WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected latin american

  1. Latin American Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mary A.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the historical development of the press in Latin America from the sixteenth century to the present. Discusses the various pressures that Latin American newspapers are subject to, including political censorship, economic restrictions, and cultural conflicts. (AEA)

  2. Ancestry variation and footprints of natural selection along the genome in Latin American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Sijia

    2016-02-18

    Latin American populations stem from the admixture of Europeans, Africans and Native Americans, which started over 400 years ago and had lasted for several centuries. Extreme deviation over the genome-wide average in ancestry estimations at certain genomic locations could reflect recent natural selection. We evaluated the distribution of ancestry estimations using 678 genome-wide microsatellite markers in 249 individuals from 13 admixed populations across Latin America. We found significant deviations in ancestry estimations including three locations with more than 3.5 times standard deviations from the genome-wide average: an excess of European ancestry at 1p36 and 14q32, and an excess of African ancestry at 6p22. Using simulations, we could show that at least the deviation at 6p22 was unlikely to result from genetic drift alone. By applying different linguistic groups as well as the most likely ancestral Native American populations as the ancestry, we showed that the choice of Native American ancestry could affect the local ancestry estimation. However, the signal at 6p22 consistently appeared in most of the analyses using various ancestral groups. This study provided important insights for recent natural selection in the context of the unique history of the New World and implications for disease mapping.

  3. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  4. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  5. Systematic documentation of new vaccine introduction in selected countries of the Latin American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lúcia H; Toscano, Cristiana M; Sanwogou, N Jennifer; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Tambini, Gina; Roses-Periago, Mirta; Andrus, Jon K

    2013-07-02

    Countries in Latin America were among the first developing countries to introduce new vaccines, particularly rotavirus (RV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), into their national immunization schedules. Experiences and lessons learned from these countries are valuable to donors, immunization partners, and policy makers in other countries wishing to make informed decisions on vaccine introduction. In order to enhance knowledge and promote understanding of the process of new vaccine introduction in the Latin American Region, with particular focus on RV and PCV, we conducted a systematic qualitative assessment. We evaluated the decision-making process, documented the structure in place, and reviewed key factors pertaining to new vaccine introduction. These include country morbidity and mortality data available prior to vaccine introduction, funding sources and mechanisms for vaccine introduction, challenges of implementation, and assessment of vaccine impact. From March 2010 to April 2011, we evaluated a subset of countries that had introduced RV and/or PCV in the past five years through interviews with key informants at the country level and through a systematic review of published data, gray literature, official technical documents, and country-specific health indicators. Countries evaluated were Bolivia, Brazil, Nicaragua, Peru, and Venezuela. In all countries, the potential of new vaccines to reduce mortality, as established by Millennium Development Goal 4, was an important consideration leading to vaccine introduction. Several factors-the availability of funds, the existence of sufficient evidence for vaccine introduction, and the feasibility of sustainable financing-were identified as crucial components of the decision-making process in the countries evaluated. The decision making process regarding new vaccine introduction in the countries evaluated does not follow a systematic approach. Nonetheless, existing evidence on efficacy, potential impact, and

  6. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  7. Evaluating the costs of pneumococcal disease in selected Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the costs of pneumococcal disease in Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, to describe how these costs vary between different patient groups, and to discuss factors that affect these cost variations. The cost of pneumococcal disease was estimated from the health care perspective. For each country, baseline cost estimates were primarily developed using health resources information from patient-level data and facility-specific cost data. A regression model was constructed separately for four types of pneumococcal diseases. The skewness-kurtosis test and the Cook-Weisberg test were performed to test the normality of the residuals and the heteroscedasticity, respectively. The treatment of pneumococcal meningitis generated up to US$ 5 435 per child. The treatment costs of pneumococcal pneumonia were lower, ranging from US$ 372 per child to US$ 3 483 per child. Treatment of acute otitis media cost between US$ 20 per child and US$ 217 per child. The main source of treatment costs variations was level of service provided and country in which costs were incurred. However, the tendency of costs to change with these variables was not statistically significant at the 5% level for most pneumococcal disease models. Pneumococcal disease resulted in significant economic burden to selected health care systems in Latin America. The patterns of treatment cost of pneumococcal disease showed a great deal of variation.

