects produce comparable results making easier their interpretation. We aimed to show how the choice of different methodological and ecological approaches can affect conclusions in nest-site selection studies along different Palearctic meta-populations of an indicator species. First, a multivariate analysis of the variables affecting nest-site selection in a breeding colony of cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in central Spain was performed. Then, a meta-analysis was applied to establish how methodological and habitat-type factors determine differences and similarities in the results obtained by previous studies that have modelled the forest breeding habitat of the species. Our results revealed patterns in nesting-habitat modelling by the cinereous vulture throughout its whole range: steep and south-facing slopes, great cover of large trees and distance to human activities were generally selected. The ratio and situation of the studied plots (nests/random), the use of plots vs. polygons as sampling units and the number of years of data set determined the variability explained by the model. Moreover, a greater size of the breeding colony implied that ecological and geomorphological variables at landscape level were more influential. Additionally, human activities affected in greater proportion to colonies situated in Mediterranean forests. For the first time, a meta-analysis regarding the factors determining nest-site selection heterogeneity for a single species at broad scale was achieved. It is essential to homogenize and coordinate experimental design in modelling the selection of species' ecological requirements in order to avoid that differences in results among studies would be due to methodological heterogeneity. This would optimize best conservation and management practices for habitats and species in a global context.

  18. Advances and Opportunities in Ore Mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J. Cook


    Full Text Available The study of ore minerals is rapidly transforming due to an explosion of new micro- and nano-analytical technologies. These advanced microbeam techniques can expose the physical and chemical character of ore minerals at ever-better spatial resolution and analytical precision. The insights that can be obtained from ten of today’s most important, or emerging, techniques and methodologies are reviewed: laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry; focussed ion beam-scanning electron microscopy; high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy; electron back-scatter diffraction; synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping; automated mineral analysis (Quantitative Evaluation of Mineralogy via Scanning Electron Microscopy and Mineral Liberation Analysis; nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry; atom probe tomography; radioisotope geochronology using ore minerals; and, non-traditional stable isotopes. Many of these technical advances cut across conceptual boundaries between mineralogy and geochemistry and require an in-depth knowledge of the material that is being analysed. These technological advances are accompanied by changing approaches to ore mineralogy: the increased focus on trace element distributions; the challenges offered by nanoscale characterisation; and the recognition of the critical petrogenetic information in gangue minerals, and, thus the need to for a holistic approach to the characterization of mineral assemblages. Using original examples, with an emphasis on iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, we show how increased analytical capabilities, particularly imaging and chemical mapping at the nanoscale, offer the potential to resolve outstanding questions in ore mineralogy. Broad regional or deposit-scale genetic models can be validated or refuted by careful analysis at the smallest scales of observation. As the volume of information at different scales of observation expands, the level of complexity

  19. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna


    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address th...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....... the issue of uncertainty. The proposed methodology allows multi-person to participate in the decision-making process and to give linguistic evaluation on the weights of the criteria and the performance of the alternative technologies. In this paper, twelve hydrogen production technologies have been assessed......The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...

  20. A model for colleges of engineering to select a strategic planning methodology and implement a strategic planning process


    Kurstedt, Pamela S.


    This research operationalizes the theory and recommendations from academic and business strategic planning sources. The desired research outcome is to improve academic strategic planning for colleges of engineering. My contribution to the academic planning body of knowledge is a model to select a strategic planning methodology and implement a planning process for colleges of engineering. The model's design is based on the logical conclusion that choice of planning method...

  1. Application Development Methodology Appropriateness: An Exploratory Case Study Bridging the Gap between Framework Characteristics and Selection (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence H., Jr.


    This qualitative study analyzed experiences of twenty software developers. The research showed that all software development methodologies are distinct from each other. While some, such as waterfall, focus on traditional, plan-driven approaches that allow software requirements and design to evolve; others facilitate ambiguity and uncertainty by…

  2. Prediction of selectivity from morphological conditions: Methodology and a case study on cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke


    The FISHSELECT methodology. tools, and software were developed and used to measure the morphological parameters that determine the ability of cod to penetrate different mesh types, sizes, and openings. The shape of one cross-section at the cod's head was found to explain 97.6% of the mesh...

  3. Researching Religious Education Journals: Methodology and Selected Results from a German Study (United States)

    Schweitzer, Friedrich; Simojoki, Henrik; Moschner, Sara; Muller, Markus


    This article is based on a research project concerning the development of religious education as an academic discipline in Germany during the twentieth century. Applying a methodology that has been of growing interest in a number of fields, the project proceeded by analysing major religious education journals published between 1900 and 1975. The…

  4. A data-driven multi-model methodology with deep feature selection for short-term wind forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Cong; Cui, Mingjian; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Zhang, Jie


    With the growing wind penetration into the power system worldwide, improving wind power forecasting accuracy is becoming increasingly important to ensure continued economic and reliable power system operations. In this paper, a data-driven multi-model wind forecasting methodology is developed with a two-layer ensemble machine learning technique. The first layer is composed of multiple machine learning models that generate individual forecasts. A deep feature selection framework is developed to determine the most suitable inputs to the first layer machine learning models. Then, a blending algorithm is applied in the second layer to create an ensemble of the forecasts produced by first layer models and generate both deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. This two-layer model seeks to utilize the statistically different characteristics of each machine learning algorithm. A number of machine learning algorithms are selected and compared in both layers. This developed multi-model wind forecasting methodology is compared to several benchmarks. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is evaluated to provide 1-hour-ahead wind speed forecasting at seven locations of the Surface Radiation network. Numerical results show that comparing to the single-algorithm models, the developed multi-model framework with deep feature selection procedure has improved the forecasting accuracy by up to 30%.

  5. Studies on Mineralogy, Micromorphology and Relationships of soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected typical soils were described and sampled from surface and subsurface horizons for mineralogical, micromorphological and fertility studies. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the soils have different mineral components in the surface and subsurface horizons. Quartz is the dominant mineral in topsoils of both ...

  6. Geophagic clays: Their mineralogy, chemistry and possible human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophagic clays: Their mineralogy, chemistry and possible human health effects. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... of the study were to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the mineral constituents and to determine selected elemental compositions in the clay samples in order to infer on possible human health effects.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of raw feldspathic materials from Dschang. (Cameroon) was realized by means of X-ray ... and F2 were collected from the pegmatite of south west of Dschang city indicated by a dark thick arrow. ... in static air with heating rate 10 °C/min. Chemical analysis were performed at ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu


    Nov 5, 2011 ... removal of muscovite and reduction of hematite is successful, and this would be necessary if the deposit is to be exploited. Conclusion. The Chemical and mineralogical analyses after beneficiation shows that the kyanite found in the study area even though not completely consistent with the British and ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu


    Nov 5, 2011 ... samples, quartz, mulite and silliminite 45%. Evaluation of the indusrial suitability show inconsistent of the Kuta kyanite with BSI and ASTM standards specification for industrial mineral, it can be use as refractory material based on the alumina content. Keywords: Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Quartzite, Kyanite, ...

  10. A methodology for cascade selection for co-product removal in the ω-transaminase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janes, Kresimir; Gernaey, Krist; Tufvesson, Pär

    . The methodology has been applied to an ω-transaminase system which is thermodynamically challenged and enzymatic ISCPR is deployed to shift the equilibrium. The enzymes proposed for co-product removal are dehydrogenases: lactate dehydrogenase (EC, alanine dehydrogenase (EC, yeast alcohol...... dehydrogenase (EC; pyruvate decarboxylase (EC, acetolactate synthase (EC and as co-factor recycling enzymes: glucose dehydrogenase (EC, formate dehydrogenase (EC and phosphite dehydrogenase (EC The methodology gives an insight into the constraints...

  11. [Selection of medical graduates for residency posts. A comparative study of the methodologies used in different countries]. (United States)

    Lobato, Ramiro D; Lagares, Alfonso; Villena, Victoria; García Seoane, Jorge; Jiménez-Roldán, Luis; Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Alén, José F


    The design of an appropriate method for the selection of medical graduates for residency posts is extremely important, not only for the efficiency of the method itself (accurate identification of most competent candidates), but also for its influence on the study and teaching methodologies operating in medical schools. Currently, there is a great variation in the criteria used in different countries and there is no definitively appropriate method. The use of isolated or combined criteria, such as the marks obtained by students in medical schools, their performance in tests of theoretical knowledge and evaluations of clinical competence, or personal interviews, have a limited value for identifying those candidates who will perform better during the residency and later on during independent practice. To analyse the variability in the methodologies used for the selection of residents employed in different countries, in particular those used in the United Kingdom and USA, where external agencies and medical schools make systematic analyses of curriculum development. The advantages and disadvantages of national or transnational licensing examinations on the process of convergence and harmonization of medical degrees and residency programmes through Europe are discussed. The present analysis is used to design a new and more efficient multi-criteria methodology for resident selection in Spain, which will be published in the next issue of this journal. Since the multi-criteria methods used in UK and USA appear to be most consistent, these have been employed for designing the new methodology that could be applied in Spain. Although many experts in medical education reject national examinations for awarding medical degrees or ranking candidates for residency posts, it seems that, when appropriately designed, they can be used to verify the level of competence of graduating students without necessarily distorting curriculum implementation or improvement. Copyright © 2014

  12. 75 FR 78678 - Proposed Methodology for Respondent Selection in Antidumping Proceedings; Request for Comment (United States)


    ...: Background When the number of producers/exporters (``companies'') involved in an antidumping investigation or... authority at the time of selection, or (2) exporters and producers accounting for the largest volume of... under investigation or review with relatively smaller import volumes have typically not been selected by...


    Hohenlohe, Paul A; Phillips, Patrick C; Cresko, William A


    Natural selection shapes patterns of genetic variation among individuals, populations, and species, and it does so differentially across genomes. The field of population genomics provides a comprehensive genome-scale view of the action of selection, even beyond traditional model organisms. However, even with nearly complete genomic sequence information, our ability to detect the signature of selection on specific genomic regions depends on choosing experimental and analytical tools appropriate to the biological situation. For example, processes that occur at different timescales, such as sorting of standing genetic variation, mutation-selection balance, or fixed interspecific divergence, have different consequences for genomic patterns of variation. Inappropriate experimental or analytical approaches may fail to detect even strong selection or falsely identify a signature of selection. Here we outline the conceptual framework of population genomics, relate genomic patterns of variation to evolutionary processes, and identify major biological factors to be considered in studies of selection. As data-gathering technology continues to advance, our ability to understand selection in natural populations will be limited more by conceptual and analytical weaknesses than by the amount of molecular data. Our aim is to bring critical biological considerations to the fore in population genomics research and to spur the development and application of analytical tools appropriate to diverse biological systems.

  14. Advances in ranking and selection, multiple comparisons, and reliability methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nagaraja, HN


    S. Panchapakesan has made significant contributions to ranking and selection and has published in many other areas of statistics, including order statistics, reliability theory, stochastic inequalities, and inference. Written in his honor, the twenty invited articles in this volume reflect recent advances in these areas and form a tribute to Panchapakesan's influence and impact on these areas. Thematically organized, the chapters cover a broad range of topics from: Inference; Ranking and Selection; Multiple Comparisons and Tests; Agreement Assessment; Reliability; and Biostatistics. Featuring

  15. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles. (United States)

    Uher, Jana


    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  16. Application of an integrated multi-criteria decision making AHP-TOPSIS methodology for ETL software selection. (United States)

    Hanine, Mohamed; Boutkhoum, Omar; Tikniouine, Abdessadek; Agouti, Tarik


    Actually, a set of ETL software (Extract, Transform and Load) is available to constitute a major investment market. Each ETL uses its own techniques for extracting, transforming and loading data into data warehouse, which makes the task of evaluating ETL software very difficult. However, choosing the right software of ETL is critical to the success or failure of any Business Intelligence project. As there are many impacting factors in the selection of ETL software, the same process is considered as a complex multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. In this study, an application of decision-making methodology that employs the two well-known MCDM techniques, namely Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods is designed. In this respect, the aim of using AHP is to analyze the structure of the ETL software selection problem and obtain weights of the selected criteria. Then, TOPSIS technique is used to calculate the alternatives' ratings. An example is given to illustrate the proposed methodology. Finally, a software prototype for demonstrating both methods is implemented.

  17. Attribute Based Selection of Thermoplastic Resin for Vacuum Infusion Process: A Decision Making Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom


    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  18. Methodology for Outdoor Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool for U.S. and Selected States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Green lawns and landscaping are archetypical of the populated American landscape, and typically require irrigation, which corresponds to a significant fraction of residential, commercial, and institutional water use. In North American cities, the estimated portion of residential water used for outdoor purposes ranges from 22-38% in cooler climates up to 59-67% in dry and hot environments, while turfgrass coverage within the United States spans 11.1-20.2 million hectares (Milesi et al. 2009). One national estimate uses satellite and aerial photography data to develop a relationship between impervious surface and lawn surface area, yielding a conservative estimate of 16.4 (± 3.6) million hectares of lawn surface area in the United States—an area three times larger than that devoted to any irrigated crop (Milesi et al. 2005). One approach that holds promise for cutting unnecessary outdoor water use is the increased deployment of “smart” irrigation controllers to increase the water efficiency of irrigation systems. This report describes the methodology and inputs employed in a mathematical model that quantifies the effects of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s WaterSense labeling program for one such type of controller, weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC). This model builds off that described in “Methodology for National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool–Outdoor Water Use” and uses a two-tiered approach to quantify outdoor water savings attributable to the WaterSense program for WBIC, as well as net present value (NPV) of that savings. While the first iteration of the model assessed national impacts using averaged national values, this version begins by evaluating impacts in three key large states that make up a sizable portion of the irrigation market: California, Florida, and Texas. These states are considered to be the principal market of “smart” irrigation controllers that may result in the bulk of national savings. Modeled

  19. Assessment and selection of the best treatment alternative for infectious waste by modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies methodology. (United States)

    Rafiee, Ata; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Parmy, Saeid; Mahvi, Amirhosein; Yunesian, Masud; Khaefi, Mehran; Nabizadeh, Ramin


    Improper treatment of infectious waste can cause numerous adverse environmental and health effects such as transmission of diseases through health personnel and other susceptible groups,who come in contact with such wastes. On the other hand, selection of appropriate treatment alternatives in infectious waste management has become a challenging task for public health authorities especially in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to select the best infectious waste treatment alternative by the modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies (SAT) methodology, developed by the International Environmental Technology Center of the United Nations Environment Program (IETC-UNEP). SAT methodology consists of three main components, including screening, scoping and detailed assessment. In screening, different infectious waste treatment alternatives undergo screening using the finalized environmental and technical criteria. Short-listed treatment options from the previous step, then go through the comprehensive scoping and detailed assessment (2nd and 3rd components) which is more qualitative and quantitative in nature. An empirical case in Tehran, the largest city in Iran, is provided to illustrate the potential of the proposed methodology. According to the final score, "Hydroclave", was the most suitable infectious treatment technology. The ranking order of the treatment alternatives were "Autoclave with a shredder", "Autoclave", "Central Incineration" and "chemical treatment" on the basis of technical, economical, social and environmental aspects and their related criteria. According to the results it could be concluded that the top ranking technologies basically have higher scores in all the aspects. Hence it is easier to arrive at a decision for the final technology selection based on the principles of sustainability.

  20. Method development in automated mineralogy


    Sandmann, Dirk


    The underlying research that resulted in this doctoral dissertation was performed at the Division of Economic Geology and Petrology of the Department of Mineralogy, TU Bergakademie Freiberg between 2011 and 2014. It was the primary aim of this thesis to develop and test novel applications for the technology of ‘Automated Mineralogy’ in the field of economic geology and geometallurgy. A “Mineral Liberation Analyser” (MLA) instrument of FEI Company was used to conduct most analytical studies. T...

  1. A methodology for selecting an optimal experimental design for the computer analysis of a complex system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Investigation and evaluation of a complex system is often accomplished through the use of performance measures based on system response models. The response models are constructed using computer-generated responses supported where possible by physical test results. The general problem considered is one where resources and system complexity together restrict the number of simulations that can be performed. The levels of input variables used in defining environmental scenarios, initial and boundary conditions and for setting system parameters must be selected in an efficient way. This report describes an algorithmic approach for performing this selection.

  2. Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 uncertainty analysis--Preliminary selection of uncertain parameters and analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Kalinich, Donald A.


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) plans to conduct uncertainty analyses (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) plant with the MELCOR code. The model to be used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, that study only examined a handful of various model inputs and boundary conditions, and the predictions yielded only fair agreement with plant data and current release estimates. The goal of this uncertainty study is to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core melt progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, vessel lower head failure, etc.). In preparation for the SNL Fukushima UA work, a scoping study has been completed to identify important core melt progression parameters for the uncertainty analysis. The study also lays out a preliminary UA methodology.

  3. The distribution of selected CORINE land cover classes in different natural landscapes in Slovakia: Methodological framework and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazúr Róbert


    Full Text Available The distribution of selected CORINE land cover classes in different physical conditions was subject to modelling, analysis and evaluation in this article. In three regions with different geo-relief, the occurrence of land cover classes was analysed by using determinants commonly used in land-use models. Using three different modelling frameworks, the importance of methodological design in land-cover modelling was demonstrated. High levels of explanatory power for the factors defined here were found in landscapes of high heterogeneity. Findings derived from the statistical models highlight the importance of landscape disaggregation by natural conditions in complex land-cover or land-use models.

  4. Mineralogy of the Mercurian Surface (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Evans, Larry R.; Frank, Elizabeth A.; McCoy, Timothy


    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited Mercury for four years until April 2015, revealing its structure, chemical makeup, and compositional diversity. Data from the mission have confirmed that Mercury is a compositional end-member among the terrestrial planets. The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on board MESSENGER provided the first detailed geochemical analyses of Mercury's surface. These instruments have been used in conjunction with the Neutron Spectrometer and the Mercury Dual Imaging System to classify numerous geological and geochemical features on the surface of Mercury that were previously unknown. Furthermore, the data have revealed several surprising characteristics about Mercury's surface, including elevated S abundances (up to 4 wt%) and low Fe abundances (less than 2.5 wt%). The S and Fe abundances were used to quantify Mercury's highly reduced state, i.e., between 2.6 and 7.3 log10 units below the Iron-Wustite (IW) buffer. This fO2 is lower than any of the other terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System and has important consequences for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury, its surface mineralogy and geochemistry, and the petrogenesis of the planet's magmas. Although MESSENGER has revealed substantial geochemical diversity across the surface of Mercury, until now, there have been only limited efforts to understand the mineralogical and petrological diversity of the planet. Here we present a systematic and comprehensive study of the potential mineralogical and petrological diversity of Mercury.

  5. A methodology to select galaxies just after the quenching of star formation (United States)

    Citro, Annalisa; Pozzetti, Lucia; Quai, Salvatore; Moresco, Michele; Vallini, Livia; Cimatti, Andrea


    We propose a new methodology aimed at finding star-forming galaxies in the phase which immediately follows the star-formation (SF) quenching, based on the use of high- to low-ionization emission line ratios. These ratios rapidly disappear after the SF halt, due to the softening of the UV ionizing radiation. We focus on [O III] λ5007/Hα and [Ne III] λ3869/[O II] λ3727, studying them with simulations obtained with the cloudy photoionization code. If a sharp quenching is assumed, we find that the two ratios are very sensitive tracers as they drop by a factor of ˜ 10 within ˜10 Myr from the interruption of the SF; instead, if a smoother and slower SF decline is assumed (I.e. an exponentially declining SF history with e-folding time τ = 200 Myr), they decrease by a factor of ˜2 within ˜80 Myr. We mitigate the ionization-metallicity degeneracy affecting our methodology using pairs of emission line ratios separately related to metallicity and ionization, adopting the [N II] λ6584/[O II] λ3727 ratio as metallicity diagnostic. Using a Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy sample, we identify 10 examples among the most extreme quenching candidates within the [O III] λ5007/Hα versus [N II] λ6584/[O II] λ3727 plane, characterized by low [O III] λ5007/Hα, faint [Ne III] λ3869, and by blue dust-corrected spectra and (u - r) colours, as expected if the SF quenching has occurred in the very recent past. Our results also suggest that the observed fractions of quenching candidates can be used to constrain the quenching mechanism at work and its time-scales.

  6. An optimal baseline selection methodology for data-driven damage detection and temperature compensation in acousto-ultrasonics (United States)

    Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Cabanes, Guénaël


    The process of measuring and analysing the data from a distributed sensor network all over a structural system in order to quantify its condition is known as structural health monitoring (SHM). For the design of a trustworthy health monitoring system, a vast amount of information regarding the inherent physical characteristics of the sources and their propagation and interaction across the structure is crucial. Moreover, any SHM system which is expected to transition to field operation must take into account the influence of environmental and operational changes which cause modifications in the stiffness and damping of the structure and consequently modify its dynamic behaviour. On that account, special attention is paid in this paper to the development of an efficient SHM methodology where robust signal processing and pattern recognition techniques are integrated for the correct interpretation of complex ultrasonic waves within the context of damage detection and identification. The methodology is based on an acousto-ultrasonics technique where the discrete wavelet transform is evaluated for feature extraction and selection, linear principal component analysis for data-driven modelling and self-organising maps for a two-level clustering under the principle of local density. At the end, the methodology is experimentally demonstrated and results show that all the damages were detectable and identifiable.

  7. [Medline criteria for scientific journals selection. Methodology and indicators. Application to Spanish medical journals paying special attention to public health]. (United States)

    Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo


    Due to the strict selection process applied to its indexed journals, Medline is the most prestigious database in the Health and medicine field. The aim of this paper is both to analyze its selection criteria and translate into indicators that can be applied to Spanish medical journals willing to enter the Index Medicus. Analysis samples and methodology to apply obtained from the five groups of criteria considered by Medline (namely, Scope and coverage, Quality of contents, Quality of editorial work, Production quality and Audience) are proposed. A list of qualitative and quantitative indicators related to the five groups of criteria used by Medline is presented; namely, journal scientific output in the national and international context of the discipline, citation, analysis of the editorial committees, the editorial process and the peer-review system, indicators on compliance with the Vancouver guidelines, journal layout and informational quality, attractiveness, audience, journal visibility and interest as regards Medline goals.

  8. A Combined Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-GRA Methodology for Hydrogen Energy Storage Method Selection in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac Yildiz


    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to select the most appropriate Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES method for Turkey from among the alternatives of tank, metal hydride and chemical storage, which are determined based on expert opinions and literature review. Thus, we propose a Buckley extension based fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (Fuzzy-AHP and linear normalization based fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis (Fuzzy-GRA combined Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methodology. This combined approach can be applied to a complex decision process, which often makes sense with subjective data or vague information; and used to solve to solve HES selection problem with different defuzzification methods. The proposed approach is unique both in the HES literature and the MCDM literature.

  9. An integrated multi-criteria decision-making methodology for conveyor system selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairat Jiamruangjarus


    Full Text Available Material handling equipment (MHE is important for every industry because it has an effect on the productivity of manufacturing. Conveyor systems are presently one popular type of MHE. This paper presents an integration of the analytic network process (ANP with the benefits, opportunities, costs and risk (BOCR model in order to select the best conveyor system. The proposed model established a network with four merits, six strategies criteria, and twenty six sub-criteria with four alternatives (present, roller conveyor, chain conveyor, and monorail. The ANP is to determine the relative weights of an evaluative criteria and decision alternatives. Therefore, the final ranking of the alternatives are calculated by synthesizing the score of each alternative under BOCR. The results showed that the best alternative under all five methods is the chain conveyor. These research results can be easily applied, adapted and used to improve performance of selecting the conveyer system in small and medium enterprises through large industries.

  10. Reduced Crystallization Temperature Methodology for Polymer Selection in Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Stability Perspective. (United States)

    Bhugra, Chandan; Telang, Chitra; Schwabe, Robert; Zhong, Li


    API-polymer interactions, used to select the right polymeric matrix with an aim to stabilize an amorphous dispersion, are routinely studied using spectroscopic and/or calorimetric techniques (i.e., melting point depression). An alternate selection tool has been explored to rank order polymers for formation of stable amorphous dispersions as a pragmatic method for polymer selection. Reduced crystallization temperature of API, a parameter introduced by Zhou et al.,1 was utilized in this study for rank ordering interactions in API-polymeric systems. The trends in reduced crystallization temperature monitored over polymer concentration range of up to 20% polymer loading were utilized to calculate "crystallization parameter" or CP for two model systems (nifedipine and BI ABC). The rank order of CP, i.e., a measure of API-polymer interaction, for nifedipine followed the order PVP > PVP-VA > Soluplus > HPMCAS > PV Ac > PAA. This rank ordering was correlated to published results of molecular interactions and physical stability for nifedipine. A different rank ordering was observed for BI ABC: PAA > PVP > HPMCAS > Soluplus > PVPV-VA > PVAc. Interactions for BI ABC were not as differentiated when compared to nifedipine based on CP trends. BI ABC dispersions at drug loadings between 40 and 60% were physically stable for prolonged periods under ICH conditions as well as accelerated stress. We propose that large CP differences among polymers could be predictive of stability outcomes. Acceptable stability at pharmaceutically relevant drug loadings would suggest that the relative influence of downstream processes, such as polymer solubility in various solvents, process suitability and selection, and more importantly supersaturation potential, should be higher compared to stability considerations while developing compounds like BI ABC.

  11. Methodology of functionality selection for water management software and examples of its application. (United States)

    Vasilyev, K N


    When developing new software products and adapting existing software, project leaders have to decide which functionalities to keep, adapt or develop. They have to consider that the cost of making errors during the specification phase is extremely high. In this paper a formalised approach is proposed that considers the main criteria for selecting new software functions. The application of this approach minimises the chances of making errors in selecting the functions to apply. Based on the work on software development and support projects in the area of water resources and flood damage evaluation in economic terms at CH2M HILL (the developers of the flood modelling package ISIS), the author has defined seven criteria for selecting functions to be included in a software product. The approach is based on the evaluation of the relative significance of the functions to be included into the software product. Evaluation is achieved by considering each criterion and the weighting coefficients of each criterion in turn and applying the method of normalisation. This paper includes a description of this new approach and examples of its application in the development of new software products in the are of the water resources management.

  12. Optimal Corridor Selection for a Road Space Management Strategy: Methodology and Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Sharma


    Full Text Available Nationwide, there is a growing realization that there are valuable benefits to using the existing roadway facilities to their full potential rather than expanding capacity in a traditional way. Currently, state DOTs are looking for cost-effective transportation solutions to mitigate the growing congestion and increasing funding gaps. Innovative road space management strategies like narrowing of multiple lanes (three or more and shoulder width to add a lane enhance the utilization while eliminating the costs associated with constructing new lanes. Although this strategy (among many generally leads to better mobility, identifying optimal corridors is a challenge and may affect the benefits. Further, there is a likelihood that added capacity may provide localized benefits, at the expense of system level performance measures (travel time and crashes because of the relocation of traffic operational bottlenecks. This paper develops a novel transportation programming and investment decision method to identify optimal corridors for adding capacity in the network by leveraging lane widths. The methodology explicitly takes into consideration the system level benefits and safety. The programming compares two conflicting objectives of system travel time and safety benefits to find an optimal solution.

  13. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.


    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  14. Sampling methodology and site selection in the National Eye Health Survey: an Australian population-based prevalence study. (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Keel, Stuart; Dunn, Ross; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed


    This paper presents the sampling methodology of the National Eye Health Survey that aimed to determine the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey is a cross-sectional population-based survey. Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older residing in all levels of geographic remoteness in Australia. Using multistage, random-cluster sampling, 30 geographic areas were selected to provide samples of 3000 non-Indigenous Australians and 1400 Indigenous Australians. Sampling involved (i) selecting Statistical Area- Level 2 sites, stratified by remoteness; (ii) selecting Statistical Area- Level 1 sites within Statistical Area- Level 2 sites to provide targeted samples; and (iii) grouping of contiguous Statistical Area- Level 1 sites or replacing Statistical Area- Level 1 sites to provide sufficient samples. The main outcome measures involved Sites sites selected and participants sampled in the survey. Thirty sites were generated, including 12 Major City sites, 6 Inner Regional sites, 6 Outer Regional sites, 4 Remote sites and 2 Very Remote sites. Three thousand ninety-eight non-Indigenous participants and 1738 Indigenous participants were recruited. Selection of Statistical Area- Level 1 site overestimated the number of eligible residents in all sites. About 20% (6/30) of Statistical Area- Level 1 sites were situated in non-residential bushland, and 26.67% (8/30) of Statistical Area- Level 1 populations had low eligibility or accessibility, requiring replacement. Representative samples of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians were selected, recruited and tested, providing the first national data on the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  15. Determining the Performance of Procurement Methods against Selection Criteria using Outranking - Satisfying Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OJO Stephen Okunlola


    Full Text Available The need to develop a decision support system to determine the most appropriate procurement route for a building project led to the development of various theoretical models. One of the foremost techniques was the multi-attribute utility approach (MAUA. In this technique, the arithmetic mean (averaging method was used to fix the utility factors relating the procurement routes to each criterion. In this paper, the averaging method was subjected to further analysis using the outranking-satisfying technique to determine the correctness of the results derived from the averaging method used to fix the utility factors in the use of MAUA. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the rank-order of procurement methods against selection criteria by averaging and outranking-satisfying techniques. The use of outranking-satisfying analysis revealed that, the use of arithmetic mean to determine the utility factors can lead to inappropriate association of procurement routes with differing utility coefficients.

  16. [Methodological studies on selectively removing toxins in Aristolochiae manshuriensis by chinese processing techniques]. (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-min; You, Li-shuang; Jiang, Xu; Li, Lin; Wang, Wei-hao; Wang, Guan


    To investigate the possibility of selectively detoxifying aristolochic acids in Aristolochiae manshuriensis (Guanmutong) by the chemical properties of aristolochic acids and traditional Chinese processing experience. The technical parameters in processing technique of A. manshuriensis were optimized by orthogonal designed methods with aristolochic acid A. The processing technique was soaked in 0.1 mol x L(-1) baking soda for several times and then processing with vinegar. Temperature was important factor to detoxify aristolochic acids. aristolochic acid A were removed over 90% from A. manshuriensis in laboratory and over 80% in medium-scale production by 10 batches from two origins of botanical drugs with different contents, and decreased to 0.35-0.60 mg x g(-1) in processed products. aristolochic acid A existed mostly salt-forms in the botanical drug. Most toxic components in Guanmutong could be removed by the new processing method.

  17. Selection of meteorological parameters affecting rainfall estimation using neuro-fuzzy computing methodology (United States)

    Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Gocic, Milan; Lee, Siew Cheng


    Rainfall is a complex atmospheric process that varies over time and space. Researchers have used various empirical and numerical methods to enhance estimation of rainfall intensity. We developed a novel prediction model in this study, with the emphasis on accuracy to identify the most significant meteorological parameters having effect on rainfall. For this, we used five input parameters: wet day frequency (dwet), vapor pressure (e̅a), and maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) as well as cloud cover (cc). The data were obtained from the Indian Meteorological Department for the Patna city, Bihar, India. Further, a type of soft-computing method, known as the adaptive-neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), was applied to the available data. In this respect, the observation data from 1901 to 2000 were employed for testing, validating, and estimating monthly rainfall via the simulated model. In addition, the ANFIS process for variable selection was implemented to detect the predominant variables affecting the rainfall prediction. Finally, the performance of the model was compared to other soft-computing approaches, including the artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), extreme learning machine (ELM), and genetic programming (GP). The results revealed that ANN, ELM, ANFIS, SVM, and GP had R2 of 0.9531, 0.9572, 0.9764, 0.9525, and 0.9526, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that the ANFIS is the best method among all to predict monthly rainfall. Moreover, dwet was found to be the most influential parameter for rainfall prediction, and the best predictor of accuracy. This study also identified sets of two and three meteorological parameters that show the best predictions.

  18. Selection of Grounded Theory as an Appropriate Research Methodology for a Dissertation: One Student’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Jones, Ed.D.


    Full Text Available Doctoral students wanting to use grounded theory as a methodological approach for their dissertation often face multiple challenges gaining acceptance of their approach by their committee. This paper presents the case that the author used to overcome these challenges through the process of eliminating other methodologies, leaving grounded theory as the preferred method for the desired research issue. Through examining the approach used successfully by the author, other doctoral students will be able to frame similar arguments justifying the use of grounded theory in their dissertations and seeing the use of the method continue to spread into new fields and applications. This paper examines the case built for selecting grounded theory as a defensible dissertation approach. The basic research issue that I wanted to investigate was how practitioners in an applied field sought information in their work; in other words, how they researched. I further narrowed the investigation down to a more specific field, but the paper presented here is left in broader form so that other students can see the approach in more general terms.

  19. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.


    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of tradizional recovery interventions in historical buildings. A new selection methodology (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Colapietro, Domenico


    construction characters, both these tufa and stone block, present in Puglia and Basilicata regions. You are assessed consequently energy and static vulnerability of the pre-consolidation state and identified qualitatively and verified quantitatively traditional recovery solutions, exportable on constructive units morphologically similar present in other environments. Specific simulations experimental energy, based on traditional techniques of passive cooling systems have been activated in particular environments, in the Basilicata Region, in particular in the Sassi of Matera, just for the purposes of exploitation and the adaptation plant engineering and technology for a living comfort and environmental "sustainable". The non-linear dynamic analysis, carried out in the historical centers of Trani and Molfetta in Puglia, have finally shown that a combination of traditional interventions, based on their own solutions of the rules of the local art, they are able to ensure improvements in terms of static vulnerability of 31.65 % in the state ex-post if compared to techniques of modern recovery and strong invasiveness, for which there is a value of 3.70 %. It's interventions selected qualitatively in order to ensure reversibility, reduced invasiveness and the integrity of the construction, respecting its structural design and the transformations that took place in the course of history.

  1. A methodology for the valuation and selection of adaptable technology portfolios and its application to small and medium airports (United States)

    Pinon, Olivia J.

    The increase in the types of airspace users (large aircraft, small and regional jets, very light jets, unmanned aerial vehicles, etc.), as well as the very limited number of future new airport development projects are some of the factors that will characterize the next decades in air transportation. These factors, associated with a persistent growth in air traffic will worsen the current gridlock situation experienced at some major airports. As airports are becoming the major capacity bottleneck to continued growth in air traffic, it is therefore primordial to make the most efficient use of the current, and very often, underutilized airport infrastructure. This research thus proposes to address the increase in air traffic demand and resulting capacity issues by considering the implementation of operational concepts and technologies at underutilized airports. However, there are many challenges associated with sustaining the development of this type of airports. First, the need to synchronize evolving technologies with airports’ needs and investment capabilities is paramount. Additionally, it was observed that the evolution of secondary airports, and their needs, is tightly linked to the environment in which they operate. In particular, sensitivity of airports to changes in the dynamics of their environment is important, therefore requiring that the factors that drive the need for technology acquisition be identified and characterized. Finally, the difficulty to evaluate risk and make financially viable decisions, particularly when investing in new technologies, cannot be ignored. This research provides a methodology that addresses these challenges and ensures the sustainability of airport capacity-enhancement investments in a continuously changing environment. In particular, it is articulated around the need to provide decision makers with the capability to valuate and select adaptable technology portfolios to ensure airport financial viability. Hence, the four

  2. A methodological protocol for selecting and quantifying low-value prescribing practices in routinely collected data: an Australian case study. (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Elshaug, Adam G; Bhatia, R Sacha; Chalmers, Kelsey; Badgery-Parker, Tim; Pearson, Sallie-Anne


    Growing imperatives for safety, quality and responsible resource allocation have prompted renewed efforts to identify and quantify harmful or wasteful (low-value) medical practices such as test ordering, procedures and prescribing. Quantifying these practices at a population level using routinely collected health data allows us to understand the scale of low-value medical practices, measure practice change following specific interventions and prioritise policy decisions. To date, almost all research examining health care through the low-value lens has focused on medical services (tests and procedures) rather than on prescribing. The protocol described herein outlines a program of research funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council to select and quantify low-value prescribing practices within Australian routinely collected health data. We start by describing our process for identifying and cataloguing international low-value prescribing practices. We then outline our approach to translate these prescribing practices into indicators that can be applied to Australian routinely collected health data. Next, we detail methods of using Australian health data to quantify these prescribing practices (e.g. prevalence of low-value prescribing and related costs) and their downstream health consequences. We have approval from the necessary Australian state and commonwealth human research ethics and data access committees to undertake this work. The lack of systematic and transparent approaches to quantification of low-value practices in routinely collected data has been noted in recent reviews. Here, we present a methodology applied in the Australian context with the aim of demonstrating principles that can be applied across jurisdictions in order to harmonise international efforts to measure low-value prescribing. The outcomes of this research will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals. Results will also be presented at national and

  3. A Methodology for the Selection of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Methods in Real Estate and Land Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Guarini


    Full Text Available Real estate and land management are characterised by a complex, elaborate combination of technical, regulatory and governmental factors. In Europe, Public Administrators must address the complex decision-making problems that need to be resolved, while also acting in consideration of the expectations of the different stakeholders involved in settlement transformation. In complex situations (e.g., with different aspects to be considered and multilevel actors involved, decision-making processes are often used to solve multidisciplinary and multidimensional analyses, which support the choices of those who are making the decision. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA methods are included among the examination and evaluation techniques considered useful by the European Community. Such analyses and techniques are performed using methods, which aim to reach a synthesis of the various forms of input data needed to define decision-making problems of a similar complexity. Thus, one or more of the conclusions reached allow for informed, well thought-out, strategic decisions. According to the technical literature on MCDA, numerous methods are applicable in different decision-making situations, however, advice for selecting the most appropriate for the specific field of application and problem have not been thoroughly investigated. In land and real estate management, numerous queries regarding evaluations often arise. In brief, the objective of this paper is to outline a procedure with which to select the method best suited to the specific queries of evaluation, which commonly arise while addressing decision-making problems. In particular issues of land and real estate management, representing the so-called “settlement sector”. The procedure will follow a theoretical-methodological approach by formulating a taxonomy of the endogenous and exogenous variables of the multi-criteria analysis methods.

  4. Environmental analysis in the selection of alternative corridors in a long-distance linear project: a methodological proposal. (United States)

    Rescia, Alejandro J; Astrada, Elizabeth N; Bono, Julieta; Blasco, Carlos A; Meli, Paula; Adámoli, Jorge M


    A linear engineering project--i.e. a pipeline--has a potential long- and short-term impact on the environment and on the inhabitants therein. We must find better, less expensive, and less time-consuming ways to obtain information on the environment and on any modifications resulting from anthropic activity. We need scientifically sound, rapid and affordable assessment and monitoring methods. Construction companies, industries and the regulating government organisms lack the resources needed to conduct long-term basic studies of the environment. Thus there is a need to make the necessary adjustments and improvements in the environmental data considered useful for this development project. More effective and less costly methods are generally needed. We characterized the landscape of the study area, situated in the center and north-east of Argentina. Little is known of the ecology of this region and substantial research is required in order to develop sustainable uses and, at the same time, to develop methods for reducing impacts, both primary and secondary, resulting from anthropic activity in this area. Furthermore, we made an assessment of the environmental impact of the planned linear project, applying an ad hoc impact index, and we analyzed the different alternatives for a corridor, each one of these involving different sections of the territory. Among the alternative corridors considered, this study locates the most suitable ones in accordance with a selection criterion based on different environmental and conservation aspects. We selected the corridor that we considered to be the most compatible--i.e. with the least potential environmental impact--for the possible construction and operation of the linear project. This information, along with suitable measures for mitigating possible impacts, should be the basis of an environmental management plan for the design process and location of the project. We pointed out the objectivity and efficiency of this

  5. Vesta Mineralogy: VIR maps Vesta's surface (United States)

    Coradina, A.; DeSanctis, M.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, T.; Carraro, F.; Cartacci, M.; Filacchione, G.; Fonte, S.; Magni, G.; hide


    The Dawn mission will have completed Survey orbit around 4 Vesta by the end of August 2011. We present a preliminary analysis of data acquired by the Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (VIR) to map Vesta mineralogy. Thermal properties and mineralogical data are combined to provide constraints on Vesta's formation and thermal evolution. delivery of exogenic materials, space weathering processes, and origin of the howardite. eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites.

  6. Criteria for the development and use of the methodology for environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, L.; Northrop, G.; Scott, R.


    This report serves as a companion document to the report, Volume 1: Environmentally-Acceptable Fossil Energy Site Evaluation and Selection: Methodology and Users Guide, in which a methodology was developed which allows the siting of fossil fuel conversion facilities in areas with the least environmental impact. The methodology, known as SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) does not replace a site specific environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement (EIS), but does enhance the value of an EIS by thinning down the number of options to a manageable level, by doing this in an objective, open and selective manner, and by providing preliminary assessment and procedures which can be utilized during the research and writing of the actual impact statement.

  7. Mineralogical and Geochemical Investigations in the Perm State University (1916 – 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Iblaminov


    Full Text Available The history of foundation and development of mineralogical and geochemical sciences on the Mineralogy and Petrography Department of the Perm State University for 100 years is presented. The achievements in the alluvial mineralogy and nanomineralogy are characterised. Relationship of development in the area of geochemical research on early stage with the European scientific school is discussed. The next stage is characterized by transition to investigations of trace elements and usage of the modern analytic base for environmental geochemistry. Petrographic and lithologic investigations have become the base for paleotectonic reconstruction of the Western Urals area. The study of distribution of mineral resources has been conducted on the base of specific minerageodynamic concept. The principles of minerageodinamic investigation of oil and gas basins, and methodology of reservoir study using modern technology were developed. The contribution of individual scientists in development in different scientific areas is illustrated.

  8. Evolving spatio-temporal data machines based on the NeuCube neuromorphic framework: Design methodology and selected applications. (United States)

    Kasabov, Nikola; Scott, Nathan Matthew; Tu, Enmei; Marks, Stefan; Sengupta, Neelava; Capecci, Elisa; Othman, Muhaini; Doborjeh, Maryam Gholami; Murli, Norhanifah; Hartono, Reggio; Espinosa-Ramos, Josafath Israel; Zhou, Lei; Alvi, Fahad Bashir; Wang, Grace; Taylor, Denise; Feigin, Valery; Gulyaev, Sergei; Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Yang, Jie


    The paper describes a new type of evolving connectionist systems (ECOS) called evolving spatio-temporal data machines based on neuromorphic, brain-like information processing principles (eSTDM). These are multi-modular computer systems designed to deal with large and fast spatio/spectro temporal data using spiking neural networks (SNN) as major processing modules. ECOS and eSTDM in particular can learn incrementally from data streams, can include 'on the fly' new input variables, new output class labels or regression outputs, can continuously adapt their structure and functionality, can be visualised and interpreted for new knowledge discovery and for a better understanding of the data and the processes that generated it. eSTDM can be used for early event prediction due to the ability of the SNN to spike early, before whole input vectors (they were trained on) are presented. A framework for building eSTDM called NeuCube along with a design methodology for building eSTDM using this is presented. The implementation of this framework in MATLAB, Java, and PyNN (Python) is presented. The latter facilitates the use of neuromorphic hardware platforms to run the eSTDM. Selected examples are given of eSTDM for pattern recognition and early event prediction on EEG data, fMRI data, multisensory seismic data, ecological data, climate data, audio-visual data. Future directions are discussed, including extension of the NeuCube framework for building neurogenetic eSTDM and also new applications of eSTDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Mineralogy Across Vesta (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Capaccioni, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; hide


    Dawn VIR spectra are characterized by pyroxene absorptions and no clear evidence for abundant other minerals are observed at the scale of the present measurements. Even though Vesta spectra are dominated by pyroxenes, spectral variation at regional and local scales are evident and distinct color units are identified. Although almost all of the surface materials exhibit spectra like those of howardites, some large units can be interpreted to be material richer in diogenite (based on pyroxenes band depths and band centers) and some others like eucrite-rich howardite units. VIR data strongly indicate that the south polar region (Rheasilvia) has its own spectral characteristics, indicating the presence of Mg-pyroxene-rich terrains (diogenite-like), while the equatorial areas have swallower band depths and average band centers at slightly longer wavelengths, consistent with more eucrite rich materials. Vesta surface shows considerable diversity at smaller scales (tens of km), in terms of spectral reflectance and emission, band depths and slopes. Many bright and dark spots are present on Vesta. Dark spots have low reflectance at visible wavelengths and are spectrally characterized by shallower 1 and 2 micron bands with respect the surrounding terrains. Bright materials have high reflectance and are often spectrally characterized by deep pyroxenes absorption bands. Vesta presents complex geology/topography and the mineral distribution is often correlated with geological and topographical structures. Ejecta from large craters have distinct spectral behaviors, and materials exposed in the craters show distinct spectra on floors and rims. VIR reveals the mineralogical variation of Vesta s crustal stratigraphy on local and global scales. Maps of spectral parameters show surface and subsurface unit compositions in their stratigraphic context. The hypothesis that Vesta is the HED parent body is consistent with, and strengthened by, the geologic and spectral context for pyroxene

  10. Correlating Mineralogy and Amino Acid Contents of Milligram-Scale Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrite Samples (United States)

    Burton, Aaron, S.; Berger, Eve L.; Locke, Darren R.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.