  8. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  10. History of Latin American Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Two recent contributions (Oyuela-Caycedo 1994 and Politis 1995 to analyses of the intellectual development of archaeology in Latin America provide us with new perspectives. A theme shared by both is the perception by the authors of a need to distance the development of archaeology in Latin American countries from the overweening influence of Europe and especially U. S. archaeologists. Politis argues that U.S. influence has been tantamount to 'cultural imperialism' (1995:226. He sees U.S. archaeologists as having a history of appropriating and manipulating the knowledge of the past which ignores the local peoples own traditional perceptions of their patrimony, and argues that the U.S. perspective is designed to satisfy the needs of western scholarship but fails to enter a dialog with the legitimate concerns of the subject countries. Oyuela·Caycedo's introductory essay in his book "Nationalism and Archaeology" carries a very similar message. He faults U.S. archaeologists for failing to locate their studies in the areas social and local context, which he sees as leading the U.S. scholars to employ a model derived from "dependency theory" (1994:5, resulting in an overly simplistic perception of the context for the development of archaeological disciplines in respective Latin American countries.

  11. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  12. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela). According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectivenes...

  13. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  14. Latin American Research Consortiums : a Comparative Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American countries are implementing several policies to enhance innovation. ... foster research collaboration between different actors in the innovation system. ... adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  15. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  16. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  17. The Latin American Moessbauer research community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Interest in Moessbauer spectroscopy among the Latin American countries has increased in the last five years. Two-thirds of the published research is coming from the Moessbauer research groups in Brazil. Other Latin American countries with active Moessbauer research include Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. In recent years, the area having the most interest has been the investigation of minerals and high temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  18. 8th Latin American School of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Figueiredo, Djairo; Iório, Rafael; Lopes, Orlando

    1988-01-01

    The Latin American School of Mathematics (ELAM) is one of the most important mathematical events in Latin America. It has been held every other year since 1968 in a different country of the region, and its theme varies according to the areas of interest of local research groups. The subject of the 1986 school was Partial Differential Equations with emphasis on Microlocal Analysis, Scattering Theory and the applications of Nonlinear Analysis to Elliptic Equations and Hamiltonian Systems.

  19. Latin America’s Subtle Racism: Salient Managerial Implications For Non-Latin American Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Rutilio Martinez; Cris de la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid nineteen nineties most Latin American nations have implemented free market policies. The ensuing economic stability has attracted investment from non-Latin corporations, thereby causing the transfer of non-Latin executives to Latin nations. For many of these executives, their Latin assignments include an unexpected challenge: Dealing with Latin America’s subtle but pervasive racism. Such racism contributes to the mistreatment of labor and influences the promotion and hiring of e...

  20. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Di Giorgio, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Sapienza, C.E.; Deminge, M.M.; Fernandez Rearte, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Cortina Ramirez, G.E.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. (authors)

  1. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M

    2016-09-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Assessment of provider competence and quality of maternal/newborn care in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce E Thompson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain a snapshot of the maternal and newborn care provided by different types of maternal and child health providers in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC to 1 better inform advocacy and programmatic strategies and interventions to improve the quality of those services in the region, and 2 determine the need for more rigorous study of the issues. METHODS: A rapid assessment of 83 health workers providing antepartum, intrapartum, and immediate postpartum and newborn care (within two hours of birth in eight LAC countries was conducted in November and December of 2011. Health workers were observed by two-person expert maternal/newborn clinician teams using pretested forms based on international quality-of-care standards. A total of 105 care encounters were observed, primarily in urban, public, referral-level settings. Providers of care included obstetricians, midwives, generalist physicians, medical residents, registered nurses, auxiliary nurses, and students of medicine, midwifery, and nursing. RESULTS: Hand washing, as an indicator of quality of antepartum care, was observed in only 41% of the observed encounters. Labor management often lacked certain elements of respectful maternity care across all provider groups. Several clinical tasks of high importance in the identification and prevention of common complications of antepartum, intrapartum, and immediate postpartum/newborn care were not documented as performed during the observation periods. Providers self-reported limited competence (ability to perform to a defined level of proficiency in manual removal of the placenta, bimanual compression of the uterus, and newborn resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that 1 the quality of maternal and newborn care and 2 the competence of maternal and child health providers in the diverse selection of LAC countries that were studied require substantial attention.

  3. Latin American cooperation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    The cooperation between Latin American countries on nuclear matters in which Brazil should play a significant role is presented. The possible areas for cooperation, particularly the nuclear law, are focused. The cooperation should be developed on bilateral or multilateral basis, by governmental and non governmental entities. (Author) [pt

  4. Strategy in Latin American Revolutionary Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-21

    Booth, The End and the Beginning, p. 143. 37. On the importance of Carlos Fonseca to the revolu- tion see Rogue Dalton, " Solidaridad con Carlos Fonseca...34 Solidaridad con Carlos Fonseca Amador." Casa de las Americas 20 (November-December 1979):181-B. Davis, Harold E. Latin American Diplomatic History: An

  5. Nineteenth Latin-American congress on chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication deals with different in-scope papers presented at the 19. Latin-American congress on chemistry, held in Buenos Aires (Argentine Republic) from November 5-9, 1990. The original document where these papers are contained, consists of 567 pages

  6. Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Latin American researchers, academics, policymakers and practitioners to mainstream gender in macroeconomic policies and programs. The project will consist of three elements: a self-study module that introduces participants to gender-aware approaches to macroeconomics ...

  7. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform

  8. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform.

  9. VII Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, John; Sierra, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2016, held in Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia, 26, 27 & 28 October 2016. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL), offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies to bring together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth.

  10. Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-11-01

    We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

  11. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  12. Transnational citizenship: Latin Americans in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Padilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection upon the exercising of transnational citizenship as a consequence of international migration, applied to Latin Americans resident in Portugal. In order to do this we have adopted the concept of transnational citizenship, as its malleability allows us to consider the whole concept of countries of origin and destination and the influence of bilateral and international relations. We ask how transnational citizenship is exercised in the European Union, Ibero-American and, particularly, Portuguese spaces, and whether it is affected by the economic crisis in Europe and, in particular, Portugal, by analysing the cases of Argentines, Brazilians and Uruguayans living in Portugal.

  13. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela. According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectiveness of the administrative justice systems may be explained as follows: as former Iberian colonies, the aforementioned countries have a Continental European legal culture originating in civil law but nevertheless have improperly integrated certain aspects of the unified judicial system (generalized courts typical of administrative law in common-law countries. This situation, according to the author, could be rectified through strengthening the public administrative authorities with respect to their dispute-resolution and purely executive functions by endowing them with prerogatives to act independently and impartially, oriented by the principle of legality understood in the sense of supremacy of fundamental rights, in light of the doctrine of diffuse conventionality control adopted by the InterAmerican Court of Human Rights.

  14. The historical setting of Latin American bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, D

    1996-12-01

    The historical stages through which Latin American society has passed are at least four: the first, dominated by a particular sort of ethic I have termed the "ethic of the gift;" then the period of conquest, in which the prevalent ethic was one of war and subjection by force, which I call the "ethic of despotism;" followed by the colonial age, in which a new ethical model of "paternalism" emerged; and finally the stage of the "ethic of autonomy," which began with the independence movements of the 18th and 19th centuries and is far from ended. Independence was won by the criollos from European domination with very little participation by the Indian population. The latter was left out of the democratic process and saw itself relegated to a worse situation than in the centuries of colonial rule, for it was no longer protected by the paternalism of the Laws of the Indies of 1542. This is the reason for the division of the Latin American society of the last century into two quite different social strata: one bourgeois, which has assimilated the liberal revolution, and enjoys a health care quite similar to that available in any other Western country and hence faces the same bioethical problems as any developed Western society; the other a very poor stratum, without any economic or social power and hence unable to exercise its civil rights, such as the rights to life and to humane treatment. In this population sector; which is numerically the larger, the major bioethical problems are those of justice and the distribution of scarce resources. The study of Latin American medical ethics can earn for these subjects, whose deplorable condition has been essentially ignored in the bioethics of the first-world countries, the importance they merit.