    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in most of the carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances of amino acids, as well as their structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that there is a link between parent-body conditions, mineralogy and the synthesis and preservation of amino acids (and likely other organic molecules). However, elucidating specific causes for the observed differences in amino acid composition has proven extremely challenging because samples analyzed for amino acids are typically much larger ((is) approximately 100 mg powders) than the scale at which meteorite heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences, (is) approximately 1-mg or smaller samples). Thus, the effects of differences in mineralogy on amino acid abundances could not be easily discerned. Recent advances in the sensitivity of instrumentation have made possible the analysis of smaller samples for amino acids, enabling a new approach to investigate the link between mineralogical con-text and amino acid compositions/abundances in meteorites. Through coordinated mineral separation, mineral characterization and highly sensitive amino acid analyses, we have performed preliminary investigations into the relationship between meteorite mineralogy and amino acid composition. By linking amino acid data to mineralogy, we have started to identify amino acid-bearing mineral phases in different carbonaceous meteorites. The methodology and results of analyses performed on the Murchison meteorite are presented here.

  11. Optimization and Quality Control of Automated Quantitative Mineralogy Analysis for Acid Rock Drainage Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pooler


    Full Text Available Low ore-grade waste samples from the Codelco Andina mine that were analyzed in an environmental and mineralogical test program for acid rock drainage prediction, revealed inconsistencies between the quantitative mineralogical data (QEMSCAN® and the results of geochemical characterizations by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, LECO® furnace, and sequential extractions. For the QEMSCAN® results, biases were observed in the proportions of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals detected. An analysis of the results indicated that the problems observed were likely associated with polished section preparation. Therefore, six different sample preparation protocols were tested and evaluated using three samples from the previous study. One of the methods, which involved particle size reduction and transverse section preparation, was identified as having the greatest potential for correcting the errors observed in the mineralogical analyses. Further, the biases in the quantities of calcium sulfate minerals detected were reduced through the use of ethylene glycol as a polishing lubricant. It is recommended that the sample preparation methodology described in this study be used in order to accurately quantify percentages of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals in environmental mineralogical studies which use automated mineralogical analysis.

  12. Landslide: Mineralogical and Physical Investigation (United States)

    Tudor, Viluș; Grozav, Adia; Rogobete, Gheorghe


    In order to construct a road bed foundation, if land has moved, on an area with old landslides, there is a high chance of it moving again. The investigation was made in a region with hilly relief, in which the parent materials of soils are argillaceous marls of Pliocene age. Because the slope is scarped and the versant has been cut, the soil mass slide favoured of the particle-size distribution dominated by heavy clay. With a reiteratedly percolative moisture regime, the soil material is saturated in water fora long period (700-800 mm precipitation/year), and that can increase the slope mass, thereby increasing the driving forces. In a soil profile situated on the top of the hill, with landslide for about 40 m length of the road, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were analysed physic-chemical and mineralogical. For the heavy and light minerals from the sand fraction a polarized light analyser is used, and for clay minerals X-ray, differential thermal and infrared absorption method are used. The particle-size distribution in the soil profile is dominated by the clay fraction, which reached 53.2% in the ABt horizon and 63.0% in the Bt horizon (67-93 cm depth). The structure of the light minerals, consists of quartz (41-58%); feldspar (10.16-18.10%); muscovite (14.10-26.04). The heavy minerals are oxides (2.61-15.26%), hornblende (0.58-2.87%) and biotite (0.51-2.68%). It must be mentioned the presence of the metamorphic minerals, with the source of the Poiana Rusca mountains. These minerals are epidote (1.01-1.86%), disthene (0.70-1.86%), staurolite (0.73-2.46%) and sillimanite (0.35-0.45%). The clay minerals, inherited from the parent material or formed during the soil-forming process are dominated by smectite, which represent (71-85%) from the total clay minerals, illite 10-21%, and Kaolinite, 4-12%. Rheological properties, like plastic index (53.8%), activity index (1.01%) and consistency index (0.99-1.00%) show that the shrinkage – swelling processes are

  13. Spectral classification and mineralogical characterization of Nili Fossae for a better understanding of hydrated mineralogies. (United States)

    Serventi, Giovanna; Carli, Cristian; Altieri, Francesca; Geminale, Anna; Sgavetti, Maria; Grassi, Davide; Orosei, Roberto; Bellucci, Giancarlo


    The presence of hydrated minerals on Mars provides a record of water-related processes and, in particular, the identification of phyllosilicates puts constraints on the evolution of Mars (Poulet et al., 2005). Even if data from the Observatoire pour la Minèralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activitè (OMEGA) and from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show the presence of different hydrated minerals, on Mars the spectral regions where hydrated minerals absorb are also affected by atmospheric features due to gaseous components, mostly CO2 and H2O. Among the different methods that have been proposed to separate the atmospheric signatures from the hydrated absorptions, we use the Surface Atmosphere Separation (SAS) method proposed by Geminale et al. (2015) to analyze the Nili Fossae region (in particular, four MEX orbit have been selected and a mosaic have been created). In this work, we spectrally classify the Nili Fossae region using the Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM, Kruse et al., 1993) classification and using a spectral library iteratively built from the image though the Pixel Purity Index (PPI, Boardman, 1995). Mainly, we recognized five spectral regions dominated by: iron-hydroxides, pyroxenes (both orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene), olivine and phyllosilicates, in accordance with the literature. Then, we focused on the hydrated regions: absorptions in the 1.9-2.3 µm are fundamental to recognize a hydrated mineralogy, and to discriminate between phyllosilicates characterized by different cations in the octahedral environment. Comparing our results with maps from Mangold et al. (2007) and Poulet et al (2007), we demonstrated that the SAS+SAM technique permits to identify hydrated regions that cannot be easily recognized using the spectral mapping applied to images corrected with Mons Olympus method (Langevin et al., 2005). Furthermore, applying the MGM algorithm to a set of spectra selected from hydrated regions, we recognized the

  14. Selected aspects of the methodology of a household interview survey on an urban agglomeration scale with regard to its services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata ŻOCHOWSKA


    Full Text Available The article presents the essential issues and algorithm of the methodology of a four-step transportation model, which was constructed in order to carrying out a household interview survey. The results of this research are source data for determining the travel behaviour of the users of transportation systems, including intelligent transport systems (ITS. The presented issues regarding the survey methodology also concern the specifics of the study area, an urban agglomeration area. The examples particularly relate to an urban agglomeration with the nature of a conurbation, namely, the Upper Silesian Agglomeration in Poland.

  15. Belite Portland Clinkers. Synthesis and Mineralogical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Torre, A. G.


    Full Text Available The quaternary system CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3 has been taken into account to design five compositions of belite Portland clinkers with belite (Ca2SiO4 contents ranging from 60 to 65 wt%, located in its primary phase field of crystallization. The synthesis of these belite clinkers has been studied by high temperature microscopy, dilatometry, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. As a result, the optimum clinkerization temperature has been established at 1360 ± 5ºC. The quantitative phase analyses of the clinkers were carried out by X-ray powder diffraction with the Rietveld methodology. The mineralogical composition depends on the initial dosages, on the highest temperature achieved and on the time of residence at this temperature. The reaction was completed at 1365ºC during 15 min (free CaO < 0.5 wt%, in those conditions the β-belite form is stabilized and the harmful transformation β→γ is avoided.

    Teniendo en cuenta el sistema cuaternario CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3, se han diseñado cinco composiciones de clínqueres Pórtland belíticos, con contenidos del 60 y del 65% en peso de belita (Ca2SiO4, situadas en su campo primario de cristalización. La síntesis de estos clínqueres belíticos se ha estudiado “in situ” por microscopía de alta temperatura, dilatometría y análisis térmico diferencial y termogravimétrico. La temperatura óptima de clinquerización, determinada con estas técnicas, ha sido de 1360 ± 5ºC. Los análisis cuantitativos de los clínqueres se llevaron a cabo por difracción de rayos-X con la metodología Rietveld. Los porcentajes de las diferentes fases dependen de las dosificaciones iniciales, de la temperatura alcanzada y del tiempo de residencia a dicha temperatura. Se ha conseguido una reacción total (%CaO libre < 0.5% en peso tratando a 1365ºC durante 15 min, en cuyas condiciones se estabiliza la forma β de la belita y se evita la transformación perjudicial β→γ.

  16. A methodology to select particle morpho-chemical characteristics to use in source apportionment of particulate matter from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Hermosilla, T.; Aarnink, A.; Ogink, N.W.M.


    Intensive poultry and pig houses are major point sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The knowledge on the contribution of individual sources to PM in different fractions is essential to improve PM reduction from livestock houses. We developed a methodology to investigate which input data

  17. Petrography and mineralogy of archaeological finds from Al Zubarah, Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz; Sølling, Theis Ivan; Sobott, Robert

    The contribution presents results of mineralogical analyses of finds which are nit originating from Al Zubarah, mainly diving weights.......The contribution presents results of mineralogical analyses of finds which are nit originating from Al Zubarah, mainly diving weights....

  18. Mineralogical, Geochemical, Physical And Industrial Potentials Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and shrinkage limit (8.30 – 8.70%) as well as low vitrification. The shale is also characterized by high loss on ignition (16.8%). Keywords: mineralogy, chemical, physical, industrial potential, shale. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.

  19. Chemical and mineralogical characterization and ceramic suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of raw feldspathic materials from Dschang (Cameroon) was realized by means of X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analyses, optical and scanning electron microscopies, and analytical techniques. It was found that these materials consist of albite (43 ± 3 wt.%), microcline ...

  20. Mineralogical, geochemical and geomechanical characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work focuses on the mineralogical and chemical analysis of two alluvial clays from the Sanaga River, four lateritic clays from Monatele and Ebebda regions in southern Cameroon and, on the physicomechanical characterization of these clayey mixtures. The exploitation of XRD patterns reveals that quartz, muscovite, ...

  1. Mineralogical and particulate morphological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six representative geophagic clayey soils from Botswana were mineralogically characterized using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), optical microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results of identified mineral phases revealed quartz (SiO2) as the most dominant in all samples constituting ...

  2. *Corresponding author Mineralogical Appraisal of Sediments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mineralogical Appraisal of Sediments of Duricrust Suites and Pans around Jwaneng. Area, Botswana. 1*ATLHOPHENG, JULIUS R; 2GEORGES-IVO E. EKOSSE. 1. Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB0704. Gaborone. 2. Geology, Mining and Minerals Programs, University of ...

  3. Studies on Mineralogy, Micromorphology and Relationships of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were described and sampled from suiface and subsuiface horizons for mineralogical, micromorphological and fertility studies. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the soils have different mineral components in the suiface and subsuiface horizons. Quartz is the dom- inant mineral in topsoils of both lbushi and Luseni soils.

  4. Environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection: methodology and user's guide. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, G.M.


    This report is designed to facilitate assessments of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of fossil energy conversion facilities which might be implemented at potential sites. The discussion of methodology and the User's Guide contained herein are presented in a format that assumes the reader is not an energy technologist. Indeed, this methodology is meant for application by almost anyone with an interest in a potential fossil energy development - planners, citizen groups, government officials, and members of industry. It may also be of instructional value. The methodology is called: Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems (SELECS) and is organized in three levels of increasing sophistication. Only the least complicated version - the Level 1 SELECS - is presented in this document. As stated above, it has been expressly designed to enable just about anyone to participate in evaluating the potential impacts of a proposed energy conversion facility. To accomplish this objective, the Level 1 calculations have been restricted to ones which can be performed by hand in about one working day. Data collection and report preparation may bring the total effort required for a first or one-time application to two to three weeks. If repeated applications are made in the same general region, the assembling of data for a different site or energy conversion technology will probably take much less time.

  5. Context-specific selection of algorithms for recursive feature tracking in endoscopic image using a new methodology. (United States)

    Selka, F; Nicolau, S; Agnus, V; Bessaid, A; Marescaux, J; Soler, L


    In minimally invasive surgery, the tracking of deformable tissue is a critical component for image-guided applications. Deformation of the tissue can be recovered by tracking features using tissue surface information (texture, color,...). Recent work in this field has shown success in acquiring tissue motion. However, the performance evaluation of detection and tracking algorithms on such images are still difficult and are not standardized. This is mainly due to the lack of ground truth data on real data. Moreover, in order to avoid supplementary techniques to remove outliers, no quantitative work has been undertaken to evaluate the benefit of a pre-process based on image filtering, which can improve feature tracking robustness. In this paper, we propose a methodology to validate detection and feature tracking algorithms, using a trick based on forward-backward tracking that provides an artificial ground truth data. We describe a clear and complete methodology to evaluate and compare different detection and tracking algorithms. In addition, we extend our framework to propose a strategy to identify the best combinations from a set of detector, tracker and pre-process algorithms, according to the live intra-operative data. Experimental results have been performed on in vivo datasets and show that pre-process can have a strong influence on tracking performance and that our strategy to find the best combinations is relevant for a reasonable computation cost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mineralogical analysis of pan concentrates from Nigeria


    Kemp, S. J.; Wagner, D.; Noble, S.; Mounteney, I.


    This report presents the results of mineralogical characterisation of a small suite of seven pan concentrate samples from Nigeria. The samples were submitted for analysis by Drs Roger Key and John Ridgway (BGS) as part of the ‘Technical Assistance Services for the Geochemical Mapping of Nigeria’ project which aims to provide baseline geoscientific information for mineral exploration and environmental management through a study of the distribution of important metallic elements.

  7. "Building" 3D visualization skills in mineralogy (United States)

    Gaudio, S. J.; Ajoku, C. N.; McCarthy, B. S.; Lambart, S.


    Studying mineralogy is fundamental for understanding the composition and physical behavior of natural materials in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. However, some students struggle and ultimately get discouraged with mineralogy course material because they lack well-developed spatial visualization skills that are needed to deal with three-dimensional (3D) objects, such as crystal forms or atomic-scale structures, typically represented in two-dimensional (2D) space. Fortunately, spatial visualization can improve with practice. Our presentation demonstrates a set of experiential learning activities designed to support the development and improvement of spatial visualization skills in mineralogy using commercially available magnetic building tiles, rods, and spheres. These instructional support activities guide students in the creation of 3D models that replicate macroscopic crystal forms and atomic-scale structures in a low-pressure learning environment and at low cost. Students physically manipulate square and triangularly shaped magnetic tiles to build 3D open and closed crystal forms (platonic solids, prisms, pyramids and pinacoids). Prismatic shapes with different closing forms are used to demonstrate the relationship between crystal faces and Miller Indices. Silica tetrahedra and octahedra are constructed out of magnetic rods (bonds) and spheres (oxygen atoms) to illustrate polymerization, connectivity, and the consequences for mineral formulae. In another activity, students practice the identification of symmetry elements and plane lattice types by laying magnetic rods and spheres over wallpaper patterns. The spatial visualization skills developed and improved through our experiential learning activities are critical to the study of mineralogy and many other geology sub-disciplines. We will also present pre- and post- activity assessments that are aligned with explicit learning outcomes.

  8. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others


    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano

  9. Minimizing effects of methodological decisions on interpretation and prediction in species distribution studies: An example with background selection (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Talbert, Marian; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Aldridge, Cameron; Brown, Cynthia; Kumar, Sunil; Manier, Daniel; Talbert, Colin; Holcombe, Tracy R.


    Evaluating the conditions where a species can persist is an important question in ecology both to understand tolerances of organisms and to predict distributions across landscapes. Presence data combined with background or pseudo-absence locations are commonly used with species distribution modeling to develop these relationships. However, there is not a standard method to generate background or pseudo-absence locations, and method choice affects model outcomes. We evaluated combinations of both model algorithms (simple and complex generalized linear models, multivariate adaptive regression splines, Maxent, boosted regression trees, and random forest) and background methods (random, minimum convex polygon, and continuous and binary kernel density estimator (KDE)) to assess the sensitivity of model outcomes to choices made. We evaluated six questions related to model results, including five beyond the common comparison of model accuracy assessment metrics (biological interpretability of response curves, cross-validation robustness, independent data accuracy and robustness, and prediction consistency). For our case study with cheatgrass in the western US, random forest was least sensitive to background choice and the binary KDE method was least sensitive to model algorithm choice. While this outcome may not hold for other locations or species, the methods we used can be implemented to help determine appropriate methodologies for particular research questions.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Selected Thyme (Thymus L.) Species and Study of the Equivalence of Different Measuring Methodologies. (United States)

    Orłowska, Marta; Kowalska, Teresa; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika


    This study presents the results of comparative evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic fraction exhaustively extracted with aqueous methanol from 18 different thyme (Thymus L.) specimens and species. This evaluation is made with use of the same free radical source (DPPH• radical), three different free radical scavenging models (gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and Trolox), and three different measuring techniques (the dot blot test, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, EPR). A comparison of the equivalence of these three different measuring techniques (performed with use of hierarchical clustering with Euclidean distance as a similarity measure and Ward's linkage) is particularly important in view of the fact that different laboratories use different antioxidant activity measuring techniques, which makes any interlaboratory comparison hardly possible. The results obtained confirm a semiquantitative equivalence among the three compared methodologies, and a proposal is made of a simple and cost-effective dot blot test that uses the DPPH• radical and provides differentiation of antioxidant activity of herbal matter comparable with the results of the UV-Vis spectrophotometry and EPR.

  11. Methodology of site selection for solid municipal waste disposal plants; Metodologia per la localizzazione sul territorio di aree ambientalmente compatibili con impianti di smaltimento rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassoni, E.; Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Andriola, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The selection of suitable areas for solid municipal waste disposal plants has a notable importance in relation to the problems linked to the solid municipal waste management. The knowledge of the territory constitutes the fundamental base for the selection of compatible areas, from an environmental point of view. The method developed by ENEA (1995) and applied to the Latina territory (Central Italy) preliminary considers an accurate bibliographic and cartographic search, relative to the geological, presently, hydrogeological characteristics and the use constraints of the territory. The selection of suitable areas has been carried out on the ground of the following criteria: - selection of potentially suitable large areas, carried out overlaying thematic maps (geological, geomorphological, etc.) elaborated for all the examined territory; - selection of ``exclusion`` areas on the ground of use constraints, such as residential areas, water protection zones and so on. At the end of the proceeding phases other main points with territorial and socioeconomic significance have been examined and represented on thematic maps. Because the selected areas have resulted too numerous, it has been necessary to utilize methods to get environmental comparative evaluations of the areas in relation to the solid municipal waste disposal plants. A method, developed by ENEA (1994) and based on the calculus of the ``impacts matrix`` has been used. The application of the described method has allowed to find out the areas with the best degree of compatibility, which could be defined ``first priority`` areas for the final choice of the plants site. The aforesaid classification allows the Local Administrators to select the site in a scientifically correct way, on the ground of the evaluation of environmental characteristics above indicated and of a cost-benefit balance; this latter is presently not included among the objectives of the methodology.

  12. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Qualiberica S.L. (Spain); Martinez-Camara, Eduardo, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Jimenez-Macias, Emilio, E-mail: [University of La Rioja, Department of Electrical Engineering (Spain)


    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  13. Mineralogical composition changes of postagrogenic soils under different plant communities. (United States)

    Churilin, Nikita; Chizhikova, Natalia; Varlamov, Evgheni; Churilina, Alexandra


    Plant communities play the leading role in transformation of soil. The need of studying former arable lands increases due to large number of abandoned lands in Russia. It is necessary to study mineralogical composition of soils involved into natural processes to understand the trends of their development after agricultural activities in the past. The aim of the study is to identify changes in mineralogical composition of soils under the influence of different plant communities. Soils were sampled in the south of Arkhangelsk region, Ustyansky district, near Akichkin Pochinok village. Soils are formed on clay moraine of Moscow glaciation. Soil profiles were dug on interfluve. We selected 4 plant communities on different stages of succession: upland meadow with domination of sod grasses (Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis), 16-year-old birch forest where dominants are herbaceous plants such as Poa sp., Chamerion angustiflium, Agrostis tenuis, 16-year-old spruce forest with no herbaceous vegetation and 70-year-old bilberry spruce forest with domination of Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. To separate soil fractions <1 micron, 1-5 micron and 5-10 micron samples were rubbed into a thick paste and sedimented. Oriented preparations of fractions were examined by XRD method. The results show that podzol processes lead to significant changes of mineral content. We noticed a clear differentiation of studied soils both in the content of fraction and composition of minerals. Mineralogical composition and major mineral phases correlation of profiles under 70 years and 16 years of spruce forests are different. Mineralogical content in upper part of profile under the young spruce is more differentiated than in old spruce forest: the amount of quartz and kaolinite increases in upper horizon, although in this case the overall pattern of profile formation of clay material during podzolization remains unchanged. There is more substantial desilting under the birch forest

  14. Characterisation of some Clays Used for Whiteware Ceramics I. Mineralogical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Benea


    Full Text Available In order to obtain a semiquantitative mineralogical composition of raw materials used for whiteware ceramics, four different clay types were analysed by X-ray diffraction. Studies were carried out by using a combination of analyses of the bulk sample, and of the fine fraction. Using a well-established pre-treatment methodology (use of chemicals, ultrasonic treatment, dispersion procedures, clay mineral concentration by centrifugation and sedimentation, oriented and random powder preparation, cation saturation, expansion/dehydration methods, 12 X-ray diffractometer traces were obtained from each sample. Based on these informations it was possible to establish the qualitative mineralogical composition, and also a semiquantitative one using peak intensities and peak area corrected by various factors. Scanning electron microscopy was also used in order to illustrate the identified mineral phases.

  15. A methodological investigation of the Intermodal Preferential Looking paradigm: Methods of analyses, picture selection and data rejection criteria. (United States)

    Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; Poltrock, Silvana; Floccia, Caroline


    The Intermodal Preferential Looking paradigm provides a sensitive measure of a child's online word comprehension. To complement existing recommendations (Fernald, Zangl, Portillo, & Marchman, 2008), the present study evaluates the impact of experimental noise generated by two aspects of the visual stimuli on the robustness of familiar word recognition with and without mispronunciations: the presence of a central fixation point and the level of visual noise in the pictures (as measured by luminance saliency). Twenty-month-old infants were presented with a classic word recognition IPL procedure in 3 conditions: without a fixation stimulus (No Fixation - noisiest condition), with a fixation stimulus before trial onset (Fixation, intermediate), and with a fixation stimulus, a neutral background and equally salient images (Fixation Plus - least noisy). Data were systematically analyzed considering a range of data selection criteria and dependent variables (proportion of looking time towards the target, longest look, and time-course analysis). Critically, the expected pronunciation and naming interaction was only found in the Fixation Plus condition. We discuss the impact of data selection criteria and the dependent variable choice on the modulation of these effects across the different conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Integrated Methodology for Supplier Selection under the Presence of Vagueness: A Case in Banking Sector, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Onut


    Full Text Available A supplier selection process mainly involves evaluation of different alternative suppliers based on different criteria. This process can be handled as a combination of the customer needs and the technical requirements. Also customers can be considered as the companies to purchase the suppliers’ technical expertise. Hence, this kind of relationship can be analyzed as a house of quality model typical of quality function deployment (QFD. This paper develops a supplier evaluation approach based on the analytic network process (ANP, QFD, and the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS methods to help an investment bank in Turkey as a real world application. Fuzzy logic is used to capture the vagueness in people’s verbal assessments. In the first phase, matrices used to define the importance of the supplier selection criteria and the technical requirements are calculated with the fuzzy ANP method. The technical requirements and the criteria are combined in the house of quality to evaluate the relationship between them. In the second phase, fuzzy TOPSIS is used to rank the suppliers based on the weighted criteria obtained from the first phase. The study was followed by the sensitivity analysis of the results.

  17. Response surface methodology to design a selective co-enrichment broth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus for simultaneous detection by multiplex PCR. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao Yan; Zhou, Wen Wu; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Xiao Fu; Xu, Jun Feng


    Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus are frequent co-visitors of contaminated foods to cause food-borne diseases. To achieve rapid detection of three organisms by multiplex PCR, a selective co-enrichment broth was considered to design using response surface methodology (RSM) in this work. NaCl, LiCl and KSCN as selective bacterial inhibitors were selected to optimize their concentrations for a matched composition of bacterial biomass with uniform amplification of three targets. Central composite design was employed to collect the data and fit the responses. Three quadratic polynomial models were derived by computer simulation. A statistical analysis was carried out to explore the effects of the variables on the composition of bacterial biomass and PCR amplification yields. In the end, a novel broth (ESS-3 broth) of NaCl 1.60%, LiCl 0.70%, KSCN 0.10% was formulated to allow co-enrichment of the target pathogens and suppress growth of some non-target pathogens. The simultaneous detection of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus was developed on a rapid, convenient and sensitive method consisting of selective co-enrichment in ESS-3 broth, DNA extraction with the boiling method and robust test by multiplex PCR. Our work provided broader application of RSM for the simultaneous detection of other combinations of multiple pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel in vitro allometric scaling methodology for aldehyde oxidase substrates to enable selection of appropriate species for traditional allometry. (United States)

    Crouch, Rachel D; Hutzler, J Matthew; Daniels, J Scott


    1. Failure to predict human pharmacokinetics of aldehyde oxidase (AO) substrates using traditional allometry has been attributed to species differences in AO metabolism. 2. To identify appropriate species for predicting human in vivo clearance by single-species scaling (SSS) or multispecies allometry (MA), we scaled in vitro intrinsic clearance (CLint) of five AO substrates obtained from hepatic S9 of mouse, rat, guinea pig, monkey and minipig to human in vitro CLint. 3. When predicting human in vitro CLint, average absolute fold-error was ≤2.0 by SSS with monkey, minipig and guinea pig (rat/mouse >3.0) and was allometry, Fm,AO and E may prove useful to guide selection of suitable species for traditional allometry and prediction of human pharmacokinetics of AO substrates.

  19. Cómo elevar la eficiencia en la selección de vehículos. // Methodology for an effective vehicle selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. del A. Raña González


    Full Text Available Enfocar sobre nuevas bases el perfeccionamiento de la gestión de operaciones, es un objetivo principal, para poder alcanzarnuevos niveles competitivos en la esfera del transporte. Los medios de transporte son los activos mas importantes dentro deeste tipo de empresa, seleccionarlos adecuadamente garantizará una explotación eficiente.El presente trabajo propone una metodología que permite evaluar diferentes alternativas de inversión a través de un enfoquetécnico – económico. Desde el punto de vista técnico es necesario utilizar un índice ponderado que permita evaluarintegralmente las características técnicas de cada uno de los vehículos objeto de análisis.Gran importancia se da a una primera evaluación que permita discriminar en dependencia del segmento de mercado dondetrabajará el vehículo y escoger las alternativas que reúnan un grupo de características que las haga comparables para poderseleccionar la mejor opción dentro de todas las posibles.Palabras claves: Criterios de selección, transporte, vehículo, renta de autos.___________________________________________________________________________Abstract.One of the principal proposes in the field of transportation is the improvement of the manager of operations and to reachnew competitive levels. In this sense, a good selection of vehicles is the guarantee of an efficient performance. The presentwork proposes a methodology with the use of pondered index to evaluate integrally the technical characteristics of eachanalyzed vehicles. Great importance is given to a first evaluation that allows to discriminate a group of parameters andmakes possible to select the best option of vehicle in dependence of the market segment where it will be used.Passwords: Vehicle selection, methodology for taking of decision, rent of car.

  20. Assessing the Effectiveness of Empiric Aantibiotic Treatments: The Use of an Antibiogram Based Methodology in the Case of Selected Public Hospitals in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kofi Besa Adorka


    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotics prescribed in the presumptuous treatment of infections may be ineffective if causative pathogens acquire resistance to prescribed antibiotics. In the absence of patient follow ups for treatment outcome assessments, healthcare providers may be unaware of the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments they provide. In the empiric treatment of infections particularly, such situations may compromise appropriate selection of antibiotics. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of antibiotics prescribed in the empiric treatment of infections using a methodology based on information derived from antibiograms.Method: Culture sensitivity test results and relevant data on antibiotic treatment among inpatients from  selected  hospitals  were  used  to  construct  an  antibiogram  and  also determine  pathogen associations with infections and antibiotics most frequently prescribed in their empiric treatment. Parameters describing levels of antibiotic activities against pathogens associated with given infections were defined and used to evaluate the effectiveness of prescribed antibiotics. Clinical validity of results was assessed by comparing results of a simultaneous treatment outcome evaluation of antibiotic treatments of selected infections carried out.Results: The methodology was used to successfully evaluate the effectiveness of commonly prescribed antibiotics. Ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, two of the antibiotics most prescribed in the empiric treatment of infections, were predicted to be grossly ineffective in treating staphylococcal and Gram-negative bacilli (GNB infections for which they were observed to be prescribed.Conclusion: Polymicrobial causes of infections attributable mainly to gram-positive cocci and gram-negative  bacilli  were  established  as  an  etiological  feature  of  most  infections.  Multiple antibiotic treatments were shown, in effect, to be more effective than single use of the

  1. Mineralogical Approaches to Sourcing Pipes and Figurines from the Eastern Woodlands, U.S.A. (United States)

    Wisseman, S.U.; Moore, D.M.; Hughes, R.E.; Hynes, M.R.; Emerson, T.E.


    Provenance studies of stone artifacts often rely heavily upon chemical techniques such as neutron activation analysis. However, stone specimens with very similar chemical composition can have different mineralogies (distinctive crystalline structures as well as variations within the same mineral) that are not revealed by multielemental techniques. Because mineralogical techniques are often cheap and usually nondestructive, beginning with mineralogy allows the researcher to gain valuable information and then to be selective about how many samples are submitted for expensive and somewhat destructive chemical analysis, thus conserving both valuable samples and funds. Our University of Illinois team of archaeologists and geologists employs Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Sequential acid dissolution/XRD/Inductively coupled plasma (SAD-XRD-ICP) analyses. Two case studies of Hopewellian pipes and Mississippian figurines illustrate this mineralogical approach. The results for both studies identify sources relatively close to the sites where the artifacts were recovered: Sterling, Illinois (rather than Ohio) for the (Hopewell) pipes and Missouri (rather than Arkansas or Oklahoma) for the Cahokia figurines. ?? 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Sanchez


    The purpose of this report is to provide a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the mineral abundance within the geologic framework model domain. The mineralogic model enables project personnel to estimate mineral abundances at any position, within the model region, and within any stratigraphic unit in the model area. The model provides the abundance and distribution of 10 minerals and mineral groups within 22 stratigraphic sequences or model layers in the Yucca Mountain area. The uncertainties and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.4. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7.

  3. Exploring the Mineralogy of the Moon with M3 (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Green, R.; Head, J. W. III; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.


    From the initial era or lunar exploration, we have learned that many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets, including the record of early and late impact bombardment. Since most major geologic activity ceased on the Moon approx. 3 Gy ago, the Moon's surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution. The type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing. Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes. Specifically, the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products, lenses of intruded or remelted plutons, basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining, and any process (e.g. cratering) that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3, or "m-cube") is a state-of-the-art imaging spectrometer that will fly on Chandrayaan-1, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched late 2007 to early 2008. M3 is one of several foreign instruments chosen by ISRO to be flown on Chandrayaan-1 to complement the strong ISRO payload package. M3 was selected through a peer-review process as part of NASA s Discovery Program. It is under the oversight of PI Carle Pieters at Brown University and is being built by an experienced team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Data analysis and calibration are carried out by a highly qualified and knowledgeable Science Team. To characterize diagnostic properties of lunar minerals, M3 acquires high spectral resolution reflectance data from 700 to 3000 nm (optional to 430 nm). M3 operates as a pushbroom spectrometer with a slit oriented orthogonal to the S/C orbital motion. Measurements are obtained simultaneously for 640 cross track spatial elements and 261 spectral elements

  4. Methodological factors in determining rates of dementia in transient ischemic attack and stroke: (I) impact of baseline selection bias. (United States)

    Pendlebury, Sarah T; Chen, Ping-Jen; Bull, Linda; Silver, Louise; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M


    Many previous studies on dementia in stroke have restrictive inclusion criteria, which may result in underestimation of dementia rates. We undertook a large prospective population-based study of all transient ischemic attack and stroke to determine the impact of study entry criteria on measured rates of pre- and postevent dementia. All patients with acute transient ischemic attack or stroke from a defined population of 92 728 are referred from primary care or at hospital admission to the Oxford Vascular Study (2002-2007) and have baseline clinical and cognitive assessment and follow-up. We examined the impact of early death, other nonavailability, and commonly used selection criteria, on measured rates of dementia. Among 1236 patients (mean age/SD 75.2/12.1 years, 582 men, 403 transient ischemic attack), 139 died or were otherwise unavailable for baseline assessment, 319 had prior dependency, 425 had comorbidity, 512 were aged ≥80 years, 85 were dysphasic, and 502 were hospitalized. Pre-event dementia was 3-fold higher in patients dying preascertainment (10/47, 21%) and twice as high in other nonassessed (14/92, 15%) versus assessed patients (69/1097, 6%; P=0.0006 and P=0.002) and was several-fold higher in those with prior functional impairment (24% versus 3%; P80 years (13% versus 3%; Pdementia were similar: prior functional impairment (40% versus 13%; P80 years (28% versus 10%; Pcriteria, results in underestimation of the measured rate of dementia associated with transient ischemic attack and stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Exploring the mineralogy of the Moon with M3 (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.

    From the initial era or lunar exploration we have learned that many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets including the record of early and late impact bombardment Since most major geologic activity ceased on the Moon sim 3 Gy ago the Moon s surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution The type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes Specifically the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products lenses of intruded or remelted plutons basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining and any process e g cratering that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials The Moon Mineralogy Mapper M3 or m-cube is a state-of-the-art imaging spectrometer that will fly on Chandrayaan-1 the Indian Space Research Organization ISRO mission to be launched late 2007 to early 2008 M3 is one of several foreign instruments chosen by ISRO to be flown on Chandrayaan-1 to complement the strong ISRO payload package M3 was selected through a peer-review process as part of NASA s Discovery Program It is under the oversight of PI Carl e Pieters at Brown University and is being built by an experienced team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Data analysis and calibration are

  6. Methodology for the integral comparison of nuclear reactors: selecting a reactor for Mexico; Metodologia para la comparacion integral de reactores nucleares: seleccion de un reactor para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes R, R.; Martin del Campo M, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    In this work it was built a methodology to compare nuclear reactors of third generation that can be contemplated for future electric planning in Mexico. This methodology understands the selection of the reactors to evaluate eliminating the reactors that still are not sufficiently mature at this time of the study. A general description of each reactor together with their main ones characteristic is made. It was carried out a study for to select the group of parameters that can serve as evaluation indicators, which are the characteristics of the reactors with specific values for each considered technology, and it was elaborated an evaluation matrix indicators including the reactors in the columns and those indicators in the lines. Since that none reactor is the best in all the indicators were necessary to use a methodology for multi criteria taking decisions that we are presented. It was used the 'Fuzzy Logic' technique, the which is based in those denominated diffuse groups and in a system of diffuse inference based on heuristic rules in the way 'If Then consequence> ', where the linguistic values of the condition and of the consequence is defined by diffuse groups, it is as well as the rules always they transform a diffuse group into another. Later on they combine all the diffuse outputs to create a single output and an inverse transformation is made that it transfers the output from the diffuse domain to the real one. They were carried out two studies one with the entirety of the indicators and another in which the indicators were classified in three approaches: the first one refers to indicators related with the planning of the plants inside the context of the general electric sector, the second approach includes indicators related with the characteristics of the fuel and the third it considers indicators related with the acting of the plant in safety and environmental impact. This second study allowed us to know the qualities of

  7. Nano-mineralogy of suspended sediment during the beginning of coal rejects spill. (United States)

    Civeira, Matheus S; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; Teixeira, Elba C; Silva, Luis F O


    Ultrafine and nanometric sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and hazardous elements and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in South America. The objective of this work was to study the coal cleaning rejects (CCRs) spill that occurred from a CCRs impoundment pond into the Tubarão River, South Brazil, provided a unique occasion to study the importance and role of incidental nanoparticles associated with pollutant dispersal from a large-scale, acute aquatic pollution event. Multifaceted geochemical research by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS, and Raman spectroscopy, provided an in-depth understanding of importance of a nano-mineralogy approach of Aqueous Pollution Scenarios. The electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements (PHEs) in nanoparticles (amorphous and minerals). Some of the neoformed ultrafine/nanoparticles found in the contaminated sediments are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of oxides, silicates, sulfides, and sulfates. These data of the secondary ultra/nanoparticles, puts in evidence their ability to control the mobility of PHEs, suggesting possible presentations in environmental technology, including recuperation of sensitive coal mine. The developed methodology facilitated the sediment transport of the catchment providing consistent results and suggesting its usefulness as a tool for temporary rivers management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Topographical mineralogy of the Bamble sector, south Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Zwaan, J.C.; Touret, L.


    The Bamble sector of southern Norway is a classic high grade metamorphic gneiss region, which provided specimens to many mineralogical collections all over the world. The topographical mineralogy of this area is described and reviewed. All minerals known to occur in the area are listed according to

  9. Application of mineralogical techniques in the study of human lithiasis. (United States)

    Aguilar-Ruiz, Jose; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Sierra, Manuel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel


    The authors review the mineralogical methods and techniques of analyzing calculi, stony concretions in the body. They discuss the main types of kidney stones (prostate, testicular, salivary, and bile) and the different diagnostic methods in mineralogy. By applying the techniques of optical microscopy and electron microscopy, they describe the different characteristics of human stones, based on extensive experience as evidenced by their numerous studies.

  10. Environmental mineralogy - Understanding element behavior in ecosystems (United States)

    Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Calas, Georges


    Environmental Mineralogy has developed over the past decade in response to the recognition that minerals are linked in many important ways with the global ecosystem. Minerals are the main repositories of the chemical elements in Earth's crust and thus are the main sources of elements needed for the development of civilization, contaminant and pollutant elements that impact global and local ecosystems, and elements that are essential plant nutrients. These elements are released from minerals through natural processes, such as chemical weathering, and anthropogenic activities, such as mining and energy production, agriculture and industrial activities, and careless waste disposal. Minerals also play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of the elements, sequestering elements and releasing them as the primary minerals in crustal rocks undergo various structural and compositional transformations in response to physical, chemical, and biological processes that produce secondary minerals and soils. These processes have resulted in the release of toxic elements such as arsenic in groundwater aquifers, which is having a major impact on the health of millions of people in South and Southeast Asia. The interfaces between mineral surfaces and aqueous solutions are the locations of most chemical reactions that control the composition of the natural environment, including the composition of natural waters. The nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to the disposition of high-level nuclear waste, is also intimately related to minerals. A fundamental understanding of these processes requires molecular-scale information about minerals, their bulk structures and properties such as solubility, their surfaces, and their interactions with aqueous solutions, atmospheric and soil gases, natural organic matter, and biological organisms. Gaining this understanding is further complicated by the presence of natural, incidental, and manufactured nanoparticles in the environment, which are

  11. Mineralogy and composition of the oceanic mantle (United States)

    Putirka, Keith; Ryerson, F.J.; Perfit, Michael; Ridley, W. Ian


    The mineralogy of the oceanic basalt source region is examined by testing whether a peridotite mineralogy can yield observed whole-rock and olivine compositions from (1) the Hawaiian Islands, our type example of a mantle plume, and (2) the Siqueiros Transform, which provides primitive samples of normal mid-ocean ridge basalt. New olivine compositional data from phase 2 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) show that higher Ni-in-olivine at the Hawaiian Islands is due to higher temperatures (T) of melt generation and processing (by c. 300°C) related to the Hawaiian mantle plume. DNi is low at high T, so parental Hawaiian basalts are enriched in NiO. When Hawaiian (picritic) parental magmas are transported to shallow depths, olivine precipitation occurs at lower temperatures, where DNi is high, leading to high Ni-in-olivine. Similarly, variations in Mn and Fe/Mn ratios in olivines are explained by contrasts in the temperatures of magma processing. Using the most mafic rocks to delimit Siqueiros and Hawaiian Co and Ni contents in parental magmas and mantle source compositions also shows that both suites can be derived from natural peridotites, but are inconsistent with partial melting of natural pyroxenites. Whole-rock compositions at Hawaii and Siqueiros are also matched by partial melting experiments conducted on peridotite bulk compositions. Hawaiian whole-rocks have elevated FeO contents compared with Siqueiros, which can be explained if Hawaiian parental magmas are generated from peridotite at 4-5 GPa, in contrast to pressures of slightly greater than 1 GPa for melt generation at Siqueiros; these pressures are consistent with olivine thermometry, as described in an earlier paper. SiO2-enriched Koolau compositions are reproduced if high-Fe Hawaiian parental magmas re-equilibrate at 1-1·5 GPa. Peridotite partial melts from experimental studies also reproduce the CaO and Al2O3 contents of Hawaiian (and Siqueiros) whole-rocks. Hawaiian magmas have TiO2

  12. Mineralogy of a perudic Andosol in central Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ranst, Eric; Utami, S. R.; Verdoodt, A.; Qafoku, Nikolla


    We studied the mineralogy of a perudic Andosol developed on the Dieng Tephra Sequence in central Java, Indonesia. The objective was to confirm the presence and determine the origin and stability of 2:1 and interlayered 2:1 phyllosilicates in well-drained Andosols. This was and still is a debated topic in the literature. Total elemental and selective dissolution, as well as microscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses, were performed on the soil samples collected from this site. These analyses confirmed that andic properties were present in the soil samples. The allophane content determined by selective dissolution was 3-4% in the A horizons, and increased to 12-18% in the deeper subsoil horizons. In addition, the clay fraction contained dioctahedral smectite, hydroxy-Al-interlayered 2:1 minerals (HIS), Al-chlorite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, mica, cristobalite and some gibbsite. The silt and sand fractions were rich in plagioclase and pyroxene. The 2:1 minerals (smectite and pyrophyllite), as well as chlorite and kaolinite were of hydrothermal origin and were incorporated in the tephra during volcanic eruption. Besides desilication during dissolution of unstable minerals, Al interlayering of 2:1 layer silicates was most likely the most prominent pedogenic process. Although hydroxy-Al polymeric interlayers would normally stabilize the 2:1 clay phases, the strong weakening, and even disappearance of the characteristic XRD peaks, indicated instability of these minerals in the upper A horizons due to the perudic and intensive leaching conditions.

  13. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  14. Mineralogical analysis and provenancing of ancient ceramics using automated SEM-EDS analysis (QEMSCAN®): a pilot study on LB I pottery from Akrotiri, Thera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knappett, C.; Pirrie, D.; Power, M.R.; Nikolakopoulou, I.; Hilditch, J.; Rollinson, G.K.


    A wide range of existing mineralogical and geochemical methodologies such as optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, manual scanning electron microscopy, ICP-MS and INAA have been utilised in the analysis of ancient ceramics, in attempts to elucidate patterns of regional trade and interaction.

  15. Automated Quantitative Rare Earth Elements Mineralogy by Scanning Electron Microscopy (United States)

    Sindern, Sven; Meyer, F. Michael


    Increasing industrial demand of rare earth elements (REEs) stems from the central role they play for advanced technologies and the accelerating move away from carbon-based fuels. However, REE production is often hampered by the chemical, mineralogical as well as textural complexity of the ores with a need for better understanding of their salient properties. This is not only essential for in-depth genetic interpretations but also for a robust assessment of ore quality and economic viability. The design of energy and cost-efficient processing of REE ores depends heavily on information about REE element deportment that can be made available employing automated quantitative process mineralogy. Quantitative mineralogy assigns numeric values to compositional and textural properties of mineral matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a suitable software package for acquisition of backscatter electron and X-ray signals, phase assignment and image analysis is one of the most efficient tools for quantitative mineralogy. The four different SEM-based automated quantitative mineralogy systems, i.e. FEI QEMSCAN and MLA, Tescan TIMA and Zeiss Mineralogic Mining, which are commercially available, are briefly characterized. Using examples of quantitative REE mineralogy, this chapter illustrates capabilities and limitations of automated SEM-based systems. Chemical variability of REE minerals and analytical uncertainty can reduce performance of phase assignment. This is shown for the REE phases parisite and synchysite. In another example from a monazite REE deposit, the quantitative mineralogical parameters surface roughness and mineral association derived from image analysis are applied for automated discrimination of apatite formed in a breakdown reaction of monazite and apatite formed by metamorphism prior to monazite breakdown. SEM-based automated mineralogy fulfils all requirements for characterization of complex unconventional REE ores that will become

  16. Relating the Mineralogical Characteristics of Tampakan Ore to Enargite Separation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maedeh Tayebi-Khorami; Emmanuel Manlapig; Elizaveta Forbes


    The mineralogical characteristics of enargite-bearing copper ores from the Tampakan deposit have been investigated as the means to understanding the separation of enargite from other copper sulphides...

  17. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in differen...... codings and analysis, and tapping into the global network of social media.......This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  18. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... ways. Several contributions draw on a critical perspective that pushes the boundaries of traditional methods and techniques for studying tourists and their experiences. In particular, the traditional qualitative interview is challenged, not only regarding the typical questions asked, but also regarding...

  19. Possible space experiment "Mineralogical mapping of the Moon's surface" (United States)

    Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.


    We proposed a spectropolarimetric method for mineralogical mapping of Moon's surface. It based on measurements of the real part of refractive index from analysis of the empirical relation between maximum value of degree of linear polarization and normal albedo, obtained from the orbital polar spacecraft. Processing of the obtained observation material will allow the global mineralogical mapping of the Moon's surface with a sufficiently high accuracy.

  20. COMPAS: Compositional mineralogy with a photoacoustic spectrometer (United States)

    Smith, W. Hayden


    There is an important need for an in situ method of mineral and rock identification and quantification that provides true absorption spectra for a wide spectral range for lunar lander/rover missions. Many common minerals such as feldspars, magnetite, ilmenite, and amorphous fine solids or glasses, can exhibit flat spectral reflectances in the 400-2500 nm spectral region that render inaccurate or difficult their spectral detection and quantitative analysis. Ideal rock and mineral spectra are, of course, pure absorption spectra that are independent of the spectral effects of scattering, particle size, and distribution that can result in a suppression or distortion of their spectral features. This ideal seldom pertains to real samples. Since sample preparation is difficult and may fundamentally alter the observed diffuse spectral reflectance, an in situ spectral measurement method for rocks and minerals on the Moon, insensitive to the sample morphology, would be invaluable. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a well-established technique appropriate for this task that has been widely applied in condensed-phase spectral studies of complex, highly light scattering, unprepared samples of everything from coal to whole blood, including rock and mineral characterization. A Compositional Mineralogy Photoacoustic Spectrometer, or COMPAS, can enable in situ spectral measurement of rocks and minerals, bypassing the major limitations of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. COMPAS spectral capabilities for rock and mineral samples will be incorporated into an instrument prototype specifically for lunar measurements, compatible with rover capabilities.

  1. Mineralogical Study of Zard Koh and Kulli Koh Iron Ore Deposits of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Zard Koh and Kulli Koh are two recently discovered iron ore deposits, existing in the Chagai district, Balochistan, Pakistan. PSM (Pakistan Steel Mill Limited is interested to utilize these ore deposits at priority. Purpose of the present study was to assess the mineralogy of the Zard Koh and Kulli Koh iron ore deposits, as it plays a vital role in the selection of an appropriate processing method. The mineralogical study of ore deposits was carried out by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction, XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope attached with EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscope and SM (Stereomicroscope techniques. Results indicated that the Zard Koh ore is mainly composed of 60.15% maghemite, 23.57% pyrite, 4.07% chlorite, 10.30% grossular and 1.65% admontite minerals. The chemical analysis revealed that Zard Koh iron ore contains an average of 54.27% Fe, 12.73% S, 8.70% Si, 3.07% Al, 4.07% Ca, and 2.16% Mg. Similarly, the mineralogical study of the Kulli Koh iron ore indicated that, ore is containing 51.16% hematite, 29.24% quartz, 8.89% dravite, and 8.76% kaolinite minerals. Elemental analysis of different samples indicated that Kulli Koh iron ore contains an average composition of 40.23% Fe, 20.67% Si, 3.44% Ca, 3.81% Al and 3.25% Mg. Mineralogical study of the Zard Koh and Kulli Koh iron ore deposits suggested that these ore deposits can be beneficiated costeffectively by using magnetic separation techniques.

  2. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.


    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  4. The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia (United States)

    Nather Khan, I. S. A.

    The mineralogy and trace element concentrations of suspended stream sediments were determined at selected stations in the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, while conducting an intensive study on water quality and a biological assessment of water pollution in the basin. The minerals that were identified from the X-ray patterns of the suspended stream sediments are kaolinite, mica, feldspar and quartz. Kaolinite was the most abundant mineral, followed by mica. By considering mean concentrations of various trace elements, aluminum and manganese were the most abundant elements. Higher concentrations of copper and zinc at some stations were due to pollutants from the nearby Senawang Industrial Estate.

  5. Raman study of the role of pressure and temperature on potential Martian mineralogy (United States)

    Motamedi, R.; Davies, G.


    Water is potentially the key to understanding the geological and biological evolution of Mars. Here, we analyses the structure of selected hydrated minerals such as phyllosilicates, hydrated sulphates, carbonates and mafic minerals with Raman spectroscopy in a Mars atmospheric simulation chamber (MASC) between +40 and -40°C and a dominantly CO2 atmosphere between 0.1-30 mbar. Temperature is shown to have a significant influence on Raman spectra emphasizing that quantitative analysis of mineralogy under ambient P-T conditions is needed prior to the use of the Raman techniques on planetary bodies.

  6. The importance of mineralogical input into geometallurgy programs (United States)

    Hoal, K. Olson; Woodhead, J.D.; Smith, Kathleen S.


    Mineralogy is the link between ore formation and ore extraction. It is the most fundamental component of geomet programs, and the most important aspect of a life-of-project approach to mineral resource projects. Understanding orebodies is achieved by understanding the mineralogy and texture of the materials, throughout the process, because minerals hold the information required to unlock the value they contain. Geomet mineralogy programs absolutely require the appropriate expertise and at least three steps of mineral characterisation prior to using semi-automated or other methods: field examination, thorough core logging, and optical microscopy. Economic geological inputs for orebody characterisation are necessary for orebody understanding, and are exemplified by current research in the Zambian Copperbelt, where revised sequence stratigraphy and understanding of alteration, metasomatism and metamorphism can be used to predict topical issues at mine sites. Environmental inputs for sustainability characterisation are demonstrated by recent work on tailings from the Leadville, Colorado, USA area, including linking mineralogy to water quality issues. Risk assessments need to take into account the technical uncertainties around geological variability and mineral extractability, and mineralogy is the only metric that can be used to make this risk contribution.

  7. Diagenetic Mineralogy at Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Thomas F.; Chipera, Steve; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, E. B.; Rapin, William


    Three years into exploration of sediments in Gale crater on Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has provided data on several modes and episodes of diagenetic mineral formation. Curiosity determines mineralogy principally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), but with supporting data from thermal-release profiles of volatiles, bulk chemistry, passive spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectra of targeted spots. Mudstones at Yellowknife Bay, within the landing ellipse, contain approximately 20% phyllosilicate that we interpret as authigenic smectite formed by basalt weathering in relatively dilute water, with associated formation of authigenic magnetite as in experiments by Tosca and Hurowitz [Goldschmidt 2014]. Varied interlayer spacing of the smectite, collapsed at approximately 10 A or expanded at approximately 13.2 A, is evidence of localized diagenesis that may include partial intercalation of metal-hydroxyl groups in the approximately 13.2 A material. Subsequent sampling of stratigraphically higher Windjana sandstone revealed sediment with multiple sources, possible concentration of detrital magnetite, and minimal abundance of diagenetic minerals. Most recent sampling has been of lower strata at Mount Sharp, where diagenesis is widespread and varied. Here XRD shows that hematite first becomes abundant and products of diagenesis include jarosite and cristobalite. In addition, bulk chemistry identifies Mg-sulfate concretions that may be amorphous or crystalline. Throughout Curiosity's traverse, later diagenetic fractures (and rarer nodules) of mm to dm scale are common and surprisingly constant and simple in Ca-sulfate composition. Other sulfates (Mg,Fe) appear to be absent in this later diagenetic cycle, and circumneutral solutions are indicated. Equally surprising is the rarity of gypsum and common occurrence of bassanite and anhydrite. Bassanite, rare on Earth, plays a major role at this location on Mars. Dehydration of gypsum to bassanite in the

  8. The Effect of Land Use Change on Soil Type and Clay Mineralogy in Safashahr Area, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karimi


    Full Text Available Nowadays, changing the rangelands to agriculture and garden is common. To investigate the impact of land use change on the soils type and clay mineralogy, four land uses including rangeland with poor vegetation, agricultural land, new and old apple orchards were selected in Safashahr area, Fars province. In each land use, three soil profiles were excavated and described and one profile was considered as representative. After required physical and chemical analyses, they were classified according to Soil Taxonomy (ST and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB. Selected surface and subsurface samples were also collected for clay mineralogy studies. Results showed that changing land use did not have significant effect on soil type and clay minerals and all soils consist of mica, chlorite, smectite, kaolinite and mixed layer minerals. Results demonstrated that ST is more efficient compared to WRB to classify the studied soils.

  9. Automated quantitative micro-mineralogical characterization for environmental applications (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hoal, K.O.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Stammer, J.G.; Pietersen, K.


    Characterization of ore and waste-rock material using automated quantitative micro-mineralogical techniques (e.g., QEMSCAN® and MLA) has the potential to complement traditional acid-base accounting and humidity cell techniques when predicting acid generation and metal release. These characterization techniques, which most commonly are used for metallurgical, mineral-processing, and geometallurgical applications, can be broadly applied throughout the mine-life cycle to include numerous environmental applications. Critical insights into mineral liberation, mineral associations, particle size, particle texture, and mineralogical residence phase(s) of environmentally important elements can be used to anticipate potential environmental challenges. Resources spent on initial characterization result in lower uncertainties of potential environmental impacts and possible cost savings associated with remediation and closure. Examples illustrate mineralogical and textural characterization of fluvial tailings material from the upper Arkansas River in Colorado.

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of mineralogy and its diversity across Vesta. (United States)

    De Sanctis, M C; Ammannito, E; Capria, M T; Tosi, F; Capaccioni, F; Zambon, F; Carraro, F; Fonte, S; Frigeri, A; Jaumann, R; Magni, G; Marchi, S; McCord, T B; McFadden, L A; McSween, H Y; Mittlefehldt, D W; Nathues, A; Palomba, E; Pieters, C M; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T; Toplis, M J; Turrini, D


    The mineralogy of Vesta, based on data obtained by the Dawn spacecraft's visible and infrared spectrometer, is consistent with howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. There are considerable regional and local variations across the asteroid: Spectrally distinct regions include the south-polar Rheasilvia basin, which displays a higher diogenitic component, and equatorial regions, which show a higher eucritic component. The lithologic distribution indicates a deeper diogenitic crust, exposed after excavation by the impact that formed Rheasilvia, and an upper eucritic crust. Evidence for mineralogical stratigraphic layering is observed on crater walls and in ejecta. This is broadly consistent with magma-ocean models, but spectral variability highlights local variations, which suggests that the crust can be a complex assemblage of eucritic basalts and pyroxene cumulates. Overall, Vesta mineralogy indicates a complex magmatic evolution that led to a differentiated crust and mantle.

  11. Impact of mineralogical heterogeneity on reactive transport modelling (United States)

    Liu, Min; Shabaninejad, Mehdi; Mostaghimi, Peyman


    Impact of mineralogical heterogeneity of rocks in reactive modelling is investigated by applying a pore scale model based on the Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume Methods. Mass transport, chemical reaction and solid structure modification are included in the model. A two-dimensional mineral map of a sandstone rock is acquired using the imaging technique of QEMSCAN SEM with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The mineralogical heterogeneity is explored by conducting multi-mineral reaction simulations on images containing various minerals. The results are then compared with the prediction of single mineral dissolution modelling. Dissolution patterns and permeability variations of multi-mineral and single mineral reactions are presented. The errors of single mineral reaction modelling are also estimated. Numerical results show that mineralogical heterogeneity can cause significant errors in permeability prediction, if a uniform mineral distribution is assumed. The errors are smaller in high Péclet regimes than in low Péclet regimes in this sample.

  12. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...... with in different ways, depending on the ontological and epistemological stands of the researcher. The book suggests new methods and approaches, with innovative ways of collecting and creating empirical materials, by expanding the approaches to tried and tested methods, including digital innovations, digital...

  13. The mineralogy of mudrocks from the Lias Group of England


    Kemp, S.J.; McKervey, J.A.


    This report describes the results of mineralogical analysis of a suite of sedimentary rocks from the Lias Group of England. The work was carried out as part of the ongoing BGS research programme, ‘Engineering Geology of UK Rocks and Soils.’ The first part of the report gives an introduction to the Lias Group geology and a summary of previous mineralogical studies of these rocks. A summary of analytical methods employed (X-ray diffraction analysis and surface area determinations) is then pr...

  14. On the relationship between luminescence excitation spectra and feldspar mineralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnsen, O.


    Feldspar minerals can be used as naturally occurring radiation dosemeters, with dose assessment commonly using luminescence techniques. Since many feldspars contain radioactive K-40, knowledge of the mineralogy of the luminescent samples being measured is of high importance. Most feldspars contain...... more than trace amounts of highly luminescent Fe3+ impurities, and this article examines the relationship between features of the luminescence excitation spectrum of this ion with sample mineralogy. It is demonstrated that there is a near linear correspondence between the plagioclase feldspar...

  15. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque


    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  16. Proposal for structure of the national system for support of sustainable tourism and a methodology of rating of selected tourist services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Burian


    Full Text Available This thesis is focused on preparation of basic elements of the National System for Support of Sustainable Tourism in the Czech Republic and on development of a methodology for ranking of selected tourist services from the sustainable point of view. Its result is planned to be used as a basis for real decisions potentially taken by the Czech government in near future.The first part analyses and summarises existing approaches worldwide to sustainable tourism, potential benefits and different impacts of tourism in order to specify possible measures avoiding unwanted impacts later on. The need to change towards sutainability in tourism is based on analysis of different policies and documents and a summary of duties of the Czech government (national ones and international ones. There is also a list of the best experiences available how to promote, support and encourage development of sustainable tourism based on analysis of the World Tourism Organisation studies and recommendations, existing EMS systems like ISO, EU ecolabel or methods, approaches, criteria and indicators used by different labels.Next part defines neccessary elements for successful system functioning in the Czech Republic, based on existing and working governmental and non-governmental structures not forgetting such important activities like information, education, marketing and motivation and sets expected responsibilities and roles of different potential partners participating on the system implementation.Unfortunately, there is no one certified tourist business in Czechia according to ISO, EMAS or EU flower before end of October 2004. Main reasons are price, missing benefits and motivations for businesses. Therefore an self-assesment questionnaire for a small-scale accommodation is developed. This fits with the „easy to understand, easy to answer“. This option is missing in the country and it is understood as a prestep to more sophisticated methods of measurment. The main

  17. Subspace electrode selection methodology for the reduction of the effect of uncertain conductivity values in the EEG dipole localization: a simulation study using a patient-specific head model (United States)

    Crevecoeur, G.; Montes Restrepo, V.; Staelens, S.


    The simulation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) using a realistic head model needs the correct conductivity values of several tissues. However, these values are not precisely known and have an influence on the accuracy of the EEG source analysis problem. This paper presents a novel numerical methodology for the increase of accuracy of the EEG dipole source localization problem. The presented subspace electrode selection (SES) methodology is able to limit the effect of uncertain conductivity values on the solution of the EEG inverse problem, yielding improved source localization accuracy. We redefine the traditional cost function associated with the EEG inverse problem and introduce a selection procedure of EEG potentials. In each iteration of the presented EEG cost function minimization procedure, potentials are selected that are affected as little as possible by the uncertain conductivity value. Using simulation data, the proposed SES methodology is able to enhance the neural source localization accuracy dependent on the dipole location, the assumed versus actual conductivity and the possible noise in measurements.

  18. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of newer dolerite dyke ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The newer dolerite dykes around Keonjhar within the Singbhum Granite occur in NE–SW, NW–SE and NNE–SSW trends. The mafic dykes of the present study exhibit several mineralogical changes like clouding of plagioclase feldspars, bastitisation of orthopyroxene, and development of fibrous amphibole.

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region, Himachal .... of Geology, Kumaun University, Nainital 263 002, Uttarakhand, India. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Yamagata University, 990 8560, Yamagata, Japan.

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.


    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light

  1. chemical and mineralogical characteristics of lateritic iron ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF. LATERITIC IRON ORE DEPOSIT AT IYUKU, ... transported to the laboratory. 2.4. SAMPLE TREATMENTThe samples were air- dried in the ... Irabor E. E. I. Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Okolo P. O. Department of Chemistry, ...

  2. Clay mineralogy of the mud banks of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The mineralogy of the sediments constituting the mud banks formed off Cochin, Kerala, India was studied. The clay mineral composition was used as a means of understanding the nature and source of origin of the muds. Fine fraction of the mud samples...

  3. Palynology and clay mineralogy of the Deccan volcanic associated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Palynology and clay mineralogy of the Deccan volcanic associated sediments of Saurashtra, Gujarat: Age and paleoenvironments. Bandana Samant. 1,∗. , D M Mohabey. 2. , P Srivastava. 3 and Deepali Thakre. 1. 1. Department of Geology, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 001, India. 2.

  4. Mineralogical and chemical character-istics of newer Dolerite Dyke ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mafic dykes of the present study exhibit several mineralogical changes like clouding of plagioclase feldspars, bastitisation of orthopyroxene, and development of fibrous amphibole (tremolite–actinolite) from clinopyroxene, which are all considered products of hydrothermal alterations. This alteration involves addition ...

  5. Mineralogical Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity (United States)

    Blake, David Frederick.


    NASA's CheMin instrument, the first X-ray Diffractometer flown in space, has been operating on Mars for nearly five years. CheMin was first to establish the quantitative mineralogy of the Mars global soil (1). The instrument was next used to determine the mineralogy of a 3.7 billion year old lacustrine mudstone, a result that, together with findings from other instruments on the MSL Curiosity rover, documented the first habitable environment found on another planet (2). The mineralogy of this mudstone from an ancient playa lake was also used to derive the maximum concentration of CO2 in the early Mars atmosphere, a surprisingly low value that calls into question the current theory that CO2 greenhouse warming was responsible for the warm and wet environment of early Mars. CheMin later identified the mineral tridymite, indicative of silica-rich volcanism, in mudstones of the Murray formation on Mt. Sharp. This discovery challenges the paradigm of Mars as a basaltic planet and ushers in a new chapter of comparative terrestrial planetology (3). CheMin is now being used to systematically sample the sedimentary layers that comprise the lower strata of Mt. Sharp, a 5,000 meter sequence of sedimentary rock laid down in what was once a crater lake, characterizing isochemical sediments that through their changing mineralogy, document the oxidation and drying out of the Mars in early Hesperian time.

  6. Effect of Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of Rocks on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Hewanie and its surrounding areas of 169.82 km2 with a major objective of identifying the effect of chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks on the chemistry of the groundwater quality. This was conducted by taking 11 groundwater and 5 rock samples from the main geological units of ...

  7. effect of chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The study was conducted in Hewanie and its surrounding areas of 169.82 km2 with a major objective of identifying the effect of chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks on the chemistry of the groundwater quality. This was conducted by taking 11 groundwater and 5 rock samples from the main geological units of ...

  8. mineralogical and geochemical trends in lateritic weathering profiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three soil profiles on the basement rocks in Awa-Oru-Ijebu Igbo area of southwestern Nigeria were investigated for the formation secondary minerals and the comparison of the mineralogical and geochemical patterns in the weathering profiles overlying the rocks during the humid tropical weathering. X-ray data showed that ...

  9. Mineralogical Appraisal of Sediments of Duricrust Suites and Pans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mineralogical investigation of duricrust suites in Letlhakeng valley, and five pans around Jwaneng in Botswana was undertaken in order to know the mineral assemblages and infer on their landscape formation. In Letlhakeng, duricrusts comprised calcretes, silcretes and ferricretes. Calcretes were dominated by the ...

  10. Mineralogy and pedogenesis in a soil chronosequence on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on soils of the floodplain of lower Niger river are scanty although this floodplain forms a very important agricultural resource base in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to provide comprehensive information on the characteristics of the soils with respect to their mineralogy and the effect of seasonal flooding on their ...

  11. Application of Tablet PCs to Lecture Demonstrations on Optical Mineralogy (United States)

    Hoisch, Thomas D.; Austin, Barbara A.; Newell, Shawn L.; Manone, Mark F.


    Learning optical mineralogy requires students to integrate a complex theory with microscope manipulations and image interpretation. To assist student learning, we performed lecture demonstrations during which digital photomicrographs were taken and delivered to students using Tablet PCs, whereupon they were imported into note-taking software and…

  12. Mineralogical controls on dust emissions in the Bodele Depression, Chad (United States)

    Surface mineralogy is critical in the understanding of aeolian processes, however its role in dust production is currently underestimated. Recent research indicates that discrepancies between predicted and observed dust loads by dust models may be attributed to inadequacies within their associated d...

  13. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    We report the presence of a 3–5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka. Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...

  14. Mineralogy of Tailings Dump around Selebi Phikwe Nickel-Copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at mineralogically characterizing the tailings dump emanating from the mining and smelting of nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) at Selebi Phikwe, Botswana, Southern Africa. Samples of tailings dump around the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu plant were studied using petrographic microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction ...

  15. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the presence of a 3-5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...

  16. Development of a Growth Strategy for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Derived, Selected Recomendations for Action : Principles, Concept and Methodology by Means of a Practical Example


    Bauer, Svenja


    The aim of this thesis is to research and present common concepts and method-ologies of strategic management against the background of developing a growth strategy for small- and medium-sized enterprises. The theories, which are elabo-rated in the first part of this thesis will be applied on a German company operating in the fitness market. Therefore, customer surveys and interviews with the man-agement are used to provide highly-qualitative market information.

  17. On the ranking of chemicals based on their PBT characteristics: comparison of different ranking methodologies using selected POPs as an illustrative example. (United States)

    Sailaukhanuly, Yerbolat; Zhakupbekova, Arai; Amutova, Farida; Carlsen, Lars


    Knowledge of the environmental behavior of chemicals is a fundamental part of the risk assessment process. The present paper discusses various methods of ranking of a series of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) characteristics. Traditionally ranking has been done as an absolute (total) ranking applying various multicriteria data analysis methods like simple additive ranking (SAR) or various utility functions (UFs) based rankings. An attractive alternative to these ranking methodologies appears to be partial order ranking (POR). The present paper compares different ranking methods like SAR, UF and POR. Significant discrepancies between the rankings are noted and it is concluded that partial order ranking, as a method without any pre-assumptions concerning possible relation between the single parameters, appears as the most attractive ranking methodology. In addition to the initial ranking partial order methodology offers a wide variety of analytical tools to elucidate the interplay between the objects to be ranked and the ranking parameters. In the present study is included an analysis of the relative importance of the single P, B and T parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.


    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  19. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.


    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A simple and highly selective molecular imprinting polymer-based methodology for propylparaben monitoring in personal care products and industrial waste waters. (United States)

    Vicario, Ana; Aragón, Leslie; Wang, Chien C; Bertolino, Franco; Gomez, María R


    In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) proposed as solid phase extraction sorbent was developed for the determination of propylparaben (PP) in diverse cosmetic samples. The use of parabens (PAs) is authorized by regulatory agencies as microbiological preservative; however, recently several studies claim that large-scale use of these preservatives can be a potential health risk and harmful to the environment. Diverse factors that influence on polymer synthesis were studied, including template, functional monomer, porogen and crosslinker used. Morphological characterization of the MIP was performed using SEM and BET analysis. Parameters affecting the molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) and elution efficiency of PP were evaluated. After sample clean-up, the analyte was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The whole procedure was validated, showing satisfactory analytical parameters. After applying the MISPE methodology, the extraction recoveries were always better than 86.15%; the obtained precision expressed as RSD% was always lower than 2.19 for the corrected peak areas. Good linear relationship was obtained within the range 8-500ngmL -1 of PP, r 2 =0.99985. Lower limits of detection and quantification after MISPE procedure of 2.4 and 8ngmL -1 , respectively were reached, in comparison with previously reported methodologies. The development of MISPE-HPLC methodology provided a simple an economic way for accomplishing a clean-up/preconcentration step and the subsequent determination of PP in a complex matrix. The performance of the proposed method was compared against C-18 and silica solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The recovery factors obtained after applying extraction methods were 96.6, 64.8 and 0.79 for MISPE, C18-SPE and silica-SPE procedures, respectively. The proposed methodology improves the retention capability of SPE material plus robustness and possibility of reutilization, enabling it to be

  1. Methodological bases of personal qualities research of managers and personnel selection for the public service, security personnel, managers of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oseev


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological foundations of the study of personal qualities of leaders, including civil servants in the works of Plato, Aristotle and M. Weber. The empirical model of the structure of personal qualities of leaders of goal-rational, value-rational and affectional Weber’s types of social action is presented, so Weber’s concept about social action gets another approach to verification in practice. The differential features of effective managers of industrial enterprises are shown.

  2. Quantitative mineralogy of the Yukon River system: Changes with reach and season, and determining sediment provenance (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.


    The mineralogy of Yukon River basin sediment has been studied by quantitative X-ray diffraction. Bed, beach, bar, and suspended sediments were analyzed using the RockJock computer program. The bed sediments were collected from the main stem and from selected tributaries during a single trip down river, from Whitehorse to the Yukon River delta, during the summer of 2001. Beach and bar sediments were collected from the confluence region of the Tanana and Yukon Rivers during the summer of 2003. Suspended sediments were collected at three stations on the Yukon River and from a single station on the Tanana River at various times during the summers of 2001 through 2003, with the most complete set of samples collected during the summer of 2002. Changes in mineralogy of Yukon River bed sediments are related to sediment dilution or concentration effects from tributary sediment and to chemical weathering during transport. Carbonate minerals compose about 2 wt% of the bed sediments near Whitehorse, but increase to 14 wt% with the entry of the White River tributary above Dawson. Thereafter, the proportion of carbonate minerals decreases downstream to values of about 1 to 7 wt% near the mouth of the Yukon River. Quartz and feldspar contents of bed sediments vary greatly with the introduction of Pelly River and White River sediments, but thereafter either increase irregularly (quartz from 20 to about 50 wt%) or remain relatively constant (feldspar at about 35 wt%) with distance downstream. Clay mineral content increases irregularly downstream from about 15 to about 30 wt%. The chief clay mineral is chlorite, followed by illite + smectite; there is little to no kaolinite. The total organic carbon content of the bed sediments remains relatively constant with distance for the main stem (generally 1 to 2 wt%, with one exception), but fluctuates for the tributaries (1 to 6 wt%). The mineralogies of the suspended sediments and sediment flow data were used to calculate the amount of

  3. Mineralogy of Rocks and Sediments at Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Achilles, Cherie; Downs, Robert; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Ming, Doug; Rampe, Elizabeth; Morris, Dick; Morrison, Shaunna; Treiman, Allan; Chipera, Steve; Yen, Albert; Bristow, Thomas; Craig, Patricia; Hazen, Robert; Crisp, Joy; Grotzinger, John; Des Marias, David; Farmer, Jack; Sarrazin, Philippe; Morookian, John Michael


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is providing in situ mineralogical, geochemical, and sedimentological assessments of rocks and soils in Gale crater. Since landing in 2012, Curiosity has traveled over 15 km, providing analyses of mudstones and sandstones to build a stratigraphic history of the region. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument is the first instrument on Mars to provide quantitative mineralogical analyses of drilled powders and scooped sediment based on X-ray crystallography. CheMin identifies and determines mineral abundances and unit-cell parameters of major crystalline phases, and identifies minor phases at abundances >1 wt%. In conjunction with elemental analyses, CheMin-derived crystal chemistry allows for the first calculations of crystalline and amorphous material compositions. These mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and amorphous chemistry datasets are playing central roles in the characterization of Gale crater paleoenvironments. CheMin has analyzed 17 rock and sediment samples. In the first phase of the mission, Curiosity explored the sedimentary units of Aeolis Palus (Bradbury group), including two mudstones from Yellowknife Bay. CheMin analyses of the Yellowknife Bay mudstones identified clay minerals among an overall basaltic mineral assemblage. These mineralogical results, along with imaging and geochemical analyses, were used to characterize an ancient lacustrine setting that is thought to have once been a habitable environment. Following the investigations of the Bradbury group, Curiosity arrived at the lower reaches of Aeolis Mons, commonly called Mt. Sharp. A strategic sample campaign was initiated, drilling bedrock at <25 m elevation intervals in order to compile a comprehensive stratigraphic column of Mt. Sharp sedimentary units. Two formations have been sampled thus far, the lower-most Murray formation and the Stimson formation, which lies unconformably over the Murray. The Stimson formation is a cross

  4. Applying Q-methodology to select and define attributes for non-market valuation: A case study from Northwest Wyoming, United States (United States)

    Christopher A. Armatas; Tyron J. Venn; Alan E. Watson


    The underlying validity of stated preference non-market valuation methods relies on the analyst's ability to identify, select, define, and articulate the goods being valued in a way that is relevant and understandable to the respondent, which requires detailed understanding of the respondents' experiences and points of view. Poor articulation of the good...

  5. Fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); MacKenzie, Angus B. (SUERC, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)); Suksi, Juhani (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland))


    Detailed investigations of the fracture mineralogy and altered wall rock have been carried out as part of the site characterisation programme between 2003 and 2007 at Forsmark. The results have been published in a number of P-reports and in contributions to scientific journals. This report summarises and evaluates the data obtained during the detailed fracture mineralogical studies. The report includes descriptions of the identified fracture minerals and their chemical composition. A sequence of fracture mineralisations has been distinguished and provides information of the low to moderate temperature (brittle) geological and hydrogeological evolution at the site. Special focus has been paid to the chemical and stable isotopic composition of calcite to obtain palaeohydrogeological information. Chemical analyses of bulk fracture filling material have been carried out to identify possible sinks for certain elements and also to reveal the presence of minor phases rich in certain elements which have not been possible to detect by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Statistical analysis of the mineralogy in fractures outside deformation zones (i.e. within fracture domains FFM01, FFM02, FFM03 and FFM06) have been carried out concerning variation of fracture mineral distribution at depth and in different fracture domains. Uranium contents and uranium-series isotopes have been analysed on fracture coating material from hydraulically conductive fractures. Such analyses are also available from the groundwaters and the results are combined in order to reveal recent (< 1 Ma) removal/deposition of uranium in the fracture system. The redox conditions in the fracture system have been evaluated based on mineralogical and chemical indicators as well as Moessbauer analyses

  6. chemical and mineralogical characterization of lateritic iron ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 22, 2010 ... CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF. LATERITIC IRON ORE ... results of the chemical assay are moisture (0.02 - 1.11%), L. O. I. (2.31 – 2.93%), Fe2O3 (50.40 – 66.29%), Al2O3. (17.25 – 25.50%), CaO (0.32 .... Aliquot of this was taken for Ca, Mg, Ni, Mn and. Cr determinations.

  7. Elemental and Clay Mineralogical Compositions of Dustfall in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the phenomenon of harmattan dustfall in Nigeria has covered many centuries, information as to the total elemental compositions and the type of clay mineralogy in the dust are very scanty. This study was carried out in the Lower Benue Valley (Latitude 7.250N – 8.250N and Longitude 8.000E – 8.500E) to ...

  8. Methodological advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebreton, J.-D.


    Full Text Available The study of population dynamics has long depended on methodological progress. Among many striking examples, continuous time models for populations structured in age (Sharpe & Lotka, 1911 were made possible by progress in the mathematics of integral equations. Therefore the relationship between population ecology and mathematical and statistical modelling in the broad sense raises a challenge in interdisciplinary research. After the impetus given in particular by Seber (1982, the regular biennial EURING conferences became a major vehicle to achieve this goal. It is thus not surprising that EURING 2003 included a session entitled “Methodological advances”. Even if at risk of heterogeneity in the topics covered and of overlap with other sessions, such a session was a logical way of ensuring that recent and exciting new developments were made available for discussion, further development by biometricians and use by population biologists. The topics covered included several to which full sessions were devoted at EURING 2000 (Anderson, 2001 such as: individual covariates, Bayesian methods, and multi–state models. Some other topics (heterogeneity models, exploited populations and integrated modelling had been addressed by contributed talks or posters. Their presence among “methodological advances”, as well as in other sessions of EURING 2003, was intended as a response to their rapid development and potential relevance to biological questions. We briefly review all talks here, including those not published in the proceedings. In the plenary talk, Pradel et al. (in prep. developed GOF tests for multi–state models. Until recently, the only goodness–of–fit procedures for multistate models were ad hoc, and non optimal, involving use of standard tests for single state models (Lebreton & Pradel, 2002. Pradel et al. (2003 proposed a general approach based in particular on mixtures of multinomial distributions. Pradel et al. (in prep. showed

  9. Mineralogical and geological study of quaternary deposits and weathering profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Lee, Bong Ho [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    Movement history of a quaternary reverse fault cutting marine terrace deposit and tertiary bentonite in the Yangnammyon, Gyoungju city was studied by the mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clays and weathered terrace deposits. Two types of fault clays were identified as greenish gray before the deposition of the marine terrace deposits and reddish brown after deposition. Greenish gray fault clay is composed mostly of smectite probably powdered from bentonite showing at least two events of movement from microtextures. After the bentonite was covered by quaternary marine gravel deposits, the reverse fault was reactivated cutting marine gravel deposits to form open spaces along the fault plane which allowed the hydrological infiltration of soil particles and deposition of clays in deep subsurface. The reddish brown 'fault' clays enclosed the fragments of dark brown ultrafine varved clay, proving two events of faulting, and slicken sides bisecting reddish brown clays suggest another faulting event in the final stage. Mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clay show total five events of faulting, which had not been recognized even by thorough conventional paleoseismological investigation using trench, highlighting the importance of microtextural and mineralogical analysis in paleoseismology.

  10. Martian Surface Mineralogy from Rovers with Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.


    Beginning in 2004, NASA has landed three well-instrumented rovers on the equatorial martian surface. The Spirit rover landed in Gusev crater in early January, 2004, and the Opportunity rover landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridian Planum 21 days later. The Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater to the west of Gusev crater in August, 2012. Both Opportunity and Curiosity are currently operational. The twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity carried Mossbauer spectrometers to determine the oxidation state of iron and its mineralogical composition. The Curiosity rover has an X-ray diffraction instrument for identification and quantification of crystalline materials including clay minerals. Instrument suites on all three rovers are capable of distinguishing primary rock-forming minerals like olivine, pyroxene and magnetite and products of aqueous alteration in including amorphous iron oxides, hematite, goethite, sulfates, and clay minerals. The oxidation state of iron ranges from that typical for unweathered rocks and soils to nearly completely oxidized (weathered) rocks and soils as products of aqueous and acid-sulfate alteration. The in situ rover mineralogy also serves as ground-truth for orbital observations, and orbital mineralogical inferences are used for evaluating and planning rover exploration.

  11. Mineralogical, Chemical, and Optical Interrelationships of Airborne Mineral Dusts (United States)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Pincock, S. L.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.


    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The 38 μm, < 125 μm soil fractions were mineralogically characterized by optical microscopy. We will be presenting results on the optical measurements, also showing the relationship between single scattering albedo (SSA) at three different wavelengths, and chemical as well as mineralogical content and interdependencies of the entrained dust samples. Examples showing the relationships between the single scattering albedos of airborne dusts, and iron (Fe) in hematite, goethite, and clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite, palygorskite), will be discussed. Differences between the clay minerals in samples from Mali and those from other localities are demonstrated. We intend establishing a data base for applications in climate modeling, remote sensing, visibility, health (medical geology), ocean fertilization, and damage to equipment.

  12. Real-Time PCR Methodology for Selective Detection of Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells by Targeting Z3276 as a Genetic Marker (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Qiang


    The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive, specific, and accurate method for the selective detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells in foods. A unique open reading frame (ORF), Z3276, was identified as a specific genetic marker for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. We developed a real-time PCR assay with primers and probe targeting ORF Z3276 and confirmed that this assay was sensitive and specific for E. coli O157:H7 strains (n = 298). Using this assay, we can detect amounts of genomic DNA of E. coli O157:H7 as low as a few CFU equivalents. Moreover, we have developed a new propidium monoazide (PMA)–real-time PCR protocol that allows for the clear differentiation of viable from dead cells. In addition, the protocol was adapted to a 96-well plate format for easy and consistent handling of a large number of samples. Amplification of DNA from PMA-treated dead cells was almost completely inhibited, in contrast to the virtually unaffected amplification of DNA from PMA-treated viable cells. With beef spiked simultaneously with 8 × 107 dead cells/g and 80 CFU viable cells/g, we were able to selectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 cells with an 8-h enrichment. In conclusion, this PMA–real-time PCR assay offers a sensitive and specific means to selectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in spiked beef. It also has the potential for high-throughput selective detection of viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in other food matrices and, thus, will have an impact on the accurate microbiological and epidemiological monitoring of food safety and environmental sources. PMID:22635992

  13. High-resolution mineralogical and rock magnetic study of ferromagnetic phases in metabasites from Oscar II Land, Western Spitsbergen—towards reliable model linking mineralogical and palaeomagnetic data (United States)

    Burzyński, Mariusz; Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey


    Typical 'whole rock' rock magnetic analyses are limited to the identification of the magnetic properties of the mixture of all ferromagnetic minerals within the samples. In this contribution standard 'whole rock' rock magnetic studies of two types of metabasites (metadolerites and metavolcanics) from the metamorphic Proterozoic-Lower Palaeozoic complex of Oscar II Land (Western Spitsbergen) are followed by separation of Fe-containing fractions and conducting magnetic analyses on Fe-containing separates. The main aim here is to determine if any ferromagnetic carriers of a palaeomagnetic signal preceding the Caledonian metamorphism persisted in the metabasites. A comprehensive set of applied methods has allowed for the precise identification of the ferromagnetic carriers and have revealed their textural context in the investigated rocks. The results of mineralogical and rock magnetic analyses of separates confirmed a dominance of low coercivity magnetite/maghemite and pyrrhotite in the metadolerites while in the metavolcanics the existence of magnetite/maghemite and hematite was highlighted. Our investigations support the hypothesis that Caledonian metamorphic remineralization has completely replaced the primary magmatic - Proterozoic/Lower Palaeozoic ferromagnetic minerals in the metadolerites. In the case of the metavolcanics, however, the existence of the ferromagnetic pre-Caledonian relicts cannot be excluded. Furthermore, this approach provided a unique opportunity for conducting rock magnetic experiments on natural mono-ferromagnetic fractions. The described methodologies and results of this study form a new approach that can be applied in further palaeomagnetic and petrographic studies of metamorphosed rock complexes of Svalbard.

  14. Development and application of an automatic tool for the selection of control variables based on the self-optimizing control methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Rules for control structure design for industrial processes have been extensively proposed in the literature. Some model-based methodologies have a sound mathematical basis, such as the self-optimizing control technology. The procedure can be applied with the aid of available commercial simulators, e.g., PRO/IITM and AspenPlus®, from which the converging results are obtained more suitably for industrial applications, lessening the effort needed to build an appropriate mathematical model of the plant. Motivated by this context, this work explores the development and application of a tool designed to automatically generate near-optimal controlled structures for process plants based on the self-optimizing control technology. The goal is to provide a means to facilitate the way possible arrangements of controlled variables are generated. Using the local minimum singular value rule supported by a modified version of a branch-and-bound algorithm, the best sets of candidate controlled variables can be identified that minimize the loss between real optimal operation and operation under constant set-point policy. A case study consisting of a deethanizer is considered to show the main features of the proposed tool. The conclusion indicates the feasibility of merging complex theoretical contents within the framework of a user-friendly interface simple enough to generate control structures suitable for real world implementation.

  15. A methodology to design heuristics for model selection based on the characteristics of data: Application to investigate when the Negative Binomial Lindley (NB-L) is preferred over the Negative Binomial (NB). (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohammadali; Dhavala, Soma Sekhar; Lord, Dominique; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy


    Safety analysts usually use post-modeling methods, such as the Goodness-of-Fit statistics or the Likelihood Ratio Test, to decide between two or more competitive distributions or models. Such metrics require all competitive distributions to be fitted to the data before any comparisons can be accomplished. Given the continuous growth in introducing new statistical distributions, choosing the best one using such post-modeling methods is not a trivial task, in addition to all theoretical or numerical issues the analyst may face during the analysis. Furthermore, and most importantly, these measures or tests do not provide any intuitions into why a specific distribution (or model) is preferred over another (Goodness-of-Logic). This paper ponders into these issues by proposing a methodology to design heuristics for Model Selection based on the characteristics of data, in terms of descriptive summary statistics, before fitting the models. The proposed methodology employs two analytic tools: (1) Monte-Carlo Simulations and (2) Machine Learning Classifiers, to design easy heuristics to predict the label of the 'most-likely-true' distribution for analyzing data. The proposed methodology was applied to investigate when the recently introduced Negative Binomial Lindley (NB-L) distribution is preferred over the Negative Binomial (NB) distribution. Heuristics were designed to select the 'most-likely-true' distribution between these two distributions, given a set of prescribed summary statistics of data. The proposed heuristics were successfully compared against classical tests for several real or observed datasets. Not only they are easy to use and do not need any post-modeling inputs, but also, using these heuristics, the analyst can attain useful information about why the NB-L is preferred over the NB - or vice versa- when modeling data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An unpublished text of Jovellanos about mineralogy Notas inéditas de Jovellanos sobre mineralogía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An unpublished manuscript of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos about the history of mineralogy, written during his captivity in Bellver Castle (Palma de Mallorca is presented and analyzed. In this writing the importance of the chemical knowledge as a source of other branches of science and its applications in different fields of agriculture, mining and industry is considered. The author made a historical synthesis reviewing the men of science that contributed in a great extent to the advance of the chemistry and mineralogy. The text clearly supports the new contributions of Lavoisier and other supporters of experimentation as a scientific method, which agrees with Jovellanos’ ideas about the development of the «useful» sciences for the progress of the countries.Se presenta y analiza un manuscrito inédito de Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos sobre la historia de la mineralogía, que redactó durante su cautiverio en el Castillo de Bellver (Palma de Mallorca. En el escrito considera de gran importancia los conocimientos químicos como fuente de otras ramas del saber científico y sus aplicaciones en distintos ámbitos de la agricultura, minería e industria. El autor hace una síntesis histórica repasando los hombres de ciencia que en mayor medida contribuyeron al avance de la química y la mineralogía. El texto apoya claramente las nuevas aportaciones de Lavoisier y otros químicos partidarios de la experimentación como método científico, y es acorde con las ideas de Jovellanos acerca del cultivo de las ciencias «útiles» para el progreso de los pueblos.