  15. Food Allergen Labeling: A Latin American Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Food allergy is a public health concern almost all over the world. Although most of the countries that regulate the declaration of allergens in prepackaged foods include the list recommended by the Codex Alimentarius, some countries have added other allergens to this list due to prevalence data and regional incidence, whereas others have incorporated exceptions for some products derived from allergenic foods. Within this context, the situation in Latin America regarding these regulations is diverse. Data about prevalence of food hypersensitivity are very limited in the region. The countries that have established regulations are Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela. Argentina has approved a regulation for the labeling of food allergens in November 2016. It only needs to be published in the Official Bulletin to go into effect. All countries follow the Codex list that includes latex and excludes sulfites, except Brazil. On the other hand, Argentina is the only country that includes exceptions. As for the methodologies for the detection of allergens in foods, this issue is a serious problem for both the food industry and control laboratories. Available methodologies are based mainly on commercial ELISA kits; currently, there are no Latin American companies that produce them, so ELISA kits are expensive and their acquisition is complicated. There is an initiative in Argentina to address all these gaps in the region through the Platform of Food Allergens (PFA), a nonprofit organization that integrates health professionals, patients, representatives of the food industry, government, and scientists. The different actions carried out by the PFA have made it possible to contact different scientific groups from other Latin American countries in order to expand this initiative and thereby promote and strengthen both public and private capacities in the region.

  16. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  17. Historical Links between Latin American Psychology and Pedagogy in Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Walter L.

    2014-01-01

    This work sets out historical information about the development of Latin American psychology over the base of education. It reviews the contribution from education to Latin American psychology, and especially, the creation of experimental psychology laboratories in schools and educational and psychopedagogical institutions, where experimental…

  18. Latin American think tank helps trade talks smarten up | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Latin American Trade Network (LATN) was created to fill an obvious gap, recalls economist Andrés Rius. Latin American governments needed good research to be able to participate effectively in negotiations then under way at the World Trade Organization (WTO) and elsewhere. Those talks were shaking up the ways ...

  19. LAGO: The Latin American giant observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelnik, Iván; Asorey, Hernán; LAGO Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed of a network of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) spanning over different sites located at significantly different altitudes (from sea level up to more than 5000 m a.s.l.) and latitudes across Latin America, covering a wide range of geomagnetic rigidity cut-offs and atmospheric absorption/reaction levels. The LAGO WCD is simple and robust, and incorporates several integrated devices to allow time synchronization, autonomous operation, on board data analysis, as well as remote control and automated data transfer. This detection network is designed to make detailed measurements of the temporal evolution of the radiation flux coming from outer space at ground level. LAGO is mainly oriented to perform basic research in three areas: high energy phenomena, space weather and atmospheric radiation at ground level. It is an observatory designed, built and operated by the LAGO Collaboration, a non-centralized collaborative union of more than 30 institutions from ten countries. In this paper we describe the scientific and academic goals of the LAGO project - illustrating its present status with some recent results - and outline its future perspectives.

  20. A comparison of Latin American energy-related CO2 emissions from 1970 to 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntsi-Reunanen, E.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses CO 2 emission flows and energy use in the Latin American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela from the years 1971-2001. Results for the selected Latin American countries reveal that the changes in CO 2 intensities were quite similar in these countries. However, the energy use varied slightly, indicating differences in the energy utilization in the analysed countries. Examining the changes on energy use suggests that there were no significant changes in any of these countries' energy utilization during that period, but the energy markets are growing quite rapidly in all of these Latin American countries

  1. II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance

    CERN Document Server

    Bertemes-Filho, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of CLABIO 2015 - II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance, held in Montevideo, Uruguay - September 30 - October 02, 2015. The works cover a broad range in Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. The topics are: ·Bioimpedance Applications ·Bioimpedance Instrumentation ·Body and Tissue Composition ·Cell Culture and Cell Suspension ·Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Electrode Modelling ·Magnetic Induction - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Magnetic Resonance - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Nonlinear Phenomena ·Organ and Tissue Impedance ·Plant Tissue Impedance ·Skin Impedance Modelling ·Technological Advances in Bioimpedance ·Theory and Modelling.