  17. Methodology for selecting alternatives on fall division of hydro-graphic basins considering social and environmental aspects: two case studies of its application; Metodologia para selecao de alternativas de divisao de queda de bacias hidrograficas considerando aspectos socio-ambientais: dois casos-teste de sua aplicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Silvia Helena; Lacorte, Ana C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Farah, Pedro M.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia


    This work presents the analysis and the methodological improvements concerning the development of a methodology for selecting alternatives for hydro-graphic basin fall division. The study has been carried out in terms of the application of test cases on the space between Sobradinho-Itaparica, Sao Francisco river and medium Tocantins river, Northeast Brazil 7 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Testing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.


    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  19. Solvent selection and optimization of α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed synthesis of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH2 using mixture design and response surface methodology. (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Hao; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Shieh, Chwen-Jen


    A peptide, N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) , with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity was synthesized by an α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed condensation reaction of N-acetyl phenylalanine ethyl ester (N-Ac-Phe-OEt) and tyrosinamide (Tyr-NH(2) ). Three kinds of solvents: a Tris-HCl buffer (80 mM, pH 9.0), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile were employed in this study. The optimum reaction solvent component was determined by simplex centroid mixture design. The synthesis efficiency was enhanced in an organic-aqueous solvent (Tris-HCl buffer: DMSO: acetonitrile = 2:1:1) in which 73.55% of the yield of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) could be achieved. Furthermore, the effect of reaction parameters on the yield was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Based on a ridge max analysis, the optimum condition for this peptide synthesis included a reaction time of 7.4 min, a reaction temperature of 28.1°C, an enzyme activity of 98.9 U, and a substrate molar ratio (Phe:Tyr) of 1:2.8. The predicted and the actual (experimental) yields were 87.6 and 85.5%, respectively. The experimental design and RSM performed well in the optimization of synthesis of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH(2) , so it is expected to be an effective method for obtaining a good yield of enzymatic peptide. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. Chemical composition of two mineralogically contrasting Arctic bivalves' shells and their relationships to environmental variables. (United States)

    Iglikowska, A; Bełdowski, J; Chełchowski, M; Chierici, M; Kędra, M; Przytarska, J; Sowa, A; Kukliński, P


    The main goal of this study was to determine the concentrations of trace elements in the mineralogically contrasting shells of two Arctic bivalves: Chlamys islandica and Ciliatocardium ciliatum. Aragonite shells seem to be more susceptible to the binding of metal ions, which is most likely a result of their crystal lattice structure. We suggest that less biologically controlled aragonite mineralization tends to incorporate more metal impurities into the crystal lattice in waters with a lower pH, where metal ions are more available. Higher concentrations of impurities may further increase the lattice distortion causing lower crystal lattice stability and higher susceptibility to dissolution. Calcitic shells seem to be less prone to bind metal ions than aragonite shells most likely because under strict biological control, the uptake of ions from ambient seawater is more selective; thus, the final crystal lattice is less contaminated by other metals and is more resistant to dissolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mineralogical aspects of terrestrial weathering effects in chondrites from Allan Hills, Antarctica (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.


    The work reported here represents a first attempt at comparing the mineralogical aspects of weathering effects in selected Antarctic chondrites with those present in a petrologically similar chondrite which was weathered in the Arizona desert. The methods of analysis employed include X-ray diffractometry, differential thermal analysis, and reflectance spectrophotometry. It is found that the dominant weathering products in the rocks are complex, multiple-phase, hydrous ferric oxides which formed by alteration of Ni-Fe metal and sulfide particles under the influence of liquid water. The Fe-oxide weathering products may comprise approximately 15-20 wt % of the most intensely weathered samples although the same samples contain not more than 5% goethite as the only well-crystallized hydrous ferric oxide.

  2. A facile and selective approach for enrichment of l-cysteine in human plasma sample based on zinc organic polymer: Optimization by response surface methodology. (United States)

    Bahrani, Sonia; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas; Javadian, Hamedreza; Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood; Taghipour, Tahere


    In this research, a facile and selective method was described to extract l-cysteine (l-Cys), an essential α-amino acid for anti-ageing playing an important role in human health, from human blood plasma sample. The importance of this research was the mild and time-consuming synthesis of zinc organic polymer (Zn-MOP) as an adsorbent and evaluation of its ability for efficient enrichment of l-Cys by ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (UA-DMSPE) method. The structure of Zn-MOP was investigated by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the experimental data to reach the best optimum conditions. The quantification of l-Cys was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection set at λ=230nm. The calibration graph showed reasonable linear responses towards l-Cys concentrations in the range of 4.0-1000μg/L (r 2 =0.999) with low limit of detection (0.76μg/L, S/N=3) and RSD≤2.18 (n=3). The results revealed the applicability and high performance of this novel strategy in detecting trace l-Cys by Zn-MOP in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies and Technologies for In Situ Mineralogical Investigations on Mars (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.; Bratton, C.; Koppel, L.; Hecht, M.; Metzger, E.


    Surface landers on Mars (Viking and Pathfinder) have not revealed satisfying answers to the mineralogy and lithology of the planet's surface. In part, this results from their prime directives: Viking focused on exobiology, Pathfinder focused on technology demonstration. The analytical instruments on board the landers made admirable attempts to extract the mineralogy and geology of Mars, as did countless modeling efforts after the missions. Here we suggest a framework for elucidating martian, or any other planetary geology, through an approach that defines (a) type of information required, (b) explorational strategy harmonious with acquisition of these data, (c) interpretation approach to the data, (d) compatible mission architecture, (e) instrumentation for interrogating rocks and soil. (a) Data required: The composition of a planet is ordered at scales ranging from molecules to minerals to rocks, and from geological units to provinces to planetary-scale systems. The largest ordering that in situ compositional instruments can attempt to interrogate is rock type "aggregate" information. This is what the geologist attempts to identify first. From this, mineralogy can be either directly seen or inferred. From mineralogy can be determined elemental abundances and perhaps the state of the compounds as being crystalline or amorphous. Knowledge of rock type and mineralogy is critical for elucidating geologic process. Mars landers acquired extremely valuable elemental data, but attempted to move from elements to aggregates, but this can only be done by making many assumptions and sometimes giant leaps of faith. Data we believe essential are elements, minerals, degree of ordering of compounds, and the aggregate or rock type that these materials compose. (b) Explorational strategy: A lander should function as a surrogate geologist. Of the total landscape, a geologist sees much, but gives detailed attention to an infinitesimally small amount of what is seen. To acquire


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  5. The relationship between adverse events during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment for major depressive disorder and nonremission in the suicide assessment methodology study. (United States)

    Daly, Ella J; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Fava, Maurizio; Shelton, Richard; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Morris, David W; Stegman, Diane; Preskorn, Sheldon H; Rush, A John


    Little is known about the association between antidepressant treatment-emergent adverse events and symptom nonremission in major depressive disorder. The objective of the current analysis was to determine whether particular baseline symptoms or treatment-emergent symptoms (adverse events) during the first 2 weeks are associated with nonremission after 8 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).Outpatients clinically diagnosed with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder were recruited from 6 primary and 9 psychiatric care sites. Participants (n = 206) were treated with an SSRI antidepressant (citalopram [20-40 mg/d], escitalopram [10-20 mg/d], fluoxetine [20-40 mg/d], paroxetine [20-40 mg/d], paroxetine CR [25-37.5 mg/d], or sertraline [50-150 mg/d]) for 8 weeks. Remission was defined as having a score of 5 or less on the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician-Rated at week 8, or using last observation carried forward. Adverse events were identified using the 55-item Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Events-Systematic Inquiry completed by participants at baseline and week 2.Findings indicated that the emergence of adverse events of weakness/fatigue, strange feeling, and trouble catching breath/hyperventilation at week 2 were independently associated with lack of remission even after controlling for the potential confounders of baseline depressive severity, anxious symptoms, antidepressant medication, chronic depression, race, burden of general medical comorbidity, and time in study. Hearing/seeing things appeared to have a protective effect. In conclusion, during SSRI treatment, the adverse events of weakness/fatigue, feeling strange, and trouble catching breath/hyperventilation are associated with nonremission, possibly due to lower adherence, early attrition, difficulty increasing the dose, and reduced efficacy.

  6. Mineralogical Mapping in the Cuprite Mining District, Nevada (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Srivastava, V.


    The airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) has provided for the first time, the possibility to map mineralogical constituents in the Earth's surface and thus has enormously increased the value of remote-sensing data as a tool in the solution of geologic problems. The question addressed with AIS at Cuprite was how well could the mineral components at the surface of a hydrothermal alteration zone be detected, identified and mapped? The question was answered positively and is discussed. A relatively rare mineral, buddingtonie, that could not have been detected by conventional means, was discovered and mapped by the use of AIS.

  7. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M


    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  8. Infrared detection of the mineralogical aspects that influence the processing of calcined kaolin (United States)

    Groenheide, Stefan; Guatame-Garcia, Adriana; Buxton, Mike; van der Werff, Harald


    identification of tourmaline, biotite and hematite as the Fe-bearing mineralogy. Tourmaline was found mainly in veins and sometimes as phenocrysts; biotite was rather scarce, which suggest the advanced alteration degree of the deposit; hematite was present as coating and concentrated along quartz veins. Most of the mineral associations were represented by kaolinite, halloysite, muscovite, illite and montmorillonite. The ground mass was mostly kaolinite, although transition zones from kaolinite to halloysite and kaolinite to mica and montmorillonite were detected. Regarding the kaolinite crystallinity, the pure kaolinite graded from high to very high crystallinity. For the mineral mixtures of kaolinite with montmorillonite or halloysite, the crystallinity could not be determined with confidence. These findings raise the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging as a tool for assisting selective mining, by identifying the areas in the deposit with the highest kaolin quality, thus reducing the amount of waste. In scenarios where selective mining is not possible, the spectral characterisation might provide robust mineralogical information about the content of the ore that can support the decision-making process in higher levels of the kaolin value chain.

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of base-metal deposits at Halilar area, NW Turkey (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, D.; Abdelnasser, A.; Doner, Z.; Kumral, M.


    This study focuses on the base-metal deposits at Halilar area (NW Turkey) by reporting new data obtained from mineralogical, petrographical and geochemical investigation of this deposit. It is to determine key features of the host rocks, mineralogical changes and alteration zones related to this mineralization. Halilar area is located about 25-30 km NE of Edremit in Balikseir district (NW Turkey). This area contains Halilar group that overlies pre-Late Triassic metamorphic rocks and Permian limestone in the surrounding areas. This Halilar group consists of Bagcagiz and Sakarkaya Formations; later intruded by Duztarla granitic rocks. The base metal deposits at study area represent locally Cu-Pb with some Zn vein type deposits. These deposits restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW as well as occurred at the lower boundary of Bagcagiz and Duztarla granite. It also closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite, with covellite, and goethite in an abundant gangue of quartz and pyrite. Paragenetic relationships reveal three stages of mineralization; pre-ore, ore, and supergene. Wall-rock hydrothermal alteration includes pervasive silicification, sulfidation, carbonatization, and selective chloritization, sericitization and muscovitization. The geochemical studies refer to the altered samples have high CIA relative to the least altered rocks. The relationship between Na2O and K2O with the Ishikawa alteration index refers to the data plot close to chlorite/sericite. Also, based on alteration box plotting (Ishikawa alteration index vs. chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index), they mostly plotted in the field of the hydrothermal alteration close to chlorite and pyrite minerals with more hydrothermal trends; Intense sericite-chlorite ± pyrite alteration, chlorite ± sericite ± pyrite alteration, and sericite-carbonate alteration.

  10. Effect of grain-coating mineralogy on nitrate and sulfate storage in the unsaturated zone (United States)

    Reilly, T.J.; Fishman, N.S.; Baehr, A.L.


    Unsaturated-zone sediments and the chemistry of shallow groundwater underlying a small (???8-km2) watershed were studied to identify the mechanisms responsible for anion storage within the Miocene Bridgeton Formation and weathered Coastal Plain deposits in southern New Jersey. Lower unsaturated-zone sediments and shallow groundwater samples were collected and concentrations of selected ions (including NO3- and SO42-) from 11 locations were determined. Grain size, sorting, and color of the lower unsaturated-zone sediments were determined and the mineralogy of these grains and the composition of coatings were analyzed by petrographic examination, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, and quantitative whole-rock x-ray diffraction. The sediment grains, largely quartz and chert (80-94% w/w), are coated with a very fine-grained (<20 ??m), complex mixture of kaolinite, halloysite, goethite, and possibly gibbsite and lepidocrocite. The mineral coatings are present as an open fabric, resulting in a large surface area in contact with pore water. Significant correlations between the amount of goethite in the grain coatings and the concentration of sediment-bound SO42- were observed, indicative of anion sorption. Other mineral-chemical relations indicate that negatively charged surfaces and competition with SO 42- results in exclusion of NO3- from inner sphere exchange sites. The observed NO3- storage may be a result of matrix forces within the grain coatings and outer sphere complexation. The results of this study indicate that the mineralogy of grain coatings can have demonstrable effects on the storage of NO 3- and SO42- in the unsaturated zone. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary description of small block mineralogical features, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassley, W., LLNL


    The large block heater test, to be conducted at Fran Ridge (Lin et al., 1994), is designed to provide a database with which to test codes that simulate hydrological, geochemical, and geomechanical processes that may occur within the repository block. The geochemical processes that may occur include rock-water interaction within the matrix of fracture bounded blocks, and with the minerals that line fractures (see, for example, Buscheck and Nitao, 1992,1993ab, 1994; Glassley, 1993). As a first step in evaluating these interactions, characterization of the fractures, and of the matrix that is adjacent to those fractures, must be completed Characterization of the fractures and matrix before the large block test is started will allow a `baseline` set of data to be collected that will describe the properties of the large block prior to the test. After the test is completed, the block will be dismembered and characterization of the matrix and fractures will be repeated. Changes in matrix and fracture mineralogies will allow documentation of the mineralogical consequences of rock-water interaction resulting from heating of tuff under the conditions of the test.

  12. Characterizing the Mineralogy of Potential Lunar Landing Sites (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Head, James W., III; Mustard, Jack; Boardman, Joe; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Roger; Green, Rob; Head, James W, III; McCord, Thomas B.; Mustard, Jack; hide


    Many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets, including the record of early and late impact bombardment. The Moon's surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution, and the type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing. Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes. Specifically, the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products, lenses of intruded or remelted plutons, basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining, and any process (e.g. cratering) that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials. The association of several lunar minerals with key geologic processes is illustrated in Figure 1. The geologic history of potential landing sites on the Moon can be read from the character and context of local mineralogy.

  13. In Situ Techniques for Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Small Bodies (United States)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman, G. R.; Webster, C. R.


    In situ exploration of planetary surfaces employs multiple techniques that, when used together, yield important information about their formation histories and evolution. Combined geochemistry and mineralogy measurements reveal the phases present, their composition, morphology, and isotope ratios of constituents. Small and primitive bodies often present a special case where little to no compositional information has been obtained from ground-based or remote measurements. For example, Trojan asteroids and other D-type objects as well as Phobos and Deimos exhibit relatively featureless reflectance spectra as obtained by remote measurements. Yet samples of primitive material in the meteorite collection (e.g. Allende) reveal a fine grained structure with many phases and a wealth of chemical information. On-surface measurements are therefore a necessary component for understanding the origins of these solar system bodies. We will present measurement techniques that could provide microscopic mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. We will discuss instrumentation and measurements relevant to small body exploration - focusing more specifically on our recent results from the techniques of microscopic time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and Tunable Laser Spectroscopy (TLS). The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This work was performed in part at the California Institute of Technology for the Keck Institute for Space Studies, which is funded by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Methodological proposal for defining mining vocation in Venezuelan land-use planning; Propuesta metodologica para definir la vocacion minera en el contexto del ordenamiento territorial venezolano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares Salinas, R. Y.; Dall Pozzo, F.; Castillo Padron, A. J.


    Mining is an economic activity which is necessary to provide raw materials for the different socio-productive networks of the country. Its application depends on the mineralogical occurrence offered by the geological conditions of an area and requires planning due to the fact that it needs to be located in a geographical space and the environment fragility of this space and the socio-economic and political-institutional legislation at a given moment all have to be taken into account. Therefore, the objective of this research consists of a proposal for a methodological model to define areas with mining adapted to the Venezuelan context of land-use planning, in order to assign mining uses to the most appropriate areas for that goal, considering the selection, assessment and integration of a series of variables and indicators adjusted to the thematic information available. (Author)

  15. Assessment of a sequential extraction protocol by examining solution chemistry and mineralogical evolution (United States)

    Maubec, Nicolas; Pauwels, Hélène; Noël, Hervé; Bourrat, Xavier


    Knowledge of the behavior of heavy metals, such as copper and zinc in sediments, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. The mobility of these metals, which may be harmful to the environment, depends directly on their concentration and speciation , which in turn depend on physico-chemical parameters such as mineralogy of the sediment fraction, pH, redox potential, salinity etc ... (Anderson et al., 2000; Sterckeman et al., 2004; Van Oort et al., 2008). Several methods based on chemical extractions are currently applied to assess the behavior of heavy metals in soils and sediments. Among them, sequential extraction procedure is widely used in soil and sediment science and provides details about the origin, biological and physicochemical availability, mobilization and transports of trace metals elements. It is based on the use of a series of extracting reagents to extract selectively heavy metals according to their association within the solid phase (Cornu and Clozel, 2000) including the following different fraction : exchangeable, bound to carbonates, associated to oxides (reducible fraction), linked to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable fraction) as well as silicate minerals so called residual fraction (Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; Tessier et al., 1979). Consequently sequential extraction method is expected to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions (Arey et al., 1999; Brannon and Patrick, 1987; Hickey and Kittrick, 1984; La Force et al., 1999; Tessier et al., 1979). For three decades, a large number of protocols has been proposed, characterized by specific reagents and experimental conditions (concentrations, number of steps, extraction orders and solid/solution ratio) (Das et al., 1995; Gomez Ariza et al., 2000; Quevauviller et al., 1994; Rauret, 1998; Tack and Verloo, 1995), but it appeared that several of them suffer from a lack of selectivity of applied reagents: besides target ones, some

  16. Differing antidepressant maintenance methodologies. (United States)

    Safer, Daniel J


    The principle evidence that antidepressant medication (ADM) is an effective maintenance treatment for adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) is from placebo substitution trials. These trials enter responders from ADM efficacy trials into randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled (RDBPC) effectiveness trials to measure the rate of MDD relapse over time. However, other randomized maintenance trial methodologies merit consideration and comparison. A systematic review of ADM randomized maintenance trials included research reports from multiple databases. Relapse rate was the main effectiveness outcome assessed. Five ADM randomized maintenance methodologies for MDD responders are described and compared for outcome. These effectiveness trials include: placebo-substitution, ADM/placebo extension, ADM extension, ADM vs. psychotherapy, and treatment as usual. The placebo-substitution trials for those abruptly switched to placebo resulted in unusually high (46%) rates of relapse over 6-12months, twice the continuing ADM rate. These trials were characterized by selective screening, high attrition, an anxious anticipation of a switch to placebo, and a risk of drug withdrawal symptoms. Selectively screened ADM efficacy responders who entered into 4-12month extension trials experienced relapse rates averaging ~10% with a low attrition rate. Non-industry sponsored randomized trials of adults with multiple prior MDD episodes who were treated with ADM maintenance for 1-2years experienced relapse rates averaging 40%. Placebo substitution trial methodology represents only one approach to assess ADM maintenance. Antidepressant maintenance research for adults with MDD should be evaluated for industry sponsorship, attrition, the impact of the switch to placebo, and major relapse differences in MDD subpopulations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Mineral Supertrumps: A New Card Game to Assist Learning of Mineralogy (United States)

    Spandler, Carl


    Mineralogy is an essential component of Earth Science education, yet many students struggle to obtain adequate comprehension and knowledge of mineralogy during tertiary (postsecondary) degree programs. The use of educational games can be an effective strategy for science teaching as games provide an active learning environment that enhances…

  18. Successful Curriculum Development and Evaluation of Group Work in an Introductory Mineralogy Laboratory (United States)

    Dohaney, Jacqueline; Brogt, Erik; Kennedy, Ben


    Mineralogy is a core topic for tertiary geoscience programs worldwide. We report on the use of laboratory group work as an effective and integral part of a new introductory mineralogy curriculum at the University of British Columbia. The new laboratory curriculum was developed by incorporating student feedback with evidence-based pedagogies. These…

  19. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva


    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  20. Elemental and mineralogical study of earth-based pigments using particle induced X-ray emission and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nel, P., E-mail: [Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Lynch, P.A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Laird, J.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Division of Exploration and Mining, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas. 7001 (Australia); Casey, H.M. [Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Goodall, L.J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Division of Exploration and Mining, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas. 7001 (Australia); Sloggett, R.J. [Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010 (Australia)


    Artwork and precious artefacts demand non-destructive analytical methodologies for art authentication, attribution and provenance assessment. However, structural and chemical characterisation represents a challenging problem with existing analytical techniques. A recent authentication case based on an Australian Aboriginal artwork, indicate there is substantial benefit in the ability of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), coupled with dynamic analysis (DA) to characterise pigments through trace element analysis. However, this information alone is insufficient for characterising the mineralogical residence of trace elements. For this reason a combined methodology based on PIXE and X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been performed to explore the benefits of a more comprehensive data set. Many Aboriginal paintings and artefacts are predominantly earth pigment based. This makes these cultural heritage materials an ideal case study for testing the above combined methodological approach on earth-based pigments. Samples of synthetic and naturally occurring earth-based pigments were obtained from a range of sources, which include Indigenous communities within Australia's Kimberley region. PIXE analyses using a 3 MeV focussed proton beam at the CSIRO nuclear microprobe, as well as laboratory-based XRD was carried out on the above samples. Elemental signature spectra as well as mineralogical data were used to assess issues regarding synthetic and naturally occurring earth pigments with the ultimate aim of establishing provenance.

  1. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.


    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  2. Semantic Interoperability for Computational Mineralogy: Experiences of the eMinerals Consortium (United States)

    Walker, A. M.; White, T. O.; Dove, M. T.; Bruin, R. P.; Couch, P. A.; Tyer, R. P.


    The use of atomic scale computer simulation of minerals to obtain information for geophysics and environmental science has grown enormously over the past couple of decades. It is now routine to probe mineral behavior in the Earth's deep interior and in the surface environment by borrowing methods and simulation codes from computational chemistry and physics. It is becoming increasingly important to use methods embodied in more than one of these codes to solve any single scientific problem. However, scientific codes are rarely designed for easy interoperability and data exchange; data formats are often code-specific, poorly documented and fragile, liable to frequent change between software versions, and even compiler versions. This means that the scientist's simple desire to use the methodological approaches offered by multiple codes is frustrated, and even the sharing of data between collaborators becomes fraught with difficulties. The eMinerals consortium was formed in the early stages of the UK eScience program with the aim of developing the tools needed to apply atomic scale simulation to environmental problems in a grid-enabled world, and to harness the computational power offered by grid technologies to address some outstanding mineralogical problems. One example of the kind of problem we can tackle is the origin of the compressibility anomaly in silica glass. By passing data directly between simulation and analysis tools we were able to probe this effect in more detail than has previously been possible and have shown how the anomaly is related to the details of the amorphous structure. In order to approach this kind of problem we have constructed a mini-grid, a small scale and extensible combined compute- and data-grid that allows the execution of many calculations in parallel, and the transparent storage of semantically-rich marked-up result data. Importantly, we automatically capture multiple kinds of metadata and key results from each calculation. We

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of soils from glass houses and solariums (United States)

    Bulgariu, Dumitru; Filipov, Feodor; Rusu, Constantin; Bulgariu, Laura


    The experimental studies have been performed on soil samples from Copou-Iaşi, Bacău and Bârlad (România) glass houses. We have specially follow the aspects concerning to the distribution of occurrence forms, composition and structure of mineral and organic components, and the genetic correlations between these in conditions of soils from glass houses, respectively. The results regarding the distribution tendencies on profile and the correlations between mineral and organic components of studied soils have been correlated with the results of microscopic, spectral (IR and Raman) and X-ray diffraction studies, and with the results of thermodynamic modelling of mineral equilibriums and dynamics of pedogenesis processes, in conditions of soils from glass houses. The utilization of intensive cultivation technologies of vegetables in glass houses determined the degradation of morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils, by fast evolution of salted processes (salinization and / or sodization), compaction, carbonatation, eluviation-illuviation, frangipane formation, stagnogleization, gleization, etc. Under these conditions, at depth of 30-40 cm is formed a compact and impenetrable horizon with frangipane characteristics, expresses more or less. The aspects about the formation of frangipane horizon in soils from glasshouses are not yet sufficiently know. Whatever of the formation processes, the frangipane horizons determined a sever segregation in pedo-geochemical evolution of soils from glasshouses, with very important consequences on the agrochemical quality of these soils. The soils from glass houses are characterized by a very large variability of mineralogy and chemistry, which are traduced by intense modifications of superior horizons, in many cases there are conditions for the apparition of new pedogenetic horizons through new-pedogenesis processes. Under these conditions the definition of some general characteristics of soils from glasshouses is

  4. Raman spectroscopic analysis of real samples: Brazilian bauxite mineralogy. (United States)

    Faulstich, Fabiano Richard Leite; Castro, Harlem V; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Neumann, Reiner


    In this investigation, Raman spectroscopy with 1064 and 632.8 nm excitation was used to investigate real mineral samples of bauxite ore from mines of Northern Brazil, together with Raman mapping and X-rays diffraction. The obtained results show clearly that the use of microRaman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification of all the minerals usually found in bauxites: gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite, hematite, anatase and quartz. Bulk samples can also be analysed, and FT-Raman is more adequate due to better signal-to-noise ratio and representativity, although not efficient for kaolinite. The identification of fingerprinting vibrations for all the minerals allows the acquisition of Raman-based chemical maps, potentially powerful tools for process mineralogy applied to bauxite ores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineralogy affects geoavailability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of zinc. (United States)

    Molina, Ramon M; Schaider, Laurel A; Donaghey, Thomas C; Shine, James P; Brain, Joseph D


    We correlated mineralogical and particle characteristics of Zn-containing particles with Zn geoavailability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability following gavage and intranasal (IN) administration in rats. We compared samples of Zn/Pb mine waste and five pulverized pure-phase Zn minerals ( hydrozincite > hemimorphite > zincite ≈ smithsonite > sphalerite. We found significant correlations among geoavailability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability. In particular, Zn bioavailability post-gavage and post-IN was significantly correlated with bioaccessibility in simulated phagolysosomal fluid and gastric fluid. These data indicate that solid phase speciation influences biological uptake of Zn and that in vitro tests can be used to predict Zn bioavailability in exposure assessment and effective remediation design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometerfor lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on‐orbit measurements, science data calibration and on‐orbit validation (United States)

    C. Pieters,; P. Mouroulis,; M. Eastwood,; J. Boardman,; Green, R.O.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Barr, D.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.


    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  7. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation (United States)

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.


    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  8. Mineralogical effects on the detectability of the postperovskite boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grocholski, Brent; Catalli, Krystle; Shim, Sang-Heon; Prakapenka, Vitali (UC); (MIT)


    The discovery of a phase transition in Mg-silicate perovskite (Pv) to postperovskite (pPv) at lowermost mantle pressure-temperature (P - T) conditions may provide an explanation for the discontinuous increase in shear wave velocity found in some regions at a depth range of 200 to 400 km above the core-mantle boundary, hereafter the D{double_prime} discontinuity. However, recent studies on binary and ternary systems showed that reasonable contents of Fe{sup 2+} and Al for pyrolite increase the thickness (width of the mixed phase region) of the Pv - pPv boundary (400-600 km) to much larger than the D{double_prime} discontinuity ({le} 70 km). These results challenge the assignment of the D{double_prime} discontinuity to the Pv - pPv boundary in pyrolite (homogenized mantle composition). Furthermore, the mineralogy and composition of rocks that can host a detectable Pv {yields} pPv boundary are still unknown. Here we report in situ measurements of the depths and thicknesses of the Pv {yields} pPv transition in multiphase systems (San Carlos olivine, pyrolitic, and midocean ridge basaltic compositions) at the P - T conditions of the lowermost mantle, searching for candidate rocks with a sharp Pv - pPv discontinuity. Whereas the pyrolitic mantle may not have a seismologically detectable Pv {yields} pPv transition due to the effect of Al, harzburgitic compositions have detectable transitions due to low Al content. In contrast, Al-rich basaltic compositions may have a detectable Pv - pPv boundary due to their distinct mineralogy. Therefore, the observation of the D{prime} discontinuity may be related to the Pv {yields} pPv transition in the differentiated oceanic lithosphere materials transported to the lowermost mantle by subducting slabs.

  9. Dust from Zambian smelters: mineralogy and contaminant bioaccessibility. (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Vítková, Martina; Mihaljevič, Martin; Šebek, Ondřej; Klementová, Mariana; Veselovský, František; Vybíral, Pavel; Kříbek, Bohdan


    Metal smelting is often responsible for local contamination of environmental compartments. Dust materials escaping from the smelting facilities not only settle in the soil, but can also have direct effects on populations living close to these operations (by ingestion or inhalation). In this particular study, we investigate dusts from Cu-Co metal smelters in the Zambian Copperbelt, using a combination of mineralogical techniques (XRD, SEM/EDS, and TEM/EDS), in order to understand the solid speciation of the contaminants, as well as their bioaccessibility using in vitro tests in simulated gastric and lung fluids to assess the exposure risk for humans. The leaching of metals was mainly dependent on the contaminant mineralogy. Based on our results, a potential risk can be recognized, particularly from ingestion of the dust, with bioaccessible fractions ranging from 21 to 89% of the total contaminant concentrations. In contrast, relatively low bioaccessible fractions were observed for simulated lung fluid extracts, with values ranging from 0.01% (Pb) up to 16.5% (Co) of total contaminant concentrations. Daily intakes via oral exposure, calculated for an adult (70 kg, ingestion rate 50 mg dust per day), slightly exceeded the tolerable daily intake limits for Co (1.66× for fly ash and 1.19× for slag dust) and occasionally also for Pb (1.49×, fly ash) and As (1.64×, electrostatic precipitator dust). Cobalt has been suggested as the most important pollutant, and the direct pathways of the population's exposures to dust particles in the industrial parts of the Zambian Copperbelt should be further studied in interdisciplinary investigations.

  10. Mineralogical effects on the detectability of the postperovskite boundary (United States)

    Grocholski, Brent; Catalli, Krystle; Shim, Sang-Heon; Prakapenka, Vitali


    The discovery of a phase transition in Mg-silicate perovskite (Pv) to postperovskite (pPv) at lowermost mantle pressure-temperature (P - T) conditions may provide an explanation for the discontinuous increase in shear wave velocity found in some regions at a depth range of 200 to 400 km above the core-mantle boundary, hereafter the D'' discontinuity. However, recent studies on binary and ternary systems showed that reasonable contents of Fe2+ and Al for pyrolite increase the thickness (width of the mixed phase region) of the Pv - pPv boundary (400-600 km) to much larger than the D'' discontinuity (≤ 70 km). These results challenge the assignment of the D'' discontinuity to the Pv - pPv boundary in pyrolite (homogenized mantle composition). Furthermore, the mineralogy and composition of rocks that can host a detectable Pv → pPv boundary are still unknown. Here we report in situ measurements of the depths and thicknesses of the Pv → pPv transition in multiphase systems (San Carlos olivine, pyrolitic, and midocean ridge basaltic compositions) at the P - T conditions of the lowermost mantle, searching for candidate rocks with a sharp Pv - pPv discontinuity. Whereas the pyrolitic mantle may not have a seismologically detectable Pv → pPv transition due to the effect of Al, harzburgitic compositions have detectable transitions due to low Al content. In contrast, Al-rich basaltic compositions may have a detectable Pv - pPv boundary due to their distinct mineralogy. Therefore, the observation of the D'' discontinuity may be related to the Pv → pPv transition in the differentiated oceanic lithosphere materials transported to the lowermost mantle by subducting slabs.

  11. Diversity of Mineralogy and Occurrences of Phyllosilicates on Mars (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Murchie, S. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Milliken, R. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; McKeown, N. K.; Calvin, W. M.; Wray, J. J.; Bishop, J. L.


    Minerals and their occurrences tell us about the chemistry, pressure,and temperatures of past environments, and the possible conditions for past habitability. To date, a fair number of phyllosilicates and other minerals have been detected on Mars (e.g., Poulet et al., Nature v438,p623, 2005; Mustard et al., Nature, v454, p309, 2008; Bishop et al., Science, V321, p830, 2008, and references therein). Minerals and amorphous materials detected and mapped over large areas include kaolinite/halloysite, montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-smectite, nontronite, saponite, chlorite, opal/hydrated glass, illite, muscovite, magnesite, prehnite, olivine, high- and low-calcium pyroxene, hematite, jarosite, alunite, kieserite, gypsum, coquimbite or ferricopiapite, possible szomolnokite and others yet to be identified. Phyllosilicate minerals are generally seen associated with Noachian outcrops and are thought to result from aqueous alteration, perhaps over sustained periods. Poly- and mono-hydrated Mg-sulphates appear to have been formed after the phyllosilicates. The patterns and occurrences of minerals so far mapped do not appear to show classic hydrothermal systems as have been observed on Earth (e.g., Yellowstone, Wyoming, and Cuprite, Nevada). Prehnite, previously identified on Mars as scapolite, a low-temperature phyllosilicate commonly found in mafic volcanics on Earth, appears widespread on Mars, often in association with Fe/Mg-smectite or chlorite. Phyllosilicates are observed in local outcrops, but occur regionally, generally indicating the effects of a common alteration process during the Noachian epoch. The discovery of mineralogies indicating both acidic and alkaline environments using CRISM and OMEGA data show that conditions were locally diverse. If the environments for the regional phyllosilicate deposits are found to be hostile to past habitability, perhaps studying the smaller mineralogically diverse areas may prove more fruitful. This talk will review the minerals and their

  12. Supplement to a Methodology for Succession Planning for Technical Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cain, Ronald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Agreda, Carla L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report complements A Methodology for Succession Planning for Technical Experts (Ron Cain, Shaheen Dewji, Carla Agreda, Bernadette Kirk, July 2017), which describes a draft methodology for identifying and evaluating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. This report targets the methodology for identifying critical skills, and the methodology is tested through interviews with selected subject matter experts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris


    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  14. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)


    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  15. Acoustic emission methodology and application

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarchuk, Zinoviy; Serhiyenko, Oleh


    This monograph analyses in detail the physical aspects of the elastic waves radiation during deformation or fracture of materials. I presents the  methodological bases for the practical use of acoustic emission device, and describes the results of theoretical and experimental researches of evaluation of the crack growth resistance of materials, selection of the useful AE signals. The efficiency of this methodology is shown through the diagnostics of various-purpose industrial objects. The authors obtain results of experimental researches with the help of the new methods and facilities.

  16. Particle size and mineralogical composition of inorganic colloids in waters draining the adit of an abandoned mine, Goesdorf, Luxembourg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filella, Montserrat [Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); SCHEMA, Rue Principale 92, L-6990 Rameldange (Luxembourg)], E-mail:; Chanudet, Vincent [Department of Inorganic, Analytical and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Institut F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 route de Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Philippo, Simon [Musee National d' Histoire Naturelle, 25 rue Muenster, L-2160 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Quentel, Francois [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, UMR-CNRS 6521, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue V. Le Gorgeu, F-29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France)


    Particle size distributions and the mineralogy of inorganic colloids in waters draining the adit of an abandoned mine (Goesdorf, Luxembourg) were quantified by single particle counting based on light scattering (100 nm-2 {mu}m) combined with transmission electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction. This water system was chosen as a surrogate for groundwaters. The dependence of the colloid number concentration on colloid diameters can be described by a power-law distribution in all cases. Power-law slopes ranged from -3.30 to -4.44, depending on water ionic strength and flow conditions. The same main mineral types were found in the different samples: 2:1 phyllosilicates (illite and mica), chlorite, feldspars (albite and orthoclase), calcite and quartz; with a variable number of Fe oxide particles. The colloid mineralogical composition closely resembles the composition of the parent rock. Spatial variations in the structure and composition of the rock in contact with the waters, i.e. fissured rock versus shear joints, are reflected in the colloid composition. The properties of the study colloids, as well as the processes influencing them, can be considered as representative of the colloids present in groundwaters.

  17. Synthesis of carbon loaded γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite and their applicability for the selective removal of binary mixture of dyes by ultrasonic adsorption based on response surface methodology. (United States)

    Saad, Muhammad; Tahir, Hajira


    The contemporary problems concerning water purification could be resolved by using nanosorbents. The present studies emphasis on the synthesis of γ-Fe2O3-activated carbon nanocomposites (γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC) by sol-gel method. The composition and surface morphology of them were studied by FTIR, EDS, SEM and XRD techniques. Moreover they were employed for the selective removal of binary mixture of dyes including reactive red 223 dye (RR) and Malachite Green dye (MG) by ultrasonic assisted adsorption method. Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in the sample. The ultrasonic frequencies (>20kHz) were used to agitate experimental solutions in current studies. The response surface methodology based on 5 factorial central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the optimum parameters of adsorption. The optimum operating parameters (OOP) including sonication time, solution pH, amount of adsorbent, concentration of RR and MG were estimated for the selective removal of mixture of dyes. On OOP conditions of RR, the % removal of RR and MG were observed to be 92.12% and 10.05% respectively. While at OOP of MG, the % removal of MG and RR were observed to be 85.32% and 32.13% from the mixture respectively. Moreover the mechanisms of adsorption of RR and MG on the γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC were also illustrated. The significance of the RR-γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC and MG-γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC adsorption models was affirmed by ANOVA test. The Pareto plots for the selective removal of the RR and MG from the binary mixture also confirm the significance of the factors. Isothermal studies were performed and RR adsorption was observed to follow Langmuir isotherm model whereas MG adsorption was observed to follow Freundlich model. Thermodynamic studies were conducted and the outcomes suggested the spontaneous nature of adsorption processes. The kinetic models were employed to study the kinetics of the process. It was observed that the system followed pseudo second order, intra

  18. Unraveling the mineralogy of delta deposits on Mars (United States)

    Osterloo, Mikki; Kierein-Young, Kathryn


    Detailed geologic characterizations of three of 50+ fan deltas on Mars have yielded important information on their mineralogy as well as formation processes. Data returned from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) have been used to identify spectroscopic signatures consistent with phyllosilicates in fans or deltas within paleolake basins (i.e., Eberswalde, Holden, and Jezero) that indicate sustained subaqueous sediment deposition. Based on these results, two periods of martian history have been identified when the surface or near surface may have been habitable: (1) during the formation of the iron-magnesium smectite clays, likely in the Early Noachian and (2) during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian fluvial surface activity that led to the formation of Jezero lake. On Earth, rapid deposition of deltaic sediments can preserve organic materials; hence Martian fan deltas may be ideal environments to investigate the past habitability of the planet. Rapid burial coupled with the identification of phyllosilicates within at least some of the martian deltas makes an even more intriguing argument for further investigation of the remainder of deltas. This is because phyllosilicates, and specifically smectite clays, have the ability to trap organic matter in the interlayer sites of their mineral structures and in terrestrial settings are commonly associated with the most organic rich units. Organic materials that were transported into paleolakes would likely have been buried relatively quickly. Hence, the organics would have been protected within the clay-rich deltaic and lacustrine deposits from oxidation and photochemical dissociation. We will present the initial results of a comprehensive study designed to investigate the compositional and mineralogical variability of the remainder of dust-free, previously un-characterized deltas on Mars (of which, there are 33). Our study aims to provide key information regarding differences in formation

  19. Research Methodologies and the Doctoral Process. (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Miller, Gary A.


    Doctoral students often select one of four common research methodologies that are popular in the social sciences and education today: positivist; interpretive; ideological; and pragmatic. But choice of methodology also influences the student's choice of course work, membership of dissertation committee, and the form and structure of the…

  20. Mineralogic mapping of the Av-9 Numisia quadrangle of Vesta (United States)

    Frigeri, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Buczkowski, D.; Combe, J. P.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Rocchini, D.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    In this manuscript we present the mineralogic mapping of the Av-9 Numisia quadrangle of Vesta using the most up-to-date data from the NASA-Dawn mission. This quadrangle is located in Vesta's equatorial zone (22° south to 22° north, 218° to 288° east, in Claudia coordinate system) and takes its name from the impact crater Numisia. The main feature, which dominates the quadrangle, is the Vestalia Terra plateau, a topographic high about 10 km above the surrounding areas. To the south, this region fades into the Rheasilvia basin, while to the north it is bounded by the steep scarp of Postumia basin. The Visible and Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard NASA/Dawn provided the main data source for this work, at an unprecedented level of spatial and spectral resolution. In particular we are using spectral parameters to synthesize characteristics of the whole spectra into a single value. Pyroxene-related spectral parameters allow for the detection of lower crust or mantle material (diogenites) and upper crust material (eucrites) in the study area. The combined analysis of albedo from the Framing Camera, the geologic map and the spectroscopic data offer an interesting opportunity to understand better the surface features of this region of Vesta, and their evolution. Numisia, Cornelia, Fabia, Teia and Drusilla are the main craters in the study area, rich in bright and dark material outcrops, pitted terrains and OH-rich materials. Using the spectral parameters we demonstrate that the internal composition of Vestalia Terra is mainly diogenite-rich howardite, as shown by materials excavated by Cornelia and Fabia, and the composition of the slope north of Vestalia Terra. This agrees with the strong positive Bouguer Anomaly observed in the area, indicating a higher density of these features in relation to the surrounding areas. Besides the recently published works based on gravimetric modeling and geologic interpretation, the mineralogic mapping presented herein gives

  1. A Spectroscopic and Mineralogical Study of Multiple Asteroid Systems (United States)

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Emery, J. P.; Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J.; Assafin, M.


    There are currently ~200 identified multiple asteroid systems (MASs). These systems display a large diversity in heliocentric distance, size/mass ratio, system angular momentum, mutual orbital parameters, and taxonomic class. These characteristics are simplified under the nomenclature of Descamps and Marchis (2008), which divides MASs into four types: Type-1 - large asteroids with small satellites; Type-2 - similar size double asteroids; Type-3 - small asynchronous systems; and Type-4 - contact-binary asteroids. The large MAS diversity suggests multiple formation mechanisms are required to understand their origins. There are currently three broad formation scenarios: 1) ejecta from impacts; 2) catastrophic disruption followed by rotational fission; and 3) tidal disruption. The taxonomic class and mineralogy of the MASs coupled with the average density and system angular momentum provide a potential means to discriminate between proposed formation mechanisms. We present visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectra spanning 0.45 - 2.45 μm for 23 Main Belt MASs. The data were primarily obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) Goodman High Throughput Spectrograph (August 2011 - July 2012) for the visible data and the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) SpeX Spectrograph (August 2008 - May 2013) for the IR data. Our data were supplemented using previously published data when necessary. The asteroids' Bus-DeMeo taxonomic classes are determined using the MIT SMASS online classification routines. Our sample includes 3 C-types, 1 X-type, 1 K-type, 1 L-type, 4 V-types, 10 S-types, 2 Sq- or Q-types, and 1 ambiguous classification. We calculate the 1- and 2-μm band centers, depths, and areas to determine the pyroxene mineralogy (molar Fs and Wo) of the surfaces using empirically derived equations. The NIR band analysis allows us to determine the S-type subclasses, S(I) - S(VII), which roughly tracks olivine-pyroxene chemistry. A comparison of the orbital

  2. Ancient mortars from Cape Verde: mineralogical and physical characterization (United States)

    Rocha, Fernando; Costa, Cristiana; Velosa, Ana; Quintela, Ana; Terroso, Denise; Marques, Vera


    Times and locations of different building constructions means different knowledge, habits, different construction methods and materials. The study and safeguarding of the architectural heritage takes nowadays a progressive importance as a vehicle for transmission of cultures and history of nations. The coatings are of great importance in the durability of a building due to the protective role of the masonry. The compatibility between the materials with which they are executed (masonry, mortar and grout settlement) promotes the proper functioning of the wall and a consequent increase in durability. Therefore, it becomes important to study and characterize the mortar coating of buildings to know its characteristics and to use compatible materials in the rehabilitation and maintenance of buildings. This study aims to characterize the chemical, physical, mechanical and mineralogical mortar samples collected in buildings in three islands of Cape Verde, for the conservation, rehabilitation and preservation of them. The collected samples belong to buildings constructed in the end of XIX century and in the beginning of XX century. In order to characterize the mortar samples some tests was made, such as X-Ray Diffraction, X- Ray Fluorescence, acid attack and mechanical strength. The samples were divided into three groups depending on origin; so we have a first group collected on the island of Santiago, the second on the island of Saint Vincent and the third on the island of Santo Antao. The samples are all carbonated, but Santiago samples have a lower carbonates content. In terms of insoluble residue (from the acid attack) it was concluded that the samples have similar value ranging from 9 to 26%. The compressive strength of the mortars have a range between 1.36 and 4.55 MPa, which is related to the presence of more binder in samples with higher resistance. The chemical and mineralogical analyzes showed that these consist of lime mortars (binder), natural pozzolan and

  3. Weathering trends and parent material characteristics of polygenetic oxisols from Minas Gerais, Brazil: I. Mineralogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muggler, C.C.; Buurman, P.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.


    In geologically stable areas in the tropics, climatic changes and geomorphic cycles give origin to polygenetic soils. Polygenesis involves new soil formation phases taking place on preweathered materials from previous phases, resulting in soils with rather similar chemical and mineralogical

  4. Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral whose data are...

  5. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  6. Definitive Mineralogy of Rocky and Icy Planets and Planetesimals Using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.


    X-ray diffraction is a definitive technique for mineral identification, quantification, and composition. Definitive mineralogical analysis can identify modern and ancient habitable environments and provide context for other measurements.

  7. Mineralogical Composition of the Mexican Ordinary Chondrite Type Meteorite: A Raman, Infrared and XRD Study (United States)

    Ostrooumov, M.


    The Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of seven mexican meteorites: Aldama, Cosina, El Pozo, Escalon, Nuevo Mercurio,Pacula, Zapotitlan Salinas.

  8. Prediction of potential compressive strength of Portland clinker from its mineralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar; Justnes, H.


    Based on a statistical model first applied for prediction of compressive strength up to 28 d from the microstructure of Portland cement, potential compressive strength of clinker has been predicted from its mineralogy. The prediction model was evaluated by partial least squares regression....... The mineralogy was described by patterns from X-ray diffraction analysis in the 20-regions 29.88-30.70 degrees and 32.90-34.10 degrees (using CuK alpha-radiation). It has been shown that prediction of potential compressive strength of clinker up to 28 d from the observed variation in the mineralogy gave...... a significant variation of the strength at both 1 and 28 d. Sensitivity analysis based on simulation, optimisation and prediction made it possible to study the influence of the mineralogy on the strength in more detail....

  9. Carbonate mineralogy and faunal relationship in tropical shallow water marine sediments: Cape Comorin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.; Kidwai, R.M.; Rao, V.P.

    The carbonate mineralogy of Recent sediments from the western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin off the southern tip of India was determined by X-ray diffraction analyses. The results show that in the sediments where benthic...

  10. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  11. Mapping the physico-chemical properties of mineral dust in western Africa: mineralogical composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formenti, P; Caquineau, S; Desboeufs, K; Klaver, A; Chevaillier, S; Journet, E; Rajot, J. L


    ... and transport areas worldwide. In this paper, we explore the synthesis of these observations to provide a large-scale quantitative view of the mineralogical composition and its variability according to source region and time after transport...

  12. Thermal Alteration of CI and CM Chondrites: Mineralogical Changes and Metamorphic Temperatures (United States)

    King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Russell, S. S.


    Modal mineralogy, H2O abundances and spectral features are used to constrain the origin of thermally altered CI and CM chondrites. Heterogeneous heating was probably caused by impact shocks and affected the surfaces of many C-type asteroids.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CheMin instrument determines the mineralogy and elemental composition of powdered samples through the combined application of X-ray diffraction (XRD, producing...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CheMin instrument determines the mineralogy and elemental composition of powdered samples through the combined application of X-ray diffraction (XRD, producing...

  15. Mineralogical and geochemical characters of surface sediments from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.

    Mineralogy and geochemistry of three types of surface sediments including their intermixtures, from 31 stations, in the ferromanganese nodule belt of the central Indian basin have been studied. Abundant illite, kaolinite and chlorite in terrigenous...

  16. Influence of substrate mineralogy on bacterial mineralization of calcium carbonate: implications for stone conservation. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jroundi, Fadwa; Schiro, Mara; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; González-Muñoz, María Teresa


    The influence of mineral substrate composition and structure on bacterial calcium carbonate productivity and polymorph selection was studied. Bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation occurred on calcitic (Iceland spar single crystals, marble, and porous limestone) and silicate (glass coverslips, porous sintered glass, and quartz sandstone) substrates following culturing in liquid medium (M-3P) inoculated with different types of bacteria (Myxococcus xanthus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and a carbonatogenic bacterial community isolated from porous calcarenite stone in a historical building) and direct application of sterile M-3P medium to limestone and sandstone with their own bacterial communities. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and 2-dimensional XRD (2D-XRD) analyses revealed that abundant highly oriented calcite crystals formed homoepitaxially on the calcitic substrates, irrespective of the bacterial type. Conversely, scattered spheroidal vaterite entombing bacterial cells formed on the silicate substrates. These results show that carbonate phase selection is not strain specific and that under equal culture conditions, the substrate type is the overruling factor for calcium carbonate polymorph selection. Furthermore, carbonate productivity is strongly dependent on the mineralogy of the substrate. Calcitic substrates offer a higher affinity for bacterial attachment than silicate substrates, thereby fostering bacterial growth and metabolic activity, resulting in higher production of calcium carbonate cement. Bacterial calcite grows coherently over the calcitic substrate and is therefore more chemically and mechanically stable than metastable vaterite, which formed incoherently on the silicate substrates. The implications of these results for technological applications of bacterial carbonatogenesis, including building stone conservation, are discussed.

  17. The influence of natural pozzolana mineralogical composition in the properties of blended cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Rizo, M.


    Full Text Available The pozzolana activity is the main property of the active additions but, in order to select them, we have to consider - between other factors- its mineralogical composition with a great influence, not only in the active component, but also in other cement properties. In the present work we have studied 4 different Cuban natural pozzolanes, characterized with the help of X ray diffraction and with thermic and chemical analysis. The pozzolanic activity was also evaluated through a chemical and physicomechanic method. Some cements were prepared with different contents of each one of the pozzolanics, and analysed their physicomechanic and chemical properties. Finally, we found that the pozzolanics mineralogical composition has a great influence in the pozzolanic activity and in the properties of mixed cements. Also we found that it 5 possible to obtain the best resistances in the time and the smaller needs of water when the vitreous phase prevail in the additions.

    La actividad puzolánica es la propiedad fundamental de las adiciones activas, pero para la selección de la misma se debe considerar, entre otros factores, su composición mineralógica, que influye no sólo en los constituyentes activos, sino también en muchas propiedades de los cementos. En el presente trabajo, como material puzolánico se estudiaron 4 puzolanas naturales cubanas, las cuales fueron caracterizadas mediante difracción de Rayos X, análisis térmico y análisis químico; se evaluó, además, la actividad puzolánica mediante un método químico y otro físico-mecánico. Se prepararon cementos con diferentes contenidos de cada una de las puzolanas y se analizaron sus propiedades químicas y físico-mecánicas. Se concluye que la composición mineralógica de las puzolanas influye de forma determinante en la actividad puzolánica y en las propiedades de los cementos mezclados; que los mejores desarrollos de resistencias en el tiempo y los menores requerimientos

  18. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes. (United States)

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O


    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  19. Detection and context of hydrated mineralogy in the Tyrrhena Terra region, Mars (United States)

    den Haan, J.; Zegers, T. E.; van Ruitenbeek, F. J. A.; van der Werff, H. M. A.; Rossi, A.


    two spectra taken at base and summit of Olympus Mons provides the atmospheric spectrum. To quickly assess the mineralogy of a large region, CRISM multispectral summary products [5] are applied to OMEGA datasets. Hydrated mineral deposits are located on the basis of the absorption feature centered at ~1.9um. This feature is the result of a combination of v2 bend and v3 (asymmetrical) stretch mode overtones. Noise reduction is performed by applying a principal component transform to the OMEGA data. Principal components which are dominated by noise are manually selected and discarded, after which the data are transformed back to the wavelength domain. Using this approach, a large degree of system noise can be effectively eliminated without significantly affecting signal quality [6]. Results The methods described have led to positive identification of large deposits of hydrated mineralogy in Tyrrhena Terra. Whilst several deposits are evidently associated with cratering processes (e.g. [7]), one major deposit in particular draws attention (figure 1). In this deposit, the light-colored hydrated minerals are generally associated with very rough morphology. In addition, they seem to be located underneath a dark, crater-saturated unit. Given the limited quality of local OMEGA-derived spectra, it is impossible to unambiguously determine the exact mineralogy of the deposit. The hydrated signature is correlated with high night-time temperatures as observed in THEMIS IRnight observations (figure 2). This indicates the hydrated material is present as a solid bedrock mass (e.g. mudstone) instead of a loose concretion. The deposit is situated in a topographic low, bounded by a channel-rich unit in the north and a sharp unit contact in the south. Discussion The sharp unit contact south of the hydrated deposit coincides with a sharp contrast in topographic elevation. It strikes parallel to the contours of Isidis Planitia, a trend which is continued on larger scale. Given the strike

  20. Mini-review: The Morphology, Mineralogy and Microbiology of Accumulated Iron Corrosion Products (United States)


    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-03-2014 Journal Article Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of...d Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of accumulated iron corrosion products Brenda J. Littlea*, Tammie L. Gerkeb and Jason S...Leea aNaval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA; bDepartment of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Middletown

  1. Mineralogical and Geochemical Compositions of Modern Bivalve Shells from The Mediterranean Coast Of Egypt


    Holail, Hanafy [حنفي محمود هليل; Tony, R.


    The stable isotopic (8 ^C and 8^O) and elemental (Sr and Mg) compositions are presented for marine mollusc Carditacea and Solenacea shells collected off the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Based on shell microstructures and mineralogy, the bivalve shells are preserved in their original mineralogy and chemistry. The Sr and Mg concentrations of the bivalve shells have mean values of 1960 ppm and 226 ppm; respectively. The stable isotopic composition generally show high values of 818O and 8'3C....

  2. A mineralogical approach of the interactions between bitumen, clay and water in hot mix asphalt (HMA)


    CHEN, Chi-Wei; Gaudefroy, Vincent; Duc, Myriam; Descantes, Yannick; Hammoum, Ferhat; Magnan, Jean Pierre


    Clay fines are known to reduce the water resistance of bitumen-aggregates binding and cause stripping in Asphalt Concrete (AC) mixtures. To address this phenomenon, a better understanding of the mineralogical composition of aggregates is needed as well as an assessment of the bitumen-clay-water interactions. This paper contributes to reach this goal from a mineralogical perspective. The most common clays in natural aggregates, kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite, were used to prepare thin c...

  3. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; Rahman, Z.; McKeegan, K. D.


    Hibonite-rich Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are among the earliest formed solids that condensed in the early nebula. We discovered an unusual refractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) containing an approx 500 micron long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and petrography of SHAL show strong similarities to some FUN inclusions, especially HAL. Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions in SHAL.

  4. Analisa Struktur dan Mineralogi Batuan dari Sungai Aranio Kabupaten Banjar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarningsih Sudarningsih


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi mineral dan struktur secara mikro dari permukaan batuan yang terdapat di Sungai Aranio, Kabupaten Banjar. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan uji mineralogi dengan alat x-ray difractometer(XRD dan foto dengan alat scanning electron microscope(SEM terhadap empat sampel batuan yang telah diambil dari Sungai Aranio. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa pada sampel 1A komposisi mineralnya adalah magnesiohornblende 27 %, albite, calcian 30 %, kuarsa 17 %, Phillipsite-K 14 % dan muscovit (mika 12 %. Pada sampel 1B mineralnya adalah magnesiohornblende 14 %, albite, calcian 29 %, kuarsa 21 %, Phillipsite-K 15 %, muscovit (mika 12 % dan chlorite-serpentine 13 %. Sampel 2A memiliki komposisi mineral yaitu magnesiohornblende 20 %, albite, calcian 13 %, kuarsa 28 %, muscovit (mika 8 % dan chlorite-serpentine 31 %, sedangkan pada sampel 2B terdapat mineral yaitu magnesiohornblende 28 %, kuarsa 42 %, chlorite-serpentine 21 %, muscovit (mika 4 % dan amfibol 5 %. Hasil pada foto SEM memperlihatkan struktur batuan telah menjadi struktur yang mengalami laminasi dengan dua sampel kenampakan kristal mineralnya masih terlihat dan dua sampel sudah berubah dan banyak terdapat clay atau tanah dan strukturnya adalah struktur foliasi. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa batuan yang berasal dari Sungai Aranio, Kabupaten Banjar telah mengalami pemalihan yang berasal dari batuan beku yang keras.

  5. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Physical Properties of Martian Dust and Soil (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.


    Global and regional dust storms on Mars have been observed from Earth-based telescopes, Mars orbiters, and surface rovers and landers. Dust storms can be global and regional. Dust is material that is suspended into the atmosphere by winds and has a particle size of 1-3 micrometer. Planetary scientist refer to loose unconsolidated materials at the surface as "soil." The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated material that can be distinguished from rocks, bedrock, or strongly cohesive sediments. No implication for the presence or absence of organic materials or living matter is intended. Soil contains local and regional materials mixed with the globally distributed dust by aeolian processes. Loose, unconsolidated surface materials (dust and soil) may pose challenges for human exploration on Mars. Dust will no doubt adhere to spacesuits, vehicles, habitats, and other surface systems. What will be the impacts on human activity? The objective of this paper is to review the chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the martian dust and soil.

  6. Notes on Lithology, Mineralogy, and Production for Lunar Simulants (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.; Stoeser, D. B.; Benzel, W. M.; Schrader, C. M.; Edmunson, J. E.


    The creation of lunar simulants requires a very broad range of specialized knowledge and information. This document covers several topic areas relevant to lithology, mineralogy, and processing of feedstock materials that are necessary components of the NASA lunar simulant effort. The naming schemes used for both terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks are discussed. The conflict between the International Union of Geological Sciences standard and lunar geology is noted. The rock types known as impactites are introduced. The discussion of lithology is followed by a brief synopsis of pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine, which are the major mineral constituents of the lunar crust. The remainder of the text addresses processing of materials, particularly the need for separation of feedstock minerals. To illustrate this need, the text includes descriptions of two norite feedstocks for lunar simulants: the Stillwater Complex in Montana, United States, and the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. Magnetic mineral separations, completed by Hazen Research, Inc. and Eriez Manufacturing Co. for the simulant task, are discussed.

  7. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)


    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence that Rodinian assembly was unique. (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Knoll, Andrew H; Hazen, Robert M


    The mineralogy and geochemistry associated with Rodinian assembly (~1.3-0.9 Ga) are significantly different from those of other supercontinents. Compared to other supercontinents, relatively more Nb-bearing minerals, Y-bearing minerals, and zircons formed during Rodinian assembly, with corresponding enrichments of Nb, Y, and Zr concentrations in igneous rocks. By contrast, minerals bearing many other elements (e.g., Ni, Co, Au, Se, and platinum group elements) are significantly less abundant, without corresponding depletion of Ni and Co concentrations in igneous rocks. Here we suggest that the Nb, Y, and Zr enrichments in igneous rocks and relatively more occurrences of corresponding Nb-bearing minerals, Y-bearing minerals, and zircons result from significant non-arc magmatism during the mid-Proterozoic, while fewer occurrences of many other minerals suggest enhanced erosion of Rodinian volcanic arcs and orogens. The prolonged, extrovert assembly of Rodinia from thickened mid-Proterozoic continental crust via two-sided subduction can account for both the prevalence of non-arc magmatism and the enhanced erosion.

  9. [Mineralogy and colosation of oil-green jadeite jade]. (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tian, Jian; Ma, Yu-bo; Wu, Yu; Wang, Yang


    Mineralogy and coloration of oil-green jadeite jade were investigated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that "flesh" of oil-green jadeite jade is mainly composed of relatively pure jadeite, whereas the "skin" of which is dominated by jadeite, chlorite and chrysotile. The mineral constituents revealed by FTIR are fairly consistent with XRD. Three typical adsorption peaks of ~2956, ~2919 and ~2850 cm(-1) related to organic matters occurred in both "flesh" and "skin" of oil-green jadeite jade. Jadeite in "flesh" exhibits an obvious columnar growth and has a better crystallinity than that of "skin". However, jadeite in "skin" is richer in magnesium than that of "flesh", suggesting an intense water-rock reaction of jadeite in "skin". Chrysotile just occurs in "skin" of oil-green jadeite jade, and it presents a curved crystal plane. Flaky chlorite was detected in both cracks of "flesh" and "skin", which might be the main cause of coloration of oil-green jadeite jade. Chlorite, formed in the reducing water-rock reaction, would adsorb or wrap a certain amount of organic matters, resulting in the occurrence of the characteristic adsorptions of oil-green jadeite jade.

  10. Mineralogy of the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Cavanagh, P. D.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; hide


    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rocks in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September, 2014, and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three rock samples to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF. The three targets, Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak, contain variable amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene, iron oxides, jarosite, phyllosilicates, and X-ray amorphous material. Hematite was predicted at the base of Mount Sharp from orbital visible/near-IR spectroscopy, and CheMin confirmed this detection. The presence of jarosite throughout Pahrump Hills suggests the sediments experienced acid-sulfate alteration, either in-situ or within the source region of the sediments. This acidic leaching environment is in stark contrast to the environment preserved within the Sheepbed mudstone on the plains of Gale crater. The minerals within Sheepbed, including Fe-saponite, indicate these sediments were deposited in a shallow lake with circumneutral pH that may have been habitable.

  11. Spectroscopic Characterization of Mineralogy Across Vesta: Evidence of Different Lithologies (United States)

    De Sanotis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Zambon, F.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; hide


    The average spectrum of Vesta, obtained by VIR in the range 0.25-5.1 microns, shows clear evidence of absorption bands due to pyroxenes and thermal emissions beyond 3.5 11m. Vesta shows considerable variability across its surface in terms of spectral reflectance and emission, band depths, bands widths and bands centers, reflecting a complex geological history. Vesta's average spectrum and inferred mineralogy resemble those of howardite meteorites. On a regional scale, significant deviations are seen: the south polar 500km Rheasilvia impact crater has a higher diogenitic component, and equatorial regions show a higher eucritic component. This lithologic distribution, with a concentration of Mg-pyroxenes in the Rheasilvia area, reinforces the hypothesis of a deeper diogenitic crust excavated by the impact that formed the Rheasilvia crater, and an upper eucritic crust, whose remnants are seen in the equatorial region. This scenario has implications for Vesta differentiation, consistent with magma ocean models. However, serial magmatism models could also have concentrated pyroxene cumulates in plutons emplaced within the lower crust,

  12. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for in situ planetary mineralogy. (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Rossman, George R; Gleckler, Anthony


    Planetary mineralogy can be revealed through a variety of remote sensing and in situ investigations that precede any plans for eventual sample return. We briefly review those techniques and focus on the capabilities for on-surface in situ examination of Mars, Venus, the Moon, asteroids, and other bodies. Over the past decade, Raman spectroscopy has continued to develop as a prime candidate for the next generation of in situ planetary instruments, as it provides definitive structural and compositional information of minerals in their natural geological context. Traditional continuous-wave Raman spectroscopy using a green laser suffers from fluorescence interference, which can be large (sometimes saturating the detector), particularly in altered minerals, which are of the greatest geophysical interest. Taking advantage of the fact that fluorescence occurs at a later time than the instantaneous Raman signal, we have developed a time-resolved Raman spectrometer that uses a streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser to provide picosecond time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence spectra in minerals makes this technique ideal for exploration of diverse planetary environments, some of which are expected to contain strong, if not overwhelming, fluorescence signatures. We discuss performance capability and present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from several highly fluorescent and Mars-relevant minerals. In particular, we have found that conventional Raman spectra from fine grained clays, sulfates, and phosphates exhibited large fluorescent signatures, but high quality spectra could be obtained using our time-resolved approach.

  13. Iron Mineralogy and Uranium-Binding Environment in the ... (United States)

    Wetlands mitigate the migration of groundwater contaminants through a series of biogeochemical gradients that enhance multiple contaminant-binding processes. The hypothesis of this study was that wetland plant roots contribute organic carbon and release O2 within the rhizosphere (plant-impact soil zone) that promote the formation of Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. In turn, these Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides stabilize organic matter that together contribute to contaminant immobilization. Mineralogy and U binding environments of the rhizosphere were evaluated in samples collected from contaminated and non-contaminated areas of a wetland on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Based on Mössbauer spectroscopy, rhizosphere soil was greatly enriched with nanogoethite, ferrihydrite-like nanoparticulates, and hematite, with negligible Fe(II) present. X-ray computed tomography and various microscopy techniques showed that root plaques were tens-of-microns thick and consisted of highly oriented Fe-nanoparticles, suggesting that the roots were involved in creating the biogeochemical conditions conducive to the nanoparticle formation. XAS showed that a majority of the U in the bulk wetland soil was in the +6 oxidation state and was not well correlated spatially to Fe concentrations. SEM/EDS confirm that U was enriched on root plaques, where it was always found in association with P. Together these findings support our hypothesis and suggest that plants can alter mineralo

  14. Mineralogical aspects of Morro de Seis Lagos deposit (Amazonas, Brazil). (United States)

    Takehara, Lucy; Almeida, Marcelo; Silveira, Francisco


    The alkaline body Morro dos Seis Lagos, situated in the northwest Amazonian region, is a Nb bearing deposit formed by thick lateritic regolith as circular geological feature about 5 km in diameter. The host rock of this deposit is an intensely weathered siderite carbonatite. The alkaline intrusion body was formed during the late Mesozoic and enriched during the Cenozoic by process of denudation of the surrounding rocks and formation of lateritic cover with thickness in the order of hundreds of meters. In this process, enrichment of Nb, Fe, Ti, Mn, P and rare earth elements (REE) occurred where the lateritic regolith represents the major Nb mineralization, with estimated inferred reserves of 2.9 billion ton@ 2.8 % Nb2O5, one of the largest deposits of Nb in the world. The mineralogical composition of the lateritic regolith has the predominance of the goethite and hematite, followed by oxy - hydroxides of Mn, Ti - Nb oxides, pyrochlore, cerianite and phosphates. The lateritic regolith samples showed high contents of Fe2O3 40 %, and is followed by elevated Th concentration, which locally has concentration higher than (18%). Another REE mineral is the cerianite. The main manganese minerals are hollandite, romanechite (BaMn9O16[OH4] - mixtures of manganese oxides) and amorphous Mn oxy - hydroxides. The higher concentration of MnO2 (about 40 %) is restricted to manganesiferous range, where manganese minerals occur as layers and filling voids, indicating strong remobilization by later process.

  15. Lacrimal sac dacryoliths (86 samples): chemical and mineralogic analyses. (United States)

    Komínek, Pavel; Doškářová, Sárka; Svagera, Zdeněk; Lach, Karel; Cervenka, Stanislav; Zeleník, Karol; Matoušek, Petr


    Because dacryoliths occur at low frequency, few studies have focused on their composition. We aimed to present findings from morphological, chemical, and mineralogic analysis of 86 dacryoliths. We studied 86 dacryoliths obtained during 832 dacryocystorhinostomies (DCR) performed for postsaccal obstruction. We examined the samples with atomic infrared spectrometry (80 samples), amino acid analysis (17 samples), scanning electron microscopy, and an electron microprobe with an energy dispersive detector (seven samples). Dacryoliths were found in 86/832 DCRs (10.3 %), mostly in patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. All the dacryoliths were soft, composed of organic material, including proteins and mucoproteins, with approximately 20 % amino acid content. There were no "hard" dacryoliths composed of calcium phosphate. The stones were composed of lobes and lobules built on an amorphous core material with small cavities, probably as a result of various chemical processes that produced a gaseous product. The most frequent elements found in inorganic inclusions were silicon, magnesium, sulfur, potassium, calcium, sodium, and chlorine. Also, some particles had high contents of bismuth, titanium, iron, and organic fibers. The fibers found in the core of dacryoliths suggested a potential origin from cotton swabs used in cosmetics. Dacryoliths are composed almost exclusively of organic material, including proteins and mucoproteins, with approximately 20 % amino acid content.

  16. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Morphological Properties of Steel Slag

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    Irem Zeynep Yildirim


    Full Text Available Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. The mineralogical and morphological properties of BOF and electric-arc-furnace-ladle [EAF(L] slag samples generated from two steel plants in Indiana were determined through X-Ray Diffraction (XRD analyses and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies. The XRD patterns of both BOF and EAF(L slag samples were very complex, with several overlapping peaks resulting from the many minerals present in these samples. The XRD analyses indicated the presence of free MgO and CaO in both the BOF and EAF(L slag samples. SEM micrographs showed that the majority of the sand-size steel slag particles had subangular to angular shapes. Very rough surface textures with distinct crystal structures were observed on the sand-size particles of BOF and EAF(L slag samples under SEM. The characteristics of the steel slag samples considered in this study are discussed in the context of a detailed review of steel slag properties.

  17. Chemistry and Mineralogy of Outcrops at Meridiani Planum (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; McLennan, S. M.; Gellert, R.; Jolliff, B.; Knoll, A. H.; Squyres, S. W.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Ming, D. W.; Tosca, N. J.; hide


    Analyses of outcrops created by the impact craters Endurance, Fram and Eagle reveal the broad lateral continuity of chemical sediments at the Meridiani Planum exploration site on Mars. Approximately ten mineralogical components are implied in these salt-rich silicic sediments, from measurements by instruments on the Opportunity rover. Compositional trends in an apparently intact vertical stratigraphic sequence at the Karatepe West ingress point at Endurance crater are consistent with non-uniform deposition or with subsequent migration of mobile salt components, dominated by sulfates of magnesium. Striking variations in Cl and enrichments of Br, combined with diversity in sulfate species, provide further evidence of episodes during which temperatures, pH, and water to rock ratios underwent significant change. To first order, the sedimentary sequence examined to date is consistent with a uniform reference composition, modified by movement of major sulfates upward and of minor chlorides downward. This reference composition has similarities to martian soils, supplemented by sulfate anion and the alteration products of mafic igneous minerals. Lesser cementation in lower stratigraphic units is reflected in decreased energies for grinding with the Rock Abrasion Tool. Survival of soluble salts in exposed outcrop is most easily explained by absence of episodes of liquid H2O in this region since the time of crater formation.

  18. The bulk composition, mineralogy and internal structure of Mars (United States)

    Longhi, John; Knittle, Elise; Holloway, John R.; Waenke, Heinrich


    A bulk composition for Mars is derived to a pressure-dependent mineralogy. The density distribution of the present model is compared with density distributions derived from the global gravity field. It is argued that the uppermost Martian mantle is likely to be dominated by olivine and orthopyroxene, as is the earth's upper mantle, although the Martian mantle has a lower MgO/(MgO + FeO) ratio (0.74 vs 0.89). The olivine-peridotite layer extends to a depth of 900 to 1100 km where the transition to silicate spinel begins. Calculations of the high-pressure liquidus and solidus temperatures indicate that for the case of a molten core the minimum temperature at the core-mantle boundary is about 2000 K, whereas for the case of a solid core the maximum temperature is about 1800 K. Summation of the masses in the various layers of Mars yields a value of 0.353 for the dimensionless moment of inertia, which is intermediate between the generally accepted value of 0.365 and the value of 0.345 predicated on a nonaxisymmetric distribution of mass about the Tharsis plateau.

  19. Clay Mineralogy Studies of Soils Located on Different Geomorphic Surfaces in Jabalbarez-Jiroft Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    naser boroumand


    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil and geomorphology are closely related to each other. That is why considering geomorphic concepts in soil genesis and classification studies may cause a better understanding of soil genesis processes. Paleosols with argillic horizons were investigated on stable pediment surfaces in Jiroft area, central Iran, by Sanjari et al. (2011. They found that secondary gypsum and calcium carbonate were accumulated in mantled pediments, but moving down the slope toward lowlands, salts more soluble than gypsum have been accumulated. Clay mineralogy in soil researches helps to better studying soil genesis and development. A quantitative and qualitative study of clay minerals together with their structural composition provides valuable data on the absorption, fixation, and desorption of different cations in soils. Smectite, chlorite, illite, vermiculite, kaolinite, palygorskite, and sepiolite were reported as dominant clay minerals found in arid and semi-arid areas. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the clay mineralogy of Jabalbarez-Jiroft soils on different geomorphic surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study area was located in Jabalbarez, 200 Km south Kerman, Central Iran. Fig. 1 showed the exact location of study area. Soil temperature and moisture regimes of the area were thermic and aridic, respectively. Hill, rock pediment, mantled pediment and piedmont alluvial plain landforms were identified, using aerial photo interpretation, topography and geological map observation, in addition to detailed field works. Air-dried soil samples were crushed and passed through a 2-mm sieve. Routine physicochemical analyses wereperformed on the samples. Undisturbed soil samples from the Bt horizon of pedons 4, 5 and 6 were chosen for micromorphology investigations. Beside, eight samples including A and C2 horizons of pedon 1, A and Bt horizon of pedon 3, Bt and Bw horizons of pedon 4, and Bt and C horizon of pedon 5 were selected for


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mocanu


    Full Text Available The mineralogical investigation of the 33 profiles of vertisol from Romania indicated that there are two principal geographical zones with vertisols (West and South which present some quantitative mineralogical differences at the colloidal level. In spite of the fact that in all investigated profiles, the quantitative mineralogical composition of the clay fraction (below 2μ was the same, (smectite, illite and kaolinite the vertisols from the western zone show a higher content of smectite (montmorillonite and a lower content of illite in comparison with vertisols from southern zone. The correlations between some physical indices of soil and smectite quantity indicated that an increase of soil smectite content determines an increase of bulk density and compaction degree, concomitantly with a decrease of total porosity and air porosity. The established relationships between some chemical indices and mineralogical parameters indicated that cation exchange properties and reaction of these soils appear more closely related to the quality (mineralogical composition than to the quantity of clay fraction. The empirical relationships established between physical and chemical indices of vertisols and mineralogical parameters suggest that in some cases, considered favorable, the clay mineral information could allow some predictions on the physical and chemical properties, in spite of the fact that such of predictions have a limited value from quantitative point of view.

  1. Language Policy and Methodology (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.


    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  2. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.


    Organic matter-mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40-70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9-47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay-sized material by 2 % hydrogen peroxide had

  3. Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas (United States)

    Camargo, L.; Marques, J., Jr.


    The crystallization of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction is the result of pedogenetic processes controlled by the relief. These minerals have influence on the physical and chemical attributes of soil and exhibit spatial dependence. The pattern of spatial distribution is influenced by forms of relief as the geomorphic surfaces. In this sense, the studies aimed at understanding the relationship between relief and the distribution pattern of the clay fraction attributes contribute to the delineation of specific areas of management in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction and its relationship with the physical and chemical attributes in different geomorphic surfaces. Soil samples were collected in a transect each 25 m (100 samples) and in the sides of the same (200 samples) as well as an area of 500 ha (1 sample each six hectare). Geomorphic surfaces (GS) in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analysis, and the pattern of spatial distribution of soil attributes was obtained by statistics and geostatistics. The GS I is considered the oldest surface of the study area, with depositional character, and a slope ranging from 0 to 4%. GS II and III are considered to be eroded, and the surface II plan a gentle slope that extends from the edge of the surface until the beginning of I and III. The crystallographic characteristics of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite showed spatial dependence and the distribution pattern corresponding to the limits present of the GS in the field. Surfaces I and II showed the best environments to the degree of crystallinity of hematite and the surface III to the greatest degree of crystallinity of goethite agreeing to the pedoenvironment

  4. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan E.; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.


    Organic matter–mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40–70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9–47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay

  5. Ma_MISS on ExoMars: Mineralogical Characterization of the Martian Subsurface (United States)

    De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Altieri, Francesca; Ammannito, Eleonora; Biondi, David; De Angelis, Simone; Meini, Marco; Mondello, Giuseppe; Novi, Samuele; Paolinetti, Riccardo; Soldani, Massimo; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Pirrotta, Simone; Vago, Jorge L.; Ma_MISS Team


    The Ma_MISS (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) experiment is the visible and near infrared (VNIR) miniaturized spectrometer hosted by the drill system of the ExoMars 2020 rover. Ma_MISS will perform IR spectral reflectance investigations in the 0.4-2.2 μm range to characterize the mineralogy of excavated borehole walls at different depths (between 0 and 2 m). The spectral sampling is about 20 nm, whereas the spatial resolution over the target is 120 μm. Making use of the drill's movement, the instrument slit can scan a ring and build up hyperspectral images of a borehole. The main goal of the Ma_MISS instrument is to study the martian subsurface environment. Access to the martian subsurface is crucial to our ability to constrain the nature, timing, and duration of alteration and sedimentation processes on Mars, as well as habitability conditions. Subsurface deposits likely host and preserve H2O ice and hydrated materials that will contribute to our understanding of the H2O geochemical environment (both in the liquid and in the solid state) at the ExoMars 2020 landing site. The Ma_MISS spectral range and sampling capabilities have been carefully selected to allow the study of minerals and ices in situ before the collection of samples. Ma_MISS will be implemented to accomplish the following scientific objectives: (1) determine the composition of subsurface materials, (2) map the distribution of subsurface H2O and volatiles, (3) characterize important optical and physical properties of materials (e.g., grain size), and (4) produce a stratigraphic column that will inform with regard to subsurface geological processes. The Ma_MISS findings will help to refine essential criteria that will aid in our selection of the most interesting subsurface formations from which to collect samples.

  6. Ancient Lunar Volcanism: Distribution and Mineralogy of Cryptomaria (United States)

    Whitten, J.; Head, J. W., III


    Ancient volcanic deposits on terrestrial planetary bodies preserve the earliest record of planetary evolution, revealing important information about both the interior evolution and the surface modification history of planetary bodies. On the Moon, ancient volcanic deposits are referred to as cryptomaria and are basalt deposits that have been obscured by impact basin ejecta. As a result, cryptomaria appear as smooth high-albedo plains. This physical appearance can easily be confused with other formations such as the Cayley Plains, hypothesized to have formed from the ponding of impact basin ejecta into topographic lows. The difficulty in differentiating between cryptomaria and the Cayley Plains has led to the development of several recognition criteria. A high concentration of dark-halo impact craters (DHCs), a mafic enhancement in regolith, and an intermediate albedo are all different criteria used to positively identify cryptomaria. DHCs are small impact craters ancient impact basins (e.g., Schiller-Zucchius). Including cryptomaria, the total surface area of the Moon covered by mare basalts has increased by ~2%. After identification, M3 spectra collected from DHCs were modeled using the Modified Gaussian Model and indicate that the cryptomaria are basalts and have the same mineralogy as exposed maria in the same study region. Crater counts conducted on the largest cryptomaria produce minimum model age estimates between 3.8 and 4.0 Ga. This, combined with the close association between cryptomaria and exposed maria, suggests that the dated cryptomaria formed just prior to this period of time and imply that the process controlling the distribution of mare basalts was in place near this time in lunar history.

  7. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Arantes Camargo


    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  8. Mineralogy of iron microbial mats from loihi seamount. (United States)

    Toner, Brandy M; Berquó, Thelma S; Michel, F Marc; Sorensen, Jeffry V; Templeton, Alexis S; Edwards, Katrina J


    Extensive mats of Fe oxyhydroxides and associated Fe-oxidizing microbial organisms form in diverse geochemical settings - freshwater seeps to deep-sea vents - where ever opposing Fe(II)-oxygen gradients prevail. The mineralogy, reactivity, and structural transformations of Fe oxyhydroxides precipitated from submarine hydrothermal fluids within microbial mats remains elusive in active and fossil systems. In response, a study of Fe microbial mat formation at the Loihi Seamount was conducted to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of Fe-phases using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray total scattering, low-temperature magnetic measurements, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Particle sizes of 3.5-4.6 nm were estimated from magnetism data, and coherent scattering domain (CSD) sizes as small as 1.6 nm are indicated by pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Disorder in the nanostructured Fe-bearing phases results in limited intermediate-range structural order: less than that of standard two-line ferrihydrite (Fh), except for the Pohaku site. The short-range ordered natural Fh (Fh(SRO)) phases were stable at 4°C in the presence of oxygen for at least 1 year and during 400°C treatment. The observed stability of the Fh(SRO) is consistent with magnetic observations that point to non-interacting nanoparticles. PDF analyses of total scattering data provide further evidence for Fh(SRO) particles with a poorly ordered silica coating. The presence of coated particles explains the small CSD for the mat minerals, as well as the stability of the minerals over time and against heating. The mineral properties observed here provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively altered Fe deposits may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of past biogeochemical conditions and diagenetic processes.

  9. Chemical-mineralogical characterisation of coarse recycled concrete aggregate. (United States)

    Limbachiya, M C; Marrocchino, E; Koulouris, A


    The construction industry is now putting greater emphasis than ever before on increasing recycling and promoting more sustainable waste management practices. In keeping with this approach, many sectors of the industry have actively sought to encourage the use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as an alternative to primary aggregates in concrete production. The results of a laboratory experimental programme aimed at establishing chemical and mineralogical characteristics of coarse RCA and its likely influence on concrete performance are reported in this paper. Commercially produced coarse RCA and natural aggregates (16-4 mm size fraction) were tested. Results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showed that original source of RCA had a negligible effect on the major elements and a comparable chemical composition between recycled and natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, portlandite and minor peaks of muscovite/illite in recycled aggregates, although they were directly proportioned to their original composition. The influence of 30%, 50%, and 100% coarse RCA on the chemical composition of equal design strength concrete has been established, and its suitability for use in a concrete application has been assessed. In this work, coarse RCA was used as a direct replacement for natural gravel in concrete production. Test results indicated that up to 30% coarse RCA had no effect on the main three oxides (SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO) of concrete, but thereafter there was a marginal decrease in SiO2 and increase in Al2O3 and CaO contents with increase in RCA content in the mix, reflecting the original constituent's composition.

  10. Preliminary analysis in a clayey mass aimed at ceramic blocks production: physical and mineralogical characteristics; Analise preliminar em uma massa argilosa visando a producao de blocos ceramicos: caracteristicas fisicas e mineralogicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.J.M.D. da; Apolonio, T.G.; Salviano, A.F.; Taveira, S.K.A.; Garcia, T.G.C.; Silva, J; Luna, P.A.; Macedo, R.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)


    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of the clayey mass are important in determining its properties, allowing a better knowledge of the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic products. This work aims to characterize the raw material used in the manufacture of ceramic sealing blocks in a ceramic industry. Thus, it was evaluated by laboratory tests the raw material used in the production of ceramic blocks in a ceramics industry in the region of Carnauba dos Dantas, RN. The methodology used in the tests is the same as the IPT, which consists in carrying out the plasticity testing, particle size, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the sample studied by the physical and mineralogical characteristics, has the potential to be applied in the manufacture of red ceramic products for use in construction. (author)

  11. Selected Apollo 17 soils - Mineralogy and geochemistry of opaque and non-opaque phases (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Sardi, O.; Williams, K. L.


    Soil samples 74220 ('orange soil'), 74241 and 75081 were sized, and the compositions of the opaque and silicate phases were determined. The ilmenites, particularly in 74241, contain up to 7.8 wt % MgO and display higher bireflectance than low-Mg ilmenites. They commonly contain exsolution-like chromite and rutile and occasionally are in association with native Fe in an assemblage probably resulting from reduction. The chromian ulvospinels are similar to Apollo 11 spinels in that they contain near-equal amounts of chromite and ulvospinel molecules. No primary chromites were observed. Most native Fe has No and Co contents of less than 1 wt %; some in 74220 contained 5-6% Ni and less than 1% Co in association with schreibersite.

  12. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan; Mohamed A. Ali


    .... Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals...

  13. Investigationof Clay Mineralogy, Micromorphology and Evolution of Soils in Bajestan Playa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasemzadeh Ganjehie


    , pediment and clay flat. Considering the diversity of geomorphic units, 11 soil profiles were described and diffrenet soil layers and horizons were sampled. Undisturbed soil samples were taken micromorphological studies. Some horizons were selected for clay mineralogy analysis. The mineralogy of clay fraction was determined using X-ray diffraction method. Results and discution: All studied soils except the profiles in the pediment were classified in the Aridisols order. There were two geomorphic surfaces in alluvial fans. In the first geomorphic surface a soil with the Bk horizon buried a soil with red Btk horizon. In the second geomorphic surface, it seems that the erosion has been removed the overlying soil. The Bk horizon showed the maximum soil development in the clay flat and intermediate alluvial fan-clay flat landforms. Clay coating on sand in thin section was the evidence of clay illuviation in Btk horizon. Carbonate nodules associated with clay coating are the compound pedofeature in Btk horizon. These evidences reflect polygenetic nature of the soils and different period of climate change and soil formation. Smectite, mica, chlorite and palygorskite are the clay minerals in the studied soils. Similar to soils in arid regions of Iran, palygorskite was found in Bk, Bt and Bz horizons. The existence of Bk horizon in overlying soils, buried Btk horizon, removal of surface horizon in alluvial fan are the evidences of regressive and progressive of pedogenic processes in the study area. Btk horizon represents a warm and wetter and Bk horizon indicates a relatively wetter period in comparison to present time. Conclusion: Btk was the most developed horizon in the study area that occurred as buried paleosol in alluvial fan. Bk, Bw, By and Bz were the common horizon in other landforms. Clay coating and red color of Btk horizon might seem as indicators of hot and humid conditions in the past, during the argillic horizon formation. Covered carbonate nodules with clay coating

  14. Scenario development methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, J. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City, Herts (United Kingdom); Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden)


    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are (a) Event tree analysis, (b) Influence diagrams and (c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs.

  15. Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Western Australian Salt Lake Sediments: Implications for Meridiani Planum on Mars. (United States)

    Ruecker, A; Schröder, C; Byrne, J; Weigold, P; Behrens, S; Kappler, A


    Hypersaline lakes are characteristic for Western Australia and display a rare combination of geochemical and mineralogical properties that make these lakes potential analogues for past conditions on Mars. In our study, we focused on the geochemistry and mineralogy of Lake Orr and Lake Whurr. While both lakes are poor in organic carbon (Lake Orr and from 5.4 to 6.3 in Lake Whurr sediments. Lake Whurr sediments were dominated by orange and red sediment zones in which the main Fe minerals were identified as hematite, goethite, and tentatively jarosite and pyrite. Lake Orr was dominated by brownish and blackish sediments where the main Fe minerals were goethite and another paramagnetic Fe(III)-phase that could not be identified. Furthermore, a likely secondary Fe(II)-phase was observed in Lake Orr sediments. The mineralogy of these two salt lakes in the sampling area is strongly influenced by events such as flooding, evaporation, and desiccation, processes that explain at least to some extent the observed differences between Lake Orr and Lake Whurr. The iron mineralogy of Lake Whurr sediments and the high salinity make this lake a suitable analogue for Meridiani Planum on Mars, and in particular the tentative identification of pyrite in Lake Whurr sediments has implications for the interpretation of the Fe mineralogy of Meridiani Planum sediments. Western Australia-Salt lakes-Jarosite-Hematite-Pyrite-Mars analogue. Astrobiology 16, 525-538.