  2. Innovation strategies in Latin American firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, F.

    2016-07-01

    During the last fifteen years, several Latin American countries have launched new policies to spur the structural transformation of their economies. In parallel, the availability of R&D and innovation statistics is greater than ever before. However, most of the new policies have been backed by the use of simple aggregated R&D and innovation indicators. This work will use a unique dataset of IS from several LA economies to produce a detailed analysis of innovation strategies of LA firms. These results will facilitate a more comprehensive comparison of innovation performance between LA countries and a richer benchmark analysis with economies from the EU. Furthermore, it will allow to measure the explanatory power of industry and country conditions in the heterogeneity of innovation strategies and to test the pertinence of the OECD sector-based technological classifications in the LA context. During the last fifteen years, several Latin American countries have launched new policies to spur the structural transformation of their economies. In parallel, the availability of R&D and innovation statistics is greater than ever before. However, most of the new policies have been backed by the use of simple aggregated R&D and innovation indicators. This work will use a unique dataset of IS from several LA economies to produce a detailed analysis of innovation strategies of LA firms. These results will facilitate a more comprehensive comparison of innovation performance between LA countries and a richer benchmark analysis with economies from the EU. Furthermore, it will allow to measure the explanatory power of industry and country conditions in the heterogeneity of innovation strategies and to test the pertinence of the OECD sector-based technological classifications in the LA context. (Author)

  3. [Global health: a Latin American vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a Latin American vision of global health from a counterhegemonic perspective, applicable to various countries of the world in similar circumstances. It begins by reviewing several concepts and trends in global health and outlining the differences between conventional public health, international health, and global health, but without seeing them as antagonistic, instead situating them in a model that is based on global health and also includes the other two disciplines. It is understood that global factors influenced earlier theories, schemes, and models of classic international health. The article emphasizes the importance of several aspects of world-geopolitics and economic globalization that impose constraints on world health; it also underscores the theory of social and environmental determinants of the health-disease spectrum, which have impacts beyond those of epidemiologic risk factors. The suggested approach is based on cosmopolitanism and holism: global philosophical and political currents that allow for a better interpretation of world phenomena and are more relevant because they give rise to lines of action. Structurally, the theoretical foundations of global health are presented in three analytical areas: global justice and equity, governance and the supranational protection of rights, and holism and a new global consciousness. The article concludes by underscoring the need to construct an approach to the existence and praxis of global public health that is based on the Latin American perspective, an approach that highlights grassroots social movements as an alternative way to secure a new order and global awareness of rights and to redefine the architecture of global health governance.

  4. Urbanization: Concepts, Trends and Analysis in Three Latin American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piña William Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models on the urban expansion process have focussed mainly on the dynamic of cities in the developed countries that are characterized by a strong institutional framework, a culture of urban planning, and compliance with the rules. This paper analyses the phenomenon of urban expansion in three Latin American cities (Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile and Mexico City, taking into account cities with a strong process of urbanization and where the local administration does not have enough control over the growth of cities due to the high rate of migration determining sub-urbanization, peri-urbanization, exo-urbanization, and counter-urbanization processes similar to developed countries. However, these processes may be related to hidden or displaced urbanization in rural areas of municipalities and metropolitan areas or intermediate cities due to the dynamics of urban consolidation. In every Latin American country, the participation and combination of these phenomena are different, although the results are similar: the advance of urban expansion with more segmented, disperse and distant patterns of large urban centres. This analysis determine the characteristics of the urbanization process taking into account physical and geographic aspects, urbanization trends and socioeconomic features in cities selected of Latin America and determines their impact determining the importance to formulate adequate policies that integrates environmental and socioeconomic aspects to achieve sustainable development in urban contexts.

  5. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  6. The effect of institutions on Latin American economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Vargas Chanes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify relevant characteristics of institutions that have an effect on economic growth in selected Latin American countries. A multilevel model was used for this propose, the dependent variable is the real per capita gdp, and the explanatory variables are indicators of governance provided by the World Bank. The results show that the significant variables are regulatory quality and control of corruption. This implies the need to strengthen the institutions of the rule of law, voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, and government effectiveness.