  16. CCD-Based XRD/XRF for Determining Environmental Mineralogy on Mars (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.


    Health effects from Martian dusts will be a concern for any manned Mars missions. Nuisance dusts plagued the Apollo astronauts, but dusts of more hazardous mineralogy, in habitats occupied by Mars astronauts weakened by a long-duration mission, may be more than a nuisance. Chemical hazards in Martian regolith attributable to S, Cl, Br, Cd, and Pb are known or strongly suspected to be present, but terrestrial studies of the health effects of dusts indicate that accurate determination of mineralogy is a critical factor in evaluating inhalation hazards. Mineral inhalation hazards such as the Group-I carcinogenic zeolite erionite, which is demonstrated to cause mesothelioma, cannot be identified by chemical analysis alone. Studies of palagonite analogs raise the possibility that erionite may occur on Mars. In addition to health effects concerns, environmental mineralogy has significant importance in resource extraction, groundwater use, and sustained agriculture. The high sulfur and chlorine content of Martian regolith will affect all of these uses, but the nature of mineralogic reservoirs for S and Cl will determine their uptake and concentration in extracted groundwater and in agricultural applications of regolith. Wet chemistry experiments planned for the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will define some of the consequences of water/soil interaction, but an understanding of the mineralogic basis for water-rock reactions is needed to understand the mechanisms of reaction and to apply the results of a few experiments to larger scales and different conditions.

  17. Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Solano, Federico; Ellefsen, Karl J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey began sampling in 2007 for a low-density (1 site per 1,600 square kilometers, 4,857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils in the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. The sampling protocol for the national-scale survey included, at each site, a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a deeper sample from the soil C horizon or, if the top of the C horizon was at a depth greater than 1 meter, a sample from a depth of approximately 80–100 centimeters. The mineralogical components in the samples from the soil A and C horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling in the conterminous United States was completed in 2010, with chemical and mineralogical analyses completed in May 2013. The resulting data set provides an estimate of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical elements and minerals in soils of the conterminous United States and represents a baseline for soil geochemistry and mineralogy against which future changes may be recognized and quantified. This report releases geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral.

  18. Mineralogic Zonation Within the Tuff Confining Unit, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Prothro


    Recently acquired mineralogic data from drill hole samples in Yucca Flat show that the tuff confining unit (TCU) can be subdivided into three mineralogic zones based on the relative abundances of primary and secondary mineral assemblages. These zones are (1) an upper zone characterized by the abundance of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite with lesser amounts of felsic and clay minerals; (2) a middle zone with felsic minerals dominant over clinoptilolite and clay minerals; and (3) a basal argillic zone where clay minerals are dominant over felsic minerals and clinoptilolite. Interpretation of the mineralogic data, along with lithologic, stratigraphic, and geophysical data from approximately 500 drill holes, reveals a three-layer mineralogic model for the TCU that shows all three zones are extensive beneath Yucca Flat. The mineralogic model will be used to subdivide the TCU in the Yucca Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, resulting in a more accurate and versatile framework model. In addition, the identification of the type, quantity, and distribution of minerals within each TCU layer will permit modelers to better predict the spatial distribution and extent of contaminant transport from underground tests in Yucca Flat, at both the level of the hydrologic source term and the corrective action unit.

  19. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments. (United States)

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Meenakshisundaram, V; Venkatachalapathy, R; Ponnusamy, V


    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada (United States)

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.


    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  1. Language policy and methodology


    Liddicoat, Antony J.


    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the pol...

  2. Mapping soil magnetic susceptibility and mineralogy in Ukraine (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy


    Soil suatainable planning is fundamental for agricultural areas. Soil mapping and modeling are increasingly used in agricultural areas in the entire world (Brevik et al., 2016). They are beneficial to land managers, to reduce soil degradation, increase soil productivity and their restoration. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas.. The objective of this work is to identify the minerals responsible for MS increase in soils from the two study areas in Poltava and Kharkiv region. The thermomagnetic analyses were conducted using the KLY-4 with an oven apparatus. The hysteresis parameters were measured with the Rotating Magnetometer at the Geophysical Centre Dourbes, Belgium. The results showed that all of samples from Kharkiv area and the majortity of the samples collected in Poltava area represent the pseudo single domain (PSD) zone particles in Day plot. According to Hanesch et al. (2006), the transformation of goethite, ferrihydrite or hematite to a stronger ferrimagnetic phase like magnetite or maghemite is common in strongly magnetic soils with high values of organic carbon content. In our case of thermomagnetic study, the first peak on the heating curve near 260 ˚C indicates the presence of ferrihydrite which gradually transforms into maghemite (Jordanova et al., 2013). A further decrease in the MS identified on the heating curve may be related to the transformation of the maghemite to hematite. A second MS peak on the heating curve near 530 ˚C and the ultimate loss of magnetic susceptibility near 580 ˚C were caused by the reduction of hematite to magnetite. The shape of the thermomagnetic curves suggests the presence of single domain (SD) particles at room temperature and their transformation to a superparamagnetic (SP) state under heating. Magnetic mineralogical analyses suggest the presence of highly magnetic minerals like magnetite and maghemite as well as slightly magnetic goethite

  3. Mineralogy and Petrology of Comet Wild 2 Nucleus Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolensky, M E; Zega, T J; Yano, H; Wirick, S; Westphal, A J; Weisberg, M K; Weber, I; Warren, J L; Velbel, M A; Tsuchiyama, A; Tsou, P; Toppani, A; Tomioka, N; Tomeoka, K; Teslich, N; Taheri, M; Susini, J; Stroud, R; Stephan, T; Stadermann, F J; Snead, C J; Simon, S B; Siminovici, A; See, T H; Robert, F; Rietmeijer, F M; Rao, W; Perronnet, M C; Papanastassiou, D A; Okudaira, K; Ohsumi, K; Ohnishi, I; Nakanura-Messenger, K; Nakamura, T; Mostefaoui, S; Mikouchi, T; Meibom, A; Matrajt, G; Marcus, M A; Leroux, H; Lemelle, L; Le, L; Lanzirotti, A; Langenhorst, F; Krot, A N; Keller, L P; Kearsley, A T; Joswiak, D; Jacob, D; Ishii, H; Harvey, R; Hagiya, K; Grossman, L; Graham, G A; Gounelle, M; Gillet, P; Genge, M J; Flynn, G; Ferrior, T; Fallon, S; Ebel, D S; Dai, Z R; Cordier, P; Chi, M; Butterworth, A L; Brownlee, D E; Bridges, J C; Brennan, S; Brearley, A; Bradley, J P; Bleuet, P; Bland, P A; Bastien, R


    The bulk of the Wild 2 samples appear to be weakly-constructed mixtures of nanometerscale grains with occasional much larger (>1{micro}m) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions in Wild 2 require a wide range of formation conditions, probably reflecting different formation locations in the protoplanetary disk. The restricted compositional ranges of Fe-Ni sulfides, the wide range for silicates, and absence of hydrous phases indicate that Wild 2 experienced little or no aqueous alteration. Less abundant Wild 2 materials include a refractory particle, whose presence appears to require large-scale radial transport in the early protoplanetary disk. The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Until now we have had to study comets from afar using spectroscopy, or settle for analyses of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) of uncertain provenance. We report here mineralogical and petrographic analyses of particles derived directly from Comet Wild 2. All of the Wild 2 particles we have thus far examined have been modified in various ways by the capture process. All particles that may have been loose aggregates, ''traveling sand piles'', disaggregated into individual components with the larger, denser components penetrating more deeply into the aerogel. Individual grains experienced a wide range of heating effects that range from excellent preservation to melting (Fig. 1); such behavior was expected (1, 2 ,3). What is remarkable is the extreme variability of these modifications and the fact that severely modified and unmodified materials can be found within a micrometer of each other, requiring tremendous local temperature gradients. Fortunately, we have an internal gauge of impact collection heating. Fe-Ni sulfides are ubiquitous in the Wild 2 samples, are very

  4. Mineralogical constraints on seismic heterogeneities in the mid-mantle (United States)

    Sanchez-Valle, C.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Merkel, S.


    Seismic observations show extensive evidence for negative shear wave anomalies of 2 to 6% in the shallow to middle parts of the lower mantle ( 800 to 1850 km depths) in the vicinity of subduction zones [e.g., 1-4]. Although the origin of these anomalies is still under debate, shear softening related to the stishovite (rutile structure) to post-stishovite (CaCl2 structure) in subducted MORB may be a plausible explanation for these features [5], suggesting the presence of unmixed slab remnants in the mid-lower mantle. The broad range of depths over which the heterogeneities span may be related to compositional effects on the phase transition pressure [5,6]. To better deciphering the observed seismic heterogeneities in terms of mineralogy and chemistry, a more detailed evaluation of the seismic properties of deformed stishovite due to mantle flow is required. In this contribution, we present and discuss recent investigations of the effect of texture development on the shear wave velocities of Al-bearing stishovite containing 5wt% of Al2O3, a plausible composition for subducted slabs. Experiments were conducted using synchrotron radial x-ray diffraction and a panoramic diamond anvil cell as deformation apparatus at pressures above 50 GPa. Upon compression, changes in the texture and the strength on Al-Stishovite are observed across the stishovite to post-stishovite transition that strongly modify the mechanical properties of the sample at lower mantle pressures. The results from the deformation experiments were combined with available elasticity data for similar samples [5] to model the effect of texture on the shear wave anisotropy of stishovite at lower mantle conditions. The implications of these mineral physics results for the interpretation of seismic heterogeneities in the mid-mantle and the link with chemical heterogeneities derived for unmixing in the mantle will be discussed. [1] Stunff et al., (1995); [2]Kaneshima and Helffrich (1999); [3] Vinnik et al

  5. A comparing assessment of the use of energetic and non-energetic resources in energy systems. part 1. Methodology resources and exemplarily selected life-cycles; Anwendung energetischer und nicht-energetischer Ressourcen in Energiesystemen: Vergleichende Bewertung. Teil 1. Methodik und exemplarisch ausgewaehlte Lebenswege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, A. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik, Oberhausen (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Hofbauer, H. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelttechnik und Technische Biowissenschaften


    Goal and Scope. Which impact does the use of non-energetic abiotic resources (ores, minerals, etc.) have in life cycles of energy systems based on biogenic and fossil fuels? Is this kind of resource use less or more environmentally harmful than the utilisation of energetic abiotic resources (mineral oil, natural gas, etc.) in the same life cycles? This paper aims at answering these questions. In Part 1, a methodology is presented and applied to the life cycles of selected energy systems. Part 2 presents and discusses the results. Method. This study looks at the complete life cycles of selected energy systems. The methodology used bases on the state-of-the-art of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. For the assessment of energetic abiotic resource use, a widely recognised method can be used. For the assessment of non-energetic abiotic resource use, no overall recognised methodological approach exists. That is why for this aspect two different methods are exemplarily applied and compared with each other. Results and Conclusion. Results will be presented and discussed in Part 2. Recommendation and Perspective. Recommendation and conclusions will be derived from study results in Part 2. (orig.)

  6. Methodology of Pilot Performance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kalavsky


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the methodology of measuring pilot performance under real flight conditions. It provides the basic information on a research project realized to obtain new information regarding training and education of pilots. The introduction is focused on the analytical part of the project and the outputs in terms of the current state of the art. Detailed view is cast on the issue of measuring pilot performance under specific conditions of the cockpit or the flight simulator. The article is zooming in on the two selected and developed methods of pilot performance in terms of the defined indicators evaluated, conditions of compliance for conducting research and procedures of the methodology of pilot performance measurements.

  7. Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings (United States)

    Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.


    Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

  8. Mineralogy of the Northwestern Slopes of Mt Sharp, Gale Crater, as Observed Using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) Along-track Oversampled observations (United States)

    Fox, V. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Fraeman, A. A.


    Three Along-Track Oversampled CRISM observations of the northwestern slopes of Gale Crater provide 12 m/pixel hyperspectral data where the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover plans to traverse during its extended missions. Atmospheric contributions from dust and ice aerosols, CO2, CO, and H2O gases are removed using Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT), and the surface boundary layer is modeled using the Hapke function, accounting for local topography and lighting geometries. CRISM scenes are regularized using an iterative maximum log-likelihood algorithm with side penalties to retrieve the best signal in the presence of Poisson noise for the wavelength region from 0.4 to 2.65 micrometers. This processing methodology allows for mineralogical mapping in higher spatial detail than previous studies of the region and better discrimination between mineral species in discrete stratigraphic layers. Determining the relationship between mineralogy and stratigraphy is necessary to understand the changing environmental conditions recorded in Gale Crater. CRISM-based detections of minerals produced in aqueous environments may be used to help define the exploration goals of the Curiosity Mars Science Laboratory.

  9. Coupled X-ray computed tomography and grey level co-occurrence matrices as a method for quantification of mineralogy and texture in 3D (United States)

    Jardine, M. A.; Miller, J. A.; Becker, M.


    Texture is one of the most basic descriptors used in the geological sciences. The value derived from textural characterisation extends into engineering applications associated with mining, mineral processing and metal extraction where quantitative textural information is required for models predicting the response of the ore through a particular process. This study extends the well-known 2D grey level co-occurrence matrices methodology into 3D as a method for image analysis of 3D x-ray computed tomography grey scale volumes of drill core. Subsequent interrogation of the information embedded within the grey level occurrence matrices (GLCM) indicates they are sensitive to changes in mineralogy and texture of samples derived from a magmatic nickel sulfide ore. The position of the peaks in the GLCM is an indication of the relative density (specific gravity, SG) of the minerals and when interpreted using a working knowledge of the mineralogy of the ore presented a means to determine the relative abundance of the sulfide minerals (SG > 4), dense silicate minerals (SG > 3), and lighter silicate minerals (SG texture in 3D.

  10. The potential of on-line continuous leach ICP-MS analysis for linking trace elements to mineralogy (United States)

    Roskam, Gerlinde; Verheul, Marc; Moraetis, Daniel; Giannakis, George; van Gaans, Pauline


    A set of five soil samples was subjected to an on-line continuous leach inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry experiment, with progressively reactive solvents (0.01M CaCl2, 0.1 M HNO3, 1M HNO3, 4M HNO3) Each sample was packed in a quartz tube (Ø= 1 cm, length 2 cm) and diluted 1:1 with acid washed quartz to prevent clogging. The gas that was produced during the extraction was removed by leading the effluent into a small container, from where the sample was directly pumped into the ICP-MS. 115In was used as an internal standard. Continuous leach experiments have the advantage of real time (every 2 seconds) full elemental analysis. Mineral breakdown reactions can be monitored via the major elements. The trace elements associated with the minerals are monitored simultaneously, thus eliminating the uncertainties of host mineral-trace element combinations in traditional off-line sequential extractions. The continuous leach experimental data are correlated to XRD-results for mineralogy and total elemental concentrations. The soil samples used were collected from different sites in the Koiliaris River watershed, Crete, Greece 1). The selection of the sites was based on variability in bedrock (limestone, metamorphic and alluvial sediments) and current land use (grape farming, olive trees). Soils were sampled at two depths: at the surface and just above the bedrock. No large differences in the major elements between the two depths were measured. To provide background to the on-line sequential data, also total concentrations of the major elements were analysed by XRF and the mineralogy was analysed by XRD. The fraction Roskam et al., 2014: REE profiles in continuous leach ICP-MS (CL-ICP-MS) experiments in soil, linked to REE profiles in surface water in the Koiliaris River Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), Crete, Greece.

  11. Mineralogy of an active eolian sediment from the Namib dune, Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Ewing, R. C.; Chipera, S. J.; Yen, A. S.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gellert, R.; Hazen, R. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Craig, P. I.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Morookian, J. M.


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is using a comprehensive scientific payload to explore rocks and soils in Gale crater, Mars. Recent investigations of the Bagnold Dune Field provided the first in situ assessment of an active dune on Mars. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument on Curiosity performed quantitative mineralogical analyses of the geologic history of the dune material and offers an important opportunity for ground truth of orbital observations. CheMin's analysis of the mineralogy and phase chemistry of modern and ancient Gale crater dune fields, together with other measurements by Curiosity's science payload, provides new insights into present and past eolian processes on Mars.

  12. A composite mineralogical map of Ganges Chasma and surroundings, Valles Marineris, Mars (United States)

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; Clark, M. Caroline


    Ganges Chasma is a mineralogically diverse canyon in the far-eastern portion of the Valles Marineris system. It exposes bedrock outcrops of olivine, large dune fields enriched in olivine, a central Interior Layered Deposit with monohydrated sulfates, and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the plateaus surrounding the canyon and in the canyon walls. The co-existence of hydrated minerals with unaltered olivine makes this an excellent location to study the timing of aqueous processes in this region. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), synthesizing them with previous data sets to produce a composite mineralogical map of Ganges Chasma. We then produce a timeline of mineralogic deposition for the Ganges area, relating it to regional geologic events.

  13. Narrative Visual Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    The paper has a methodological focus, discussed in relation to examples from an auto-ethnographic study with the working title Family Anecdotes. The main methodological question is how to map storytelling practice as a process for unfolding multiple cultural and social contexts of meaning using a...

  14. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis is o...

  15. Data Centric Development Methodology (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.


    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  16. The Methodology of Magpies (United States)

    Carter, Susan


    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  17. Archetype Modeling Methodology. (United States)

    Moner, David; Alberto Maldonado, José; Robles, Montserrat


    Clinical Information Models (CIMs) expressed as archetypes play an essential role in the design and development of current Electronic Health Record (EHR) information structures. Although there exist many experiences about using archetypes in the literature, a comprehensive and formal methodology for archetype modeling does not exist. Having a modeling methodology is essential to develop quality archetypes, in order to guide the development of EHR systems and to allow the semantic interoperability of health data. In this work, an archetype modeling methodology is proposed. This paper describes its phases, the inputs and outputs of each phase, and the involved participants and tools. It also includes the description of the possible strategies to organize the modeling process. The proposed methodology is inspired by existing best practices of CIMs, software and ontology development. The methodology has been applied and evaluated in regional and national EHR projects. The application of the methodology provided useful feedback and improvements, and confirmed its advantages. The conclusion of this work is that having a formal methodology for archetype development facilitates the definition and adoption of interoperable archetypes, improves their quality, and facilitates their reuse among different information systems and EHR projects. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be also a reference for CIMs development using any other formalism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))


    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  19. Development of Shakemap Methodologies (United States)

    Erdik, M.; Cagnan, Z.; Zülfikar, C.; Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Demircioglu, M. B.; Kariptas, C.


    For almost-real time estimation of the ground shaking after a major earthquake in the Euro-Mediterranean region the JRA-3 component of the EU Project entitled "Network of research Infrastructures for European Seismology, NERIES" foresees: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base, supported, if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line regional broadband stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters at engineering bedrock through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and/or actual physical simulation of ground motion. 3. Estimation of the spatial distribution of site-specific ground selected motion parameters using regional geology (or urban geotechnical information) data-base using appropriate amplification models. 4. Correlation/verifyication/enrichment of the estimated ground shaking information with the available on-line strong motion data. These shakemaps maps will enable the first estimates of damage and casulaties, and consequently provide vital information within minutes after an earthquake to European emergency response agencies. There are regional dependencies and multiple sources of uncertainty in such estimations stemming from empirical ground motion predictions, non-existent or sparse ground motion measurements, considerations involving fault finiteness and directivity, data interpolations and site modifications. The methodology used by USGS is not directly transportable, due to a region specific characteristics of the empirical attenuation relationships and methods of modification of ground motion for the near-surface geology. Together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich, we are developing and testing algorithms for the preparation of shakemaps and the quantification of associated uncertainties. In this connection we have estimated

  20. Mineralogy of Interplanetary Dust Particles from the Comet Giacobini-Zinner Dust Stream Collections (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Westphal, A. J.; Palma, R. L.


    The Draconoid meteor shower, originating from comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, is a low-velocity Earth-crossing dust stream that had a peak anticipated flux on Oct. 8, 2012. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections to target interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream on Oct 15-17, 2012 [3]. Twelve dust particles from this targeted collection were allocated to our coordinated analysis team for studies of noble gas (Univ. Minnesota, Minnesota State Univ.), SXRF and Fe-XANES (SSL Berkeley) and mineralogy/isotopes (JSC). Here we report a mineralogical study of 3 IDPs from the Draconoid collection..

  1. Mineralogy and Elemental Composition of Wind Drift Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Morris, R. V.; Downs, R. T.; Trieman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Chipera, S. J.; Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Vaniman, D. T.; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring Mars since August 5, 2012, conducting engineering and first-time activities with its mobility system, arm, sample acquisition and processing system (SA/SPaH-CHIMRA) and science instruments. Curiosity spent 54 sols at a location named "Rocknest," collecting and processing five scoops of loose, unconsolidated materials ("soil") acquired from an aeolian bedform (Fig. 1). The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument analyzed portions of scoops 3, 4, and 5, to obtain the first quantitative mineralogical analysis of Mars soil, and to provide context for Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) measurements of volatiles, isotopes and possible organic materials.

  2. Magnetic mineralogy of heavy metals-contaminated soils (United States)

    Shenggao, L.


    Soils around mine and in urban areas are often contaminated by heavy metals derived from industrial and human activities [1, 2]. These contaminated soils are often characterized by a magnetic enhancement on topsoils. Many studies demonstrated that there are significant correlations between heavy metals and various magnetic parameters in contaminated soils, indicating a strong affinity of heavy metals to magnetic minerals. The magnetic particles in contaminated soils were separated by a magnetic separation technique. The rock magnetism, XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy equiped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (FESEM/EDX) were used to characterize their magnetic mineralogy. Results of XRD analysis indicated that the magnetic particles separated from heavy metal-contaminated soils are composed of quartz, magnetite, and hematite. Based on the X-ray diffraction peak intensity, the Fe3O4 was identified as the predominant magnetic mineral phase. The high-temperature magnetization (Ms-T) curves of magnetic particles extracted from contaminated soils show a sharp Ms decrease at about 580C (the Curie temperature of magnetite), suggesting that magnetite is the dominant magnetic carrier. The hysteresis loops of contaminated soils are closed at about 100-200 mT which is consistent with the presence of a dominant ferrimagnetic mineral phase. The FESEM analysis showed a great variety of shapes of magnetic particles in contaminated soils. The most common morphology are observed in the form of spherules, with the sizes ranging from 20 to 100 um. The chemical composition of magnetic particles consist mainly of Fe, Si, Al, and Ca with minor heavy metal elements (Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cr). The semi-quantitative Fe content identified by FESEM/EDX ranged from 40 to 90%. Combined studies of rock magnetism, XRD, and FESEM/EDX indicated that magnetic mineral phases responsible for the magnetic enhancement of contaminated soils are anthropogenic origin which are coarse

  3. Mineralogy and thermal properties of clay from Slatina (Ub, Serbia) (United States)

    Milosevic, Maja; Logar, Mihovil; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Jelic, Ivana


    The "Slatina" deposit, Ub, Serbia was opened in 1965 and represents one of few deposits exploited by "Kopovi" a.d., Ub, company. Deposit is composed of clay layers belonging to Neogene sediments that are widespread transgressive over granitoid rocks of Cer mountain and Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Clay is mostly of illite-montmorillonite-kaolinite type and they are generally used as ceramic materials while some of the layers are used as fire-resistant materials. In this study we present mineralogical and thermal characterization of two samples to determine their application as industrial materials. Chemical and mineral composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) on powder and oriented samples, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and granulometry. Cationic exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SSA) was determined using spectrophotometry and methylene blue (MB). Thermal properties where determined by gravimetry (120, 350, 600 and 1000 oC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Quantitative mineral composition obtained by Rietveld refinement of combined chemical and XRD data shows that the sample 1(SC) is mainly smectite-illite (45%) and kaolinite (14%) clay with 19% of quartz, 10% feldspars and 7% of limonite, while sample 2(SV) is smectite-illite (43%) and kaolinite (11%) clay with 10% of quartz, 15% feldspars and 7% of limonite. Both samples have low content of impurities (carbonate minerals). Medium grain size (μm) goes from 1.02 (SSA = 104 m2/g) for sample 1(SC) to 0.71 (SSA = 117 m2/g) for sample 2(SV) while their CEC is 12.7 and 14.9 mmol/100g for 1(SC) and 2(SV) respectively. IR spectra of the samples shows larger amount of smectite clays with quartz and carbonate minerals for both samples which is in accordance with XRD data. DTA data shows couple of events that are endothermic. First one (100-200 oC) is associated with loss of moisture and constitutive water, second

  4. Comparative Mineralogy, Microstructure and Compositional Trends in the Sub-Micron Size Fractions of Mare and Highland Lunar Soils (United States)

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.


    The morphology, mineralogy, chemical composition and optical properties of lunar soils show distinct correlations as a function of grain size and origin [1,2,3]. In the mineralogy type, microstructure and major element compositions of grains in this important size range in lunar soils.

  5. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Hematite-bearing Ridge on Mauna Kea, Hawaii: A Potential Mineralogical Process Analog for the Mount Sharp Hematite Ridge (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Adams, M.; Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Mertzman, S. A.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed in Gale Crater in August 2012 and is currently roving towards the layered central mound known as Mount Sharp [1]. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral data indicate Mount Sharp contains an 5 km stratigraphic sequence including Fe-Mg smectites, hematite, and hydrated sulfates in the lower layers separated by an unconformity from the overlying anhydrous strata [1,2,3]. Hematite was initially detected in CRISM data to occur in the lower sulfate layers on the north side of the mound [2]. [3] further mapped a distinct hematite detection occurring as part of a 200 m wide ridge that extends 6.5 km NE-SW, approximately parallel with the base of Mount Sharp. It is likely a target for in-situ analyses by Curiosity. We document here the occurrence of a stratum of hematite-bearing breccia that is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano (Hawaii) (Fig.1). The stratum is more resistant to weathering than surrounding material, giving it the appearance of a ridge. The Mauna Kea hematite ridge is thus arguably a potential terrestrial mineralogical and process analog for the Gale Crater hematite ridge. We are acquiring a variety of chemical and mineralogical data on the Mauna Kea samples, with a focus on the chemical and mineralogical information already available or planned for the Gale hematite ridge.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vašutová V; Bezdička P; Lang K; Hradil D


    Samples representing two modifications of halloysites, dehydrated (7 Å) and hydrated (10 Å) forms, respectively, were examined with the aim to select suitable candidates for to be used as carriers of porphyrine photoactive molecules...

  7. Andic soils : mineralogical effect onto organic matter dynamics, organic matter effect onto mineral dynamics, or both? (United States)

    Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Amundson, Ronald; Balesdent, Jérome; Borschneck, Daniel; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Colin, Fabrice; de Junet, Alexis; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Rose, Jérôme


    From a strictly mineralogical point of view, weathering of volcanic glass produces secondary phases that are short range ordered alumino-silicates (SRO-AlSi). These are imogolite tubes (2 to 3 nm of diameter) and allophane supposedly spheres (3.5 to 5 nm). Their local structure is composed of a curved gibbsite Al layer and Si tetrahedra in the vacancies (Q0). Proto-imogolites have the same local structure but are roof-shape nanoparticles likely representing the precursors of imogolite and allophanes (Levard et al. 2010). These structures and sizes give to the SRO-AlSi large specific surfaces and high reactivities. In some natural sites, imogolites and allophanes are formed in large quantities. Aging of these phases may lead to the formation of more stable minerals (halloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite) (Torn et al 1997). In natural environments, when the weathering of volcanic glass is associated with the establishment of vegetation, the soils formed are generally andosols. These soils are particularly rich in organic matter (OM), which is explained by the high ability of SRO-AlSi mineral phases to form bonds with organic compounds. In a first order "bulk" approach, it is considered that these bonds strongly stabilize the organic compounds as their mean age can reach more than 10 kyrs in some studied sites (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2005; Torn et al. 1997). However, the structure of the mineral phases present in andosols deserves more attention. Traditionally, the presence in the SRO-AlSi andosols was shown by selective dissolution approaches by oxalate and pyrophosphate. Using spectroscopic methods, mineralogical analysis of SRO-AlSi in andosols samples showed that these mineral phases were neither imogolites nor allophanes as originally supposed, but only less organized structures remained in a state of proto-imogolites (Basile-Doelsch al. 2005 ; Levard et al., 2012). The presence of OM would have an inhibitory effect on the formation of secondary mineral phases, by

  8. Magnesium isotope fractionation in volcanic soils controlled by clay mineralogy and exchangeable Mg (United States)

    Opfergelt, S.; Georg, B.; Burton, K.; Delvaux, B.; Siebert, C.; Guicharnaud, R.; Cabidoche, Y.; Halliday, A.


    Continental weathering of calcium-magnesium silicates exerts a strong control on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Mg stable isotopes are used here as a biogeochemical tracer to quantify the contributions from soil weathering processes and vegetation on the Mg budget and the chemistry of soil solutions exported to the hydrosphere. We report the isotopic budget of Mg in distinct Mg pools (bedrock, vegetation, bulk soils, clay fractions, exchangeable Mg, soil pore waters) in tropical (Guadeloupe, Basse-Terre) and temperate volcanic soils (Iceland, Borgarfjordur catchment). Exchangeable Mg was collected by percolation of ammonium acetate 1N at pH7. Mg isotope ratios were measured by MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma HR) with an external reproducibility for DSM3 standard (Galy et al., 2003, JAAS 18, 1352-1356) of ± 0.15 ‰, 2SD, for δ26Mg. We investigated two soil sequences from Guadeloupe, both derived from andesitic ash, with the mineralogical sequence evolving towards Mg-bearing and non Mg-bearing secondary phases, respectively: (1) Andosol - Cambisol - Vertisol with the mineralogical sequence A - All - H,S - S (*), and (2) Andosol - Nitisol - Ferralsol with the sequence A - G,All - H,F - K,G,F. The basaltic soils from Iceland include Histosol and Histic, Gleyic and Brown Andosol with clay fractions mainly constituted of All, H and F. This selection of soils, with contrasting Mg-bearing and non-bearing secondary phases, and contrasting amount of Mg exchangeable (1.2 to 6.6, allows for a direct assessment of the weathering control on Mg isotope ratios and the Mg budget in both tropical and temperate conditions. In Guadeloupe, bulk soils and clay fractions were isotopically heavier (-0.41 to -0.10 ‰) than the andesite bedrock (-0.47 ‰). Icelandic bulk soils were isotopically similar or lighter (-0.80 to -0.25 ‰) than the parental basalt (-0.31 ‰). In both Guadeloupe and Iceland, soils were isotopically lighter with increasing amount of exchangeable Mg

  9. Case Selection via Matching (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard A.


    This article shows how statistical matching methods can be used to select "most similar" cases for qualitative analysis. I first offer a methodological justification for research designs based on selecting most similar cases. I then discuss the applicability of existing matching methods to the task of selecting most similar cases and…

  10. Correlation of soil organic carbon and nutrients (NPK) to soil mineralogy, texture, aggregation, and land use pattern. (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G


    This work investigates the correlations existing among soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), and physicochemical properties like clay mineralogy, textural components, soil aggregation, and land use pattern. Seven different locations were chosen in the tropical rainforest climate region of Assam, India, for the work. The soil texture classifications were clay, sandy clay loam, and sandy loam with mixed clay mineralogy consisting of tectosilicates and phylosilicates. Two distinct compositions of total Fe/Al oxides≥11.5 and mineralogy suggested that the mineral, chlorite, favored retention of higher SOC content in a particular site. Under similar climatic and mineralogical conditions, both natural and anthropogenic soil disturbances destabilized SOC protection through SOM mineralization and soil aggregate destabilization as indicated by SOC protective capacity studies. Urbanization resulting in soil compaction contributed to enhanced SOC level through increased contact between the occluded organic carbon and the soil mineralogical constituents.

  11. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per


    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  12. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng


    "Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...

  13. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan


    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works as a b...... as a breeding ground for setting up VEs. The VEM applies the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) as an underlying structure. Both VEM and VERA are developed as a part of the GLOBEMEN project.......This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...

  14. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  15. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka


    Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....

  16. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis is o...... where additional work contributes most to strengthen the results and conclusions of the study....

  17. Size, surface texture, chemical composition and mineralogy interrelations in ferromanganese nodules of central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    Fiftyseven ferromanganese nodules, classified into 3 size class (4,4-6 and 6-8 cm diam.), from the siliceous sediments of central Indian Ocean were analysed for transition metals and representative sample from each size class for mineralogy. Smaller...

  18. X-ray diffraction results from mars science laboratory: Mineralogy of rocknest at Gale crater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bish, D.L.; Blake, D.F.; Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Morris, R.V.; Ming, D.W.; Treiman, A.H.; Sarrazin, P.; Morrison, S.M.; Downs, R.T.; Achilles, C.N.; Yen, A.S.; Bristow, T.F.; Crisp, J.A.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Rampe, E.B.; Stolper, E.M.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite,

  19. Polyacrylamide effects on aggregate and structure stability of soils with different clay mineralogy (United States)

    Adding anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to soils stabilizes existing aggregates and improves bonding between and aggregation of soil particles. However, the dependence of PAM efficacy as an aggregate stabilizing agent with soils having different clay mineralogy has not been studied. Sixteen soil samples...

  20. Exploring Visuospatial Thinking in Learning about Mineralogy: Spatial Orientation Ability and Spatial Visualization Ability (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gokhan


    This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…

  1. Mineralogy of Galvanic Corrosion By-products in Domestic Drinking Water Pipes (United States)

    This study presents the results of a visual and mineralogical characterization of scales developed over long time periods at galvanically coupled lead-brass and lead-copper pipe joints from several different drinking water distribution systems. The long-term exposure aspect of t...

  2. Mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash from a MSW fluidized-bed incinerator. (United States)

    Bodénan, F; Guyonnet, D; Piantone, P; Blanc, P


    This paper presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from a municipal solid waste fluidized-bed incinerator, subject to 18 months of dynamic leaching in a large percolation column experiment. A particular focus is on the redox behaviour of Cr(VI) in relation to metal aluminium Al(0), as chromium may represent an environmental or health hazard. The leaching behaviour and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al(0) are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over the 18-month period and of saturation indices calculated with the geochemical code PhreeqC and reviewed thermodynamic data. Results of mineralogical analyses show in particular the alteration of mineral phases during leaching (e.g. quartz and metal aluminium grains), while geochemical calculations suggest equilibria of percolating fluids with respect to specific mineral phases (e.g. monohydrocalcite and aluminium hydroxide). The combination of leaching data on a large scale and mineralogical analyses document the coupled leaching behaviour of aluminium and chromium, with chromium appearing in the pore fluids in its hexavalent and mobile state once metal aluminium is no longer available for chromium reduction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron mineralogy as a fingerprint of former steelmaking activities in river sediments. (United States)

    Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Losson, Benoit; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; Bauer, Allan; Villieras, Frederic; Manceau, Luc; El Samrani, Antoine G; Kazpard, Veronique; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence


    Submerged sediment cores were collected upstream of a dam in the Orne River, northeastern France. This dam was built in the context of steelmaking to constitute a water reservoir for blast furnace cooling and wet cleaning of furnace smokes. The dam also enhanced sediment deposition in the upstream zone. This study was performed to unravel the contamination status of sediments and to evidence possible contribution sources. The sediment layers were analyzed for water content, grain size, chemical composition, crystalline phases at a bulk scale and poorly crystalline and amorphous phases at a sub-micrometer scale. Visual aspect, texture, color, and chemical and mineralogical analyses showed that the settled sediments were mainly composed of fine black matter, certainly comprising steelmaking by-products. Those materials were highly enriched with Fe, Zn, Pb and other trace metals, except for a relatively thin layer of surficial sediments that had settled more recently. Bulk mineralogy revealed crystalline iron minerals, such as magnetite, goethite, wuestite and pyrite, in the deep layers of the sediment cores. Furthermore, microscopic investigations evidenced the presence of ferrospheres, goethite nanoparticles and newly formed Fe-aluminosilicates; all originating from the former steelmaking facilities. The variation of iron mineralogy, combined with specific chemical profiles and other sediment features, demonstrate the different contributions that constitute the sediment deposit. Furthermore, chemical and mineralogical features of goethite and Fe-aluminosilicates could be used as a fingerprint for such contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mineralogy by X-ray Diffraction on Mars: The Chemin Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; hide


    To obtain detailed mineralogy information, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity carries CheMin, the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument used on a planet other than Earth. CheMin has provided the first in situ XRD analyses of full phase assemblages on another planet.

  5. Ground Truth Mineralogy vs. Orbital Observations at the Bagnold Dune Field (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is analyzing rock and sediments in Gale crater to provide in situ sedimentological, geochemical, and mineralogical assessments of the crater's geologic history. Curiosity's recent traverse through an active, basaltic eolian deposit, informally named the Bagnold Dunes, provided the opportunity for a multi-instrument investigation of the dune field.

  6. Soil aggregate stability as affected by clay mineralogy and polyacrylamide addition (United States)

    The addition of polyacrylamide (PAM) to soil leads to stabilization of existing aggregates and improved bonding between, and aggregation of adjacent soil particles However, the dependence of PAM efficacy as an aggregate stabilizing agent on soil-clay mineralogy has not been studied. Sixteen soil sam...

  7. Overview of the mineralogy of the Biwabik Iron Formation, Mesabi Iron Range, northern Minnesota. (United States)

    McSwiggen, Peter L; Morey, G B


    The mineralogy of the Biwabik Iron Formation changes dramatically from west to east as the formation nears the basal contact of the Duluth Complex. This reflects a contact metamorphism that took place with the emplacement of the igneous Duluth Complex at temperatures as high as 1200 degrees C. However, the mineralogy of the Biwabik Iron Formation also varies vertically through the stratigraphy of the unit. This variability in both the vertical and horizontal dimensions makes it difficult to predict exact horizons where specific minerals will occur. The iron-formation has been subdivided into four broad stratigraphic units (lower cherty, lower slaty, upper cherty, and upper slaty) and into four lateral mineralogical zones (1-4). Zone 1, the westernmost zone, is characterized by quartz, magnetite, hematite, carbonates, talc, chamosite, greenalite, minnesotaite, and stilpnomelane. The silicate mineralogy in Zone 2 of the Biwabik Iron Formation changes very little. However, the minerals begin to change dramatically in Zone 3. Most significantly, Zone 3 is characterized by the appearance of grunerite in both a tabular form and a fibrous form. In Zone 4, the original silicate minerals have completely reacted, and a new suite of minerals occupies the iron-formation. These include grunerite, hornblende, hedenbergite, ferrohypersthene (ferrosilite), and fayalite.

  8. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi


    Full Text Available This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and polarizing microscope (PM techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.

  9. Mineralogical, Spectral, and Compositional Changes During Heating of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamashita, S.; Sato, Y.; Mogi, K.; Enokido, Y.; Nakata, A.; Okumura, S.; Furukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M.


    Hydrous carbonaceous chondrites experienced hydration and subsequent dehydration by heating, which resulted in a variety of mineralogical and spectral features [e. g., 1-6]. The degree of heating is classified according to heating stage (HS) II to IV based on mineralogy of phyllosilicates [2], because they change, with elevating temperature, to poorly crystal-line phases and subsequently to aggregates of small secondary anhydrous silicates of mainly olivine. Heating of hydrous carbonaceous chondrites also causes spectral changes and volatile loss [3-6]. Experimental heating of Murchison CM chondrite showed flattening of whole visible-near infrared spectra, especially weakening of the 3µm band strength [1, 4, 7]. In order to understand mineralogical, spectral, and compositional changes during heating of hydrous carbonaceous chondrites, we have carried out systematic investigation of mineralogy, reflectance spectra, and volatile composition of hydrated and dehydrated carbonaceous chondrites as well as experimentally-heated hydrous carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, we investigated reflectance spectra of tochilinite that is a major phase of CM chondrites and has a low dehydration temperature (250degC).

  10. Relating Optical Properties of Dusts to their Mineralogical and Physical Interrelationships (United States)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.; Pincock, S. L.


    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The 38 μm, < 125 μm soil fractions were mineralogically characterized by optical microscopy. We will be presenting results on the optical measurements, also showing the relationship between single scattering albedo (SSA) at three different wavelengths, and chemical as well as mineralogical content and interdependencies of the entrained dust samples. Examples showing the relationships between the single scattering albedos of airborne dusts, and iron (Fe) in hematite, goethite, and clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite, palygorskite), will be discussed. Our goal is to establish a database of the optical, mineralogical, and chemical properties of dust samples collected at multiple global dust sources. These data can be for applications in climate modeling, remote sensing, visibility, health (medical geology), ocean fertilization, and damage to equipment.

  11. Detailed description of oil shale organic and mineralogical heterogeneity via fourier transform infrared mircoscopy (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Foster, Michael; Gutierrez, Fernando


    Mineralogical and geochemical information on reservoir and source rocks is necessary to assess and produce from petroleum systems. The standard methods in the petroleum industry for obtaining these properties are bulk measurements on homogenized, generally crushed, and pulverized rock samples and can take from hours to days to perform. New methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been developed to more rapidly obtain information on mineralogy and geochemistry. However, these methods are also typically performed on bulk, homogenized samples. We present a new approach to rock sample characterization incorporating multivariate analysis and FTIR microscopy to provide non-destructive, spatially resolved mineralogy and geochemistry on whole rock samples. We are able to predict bulk mineralogy and organic carbon content within the same margin of error as standard characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Validation of the method was performed using two oil shale samples from the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin with differing sedimentary structures. One sample represents laminated Green River oil shales, and the other is representative of oil shale breccia. The FTIR microscopy results on the oil shales agree with XRD and LECO TOC data from the homogenized samples but also give additional detail regarding sample heterogeneity by providing information on the distribution of mineral phases and organic content. While measurements for this study were performed on oil shales, the method could also be applied to other geological samples, such as other mudrocks, complex carbonates, and soils.

  12. Thermal, mineralogical and chemical studies of the mortars used in the cathedral of Pamplona (Spain)


    Alvarez, J.I. (José Ignacio); Navarro-Blasco, I. (Íñigo); Garcia, P.J.


    Different ancient mortar samples of Pamplona cathedral have been analysed to characterize their binder and aggregate fractions. A complete characterization has been carried out including chemical (complete macrochemical analysis, analysis of the soluble fraction in hot HCl (1:5) and of the insoluble residue, trace elements and soluble salts, using traditional chemical procedures, ion chromatography and spectrophotometry techniques), mineralogical (structural characterization, granulometric st...

  13. Remote In-Situ Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis Using XRD/XRF (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Bish, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Collins, S. A.; Elliott, S. T.


    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most direct and accurate method for determining mineralogy. The CHEMIN XRD/XRF instrument has shown promising results on a variety of mineral and rock samples. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. 2001 Mars Odyssey: Geologic Questions for Global Geochemical and Mineralogical Mapping (United States)

    Saunders, R. S.; Meyer, M. A.


    2001 Mars Odyssey has three experiments. GRS will map the surface elemental composition. MARIE will characterize the Mars radiation environment for risk to humans. THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology with a camera and thermal IR imaging. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey began a low-density (1 site per 1,600 sq. km., 4857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous...

  16. Phylomineralogy of the coralline red algae: correlation of skeletal mineralogy with molecular phylogeny. (United States)

    Smith, A M; Sutherland, J E; Kregting, L; Farr, T J; Winter, D J


    The coralline algae in the orders Corallinales and Sporolithales (subclass Corallinophycidae), with their high degree of mineralogical variability, pose a challenge to projections regarding mineralogy and response to ocean acidification. Here we relate skeletal carbonate mineralogy to a well-established phylogenetic framework and draw inferences about the effects of future changes in sea-water chemistry on these calcified red algae. A collection of 191 coralline algal specimens from New Zealand, representing 13 genera and 28 species, included members of three families: Corallinaceae, Hapalidiaceae, and Sporolithaceae. While most skeletal specimens were entirely calcitic (range: 73-100 wt.% calcite, mean 97 wt.% calcite, std dev=5, n=172), a considerable number contained at least some aragonite. Mg in calcite ranged from 10.5 to 16.4 wt.% MgCO(3), with a mean of 13.1 wt.% MgCO(3) (std dev=1.1, n=172). The genera Mesophyllum and Lithophyllum were especially variable. Growth habit, too, was related to mineralogy: geniculate coralline algae do not generally contain any aragonite. Mg content varied among coralline families: the Corallinaceae had the highest Mg content, followed by the Sporolithaceae and the Hapalidiaceae. Despite the significant differences among families, variation and overlap prevent the use of carbonate mineralogy as a taxonomic character in the coralline algae. Latitude (as a proxy for water temperature) had only a slight relationship to Mg content in coralline algae, contrary to trends observed in other biomineralising taxa. Temperate magnesium calcites, like those produced by coralline algae, are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Changes in biomineralisation or species distribution may occur over the next few decades, particularly to species producing high-Mg calcite, as pH and CO(2) dynamics change in coastal temperate oceans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PA01.31. Perception of ayurvedic mineral raw drugs in the eye mineralogy (United States)

    Priya, Madhulika; Sharma, Govinda; Ganti, Basavaraj


    Purpose: Each mineral is unique in this universe in its perception. Minerals are defined as naturally occurring, inorganic substances with a definite chemical composition and a regular internal crystalline structure (Gribble 1988). The identity of these depends on their physical, chemical or optical properties. Mineralogy a branch of science has its existence since 17th century. Being a part of Ayurvedic pharmaceutics, Rasashastra deals with a number of minerals categorized under Maharasa, Uparasa etc. These are identified on the basis of grahya lakshana mentioned in the books of Rasashastra documented from 8th century itself. Thus, it is evident that the science of mineralogy as it is practiced presently has its origin almost 1300 years back. 1. To find the features of minerals in the books of Rasashastra and to compare them with the properties of minerals as per Mineralogy. 2. To prove that the knowledge of identifying a mineral based on certain feature existed in India before development of mineralogy. Method: A literary research was undertaken to list out the grahya lakshanas of Rasadravyas mentioned in the literatures of Rasasashtra. An attempt was made to compare them with the equivalent properties of minerals. Only such literatures of Rasashastra which had their existence before 17th century were preferred for present study. Result: The grahya lakshanas mentioned in classical books of Rasasashtra were found to be very much comparable with the physical properties of minerals. Conclusion: This literary research justifies that the ancient scholars of Rasasashtra were able to identify the minerals based on their physical properties many centuries before the mineralogy had its existence.

  18. Mineral Supertrumps: A new card game to assist learning of mineralogy (United States)

    Spandler, C.


    Mineralogy is considered one of the cornerstone subjects of geoscience curriculum. It provides the basic information from which we can understand the composition and behaviour of Earth and planetary materials, yet many students struggle to obtain adequate comprehension and knowledge of mineralogy during tertiary degree programs. Here, I introduce a new card game called "Mineral Supertrumps" that can be used to assist teaching of mineralogy at secondary and tertiary level. The card game is easy to learn and play, and is designed to promote active learning in a group environment. The game involves 3 to 6 people, and is similar to the "Top Trumps™" card games. The pack consists of 54 mineral cards, and 6 supertrump cards. Each mineral card includes information about the mineral such as the generic chemical formula, the classification, crystal system, the geological environment where the mineral is commonly found or formed, as well as information in the five playing categories (or trumps) of Hardness, Specific Gravity, Cleavage, Crustal Abundance, and Economic Value. The first three playing categories relate to distinct physical properties of the mineral, while last two categories rate the importance of the mineral in terms of abundance in the Earth's crust and value to modern societies. Results of a formal evaluation of the game by students in the second year of a tertiary geology program indicate that the game has clear benefits for learning about mineralogy. The majority of students enjoyed playing the game and considered it to be effective for enhancing learning about mineral properties and their application to other Earth Science disciplines. Therefore, inclusion of "Mineral Supertrumps" into Earth Science curriculum at secondary or tertiary level has the potential to redress the difficulties students face in learning of mineralogy, while requiring little to no adjustment to existing teaching programs.

  19. Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Solano, Federico; Kilburn, James E.; Fey, David L.


    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1,600 square kilometers, 4,857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Sampling and analytical protocols were developed at a workshop in 2003, and pilot studies were conducted from 2004 to 2007 to test and refine these recommended protocols. The final sampling protocol for the national-scale survey included, at each site, a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a deeper sample from the soil C horizon or, if the top of the C horizon was at a depth greater than 1 meter, from a depth of approximately 80–100 centimeters. The soil A and C horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling in the conterminous United States was completed in 2010, with chemical and mineralogical analyses completed in May 2013. The resulting dataset provides an estimate of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical elements and minerals in soils of the conterminous United States and represents a baseline for soil geochemistry and mineralogy against which future changes may be recognized and quantified. This report (1) describes the sampling, sample preparation, and analytical methods used; (2) gives details of the quality control protocols used to monitor the quality of chemical and mineralogical analyses over approximately six years; and (3) makes available the soil geochemical and mineralogical data in downloadable tables.

  20. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky


    Full Text Available The paper considers economic principles on enterprise potential management and its competitiveness.  Elements of the enterprise economic potential that permit to select an efficient strategy of an organization behaviour are presented in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of enterprise potential competitiveness on the basis of the existing standard indices and various competitiveness levels.

  2. IQ Heritability: A Checklist of Methodological Fallacies (United States)

    Taylor, Howard F.


    Presents a brief, quick-reference check list of methodological errors, fallacies, mistakes, and instances of out-and-out trickery that are found in recent well-known studies of IQ, IQ heritability, and race differences, focusing primarily upon the works of psychologist Jensen, Herrnstein, Eysenck, including selected works of William Shockley and…

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of asbestos observed in soils developed within San Severino Lucano village (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Punturo, Rosalda; Ricchiuti, Claudia; Apollaro, Carmine


    tremolite. These data suggest that the cytotoxicity of asbestos could also be related to these toxic heavy metal present as impurities in their structure (Bloise et al., 2016b). Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with carcinogenic lung cancer, in our opinion in areas where NOA can be found, the institutions should publish local maps indicating areas with mineralogical concern and realization of constructions (e. g. road) must have dust control measure to avoid hazardous exposures. References Bloise A., Punturo R., Catalano M., Miriello D., and Cirrincione R. (2016a). Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) in rock and soil and relation with human activities: the monitoring example of selected sites in Calabria (southern Italy) Ital. J. Geosci., 135 (2): 268-279. Bloise A, Barca D, Gualtieri A F, Pollastri S, Belluso E (2016b) Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres. Environmental Pollution 216: 314-323.

  4. Recirculation of biomass ashes onto forest soils: ash composition, mineralogy and leaching properties. (United States)

    Maresca, A; Hyks, J; Astrup, T F


    In Denmark, increasing amounts of wood ashes are generated from biomass combustion for energy production. The utilisation of ashes on top of forest soil for liming purposes has been proposed asan alternative to landfilling. Danish wood ash samples were collected and characterised with respect to chemical composition, mineralogy and leaching properties (batch leaching at L/S 2 and 10L/kg, and pH-dependent leaching at 10L/kg). Large variations in the ash liming properties were observed (ANC7.5: 1.8-6.4meqH+/g), indicating that similar soil application dosages may result in different liming effects. High contents of Ca, Si, P, K and Mg were observed in all samples, while the highest contents of S and N were found in fly ashes and mixed ashes (combination of fly and bottom ashes). Similarly, the highest contents of some trace metals, e.g. Cd, Mo and Se, were observed for fly ash. Releases of major, minor and trace elements were affected significantly by pH: high releases of PO43-, Mg, Zn, Cu and Cd were found for acidic conditions relevant to forest soils, while the highest releases of Mo and Cr were observed in alkaline conditions. Mineral phases were selected based on XRD analyses and the existing literature, and they were applied as inputs for the geochemical modelling of pH-dependent leaching. Mineral dissolution was found adequate for a wide range of major elements and nutrients, while the description of trace elements could be done only for parts of the pH-range. Content and leaching of PAHs were observed below detection limits. The source-term release of Ca, K, Mg, Mn, and P in acidic conditions relevant to forest soils was higher than ten years of atmospheric deposition, in contrast to the relatively low release of Al, Fe and Na. The potential release of Cd was found to be the most critical element compared with soil quality criteria, whereas the maximum theoretical loads of Ba, Cd, Cr, Sr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and V were relatively low. Copyright © 2017

  5. Relationship between soil oxidizable carbon and physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of umbric ferralsols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Adriano Marques


    Full Text Available The occurrence of Umbric Ferralsols with thick umbric epipedons (> 100 cm thickness in humid Tropical and Subtropical areas is a paradox since the processes of organic matter decomposition in these environments are very efficient. Nevertheless, this soil type has been reported in areas in the Southeast and South of Brazil, and at some places in the Northeast. Aspects of the genesis and paleoenvironmental significance of these Ferralsols still need a better understanding. The processes that made the umbric horizons so thick and dark and contributed to the preservation of organic carbon (OC at considerable depths in these soils are of special interest. In this study, eight Ferralsols with a thick umbric horizon (UF under different vegetation types were sampled (tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest and savanna woodland and their macromorphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties studied to detect soil characteristics that could explain the preservation of high carbon amounts at considerable depths. The studied UF are clayey to very clayey, strongly acidic, dystrophic, and Al-saturated and charcoal fragments are often scattered in the soil matrix. Kaolinites are the main clay minerals in the A and B horizons, followed by abundant gibbsite and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The latter was only found in UFs derived from basalt rock in the South of the country. Total carbon (TC ranged from 5 to 101 g kg-1 in the umbric epipedon. Dichromate-oxidizable organic carbon represented nearly 75 % of TC in the thick A horizons, while non-oxidizable C, which includes recalcitrant C (e.g., charcoal, contributed to the remaining 25 % of TC. Carbon contents were not related to most of the inorganic soil variables studied, except for oxalate-extractable Al, which individually explained 69 % (P < 0.001 of the variability of TC in the umbric epipedon. Clay content was not suited as predictor of TC or of the other studied C forms. Bulk

  6. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise


    on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss......Nursing research is often concerned with lived experiences in human life using phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. These empirical studies may use different creative expressions and art-forms to describe and enhance an embodied and personalised understanding of lived experiences. Drawing...... may support a respectful renewal of phenomenological research traditions in nursing research....

  7. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane


    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l

  8. Chemical, mineralogical and ceramic properties of clays from Northern Santa Catarina, Brazil; Caracterizaco fisico-quimica de argilas da regiao norte de Santa Catarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.L.; Bloot, E.L.; Folgueras, M.V., E-mail: sivaldo@joinville.udesc.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC/CCT), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas; Hotza, D. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC/EQA), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica


    Clay materials crop out in the northern Santa Catarina mining district were investigated in order to assess their potential in the ceramic industry. Four different clays (A, B, C and D) were selected. Their chemical composition was obtained by Xray fluorescence and their mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, coupled with numerical rational analysis. Their thermal behaviour was studied by differential thermal analysis. Technological testing consisted in a simulation of the industrial processing performed at a laboratory scale. The test pieces were obtained by pressing and fired in the range of 850-1200 deg C. In each case their technological properties were studied. The main mineralogical phases detected were kaolinite, quartz and mica. Hematite and feldspars may be present in the clays. The clays show two groups of particle sizes almost equally frequent in the range of 1 to 60 {mu}m. The northern Santa Catarina clays are suitable for the production of bricks and earthenware in the 900- 1100 deg C range. (author)

  9. Composition, mineralogy, and porosity of multiple asteroid systems from visible and near-infrared spectral data (United States)

    Lindsay, S. S.; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Assafin, M.


    We aim to provide a taxonomic and compositional characterization of Multiple Asteroid Systems (MASs) located in the main belt (MB) using visible (0.45-0.85 μm) and near-infrared (0.7-2.5 μm) spectral data of 42 MB MASs. The compositional and mineralogical analysis is applied to determine meteorite analogs for the MASs, which, in turn, are applied to the MAS density measurements of Marchis et al. (Marchis et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 1130-1161) to estimate the porosity of the systems. The macroporosities are used to evaluate the primary MAS formation hypotheses. Our spectral survey consists of visible and near-infrared spectral data. The visible observing campaign includes 25 MASs obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope with the Goodman High Throughput Spectrometer. The infrared observing campaign includes 34 MASs obtained using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with the SpeX spectragraph. For completeness, both visible and NIR data sets are supplemented with publicly available data, and the data sets are combined where possible. The MASs are classified using the Bus-DeMeo taxonomic system. In order to determine mineralogy and meteorite analog, we perform a NIR spectral band parameter analysis using a new analysis routine, the Spectral Analysis Routine for Asteroids (SARA). The SARA routine determines band centers, areas, and depths by utilizing the diagnostic absorption features near 1- and 2-μm due to Fe2+ crystal field transitions in olivine + pyroxene and pyroxene, respectively. The band parameter analysis provides the Gaffey subtype for the S-complex MASs; the relative abundance olivine-to-pyroxene ratio; and olivine and pyroxene modal abundances for S-complex and V-type MASs. This mineralogical information is then applied to determine meteorite analogs. Through applying calibration studies, we are able to determine the H, L, and LL meteorite analogs for 15 MASs with ordinary chondrite-like (OC) mineralogies. We observe an

  10. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E


    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  11. Courseware Engineering Methodology. (United States)

    Uden, Lorna


    Describes development of the Courseware Engineering Methodology (CEM), created to guide novices in designing effective courseware. Discusses CEM's four models: pedagogical (concerned with the courseware's pedagogical aspects), conceptual (dealing with software engineering), interface (relating to human-computer interaction), and hypermedia…

  12. The methodological cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu


    Full Text Available Economics understands action as having the connotation of here and now, the proof being that it excessively uses, for explicative purposes, two limitations of sense: space is seen as the place with a private destination (through the cognitive dissonance of methodological individualism, and time is seen as the short term (through the dystopia of rational markets.

  13. Methodological Advances in Dea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); G.T. Post (Thierry)


    textabstractWe survey the methodological advances in DEA over the last 25 years and discuss the necessary conditions for a sound empirical application. We hope this survey will contribute to the further dissemination of DEA, the knowledge of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and the tools

  14. Gravitational constant calculation methodologies


    Shakhparonov, V. M.; Karagioz, O. V.; Izmailov, V. P.


    We consider the gravitational constant calculation methodologies for a rectangular block of the torsion balance body presented in the papers Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240801 (2009) and Phys.Rev. D. 82, 022001 (2010). We have established the influence of non-equilibrium gas flows on the obtained values of G.

  15. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels


    and investigated in a HAZOP study of an industrial scale Indirect Vapor Recompression Distillation pilot Plant (IVaRDiP) at DTU-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. The study shows that the functional HAZOP methodology provides a very efficient paradigm for facilitating HAZOP studies and for enabling reasoning...... to reveal potential hazards in safety critical operations....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vašutová V.


    Full Text Available Samples representing two modifications of halloysites, dehydrated (7 Å and hydrated (10 Å forms, respectively, were examined with the aim to select suitable candidates for to be used as carriers of porphyrine photoactive molecules. The samples were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. Chemical composition was also determined. For the determination of cationic exchange capacity (CEC the silver thiourea method (AgTU was used. Silver cations concentrations in the solution before and after the interaction were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. By the interaction of two pure hydrated halloysites with porphyrine it was found that porphyrine does not intercalate the interlayer space, but it is adsorbed on the outer surface of halloysite. This interaction changed the colour of clay sample from white to green. The changes were also clearly visible on diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS.

  17. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    , ferroelectric, thermoelectric, luminescent, photochromic and magnetic materials; are technologically important classes of material, that are represented by numerous inorganic phases. Yet how many of us are aware of their precise chemical compositions, and have sufficient knowledge to actually make them......The synthesis of high quality material is an essential step in the process of obtaining meaningful information about the material’s properties, and therefore, is an important link between physics and chemistry. Semiconductors; superconductors; solid-electrolytes; glasses; pigments; dielectric......? This book attempts to address this problem by offering the reader clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of fifteen inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic, electrical and thermal properties; on a laboratory scale. The materials and chemical syntheses have been...

  18. Single-particle mineralogy of Chinese soil particles by the combined use of low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR imaging techniques. (United States)

    Malek, Md Abdul; Kim, Bowha; Jung, Hae-Jin; Song, Young-Chul; Ro, Chul-Un


    Our previous work on the speciation of individual mineral particles of micrometer size by the combined use of attenuated total reflectance FT-IR (ATR-FT-IR) imaging and a quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis technique (EPMA), low-Z particle EPMA, demonstrated that the combined use of these two techniques is a powerful approach for looking at the single-particle mineralogy of externally heterogeneous minerals. In this work, this analytical methodology was applied to characterize six soil samples collected at arid areas in China, in order to identify mineral types present in the samples. The six soil samples were collected from two types of soil, i.e., loess and desert soils, for which overall 665 particles were analyzed on a single particle basis. The six soil samples have different mineralogical characteristics, which were clearly differentiated in this work. As this analytical methodology provides complementary information, the ATR-FT-IR imaging on mineral types, and low-Z particle EPMA on the morphology and elemental concentrations, on the same individual particles, more detailed information can be obtained using this approach than when either low-Z particle EPMA or ATR-FT-IR imaging techniques are used alone, which has a great potential for the characterization of Asian dust and mineral dust particles. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Mineralogical Variation of Chelyabinsk with Depth from the Surface of the Parent Meteoroid (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Mikouchi, T.; Nagao, K.; Haba, M. K.; Hasegawa, H.; Komatsu, M.; Zolensky, M. E.


    The Chelyabinsk meteorite, which passed over the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia on Feb. 15th, 2013, brought serious damage by the shock wave and airburst. The diameter of the parent meteoroid is estimated to be approximately 20 m in diameter [1]. It was reported that the impact by this meteorite shower was 4,000 times as large as the TNT explosive and this was the largest airburst on Earth since the asteroid impact in Tunguska, Russia in 1908. The mineralogy and geochemical study of the recovered samples shows that Chelyabinsk is an LL5 chondrite [1]. In this study we analyzed several fragments of Chelyabinsk whose noble gas compositions have been measured and depths from the surface of the parent meteoroid were estimated [2]. We examined how mineralogical characteristics change with depth from the surface. This kind of study has never been performed and thus may be able to offer significant information about the evolution of meteorite parent bodies.

  20. Mineralogical Changes in a Predominantly Fluviolacustrine Succession at Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Grotzinger. J. P.; Bristow, T. F.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Gellert, R.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.


    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater in August 2012 to investigate the strata of lower Aeolis Mons (i.e., Mount Sharp) and characterize their depositional and diagenetic environments. Visible/short-wave infrared spectra from orbit of these strata show variations in phyllosilicate, sulfate, and Fe-oxide minerals, suggesting these units record environmental changes that occurred during the early Hesperian. Curiosity has traversed over 15 km and has climbed through Approx. 200 m of stratigraphic section, made up of predominantly fluviolacustrine (i.e., the Bradbury group and the Murray formation) and aeolian (i.e., the Stimson formation) units. Multiple geochemical and mineralogical instruments are onboard Curiosity to study these ancient rocks, including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument, which is an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS).

  1. Incorporating Environmental and Sustainability Issues into the Curriculum in a Mineralogy Class (United States)

    Cook, G. W.


    A traditional curriculum in mineralogy addresses classic subject matter such as crystal chemistry, crystallography, systematic mineralogy and optical mineralogy. This is entirely reasonable and appropriate, as these time-honored aspects of mineralogy are fundamental to students' understanding of Earth Materials; they are also important building blocks for an understanding of other geologic disciplines such as petrology, structural geology, and sedimentology. Due to the impressive breadth and amount of subject material that is covered in most mineralogy courses, time constraints do not allow instructors to branch out into more contemporary subjects. In our increasingly technologically-advanced (and crowded) modern society, issues pertaining to the environment and sustainability are at the forefront of scientific thought. In many introductory physical geoscience courses these issues are addressed and incorporated into the curriculum, thereby giving students valuable scientific background in modern environmental issues. However, in upper division classes (such as mineralogy) there is little time or motivation for instructors to add new content or to connect the course content with current environmental or societal concerns, even though there may be significant and meaningful opportunities to do so throughout the quarter or semester. Consequently, many students' understanding of environmental issues remains at an introductory or cursory level. In my mineralogy class at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), I teach a traditional curriculum with a modern approach that uses dynamic lectures, makes use of multimedia, and also utilizes current best teaching practices. As a department, we have recently made an increased effort to educate our students about environmental issues. Accordingly, I have integrated environmental and sustainability topics (when they are pertinent) into the curriculum as a regular component of the course. These topics typically relate to how

  2. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  3. Mineralogy of Layered Outcrops at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Early Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Rampe, E. B.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; hide


    Recently developed CRISM parameters and newly available DTMs are enabling refined characterization of the mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. A stratigraphy including 5 units is mapped using HRSC DTMs across 100s of kms and using HiRISE DTMs across 100s of meters. Transitions in mineralogic units were characterized using spectral properties and surface morphology. The observations point to an ancient wet and warm geologic record that formed the thick nontronite unit, a period of wet/dry cycling to create acid alteration, followed by leaching or pedogenesis to result in Al-phyllosilicates, and finally a drier, colder climate that left the altered ash in the form of nanophase aluminosilicates, rather than crystalline clays.

  4. X-ray diffraction results from Mars Science Laboratory: mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale crater. (United States)

    Bish, D L; Blake, D F; Vaniman, D T; Chipera, S J; Morris, R V; Ming, D W; Treiman, A H; Sarrazin, P; Morrison, S M; Downs, R T; Achilles, C N; Yen, A S; Bristow, T F; Crisp, J A; Morookian, J M; Farmer, J D; Rampe, E B; Stolper, E M; Spanovich, N


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. The minor phases are present at, or near, detection limits. The soil also contains 27 ± 14 weight percent x-ray amorphous material, likely containing multiple Fe(3+)- and volatile-bearing phases, including possibly a substance resembling hisingerite. The crystalline component is similar to the normative mineralogy of certain basaltic rocks from Gusev crater on Mars and of martian basaltic meteorites. The amorphous component is similar to that found on Earth in places such as soils on the Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.

  5. Petrophysical properties, mineralogy, fractures, and flow tests in 25 deep boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Kibler, Joyce E.


    As part of a site investigation for the disposal of radioactive waste, numerous boreholes were drilled into a sequence of Miocene pyroclastic flows and related deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report contains displays of data from 25 boreholes drilled during 1979–1984, relatively early in the site investigation program. Geophysical logs and hydrological tests were conducted in the boreholes; core and cuttings analyses yielded data on mineralogy, fractures, and physical properties; and geologic descriptions provided lithology boundaries and the degree of welding of the rock units. Porosity and water content were computed from the geophysical logs, and porosity results were combined with mineralogy from x-ray diffraction to provide whole-rock volume fractions. These data were composited on plates and used by project personnel during the 1990s. Improvements in scanning and computer technology now make it possible to publish these displays.

  6. XRF Analysis of mineralogical matrix effects and differences between pulverized and fused ferromanganese slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Determination and analysis is only as good as the sample preparation that preceded it. Even the most sophisticated analysis is worthless if it follows sloppy sampling and poor preparation. Whether one does plasma emission, infrared or X-ray fluorescence or another spectroscopic technique, it is essential to get reproducible and accurate analysis. This paper shows the effect of mineralogical matrix differences in quantitative measurements by XRF of the main elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Mn and K as oxides of ferromanganese alloy slag. Fused and pulverized slag show a significant difference in XRF microstructure, micro heterogeneity and mineralogy although the results of measurements between pulverized and fused slag, expressed as a percentage of the main elements, is not different. Other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES and classical gravimetric and titrimetric were also used for checking the XRF calibration accuracy

  7. Lack of cross-shelf transport of sediments on the western margin of India: Evidence from clay mineralogy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    transported long distances along the shelf, cross-shelf transport appears to be minimal. Confirmatory evidence of qualitative differences in outer and inner shelf clays is provided by sediment trap clay mineralogy on the outer shelf. Clay bound pollutant...

  8. Bulk Mineralogy of the Northeast Syrtis and Jezero Crater Regions of Mars Derived Through Thermal Infrared Spectral Analyses (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Goudge, T. A.; Bramble, M. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Amador, E. S.; Mustard, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.


    We derive quantitative estimates of bulk mineralogy throughout the Jezero crater, Jezero watershed, and NE Syrtis regions of Mars using TIR data. Results suggest the dominance of basaltic compositions and are compared to prior VNIR investigations.

  9. Mineralogy and petrograghy of some tin, lithium and beryllium bearing albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, B.J.


    The petrography and mineralogy of some Hercynian albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain is described. The mineral assemblage consists of albite, K-feldspar, quartz, muscovite, spodumene, petalite, cassiterite, beryl, columbitetantalite, montebrasite, apatite, eosphorite-childrenite, zircon,

  10. Potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis (NCEI Accession 0157223) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains potential effects of ocean acidification on Alaskan corals based on calcium carbonate mineralogy composition analysis. Effects of...

  11. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson


    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  12. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of percolates and its evaporates from Technosols before and after limestone filler stabilisation. (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel


    The chemistry of waters is recognized as a relevant monitoring tool when assessing the adverse effects of acid mine drainage. The weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This communication deals with the leachability of potentially toxic elements (PTE) eluting from technosols formed from soils affected by mining activities and limestone filler. A total of three contaminated soils affected by opencast mining were selected and mixed with limestone filler at three percentages: 10 %, 20 % and 30 %, providing nine stabilised samples. These samples were stored in containers and moistened simulating rainfall. The percolates obtained were collected, and the PTEs content (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) was determined. Evaporation-precipitation experiments were carried out in these waters, and the mineralogical composition of efflorescences was evaluated. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities, producing large amount of wastes, characterised by high trace elements content and acidic pH. The results obtained for the percolates after the rain episode showed that, before the stabilization approach, waters had an acidic pH, high electrical conductivity and high PTEs content. When these soils were mixed with 10, 20 and 30 % of limestone filler, the pH was neutral and the soluble trace element content strongly decreased, being under the detection limit when limestone percentage was 20 % and 30 %. The mineralogical composition of efflorescences before the stabilisation approach showed that predominant minerals were copiapite, followed by gypsum and bilinite. Other soluble sulphates were determined in lower percentage, such as hexahydrite, halotriquite or pickeringite. After the mixing with 10 % of limestone filler, the evaporates

  13. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.


    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  14. The Nussir copper deposit: petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry and distribution of ore mineralization


    Mun, Yulia


    The geology, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Nussir copper deposit in Finnmark, Northern Norway were studied during writing this thesis. The Nussir deposit of copper is a sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal deposit affected by low grade methamorphism and ductile deformation. The copper mineralization includes chalcopyrite, chalcocite, bornite, covellite, and digenite. The deposit contains also economically interesting trace elements, such as silver, gold, and PGE. The deposit show...

  15. Influence of aggregate mineralogical composition on water resistance of aggregate–bitumen adhesion


    Zhang, Jizhe; Apeagyei, Alex K.; Airey, Gordon D.; Grenfell, James R.A.


    The effects of aggregate mineralogical composition on moistures sensitivity of aggregate–bitumen bonds were investigated using four aggregate types (two limestone and two granite)and two bitumen grades (40/60 penand70/100pen). Moisture sensitivity (or water resistance) of the aggregate–bitumen bonds were characterized using retained strength obtained from three different tensile tests (peel, PATTI and pull-off). The results showed significant differences in the amount of moisture absorbed ...

  16. Assessment of bioavailability of iron delivered to marine phytoplankton in different mineralogical forms (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Delmelle, Pierre; Journet, Emilie


    Iron (Fe) is an essential element in cellular biochemical processes and its availability in the surface ocean limits phytoplankton-mediated fixation of C, i.e. the biological pump. In vast regions of the open ocean, atmospheric deposition of Fe-bearing continental dust and volcanic ash to the surface ocean acts as an important source of bioavailable Fe to phytoplankton. The capacity of dust and ash to alleviate Fe limitation is usually discussed in terms of Fe solubility, which has been shown to be controlled by speciation/mineralogy. However, little information exists on the relationship between Fe bioavailability and Fe speciation/mineralogy in dust and ash. In this study, Fe-bearing materials of known mineralogy, including three volcanic ash samples from different eruptions (Eyjafjallajökull 2010, Chaitén 2008 and Tungurahua 2012), two continental dust specimens (Douz and Banizoumbou) and three Fe-bearing minerals (illite/smectite, ferrihydrite, and goethite) were added to Fe-stressed cultures of Dunaliella tertiolecta, a marine algae commonly found in high-nutrient, low chlorophyll waters. Photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content and cell population growth were measured at regular intervals during 168 h after Fe addition. Our results indicate that all the tested Fe-bearing materials induced a similar biological response; and were able to alleviate Fe stress in D. tertiolecta within 2 h from the beginning of the experiment and to induce cell growth up to 168 h. This unexpected finding contrasts with the traditional view that Fe speciation/mineralogy in dust and ash plays a key role in governing Fe bioavailability to phytoplankton. Supplementary measurements on the fractional solubility of Fe in dust and ash will be presented.

  17. Mineralogy of Fluvio-Lacustrine Sediments Investigated by Curiosity During the Prime Mission: Implications for Diagenesis (United States)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Blake, D. F.; Ming, D. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Morrison, S. M.; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity investigated sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a diversity of fluvio-lacustrine settings. The entire science payload was employed to characterize the mineralogy and chemistry of the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay and the Windjana sandstone at the Kimberley. Data from the CheMin instrument, a transmission Xray diffractometer, were used to determine the quantitative mineralogy of both samples. The Sheepbed mudstone contains detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxides or hydroxides, iron sulfides, trioctahedral smectite, and amorphous material. The mineral assemblage and chemical data from APXS suggest that the trioctahedral smectite and magnetite formed authigenically as a result of alteration of olivine. The apparent lack of higher-grade phyllosilicates (e.g., illite and chlorite) and the presence of anhydrite indicate diagenesis at 50- 80 ºC. The mineralogy of the Windjana sandstone is different than the Sheepbed mudstone. Windjana contains significant abundances of K-feldspar, low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, magnetite, phyllosilicates, and amorphous material. At least two distinct phyllosilicate phases exist: a 10 Å phase and a component that is expanded with a peak at 11.8 Å. The identity of the expanded phase is currently unknown, but could be a smectite with interlayer H2O, and the 10 Å phase could be illite or collapsed smectite. Further work is necessary to characterize the phyllosilicates, but the presence of illite could suggest that Windjana experienced burial diagenesis. Candidates for the cementing agents include fine-grained phyllosilicates, Fe-oxides, and/or amorphous material. Interpretations of CheMin data from the Windjana sandstone are ongoing at the time of writing, but we will present an estimate of the composition of the amorphous material from mass balance calculations using the APXS bulk chemistry and quantitative mineralogy from CheMin.

  18. Mineralogy, Petrology, Chronology, and Exposure History of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite and Parent Body (United States)

    Righter, K.; Abell, P.; Agresti, D.; Berger, E. L.; Burton, A. S.; Delaney, J. S.; Fries, M. D.; Gibson, E. K.; Harrington, R.; Herzog, G. F.; hide


    The Chelyabinsk meteorite fall on February 15, 2013 attracted much more attention worldwide than do most falls. A consortium led by JSC received 3 masses of Chelyabinsk (Chel-101, -102, -103) that were collected shortly after the fall and handled with care to minimize contamination. Initial studies were reported in 2013; we have studied these samples with a wide range of analytical techniques to better understand the mineralogy, petrology, chronology and exposure history of the Chelyabinsk parent body.

  19. Mapping the physico-chemical properties of mineral dust in western Africa: mineralogical composition


    Formenti, P.; S. Caquineau; K. Desboeufs; Klaver, A.; Chevaillier, S.; Journet, E.; Rajot, J.L.


    In the last few years, several ground-based and airborne field campaigns have allowed exploring the properties and impacts of mineral dust in western Africa, one of the major emission and transport areas worldwide. In this paper, we explore the synthesis of these observations to provide with a large-scale quantitative view of the mineralogical composition and its variability with source region and time after transport. This work reveals that mineral dust...

  20. Iron mineralogy and uranium-binding environment in the rhizosphere of a wetland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I., E-mail: [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Seaman, John C. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Buettner, Shea [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Li, Dien [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Varga, Tamas [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [US Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Jaffé, Peter R. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)


    Wetlands mitigate the migration of groundwater contaminants through a series of biogeochemical gradients that enhance multiple contaminant-binding processes. The hypothesis of this study was that wetland plant roots contribute organic carbon and release O{sub 2} within the rhizosphere (plant-impact soil zone) that promote the formation of Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. In turn, these Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides stabilize organic matter that together contribute to contaminant immobilization. Mineralogy and U binding environments of the rhizosphere were evaluated in samples collected from contaminated and non-contaminated areas of a wetland on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Based on Mössbauer spectroscopy, rhizosphere soil was greatly enriched with nanogoethite, ferrihydrite-like nanoparticulates, and hematite, with negligible Fe(II) present. X-ray computed tomography and various microscopy techniques showed that root plaques were tens-of-microns thick and consisted of highly oriented Fe-nanoparticles, suggesting that the roots were involved in creating the biogeochemical conditions conducive to the nanoparticle formation. XAS showed that a majority of the U in the bulk wetland soil was in the + 6 oxidation state and was not well correlated spatially to Fe concentrations. SEM/EDS confirm that U was enriched on root plaques, where it was always found in association with P. Together these findings support our hypothesis and suggest that plants can alter mineralogical conditions that may be conducive to contaminant immobilization in wetlands. - Highlights: • Uranium concentrated in wetland environments • Hypothesized that plant roots change mineralogy and contaminant binding environment, promoting contaminant immobilization • Field study showed sharp dissolved U concentration profiles over the centimeter scale. • Spectroscopy identified unique mineralogy in rhizosphere compared to non-rhizosphere soil. • Uranium concentrated in root plaques in the + 6

  1. Effect of Aggregate Mineralogy and Concrete Microstructure on Thermal Expansion and Strength Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwoo An


    Full Text Available Aggregate type and mineralogy are critical factors that influence the engineering properties of concrete. Temperature variations result in internal volume changes could potentially cause a network of micro-cracks leading to a reduction in the concrete’s compressive strength. The study specifically studied the effect of the type and mineralogy of fine and coarse aggregates in the normal strength concrete properties. As performance measures, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE and compressive strength were tested with concrete specimens containing different types of fine aggregates (manufactured and natural sands and coarse aggregates (dolomite and granite. Petrographic examinations were then performed to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the aggregate and to examine the aggregate and concrete microstructure. The test results indicate the concrete CTE increases with the silicon (Si volume content in the aggregate. For the concrete specimens with higher CTE, the micro-crack density in the interfacial transition zone (ITZ tended to be higher. The width of ITZ in one of the concrete specimens with a high CTE displayed the widest core ITZ (approx. 11 µm while the concrete specimens with a low CTE showed the narrowest core ITZ (approx. 3.5 µm. This was attributed to early-age thermal cracking. Specimens with higher CTE are more susceptible to thermal stress.

  2. Gypsum-carbonate speleothems from Cueva de las Espadas (Naica mine, Mexico: mineralogy and palaeohydrogeological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Frías Jesús


    Full Text Available Some of the most outstanding hypogenic gypsum speleothems worldwide have been recently discovered in the Naica mines. The Cueva de las Espadas (Swords Cave, which lies at 120 m depth, hosts a rare type of speleothem called “espada” (“sword”. This study contributes to the understanding of the mineralogical composition of these singular speleothems, by means of their examination using micro-Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and EDX microprobe. Our data revealed a complex mineralogy comprising a high-purity selenite core covered by several layers of calcite, aragonite and gypsum. Solid inclusions of polymetallic oxides (Mn-Pb-Zn and graphite were also detected. The position of the water table during the genesis of the “espada” speleothems (over the past 60 kyr was deduced from their mineralogy. Water level fluctuations at around -120 m depth led to environmental changes within the Cueva de las Espadas. The selenite core and gypsum layers were precipitated under biphasic (water-rock conditions when the cave was submerged under hydrothermal water. The aragonite precipitation required triphasic (air-water-rock conditions and occurred when the water table intercepted the cave, allowing the CO2 exchange necessary for carbonate precipitation. Solid inclusions were trapped in an aerobic environment when the gypsum-aragonite boundary condition occurred. A thin calcite layer was precipitated under vadose conditions after the water table definitively moved out of the cave.

  3. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiéry, Vincent, E-mail: [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Université de Lille (France); Bourdot, Alexandra, E-mail: [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Bulteel, David, E-mail: [Université de Lille (France)


    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements.

  4. Carbonatitic lavas in Catanda (Kwanza Sul, Angola): Mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the parental melt (United States)

    Campeny, Marc; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Melgarejo, Joan C.; Mangas, José; Manuel, José; Alfonso, Pura; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Bambi, Aurora C. J. M.; Gonçalves, Antonio O.


    A set of small volcanic edifices with tuff ring and maar morphologies occur in the Catanda area, which is the only locality with extrusive carbonatites reported in Angola. Four outcrops of carbonatite lavas have been identified in this region and considering the mineralogical, textural and compositional features, we classify them as: silicocarbonatites (1), calciocarbonatites (2) and secondary calciocarbonatites produced by the alteration of primary natrocarbonatites (3). Even with their differences, we interpret these lava types as having been a single carbonatite suite related to the same parental magma. We have also estimated the composition of the parental magma from a study of melt inclusions hosted in magnetite microphenocrysts from all of these lavas. Melt inclusions revealed the presence of 13 different alkali-rich phases (e.g., nyerereite, shortite, halite and sylvite) that argues for an alkaline composition of the Catanda parental melts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional and isotopic features of some Catanda lavas are also similar to those described in altered natrocarbonatite localities worldwide such as Tinderet or Kerimasi, leading to our conclusion that the formation of some Catanda calciocarbonatite lavas was related to the occurrence of natrocarbonatite volcanism in this area. On the other hand, silicocarbonatite lavas, which are enriched in periclase, present very different mineralogical, compositional and isotopic features in comparison to the rest of Catanda lavas. We conclude that its formation was probably related to the decarbonation of primary dolomite bearing carbonatites.

  5. Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties. (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G


    The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.

  6. Mineralogical and Geochemical Trends in a Fluviolacustrine Sequence in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Rampe, E.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Bristow, T.; Chipera, S.; Yen, A.; Grotzinger, J.; DesMarais, D.


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, landed at Gale crater in August 2012 and has been investigating a sequence of dominantly fluviolacustrine sediments deposited 3.6-3.2 billion years ago. Curiosity collects quantitative mineralogical data with the CheMin XRD/XRF instrument and quantitative chemical data with the APXS and ChemCam instruments. These datasets show stratigraphic mineralogical and geochemical variability that suggest a complex aqueous history. The Murray Formation, primarily composed of fine-laminated mudstone, has been studied in detail since the arrival at the Pahrump Hills in September 2014. CheMin data from four samples show variable amounts of iron oxides, phyllosilicates, sulfates, amorphous and crystalline silica, and mafic silicate minerals. Geochemical data throughout the section show that there is significant variability in Zn, Ni, and Mn concentrations. Mineralogical and geochemical trends with stratigraphy suggest one of possibly several aqueous episodes involved alteration in an open system under acidic pH, though other working hypotheses may explain these and other trends. Data from the Murray Formation contrast with those collected from the Sheepbed mudstone located approximately 60 meters below the base of the Murray Formation, which showed evidence for diagenesis in a closed system at circumneutral pH. Ca-sulfates filled late-stage veins in both mudstones.

  7. Reconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches (United States)

    Lamourou, Ali; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie


    A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allowed reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim of this research work is to identify the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present time. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 m water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal were replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies revealed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. However, core-top sediments recorded a littoral marine environment with sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical parameters were consistent with a transition from a fluviatile depositional environment with some emersion phases marked by the gypsum precipitation, to a marine littoral environment. Such evolution was accompanied with a relative sea-level rise which flooded the fluvial system at the coastal plain during the Holocene, in agreement with sea-level fluctuations in southeast Tunisia during the Holocene.

  8. Effective Methodology for Security Risk Assessment of Computer Systems


    Daniel F. García; Adrián Fernández


    Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detai...

  9. Methodology of Neural Design: Applications in Microwave Engineering


    Z. Raida; P. Pomenka


    In the paper, an original methodology for the automatic creation of neural models of microwave structures is proposed and verified. Following the methodology, neural models of the prescribed accuracy are built within the minimum CPU time. Validity of the proposed methodology is verified by developing neural models of selected microwave structures. Functionality of neural models is verified in a design - a neural model is joined with a genetic algorithm to find a global minimum of a formulat...

  10. Tobacco documents research methodology. (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B


    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  11. 1. Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di


    Full Text Available The first part of this monographic section aims at analysing some methodological questions concerning identities, ethnicities, collectivities and religions, starting from the academic debate occurred between historians and anthropologists since the last decades of Twentieth Century, considering its reception especially for the study of ethnicity and collective and/or (so-called religious identities in the cultural context of ancient Greece. Another aspect of such a methodological section deals with the innovative approach inaugurated by the so-called “School of Wien” in the study of ethnic identity-constructions, especially analysing the relationships with Biblical texts as well as their multiform receptions between late-antiquity and early medieval period.

  12. Field Characterization of the Mineralogy and Organic Chemistry of Carbonates from the 2010 Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition by Evolved Gas Analysis (United States)

    McAdam, A. C.; Ten Kate, I. L.; Stern, J. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Blake, D. F.; Morris, R. V.; Steele, A.; Amundson, H. E. F.


    The 2010 Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) investigated two geologic settings using methodologies and techniques being developed or considered for future Mars missions, such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), ExoMars, and Mars Sample Return. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) [1] instrument suite, which will be on MSL, consists of a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), a gas chromatograph (GC), and a tunable laser mass spectrometer (TLS); all will be applied to analyze gases created by pyrolysis of samples. During AMASE, a Hiden Evolved Gas Analysis-Mass Spectrometer (EGA-MS) system represented the EGA-MS capability of SAM. Another MSL instrument, CheMin, will use x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to perform quantitative mineralogical characterization of samples [e.g., 2]. Field-portable versions of CheMin were used during AMASE. AMASE 2010 focused on two sites that represented biotic and abiotic analogs. The abiotic site was the basaltic Sigurdfjell vent complex, which contains Mars-analog carbonate cements including carbonate globules which are excellent analogs for the globules in the ALH84001 martian meteorite [e.g., 3, 4]. The biotic site was the Knorringfjell fossil methane seep, which featured carbonates precipitated in a methane-supported chemosynthetic community [5]. This contribution focuses on EGA-MS analyses of samples from each site, with mineralogy comparisons to CheMin team results. The results give insight into organic content and organic-mineral associations, as well as some constraints on the minerals present.

  13. [Methodological currents in research]. (United States)

    Angerami, E L


    Believing that research is the academic activity which gives support to assistance and teaching in nursing and this activity represents a process of knowledge construction which follows determined patterns, the authors try to enhance reflection on the importance of methodology matters to nursing. The study proposes three patterns of contact between subject and object: the positivist approach, the comprehensive approach and the dialectical approach, most frequent philosophical streams in health studies.