  7. Latin American Investigative Journalism Education: Learning Practices, Learning Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz Weiss, Amy; de Macedo Higgins Joyce, Vanessa; Saldaña, Magdalena; Alves, Rosental Calmon

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the state of investigative journalism practices used in higher education in Latin America. Using a meta-theoretical framework called the Community of Practice (CoP), this study seeks to identify whether a particular learning practice exists in this region. Based on an online survey conducted on Latin American educators…

  8. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  9. Updated site compilation of the Latin American Pollen Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Grimm, E.C.; Behling, H.; Bush, M.B; González-Arrango, C.; Gosling, W.D.; Ledru, M.-P.; Lozano-Garciá, S.; Maldonado, A.; Prieto, A.R.; Rull, V.; van Boxel, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers a wide range of new insights. This paper presents a systematic compilation of palynological research in Latin America. A comprehensive inventory of publications in peer-reviewed and grey literature shows a major expansion of

  10. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  11. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Morales, F; Urrutia, M [eds.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  12. Energy review 2003 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    To develop this document we have placed our eagerness to present an analysis of the Energy Sector of Latin American and Caribbean, it contains information about the current energy situation of each of our member countries, regional data, as well as economic and social indicators corrected through historical series. The 2003 energy report, presents an innovative structure for analysis that allows the reader to easily find general information on the energy sectors of the 26th OLADE member countries. In addition, the written publications present data from Algeria, an extra regional participant country of the Organization. With the objective of enriching the statistical value that the document have presented since initial editions, this document contains the participation of our technical coordinators in the each of our specialized areas of our organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, statistical information, renewable energy and environment. It is likely to emphasize in this occasion, for the first time the energy report is spread into the immediate year subsequent to the one of reference, as it was obtained thanks to the effort of our specialists and the cooperation of our countries members. The modern world presents us with constant changes and challenges for the security of supply that sets dynamic integration within the strategic areas. In this sense, we expect that this document will be a useful tool to face the challenges of the energy sector of our region. (The author)

  13. Latin American Network of students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Ramirez, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Network of Students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology (RedLAtM) is a civil nonprofit organization, organized by students from Mexico and some Latin- American countries. As a growing organization, providing human resources in the field of meteorology at regional level, the RedLAtM seeks to be a Latin American organization who helps the development of education and research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology in order to engage and promote the integration of young people towards a common and imminent future: Facing the still unstudied various weather and climate events occurring in Latin America. The RedLAtM emerges from the analysis and observation/realization of a limited connection between Latin American countries around research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. The importance of its creation is based in cooperation, linking, research and development in Latin America and Mexico, in other words, to join efforts and stablish a regional scientific integration who leads to technological progress in the area of Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. As ultimate goal the RedLAtM pursuit to develop climatic and meteorological services for those countries unable to have their own programs, as well as projects linked with the governments of Latin American countries and private companies for the improvement of prevention strategies, research and decision making. All this conducing to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants facing problems such as poverty and inequality.

  14. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  15. Latin American Security, Drugs and Democracy (LASDD) Fellowship ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American Security, Drugs and Democracy (LASDD) Fellowship Program ... with drug trafficking and the growth of transnational organized crime in LAC. ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  16. Latin American Centre for Outcome Mapping - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Final technical report / Latin American Centre for Outcome Mapping (CLAMA) ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC is pleased to ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  17. Latin American conference on the applications of the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This work includes all the papers presented at the LACAME'92 Latin American conference on the applications of the Moessbauer effect, held in Buenos Aires (Argentine Republic), from 5th. through 9th., 1992

  18. Proceedings of the Latin American School of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main subjects covered by the Latin American School of Physics are nuclear physics and elementary particle physics. Some areas such as solid state physics, statistical mechanics and gravitation are also included. (M.C.K.)

  19. Working with Spanish-Speaking Latin American Students in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Marcela S.

    1978-01-01

    The problems affecting the reception, adjustment, and placement of Spanish-speaking students into the Toronto school system are discussed, and include immigration patterns, Spanish values, and the Latin American school. (Author/HP)

  20. Energy review 2004 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In an environment of energy uncertain caused by the constant increases in the prices of the oil and its derivates, it is very important the selection of public policies that promote the diversification of the energetic matrix, the efficient use of the energy and, if possible, the maximum usage of local resources, which in turn generate the development of productive chains, to supports the social and economic development of our countries. We are in the constant search of mechanism that members assure the strengthening of our member countries, in this respect and to give support to the decisions making, the 2004 Energy Report of Latin America and the Caribbean for second consecutive year, makes an analysis of the energy situation, regional and by country in the different areas of specialization of our Organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, renewable energy and environment, possessing the support of the statistical area and of energy information. We hope that this document helps to your institutions for the best understanding of the big challenges in the energy sector of our region, which undoubtedly will rebound in the development of our countries. (The author)

  1. Latin American astronomers and the International Astronomical Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    Selected aspects of the participation of the Latin American astronomers in the International Astronomical Union are presented: Membership, Governing bodies, IAU meetings, and other activities. The Union was founded in 1919 with 7 initial member states, soon to be followed by Brazil. In 1921 Mexico joined, and in 1928 Argentina also formed part of the Union, while Chile joined in 1947. In 1961 Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Venezuela were already member countries. At present (October 2016) 72 countries contribute financially to the Union. The Union lists 12,391 professional astronomers as individual members; of those, 692 astronomers work in Latin America and the Caribbean, from 13 member states (Argentina, Bolivia , Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Panamá, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela) as well as from Ecuador and Puerto Rico. This group comprises 5.58% of the total membership, a figure somewhat lower than the fraction of the population in the region, which is 8.6% of the world population. Of the Latin American members, 23.4% are women and 76.6% are men; slightly higher than the whole membership of Union, which is of 16.9%. In the governing bodies it can be mentioned that there have been 2 Presidents of the Union (Jorge Sahade and Silvia Torres-Peimbert), 7 VicePresidents (Guillermo Haro, Jorge Sahade, Manuel Peimbert Claudio Anguita, Silvia Torres-Peimbert, Beatriz Barbuy, and Marta G. Rovira). The IAU meetings held in the region, include 2 General Assemblies (the 1991 XXI GA took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina and the 2009 XXVIII GA, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), 15 Regional Meetings (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay), 29 Symposia (in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico), 5 Colloquia (in Argentina and Mexico), 8 International Schools for Young Astronomers (in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Honduras and Mexico), and 11 projects sponsored by the Office of Astronomy

  2. [Latin-American public policy regarding social determinants of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries' public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries' databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization's concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework.

  3. Prospects of nuclear industry in Latin American

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, S.; Consentino, J.; Eibenschuts, J.; Gasparian, A.E.; Lepecki, W.; Mueller, A.E.F.; Spitalnik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear generation in Latin America are presented. It is mentioned that prior to the implementation of a nuclear power programme a legal, organizational and industrial infrastructure has to be developed as a condition for an effetive technology transfer. It is also mentioned that by the expansion of regional cooperation, existing experience and know-how in Latin America nuclear industry, specially regarding small and medium power reactors, could become an important development factor for the whole region. (R.S.) [pt

  4. Latin American intra-party democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Adrián Martínez Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposes to determine the level of internal democracy of political parties in Latin America from perception of its members, allowing the creation of an index that has parameters for the measurement and comparison of the parties according to its democratic features. At the same time, research supports designing a profile of the parties by subjecting to analysis the relationship between ideology and internal democracy, stressing that despite the differences between left and right, parties in Latin America do not have dichotomous democratic features, while maintaining low levels despite their ideological location.

  5. Exploring entrepreneurial intentions in Latin American university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Contreras Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if entrepreneurial intention, based on Ajzen’s model of planned behavior (1991, can be predicted by risk propensity, internal locus of control and leadership skills. Six standardized and reliable instruments were applied to 1493 undergraduate university business students in Latin American countries, selected through non-random quota sampling in accordance with their formation level in each of the five participating universities. Using structural equation techniques, the research model was validated and intention estimated and analyzed in relation to a set of socio-demographic variables. According to the results, entrepreneurial intention can be significantly predicted by the psychological variables under consideration and, contrary to what has been reported in other research, no gender differences were found in the intention of entrepreneurship. These findings are discussed.