  14. New Methodologies for Qualitative and Semi-Quantitative Determination of Carbon-Centered Free Radicals in Cigarette Smoke Using Liquid ChromatographyTandem Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Selective Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardi AR


    Full Text Available Several approaches were explored to develop a high throughput procedure for relative determination of 14 different carbon-centered free radicals, both acyl and alkylaminocarbonyl type, in cigarette smoke. Two trapping procedures using 3-cyano-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy, or 3-cyanoproxyl radical (3-CNP were designed for this study: a trapping in solution and b trapping on a solid support which was a Cambridge filter pad. Fresh whole smoke and vapor phase smoke from mainstream cigarette smoke from Kentucky Reference Cigarettes 2R4F, as partitioned via an unadulterated Cambridge filter pad, were transferred into each trapping system in separate experiments. The 3-CNP coated Cambridge filter pad approach was shown to be superior to the impinger procedure as described in this study. Gas chromatography coupled with mass selective detection (GC-MS was employed for the first time as an alternate means of detecting several relatively highly concentrated radical adducts. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS with precursor ion monitoring and selected ion monitoring (SIM was used for detecting the large array of radicals, including several not previously reported: formyl, crotonyl, acrolein, aminocarbonyl, and anilinocarbonyl radicals. Relative quantitation was achieved using as external calibration standards of 4-(1-pyrrolidinobenzaldehyde and nicotine. It was determined that the yield of carbon-centered free radicals by reference cigarette 2R4F was approximately 265 nmoles/cigarette at 35 mL puff/60 sec interval/2 sec duration smoking conditions.

  15. Human-Systems Integration (HSI) Methodology Development for NASA Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A technology with game-changing potential for crew to space system interaction will be selected to develop using the HSI Methodology created through the efforts of...

  16. Methodology applied to develop the DHIE: applied methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, Marlien


    Full Text Available This section will address the methodology that was applied to develop the South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem (DHIE). Each chapter under Section B represents a specific phase in the methodology....

  17. The Impact of Sociological Methodology on Statistical Methodology


    Clogg, Clifford C.


    Developments in sociological methodology and in quantitative sociology have always been closely related to developments in statistical theory, methodology and computation. The same statement applies if "methodology for social research" and "quantitative social research" replace the more specific terms in this statement. Statistical methodology, including especially the battery of methods used to estimate and evaluate statistical models, has had a tremendous effect on social research in the po...

  18. US Census Methodology (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census and reflect...

  19. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K


    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  20. Application of integrated fuzzy VIKOR & AHP methodology to contractor ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rahim Ramezaniyan


    Full Text Available Contractor selection is a critical activity, which plays an important role in the overall success of any construction project. The implementation of fuzzy multiple criteria decision attribute (MCDA in selecting contractors has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and transparent. An additional merit of fuzzy MCDA is the ability to accommodate quantitative and qualitative information. In this paper, an integrated VIKOR–AHP methodology is proposed to make a selection among the alternative contractors in one of Iranian construction industry projects. In the proposed methodology, the weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of AHP.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Fabelo Falcón


    Full Text Available The contamination of soils, by different substances and / or products is becoming more extensive throughout the world, its determination, minimization and treatment to reach the recovery of them is a necessity, even though it is not granted the level of importance required by the countries concerned. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the recovery of soils with a high degree of efficiency and effectiveness in the selection of procedures, regardless of the types of pollutants and land use once recovered. The methodological proposal involves the stages of diagnosis, characterization, selection of the technology and its technical and economic validation at the laboratory and pilot plant level. Subsequently, the technology of the treatment is designed, along with the elaboration of an objective study of each particular case and an essential economic and technical feasibility analysis for the different scales of the development of the technological process.

  2. Validation of the development methodologies


    Lahlouhi, Ammar


    This paper argues that modelling the development methodologies can improve the multi-agents systems software engineering. Such modelling allows applying methods, techniques and practices used in the software development to the methodologies themselves. The paper discusses then the advantages of the modelling of development methodologies. It describes a model of development methodologies, uses such a model to develop a system of their partial validation, and applies such a system to multi-agen...

  3. Post-impact hydrothermal system geochemistry and mineralogy: Rochechouart impact structure, France. (United States)

    Simpson, Sarah


    Hypervelocity impacts generate extreme temperatures and pressures in target rocks and may permanently alter them. The process of cratering is at the forefront of research involving the study of the evolution and origin of life, both on Mars and Earth, as conditions may be favourable for hydrothermal systems to form. Of the 170 known impact structures on Earth, over one-third are known to contain fossil hydrothermal systems [1]. The introduction of water to a system, when coupled with even small amounts of heat, has the potential to completely alter the target or host rock geochemistry. Often, the mineral assemblages produced in these environments are unique, and are useful indicators of post-impact conditions. The Rochechouart impact structure in South-Central France is dated to 201 ± 2 Ma into a primarily granitic target [2]. Much of the original morphological features have been eroded and very little of the allochthonous impactites remain. This has, however, allowed researchers to study the shock effects on the lower and central areas of the structure, as well as any subsequent hydrothermal activity. Previous work has focused on detailed classification of the target and autochthonous and allochthonous impactites [3, 4], identification of the projectile [5], and dating the structure using Ar-isotope techniques [2]. Authors have also noted geochemical evidence of K-metasomatism, which is pronounced throughout all lithologies as enrichment in K2O and depletion in CaO and Na2O [3, 4, 5]. This indicates a pervasive hydrothermal system, whose effects throughout the structure have yet to be studied in detail, particularly in those parts at and below the transient floor. The purpose of this study is to classify the mineralogical and geochemical effects of the hydrothermal system. Samples were collected via permission from the Réserve Naturelle de l'Astroblème de Rochechouart-Chassenon [6]. Sample selection was based on the presence of secondary mineralization in hand

  4. 'Cool-spring' carbonate deposystems, Eastern Alps: controls on formation and mineralogy. (United States)

    Sanders, D.; Wertl, W.


    With respect to their latitudinal and altitudinal range, 'cool'-spring associated limestones (SAL) are among the most widespread carbonate deposits on Earth. Aside of a review by Ford & Pedley (1996), however, no larger-scale perspective on controls over SAL deposition exists. Because of a common presence of SAL in the Eastern Alps, and because of a large range in altitude, geological substrates, and climate, the Alps are well-suited to better understand the formation of limestone-depositing spring. Our results indicate that presence and distribution of Eastern-Alpine SAL are mainly determined by rock substrate and tectonic structure, resulting in suited water chemistry, whereas 'climate' (mean annual temperature and precipitation, duration of snow cover) is of subsidiary influence only. The question for the relation of SAL to environment was approached by parameterized inspection of all available, printed geological maps of the Eastern Alps (status 2008; total number of maps inspected: 168); data extracted from maps for a total of 290 SAL deposits were entered into a database. The geological parameter set was compared with long-term records of temperature, precipitation, and snow cover. In addition, many SAL deposits fossil and active were inspected in the field. Selected active SAL deposits were investigated, since 2004, by diverse physico-chemical and biological methods. In the Eastern Alps, SAL are most common on substrata rich in marls (flysch) or fine-grained calcite (glacial lodgement till), and on substrata bearing sulfate evaporites (e. g. Triassic evaporites) and/or base metal sulfides in presence of carbonate minerals (e. g. calcareous phyllites of 'Bündnerschiefer' type). By combining high solubility (yielding Ca) with sulfate reduction (yielding bicarbonate), sulfate evaporites favour high-Ca/high-bicarbonate spring waters capable of limestone deposition. Oxidation of sulfide ores, present in (sub)economic deposits and/or as disseminated pyrite

  5. An Analysis of Sediments Collected from Emersson Point and P.R., Using Three Methodologies (United States)

    Pyrtle, A.; Berrios, C.; Torres, S.; Ithier, W.; Mayo, M.; Williams, N.; Hernández, R.


    Since the early 1950's, the development of nuclear weapons has introduced radionuclides into the environment, including radiocesium (Cs-137). Researchers have incorporated several methodologies in the identification of these isotopes and their behavior in sediments. Here we discussed three main methods used and provide study cases. Studies at Emerson Point in Tampa Bay and several sites in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico have utilized these methodologies. The analysis of sediment grain size, the detection of radioactivity level and the identification of sediment mineralogy have been used as tools with the purpose of obtaining specific sediment data and information. Prior to analysis, sediment core samples taken at study areas were extruded, sliced into 0.5 cm for the top 10 cm and 1 cm there after and weighed. Sediment grain size analysis was done using the Micromeritics Saturn Digisizer 5200 connected to the Saturn Digisizer 2500 software to determine percentage of sand, silt and clay particles in the sediment samples. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is used to study crystalline structures and mineralogy of clays. Detection of radioactivity level is determined by using Canberra gamma well detectors connected to APEX software which provides radionuclide specific energy peaks for the radionuclide of interest. The results of the sample of EV (El Verde surface) shows the highest value for silt (81.36%) and the lowest clay concentration is 5.8%. Emerson Point shows the highest concentration of silt (95.29%) and the lowest clay concentration is 0.41%.

  6. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump. (United States)

    Filippi, Michal; Drahota, Petr; Machovič, Vladimír; Böhmová, Vlasta; Mihaljevič, Martin


    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L(-1). Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R2=0.97, p<0.001) indicating that incongruent dissolution of ferric arsenates controls dissolved As well as the pH of the percolating waste solution. Arsenic released from the dissolution of ferric arsenates into the pore water is, however, trapped by latter and lower-down precipitating jarosite and especially ferric (hydr)oxides. The efficiency of As sequestration by ferric (hydr)oxides in the waste dump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Process Mineralogy Approach to Gravity Concentration of Tantalum Bearing Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Ghorbani


    Full Text Available The historic Penouta mine in northwest Spain is the focus of efforts to extract tantalum from tin mining waste. This paper describes the characterisation of the tantalum mineralogy of waste material from the deposit. Characterisation was realised using quantitative mineralogy and geochemistry. This paper further identifies other phases of interest and investigates the potential for extraction using gravity separation techniques. The gravity concentrate obtained through these tests was analysed using quantitative mineralogy and electron probe microanalysis. Following characterisation of the sample material to identify the key Ta-bearing mineral phases and assess liberation, a series of gravity separation trials were conducted using Heavy Liquid Separation (HLS, Mozley table, Knelson concentrator separation and shaking table. The laboratory shaking table used to conduct a rougher test and a rougher/cleaner test to simulate a spiral-table circuit using the Penouta material. Mass balance calculations were carried out to calculate the contained metal content of the feed material and concentrate products in order to assess recovery rates for Ta, Sn and Nb across a range of grains sizes. Ta was found to be present predominantly in the solid-solution columbite-group mineral, along with minor Ta present as microlite and as impurities within cassiterite. It was found that over 70% of the Ta is contained within the −125 μm fraction, with the Ta-bearing minerals tantalite and microlite being closely associated with quartz. Mozley table separation resulted in recoveries of 89% Ta and 85% Nb for the −125 μm fraction. The Knelson Concentrator trial was carried out on the −625 μm size fraction, thereby eliminating low grade material found in the coarsest fractions. Size analysis of the recovery rate for each product, shows that the Knelson concentrator is most efficient for recovery of −125 μm particles.


    Little, Todd D; Wang, Eugene W; Gorrall, Britt K


    This chapter selectively reviews the evolution of quantitative practices in the field of developmental methodology. The chapter begins with an overview of the past in developmental methodology, discussing the implementation and dissemination of latent variable modeling and, in particular, longitudinal structural equation modeling. It then turns to the present state of developmental methodology, highlighting current methodological advances in the field. Additionally, this section summarizes ample quantitative resources, ranging from key quantitative methods journal articles to the various quantitative methods training programs and institutes. The chapter concludes with the future of developmental methodology and puts forth seven future innovations in the field. The innovations discussed span the topics of measurement, modeling, temporal design, and planned missing data designs. Lastly, the chapter closes with a brief overview of advanced modeling techniques such as continuous time models, state space models, and the application of Bayesian estimation in the field of developmental methodology. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Mineralogical, geochemical and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface Cretaceous shales, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Mousa


    Full Text Available Twenty four Cretaceous shale core samples of Gibb Afia-1, Betty-1, Salam-1X and Mersa Matruh-1 wells were mineralogically and geochemically studied using XRD, XRF and Rock Eval Pyrolysis. Kaolinite, smectite and illite are the main clay minerals in addition to rare chlorite, while the non-clay minerals include quartz, calcite, dolomite and rare siderite. The shales were derived through intensive chemical weathering of mafic basement and older sedimentary rocks. These sediments were deposited in a near-shore shallow marine environment with some terrestrial material input. The shales have poor to fair organic content. It is marginally to rarely mature.

  10. Recirculation of biomass ashes onto forest soils: Ash composition, mineralogy and leaching properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Hyks, J.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    In Denmark, increasing amounts of wood ashes are generated from biomass combustion for energy production. The utilisation of ashes on top of forest soil for liming purposes has been proposed asan alternative to landfilling. Danish wood ash samples were collected and characterised with respect...... to chemical composition, mineralogy and leaching properties (batch leaching at L/S 2 and 10L/kg, and pH-dependent leaching at 10L/kg). Large variations in the ash liming properties were observed (ANC7.5: 1.8-6.4meqH+/g), indicating that similar soil application dosages may result in different liming effects...

  11. Mineralogy, early marine diagenesis, and the chemistry of shallow-water carbonate sediments (United States)

    Higgins, J. A.; Blättler, C. L.; Lundstrom, E. A.; Santiago-Ramos, D. P.; Akhtar, A. A.; Crüger Ahm, A.-S.; Bialik, O.; Holmden, C.; Bradbury, H.; Murray, S. T.; Swart, P. K.


    Shallow-water carbonate sediments constitute the bulk of sedimentary carbonates in the geologic record and are widely used archives of Earth's chemical and climatic history. One of the main limitations in interpreting the geochemistry of ancient carbonate sediments is the potential for post-depositional diagenetic alteration. In this study, we use paired measurements of calcium (44Ca/40Ca or δ44Ca) and magnesium (26Mg/24Mg or δ26Mg) isotope ratios in sedimentary carbonates and associated pore-fluids as a tool to understand the mineralogical and diagenetic history of Neogene shallow-water carbonate sediments from the Bahamas and southwest Australia. We find that the Ca and Mg isotopic composition of bulk carbonate sediments at these sites exhibits systematic stratigraphic variability that is related to both mineralogy and early marine diagenesis. The observed variability in bulk sediment Ca isotopes is best explained by changes in the extent and style of early marine diagenesis from one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the fluid (fluid-buffered) to one where the composition of the diagenetic carbonate mineral is determined by the chemistry of the precursor sediment (sediment-buffered). Our results indicate that this process, together with variations in carbonate mineralogy (aragonite, calcite, and dolomite), plays a fundamental and underappreciated role in determining the regional and global stratigraphic expressions of geochemical tracers (δ13C, δ18O, major, minor, and trace elements) in shallow-water carbonate sediments in the geologic record. Our results also provide evidence that a large shallow-water carbonate sink that is enriched in 44Ca can explain the mismatch between the δ44/40Ca value of rivers and deep-sea carbonate sediments and call into question the hypothesis that the δ44/40Ca value of seawater depends on the mineralogy of primary carbonate precipitations (e.g. 'aragonite seas' and

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of efflorescent minerals on mine tailings and their potential impact on water chemistry. (United States)

    Grover, B P C; Johnson, R H; Billing, D G; Weiersbye, I M G; Tutu, H


    In the gold mining Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa, efflorescent mineral crusts are a common occurrence on and nearby tailings dumps during the dry season. The crusts are readily soluble and generate acidic, metal- and sulphate-rich solutions on dissolution. In this study, the metal content of efflorescent crusts at an abandoned gold mine tailings dump was used to characterise surface and groundwater discharges from the site. Geochemical modelling of the pH of the solution resulting from the dissolution of the crusts was used to better understand the crusts' potential impact on water chemistry. The study involved two approaches: (i) conducting leaching experiments on oxidised and unoxidised tailings using artificial rainwater and dilute sulphuric acid and correlating the composition of crusts to these leachates and (ii) modelling the dissolution of the crusts in order to gain insight into their mineralogy and their potential impact on receiving waters. The findings suggested that there were two chemically distinct discharges from the site, namely an aluminium- and magnesium-rich surface water plume and an iron-rich groundwater plume. The first plume was observed to originate from the oxidised tailings following leaching with rainwater while the second plume originated from the underlying unoxidised tailings with leaching by sulphuric acid. Both groups of minerals forming from the respective plumes were found to significantly lower the pH of the receiving water with simulations of their dissolution found to be within 0.2 pH units of experimental values. It was observed that metals in a low abundance within the crust (for example, iron) had a stronger influence on the pH of the resulting solutions than metals in a greater abundance (aluminium or magnesium). Techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and in situ mineral determination techniques such as remote sensing can effectively determine the dominant mineralogy. However, the minerals or metals

  13. Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) for In-Situ Planetary Mineralogy: Laboratory and Field Calibration (United States)

    Van Gorp, Byron; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Blaney, Diana; Wilson, Daniel W.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Richardson, Brandon S.


    The Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a miniature telescope and spectrometer system intended for mapping terrain mineralogy over distances from 1.5 m to infinity with spatial sampling of 1.35 mrad over a 33 deg field, and spectral sampling of 10 nm in the 600-2500 nm range. The core of the system has been designed for operation in a Martian environment, but can also be used in a terrestrial environment when placed inside a vacuum vessel. We report the laboratory and field calibration data that include spatial and spectral calibration, and demonstrate the use of the system.

  14. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA): An Instrument to Characterize the Martian Soil Mineralogy and Atmosphere Composition (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; McKay, David S.; Ming, Douglas; Allen, Carlton C.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry


    This abstract describes an instrument and experiment to be proposed for a future Mars surface mission to conduct basic research on environmental characterization. The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) experiment is designed to provide information on Mars surface material properties in preparation for human missions of exploration. The goals of the investigation are: 1) Define and determine surface mineralogy of soil and dust and their effects on humans and machines; and 2) Conduct in-situ investigations aimed at identifying possible evidence of past or present life on Mars.

  15. Global mineralogical and aqueous mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data. (United States)

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Mustard, John F; Poulet, François; Arvidson, Raymond; Gendrin, Aline; Gondet, Brigitte; Mangold, Nicolas; Pinet, P; Forget, F; Berthé, Michel; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gendrin, Aline; Gomez, Cécile; Gondet, Brigitte; Jouglet, Denis; Poulet, François; Soufflot, Alain; Vincendon, Mathieu; Combes, Michel; Drossart, Pierre; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Fouchet, Thierry; Merchiorri, Riccardo; Belluci, Giancarlo; Altieri, Francesca; Formisano, Vittorio; Capaccioni, Fabricio; Cerroni, Pricilla; Coradini, Angioletta; Fonti, Sergio; Korablev, Oleg; Kottsov, Volodia; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Moroz, Vassili; Titov, Dimitri; Zasova, Ludmilla; Loiseau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Pinet, Patrick; Douté, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard; Sotin, Christophe; Hauber, Ernst; Hoffmann, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Keller, Uwe; Arvidson, Ray; Mustard, John F; Duxbury, Tom; Forget, François; Neukum, G


    Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are found in the oldest terrains; sulfates were formed in a second era (the "theiikian" era) in an acidic environment. Beginning about 3.5 billion years ago, the last era (the "siderikian") is dominated by the formation of anhydrous ferric oxides in a slow superficial weathering, without liquid water playing a major role across the planet.

  16. Geochemistry and mineralogy of old concentration tailings (Dal’negorsky ore district, Primorsky Krai, Russia) (United States)

    Tarasenko, I. A.; Zinkov, A. V.; Ovodova, E. V.; Petukhov, V. I.; Solyanik, I. V.


    The paper gives the granulometric characteristics of the old tailings of the Krasnorechenskaya concentration mill (Primorsky Krai, Russia) and discusses their mineralogical-geochemical features. The original ore and newly formed mineral associations belonging to certain subzones are characterized by the concrete formation conditions and occupy a definite position in space thus forming a mineral zoning. The resources of main elements concentrated in the tailing dumps have been calculated. The KCM tailing dumps are shown to be the promising objects for the repeated extraction of mineral raw material and, at the same time, the sources of environment pollution with toxic elements.

  17. A mineralogical characterization of biogenic calcium carbonates precipitated by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from cryophilic polar regions. (United States)

    Ronholm, J; Schumann, D; Sapers, H M; Izawa, M; Applin, D; Berg, B; Mann, P; Vali, H; Flemming, R L; Cloutis, E A; Whyte, L G


    Precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3(s) ) can be driven by microbial activity. Here, a systematic approach is used to identify the morphological and mineralogical characteristics of CaCO3(s) precipitated during the heterotrophic growth of micro-organisms isolated from polar environments. Focus was placed on establishing mineralogical features that are common in bioliths formed during heterotrophic activity, while in parallel identifying features that are specific to bioliths precipitated by certain microbial phylotypes. Twenty microbial isolates that precipitated macroscopic CaCO3(s) when grown on B4 media supplemented with calcium acetate or calcium citrate were identified. A multimethod approach, including scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), was used to characterize CaCO3(s) precipitates. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that complete CaCO3(s) crystal encrustation of Arthrobacter sp. cells was common, while encrustation of Rhodococcus sp. cells did not occur. Several euhedral and anhedral mineral formations including disphenoid-like epitaxial plates, rhomboid-like aggregates with epitaxial rhombs, and spherulite aggregates were observed. While phylotype could not be linked to specific mineral formations, isolates tended to precipitate either euhedral or anhedral minerals, but not both. Three anhydrous CaCO3(s) polymorphs (calcite, aragonite, and vaterite) were identified by μ-XRD, and calcite and aragonite were also identified based on TEM lattice-fringe d value measurements. The presence of certain polymorphs was not indicative of biogenic origin, although several mineralogical features such as crystal-encrusted bacterial cells, or casts of bacterial cells embedded in mesocrystals are an indication of biogenic origin. In addition, some features such as the formation of vaterite and bacterial entombment appear to be linked to certain phylotypes. Identifying

  18. Mineralogía y microestructura de la pizarra de techar: comportamiento termooptico y fisibilidad


    García-Guinea, J.; Lombardero, M.; Roberts, B.; Taboada, J.; Peto, A.


    La exfoliación de las pizarras depende fundamentalmente de su mineralogía y microestructura, especialmente de la fuerte orientación de los filosilicatos. Esta propiedad permite hendir o abrir las pizarras de techar en láminas muy grandes, delgadas y planas. Se han analizado varias pizarras de techar con diferentes calidades comerciales, correspondientes a diferentes grados de físibilidad, por radioluminiscencia (RL), termoluminiscencia espectral (TL3D), difracción de rayos X (DRX), microscopí...

  19. The CheMin XRD on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity: Construction, Operation, and Quantitative Mineralogical Results from the Surface of Mars (United States)

    Blake, David F.


    The Mars Science Laboratory mission was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida on Nov. 26, 2011 and landed in Gale crater, Mars on Aug. 6, 2012. MSL's mission is to identify and characterize ancient "habitable" environments on Mars. MSL's precision landing system placed the Curiosity rover within 2 km of the center of its 20 X 6 km landing ellipse, next to Gale's central mound, a 5,000 meter high pile of laminated sediment which may contain 1 billion years of Mars history. Curiosity carries with it a full suite of analytical instruments, including the CheMin X-ray diffractometer, the first XRD flown in space. CheMin is essentially a transmission X-ray pinhole camera. A fine-focus Co source and collimator transmits a 50µm beam through a powdered sample held between X-ray transparent plastic windows. The sample holder is shaken by a piezoelectric actuator such that the powder flows like a liquid, each grain passing in random orientation through the beam over time. Forward-diffracted and fluoresced X-ray photons from the sample are detected by an X-ray sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) operated in single photon counting mode. When operated in this way, both the x,y position and the energy of each photon are detected. The resulting energy-selected Co Kalpha Debye-Scherrer pattern is used to determine the identities and amounts of minerals present via Rietveld refinement, and a histogram of all X-ray events constitutes an X-ray fluorescence analysis of the sample.The key role that definitive mineralogy plays in understanding the Martian surface is a consequence of the fact that minerals are thermodynamic phases, having known and specific ranges of temperature, pressure and composition within which they are stable. More than simple compositional analysis, definitive mineralogical analysis can provide information about pressure/temperature conditions of formation, past climate, water activity and the like. Definitive mineralogical analyses are necessary to establish

  20. Situating methodology within qualitative research. (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L


    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  1. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D


    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  2. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007 (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn


    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  3. Micromorphology, mineralogy, and genesis of soils and fracture fills and the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, D.W. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)


    The town of Los Alamos, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are located on the Pajarito Plateau in north-central New Mexico. Environmental concerns have recently focused attention on the numerous fractures in the Bandelier Tuff, the series of volcanic rock units that make up most of the plateau. These fractures have come into question as possible conduits for transport of contaminants downward through the tuff. This, study arose out of a need to evaluate the potential for contaminant transport in the fractures. Because the fractures are typically filled, or partially filled, with soil-like material, and appear to be physically continuous with the soils on the surface of the Pajarito Plateau, it was decided to approach the question of the fractures from a soil genesis and morphology standpoint. Specifically, it was believed that soil characterization techniques, including soil micromorphological and mineralogical analyses, could provide information about the dominant processes (past and present) acting in the soils and fractures. The specific objectives of this research were to investigate: (1) the physical, mineralogical and chemical nature of fracture-filling materials in the Bandelier Tuff, as well as associated surface soils; (2) the relationships among fracture-fills, tuff bedrock, and surface soils of the Pajarito Plateau; (3) the processes responsible for the development of the fracture-fills; and (4) the likely sequence of events leading to the present morphology of the soils and fracture-fills.

  4. Recycling of construction and demolition waste materials: a chemical-mineralogical appraisal. (United States)

    Bianchini, G; Marrocchino, E; Tassinari, R; Vaccaro, C


    Building activity is currently demanding remarkable amounts of inert materials (such as gravel and sand) that are usually provided by alluvial sediments. The EU directives and Italian Legislation are encouraging the re-use of construction and demolition waste provided by continuous urban redevelopment. The re-utilisation of building waste is a relatively new issue for Italy: unfortunately the employment of recycled inert materials is still limited to general bulk and drainage fills, while a more complete re-evaluation is generally hampered by the lack of suitable recycling plants. In this paper, chemical-mineralogical characterization of recycled inert materials was carried out after preliminary crushing and grain-size sorting. XRF and XRD analysis of the different grain-size classes allowed us to recognise particular granulometric classes that can be re-utilised as first-order material in the building activity. Specifically, the presented chemical-mineralogical appraisal indicates that the recycled grain-size fraction 0.6-0.125 mm could be directly re-employed in the preparation of new mortar and concrete, while finer fractions could be considered as components for industrial processing in the preparation of cements and bricks/tiles.

  5. The stratigraphy and history of Mars' northern lowlands through mineralogy of impact craters: A comprehensive survey (United States)

    Pan, Lu; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Carter, John; Ernst, Carolyn M.


    The basin-filling materials of the northern lowlands, which cover approximately one third of Mars' surface, record the long-term evolution of Mars' geology and climate. The buried stratigraphy was inferred through analyses of impact crater mineralogy, detected using data acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars. Examining 1045 impact craters across the northern lowlands, we find widespread olivine and pyroxene and diverse hydrated/hydroxylated minerals, including Fe/Mg smectite, chlorite, prehnite, and hydrated silica. The distribution of mafic minerals is consistent with infilling volcanic materials across the entire lowlands ( 1-4 × 107 km3), indicating a significant volume of volatile release by volcanic outgassing. Hydrated/hydroxylated minerals are detected more frequently in large craters, consistent with the scenario that the hydrated minerals are being excavated from deep basement rocks, beneath 1-2 km thick mafic lava flows or volcaniclastic materials. The prevalences of different types of hydrated minerals are similar to statistics from the southern highlands. No evidence of concentrated salt deposits has been found, which would indicate a long-lived global ocean. We also find significant geographical variations of local mineralogy and stratigraphy in different basins (geological provinces), independent of dust cover. For example, many hydrated and mafic minerals are newly discovered within the polar Scandia region (>60°N), and Chryse Planitia has more mafic mineral detections than other basins, possibly due to a previously unrecognized volcanic source.

  6. Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan. (United States)

    Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

    Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

  7. Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Jazi


    Full Text Available Nakhlak lead mine is located at the Nakhlak mountain 55 km NE of Anarak town in Isfahan province. The mineralogy is simple; galena and barite are the main primary minerals and cerussite is the main secondary mineral. Sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-tennantite and acanthite occur as minor and trace mineral inclusions in galena. Secondary minerals are anglesite, plattnerite, wulfenite and malachite. The host rock has undergone a pre-mineralization dolomitization process. Four types of dolomite have been identified which saddle dolomite is the most distinguished. Open space filling textures occur in the form of breccia, cockade, crustification and colloform. Analysis of the galena samples indicates presence of many trace elements in galena among which silver is the most important. Element pairs such as Ag-As, Zn-Cd, As-Cu and As-Sb are highly correlated. This correlation may be explained by the presence of inclusions. Ag-Sb-Bi ternary diagram indicates that galena samples from Nakhlak are rich in Ag and Sb and poor in Bi. Sb/Bi (3773 ratio in galena is suggestive of a low temperature of formation for the deposit. The Upper Cretaceous carbonate host rocks and their dolomitization, the stratabound and epigenetic mineralization, the absence of igneous activity, the open space filling texture, the simple mineralogy and geochemistry all point to a Mississippi valley type model for the Nakhlak Pb deposit.

  8. The Private Lives of Minerals: Social Network Analysis Applied to Mineralogy and Petrology (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Fox, P. A.; Golden, J. J.; Downs, R. T.; Eleish, A.; Prabhu, A.; Li, C.; Liu, C.


    Comprehensive databases of mineral species ( and their geographic localities and co-existing mineral assemblages ( reveal patterns of mineral association and distribution that mimic social networks, as commonly applied to such varied topics as social media interactions, the spread of disease, terrorism networks, and research collaborations. Applying social network analysis (SNA) to common assemblages of rock-forming igneous and regional metamorphic mineral species, we find patterns of cohesion, segregation, density, and cliques that are similar to those of human social networks. These patterns highlight classic trends in lithologic evolution and are illustrated with sociograms, in which mineral species are the "nodes" and co-existing species form "links." Filters based on chemistry, age, structural group, and other parameters highlight visually both familiar and new aspects of mineralogy and petrology. We quantify sociograms with SNA metrics, including connectivity (based on the frequency of co-occurrence of mineral pairs), homophily (the extent to which co-existing mineral species share compositional and other characteristics), network closure (based on the degree of network interconnectivity), and segmentation (as revealed by isolated "cliques" of mineral species). Exploitation of large and growing mineral data resources with SNA offers promising avenues for discovering previously hidden trends in mineral diversity-distribution systematics, as well as providing new pedagogical approaches to teaching mineralogy and petrology.

  9. Tracing of aerosol sources in an urban environment using chemical, Sr isotope, and mineralogical characterization. (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Ribeiro, Sara; Santos, José Francisco; Patinha, Carla; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Soares, Rosário; Duarte, Armando C


    In the framework of two national research projects (ORGANOSOL and CN-linkAIR), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was sampled for 17 months at an urban location in the Western European Coast. The PM 2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), major water-soluble inorganic ions, mineralogical, and for the first time in this region, strontium isotope ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) composition. Organic matter dominates the identifiable urban PM 2.5 mass, followed by secondary inorganic aerosols. The acquired data resulted also in a seasonal overview of the carbonaceous and inorganic aerosol composition, with an important contribution from primary biomass burning and secondary formation processes in colder and warmer periods, respectively. The fossil-related primary EC seems to be continually present throughout the sampling period. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios were measured on both the labile and residual PM 2.5 fractions as well as on the bulk PM 2.5 samples. Regardless of the air mass origin, the residual fractions are more radiogenic (representative of a natural crustal dust source) than the labile fractions, whose 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are comparable to that of seawater. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and the mineralogical composition data further suggest that sea salt and mineral dust are important primary natural sources of fine aerosols throughout the sampling period.

  10. Mineralogy of mine waste at the Vermont Asbestos Group mine, Belvidere Mountain, Vermont (United States)

    Levitan, D.M.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Gunter, M.E.; Seal, R.R.; Chou, I.-Ming; Piatak, N.M.


    Samples from the surfaces of waste piles at the Vermont Asbestos Group mine in northern Vermont were studied to determine their mineralogy, particularly the presence and morphology of amphiboles. Analyses included powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and Raman spectroscopy. Minerals identified by XRD were serpentine-group minerals, magnetite, chlorite, quartz, olivine, pyroxene, and brucite; locally, mica and carbonates were also present. Raman spectroscopy distinguished antigorite and chrysotile, which could not be differentiated using XRD. Long-count, short-range XRD scans of the (110) amphibole peak showed trace amounts of amphibole in most samples. Examination of amphiboles in tailings by optical microscopy, SEM, and EPMA revealed non-fibrous amphiboles compositionally classified as edenite, magnesiohornblende, magnesiokatophorite, and pargasite. No fibrous amphibole was found in the tailings, although fibrous tremolite was identified in a sample of host rock. Knowledge of the mineralogy at the site may lead to better understanding of potential implications for human health and aid in designing a remediation plan.

  11. Study of chemical-mineralogical properties of modified soils with polymers addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Jonny


    Full Text Available On highways, the soil is considered a supported material and compound pavements layers. For this, they must have such characteristics that confer stability and mechanical resistance to traffic internal forces during the pavement life. When soils do not have required characteristics by the project can be used stabilization techniques that make the natural soil adequately to roads requirement. Based on this assumption, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of polymer association in soil stabilization for use in roads pavements. Were evaluated chemical and mineralogical properties on two (2 different soils with sample of pure soil and with the addition of the polymer association. Based on the obtained results, polymer association changes was observed on X-ray fluorescent spectrometry (XRF; X-ray diffraction (XRD; scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Methylene blue. In general, the polymeric association studied in this research was effective in chemical and mineralogical analyzes for use on stabilized soils, making this technique efficient for use in layers of road pavements.

  12. Effects of rock mineralogy and pore structure on stress-dependent permeability of shale samples. (United States)

    Al Ismail, Maytham I; Zoback, Mark D


    We conducted pulse-decay permeability experiments on Utica and Permian shale samples to investigate the effect of rock mineralogy and pore structure on the transport mechanisms using a non-adsorbing gas (argon). The mineralogy of the shale samples varied from clay rich to calcite rich (i.e. clay poor). Our permeability measurements and scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the permeability of the shale samples whose pores resided in the kerogen positively correlated with organic content. Our results showed that the absolute value of permeability was not affected by the mineral composition of the shale samples. Additionally, our results indicated that clay content played a significant role in the stress-dependent permeability. For clay-rich samples, we observed higher pore throat compressibility, which led to higher permeability reduction at increasing effective stress than with calcite-rich samples. Our findings highlight the importance of considering permeability to be stress dependent to achieve more accurate reservoir simulations especially for clay-rich shale reservoirs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Ultrastructure, chemistry and mineralogy of the growing shell of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. (United States)

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Badou, Aïcha; Gaume, Béatrice; Berland, Sophie; Helléouet, Marie-Noëlle; Milet, Christian; Huchette, Sylvain


    An integrated study of shell formation was initiated covering the entire life cycle of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. Shell microstructure, chemistry and mineralogy were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. SEM images of trochophore and veliger larvae showed the different stages of shell growth from the initial shell field to the late calcified protoconch. Cross-sections revealed the microstructural arrangement of biominerals, showing the progressive mineralization of the organic protoconch prior to metamorphosis. To gain more information on mineralogical composition, EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy were performed along the development stages. The results demonstrated that early protoconch was mostly composed of amorphous calcium carbonate, while veliger stages showed a gradually crystallization under the form of aragonite. Post-metamorphic shell contained two distinct parts, the original protoconch supporting the new juvenile shell characterized by a marked sculptural pattern. The shells from post-larval and juvenile abalones were essentially made of aragonite. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Oligo-Miocene sediments of the Valley of Lakes, Mongolia. (United States)

    Richoz, Sylvain; Baldermann, Andre; Frauwallner, Andreas; Harzhauser, Mathias; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Klammer, Dietmar; Piller, Werner E


    The Valley of Lakes is approximately a 500-km elongate depression in Central Mongolia, where Eocene to Miocene continental sediments are long known for their outstanding fossil richness. The palaeontological record of this region is an exceptional witness for the evolution of mammalian communities during the Cenozoic global cooling and regional aridification. In order to precisely elucidate the climatic evolution of the region, we studied the mostly siliciclastic sediments with several levels of paleosols for their sedimentology, mineralogy, major and trace element composition and δ13C and δ18O composition. The obtained results show that temperate hydrothermal fluids induced a strong illitization of the fluvial and lacustrine sediments. This finding contradicts the current conceptual view that the fine fraction of the sediments is of aeolian origin. Moreover, the diagenetic growth of illite resulted in a strong overprinting of the sediments and, subsequently, largely disturbed the pristine mineralogical and geochemical composition of the sediments that could have carried any palaeo-climatic information. An exception is the δ13C (and δ18O) isotope values of authigenic carbonate found in calcrete horizons that still record the ambient climatic conditions prevailing during paleosol formation. Our novel δ13C and δ18O record suggests an early Oligocene aridification in Central Asia at ∼31 Ma, whereas the Oligocene glacial maximum shows no increase in aridification. A second, regional-scale aridification occurs at ~25 Ma and corresponds to a late Oligocene marked mammalian turnover in the Valley of Lakes sediments.

  15. Mineralogy of Stardust Track 112 Particle: Relation to Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T.; Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Zolensky, M.; Ohsumi, K.


    The successful analysis of comet 81P/Wild 2 particles returned by the Stardust mission has revealed that the Wild 2 dust contains abundant silicate grains that are much larger than interstellar grains and appear to have formed in the inner regions of the solar nebula [1]. Wild 2 particles include minerals which are isotopically and mineralogically similar to CAIs [e.g., 2, 3] and chondrules [e.g., 4] in chondrites. In addition, particles similar to amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) also have been discovered [5, 6,7]. C2067,2,112,1 is a terminal particle recovered from track #112 (T112). Nakamura-Messenger et al. [7] showed that the forsterite grain in T112 has O-16 enrichment of approximately 40 0/00 (vs. SMOW) and possibly formed together with AOAs. In this study, we have examined the mineralogy of the T112 particle and compared the possible relationships between T112 and AOAs in primitive meteorites.

  16. Iron mineralogy and uranium-binding environment in the rhizosphere of a wetland soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Seaman, John C.; Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Buettner, Shea; Li, Dien; Varga, Tamas; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Jaffé, Peter R.


    Wetlands mitigate the migration of groundwater contaminants through the creation of biogeochemical gradients that enhance multiple contaminant-binding processes. Our hypothesis was that wetland plants not only contribute organic carbon, produce strong redox gradients, and elevate microbial populations to soils, but together these conditions also promote the formation of Fe (oxyhydr)oxides within the plant rhizosphere that may also contribute to contaminant immobilization. Mineralogy and U binding environments of the rhizosphere (plant-impacted soil zone) were evaluated in samples collected from contaminated and non-contaminated areas of a wetland on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Based on Mossbauer spectroscopy, rhizosphere soil collected from the field study site was greatly enriched with poorly crystalline nanoparticulate Fe-oxide/ferrihydrite-like materials and nano-goethite (<15-nm). X-ray computed tomography or various microscopy techniques showed that root plaques, tens-of microns thick, were consisted of highly oriented nanoparticles in an orientation suggestive that the roots were involved in the Fe-nanoparticle formation. Because of detection limits, SEM/EDS could not confirm whether U was enriched in the rhizosphere but did demonstrate that U was enriched on root plaques. Uranium in the plaques was always found in association with P and frequently with Fe. Together these findings suggest that plants may not only alter soil microbial and chemical conditions, but also mineralogical conditions that may be conducive to aqueous contaminant immobilization in wetlands.

  17. Maps showing mineralogical data for nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrates in the Talkeetna Quadrangle, Alaska (United States)

    Tripp, R.B.; Karlson, R.C.; Curtin, G.C.


    Reconnaissance geochemical and mineralogical sampling was done in the Talkeetna Quadrangle during 1975 and 1976 as part of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). These maps show the distribution of gold, scheelite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, fluorite, cinnabar, and malachite in the nonmagnetic fraction of heavy-mineral concentrates. Heavy-mineral concentrate samples were collected at 812 sites from active stream channels. The heavy-mineral concentrates were obtained by panning stream sediment in the field to remove most of the light minerals. The panned samples were then sieved through a 20-mesh (0.8 mm) sieve in the laboratory, and the minus-20-mesh fraction was further separated with bromoform (specific gravity, 2.86) to remove any remaining light-mineral grains. Magnetite and other strongly magnetic heavy minerals were removed from the heavy-mineral fraction by use of a hand magnet. The remaining sample was passed through a Frantz Isodynamic Separator and a nonmagnetic fraction was examined for its mineralogical content with the aid of a binocular microscope and an x-ray diffractometer. The nonmagnetic concentrates primarily contain phyllite fragments, muscovite, sphene, zircon, apatite, tourmaline, rutile, and anatase. Most ore and ore-related minerals also occur in this fraction.

  18. Nebula Models of Non-Equilibrium Mineralogy: Wark-Lovering Rims (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Petaev, M.; Krot, A. N.


    Introduction: The meteorite record contains several examples of minerals that would not persist if allowed to come to equilibrium with a cooling gas of solar composition. This includes all minerals in CAIs and AOAs. Their survival is generally ascribed to physical removal of the object from the gas (isolation into a large parent object, or ejection by a stellar wind), but could also result from outward radial diffusion into cooler regions, which we discuss here. Accretion of CAIs into planetesimals has also been relied on to preserve them against loss into the sun. However, this suggestion faces several objections. Simple outward diffusion in turbulence has recently been modeled in some detail, and can preserve CAIs against loss into the sun [2]. Naturally, outward radial diffusion in turbulence is slower than immediate ejection by a stellar wind, which occurs on an orbital timescale. Here we ask whether these different transport mechanisms can be distinguished by nonequilibrium mineralogy, which provides a sort of clock. Our application here is to one aspect of CAI mineralogy - the Wark-Lovering rims (WLR); even more specifically, to alteration of one layer in the WLR sequence from melilite (Mel) to anorthite (An).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Craciun


    Full Text Available Zlatna area is a high polluted zone with heavy metals due to industrial activity (extraction and processing of non-ferrous area. In spite of the fact that industrial activity was stoped for 2-3 years, the effect of pollution are still obvious. The aim of this paper is to make evident some aspects concerning the impact of pollution on the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction (below 2μ from some soils belonging to dystric cambisol and luvisol type. From the chemical point of view, the effect of pollution is the acidifiation and depletion of bases, reflected by the decrease of values of indices which express soil reaction (pH and soil exchange properties, especially in the surface horizon. From mineralogical point of view, the acidifiation determines a strong alteration of primary minerals (micas and feldspars and just of secondary minerals (illite, evolution beeing towards hydroxy interlayered minerals (intergrade and kaolinite. As result of this alteration the content of kaolinite increases, achiving a double content in the surface horizon of some polluted soils. Sometimes kaolinite becomes the dominant mineral in the clay fraction of some strong polluted soil.

  20. The effects of carbon dioxide on the mineralogical and geochemical alterations of phyllosilicate minerals (United States)

    Wang, Sookyun; Park, Eundoo; Lee, Minhee


    This study aims to identify the geochemical and mineralogical effects of carbon dioxide stored in geological formations on subsurface environments in deep rock formations. A series of autoclave experiments were conducted to simulate the interactions in the scCO2-groundwater-phyllosilicate minerals reaction systems using a high pressure and high temperature cells at 50C and 100 bar. Kaolinite and montmorillonite were used as geological materials reactive in CO2-rich acidic environments, and groundwater sampled from a 800-depth well were applied as aqueous solutions. The dissolution characteristics of phyllosilicate minerals and their geochemical and mineralogical alternations after 30-days reactions were quantitatively examined by XRD, XRF, ICP-OES and SEM/EDX investigation. Throughout experimental processes, it was observed that the acidic environments induced by the dissolution of CO2 resulted in the changes in pH and cation concentration in the aqueous phase, and, thereby, the mineral phase changes in composition and interlayer spacing. The experimental results clearly showed an enhanced dissolution of kaolinite and montmorillonite with the presence of CO2. They also suggested that geochemical processes such as dissolution/precipitation and cation exchange played major roles in physical and chemical changes in pore structure and groundwater in relevant formations and aquifers.