  6. Explorations in Latin American economic history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Arnaut, Javier

    2017-01-01

    More than in other regions, the long-term economic development of Latin America has been used to exemplify how historical legacies shape the present. This thesis takes a closer look into some of these legacies by examining four major economic subjects of the history of the region: fiscal

  7. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-González, Alejandro; Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME ( Biblioteca Regional de Medicina ) LILACS ( Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud ), Google Scholar and Scielo ( Scientific Electronic Library on Line ) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid.

  8. The Problem of Being in Latin America: Approaching the Latin American Ontological sentipensar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CEPEDA H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the following, I endeavor to subvert the classical notion of being found in Western philosophy by following the logic of negation found in the work of Rodolfo Kusch. In order to develop a better understanding of cultural feelings as well as appreciate the natural, the rhythmic and the vital in the Latin American context, I propose that we follow the ontological sentipensar. By using this methodological framework, I seek to reveal a sense of being germane to Latin American intercultural philosophy.

  9. Radiation doses and image quality in pediatric chest X-ray for the diagnosis of pneumonia in selected Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, P.; Fleitas, I.; Cotelo, E.; Estevan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Pneumonia and acute lower respiratory infections in general, is the leading cause of child death in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 4 millions of children die annually due to this disease. Despite the growing use of vaccination as an alternate approach to reduce mortality, the increasing antimicrobial resistance and the high costs of vaccines remain important obstacles in the global struggle against the disease. The usual treatment strategy begins with a clinical examination of the patient followed by the prescription of a chest X-ray. Radiography would appear as the best available method for diagnosing pneumonia only if radiologists (and other health professionals such as pediatricians) knew how to interpret the images showed in the radiographs, and these meeting the standards of quality (anatomic structures, image contrast and optical density, and patient dose among other factors). On the other hand, special attention should be paid on patient doses due to children's specific radiosensitivity, repeated and extended use of chest x-ray in all Radiology Departments, and high rejection rate due to both equipment malfunction and to human skills shortcomings. Patient doses of chest X-ray performed to children less than 5 years old in PAHO Sentinel Hospitals for surveillance of bacterial pneumonias in various Latin American countries were estimated using technical parameters and equipment specifications. Image quality was compared to WHO criteria for chest X-rays quality. Results showing differences in patient doses translates on one hand the impact of specific characteristics of the radiological equipment, including equipment limitations and performance of the radiographs and on the other various and divers levels of health professionals skills and training on image quality interpretation and dose optimization. The study concludes that professionals' training and education on chest radiographs image quality constitutes

  10. [Notes on childhood and theory: a Latin American approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustelo Graffigna, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    This work seeks to introduce and examine different historically relevant theories and propose certain frameworks that allow for the development of a Latin American theoretical approach based in a new discourse regarding childhood and adolescence. In order to undertake the creation of this Latin American approach, understanding the category of childhood as a social and historical construction, the work draws upon the contributions of structuralism (in particular, childhood as a permanent category, its relational dimension with regards to adulthood and its historical and intercultural dimension) and Foucault and Deleuze's concept of the society of control associated with the category of domination, an essential aspect of Latin American thought. The text was presented as a speech in the V World Congress for the Rights of Children and Adolescents held in San Juan, Argentina, from October 15-19, 2012.

  11. Higher education in Latin American: the necessary converge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Joaquim Pinto da Luz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the current status of higher education and its reflection upon economic and social policies in Latin American countries. The university, as one of the most important social institutions – due to its plurality of ideas, creativity and dynamic nature – produces scientific and technological research which transforms society. The present paper identifies the main evaluation and accreditation systems in the region and points out the necessity to converge Latin American education systems, aiming at strengthening and increasing competition in the region economy, taking as an example what has been happening in Europe with the signing of the Bologna Agreement, which in turn has created a common European higher education Space. To achieve this, it is necessary to encourage scientific and cultural exchange programs, review evaluation and accreditation systems and discuss curricula that allow for academic and professional mobility between Latin American countries.

  12. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Nuclear weapons Latin American Proscription Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Military descentralization of Latin America will constitute a measure that will keep its peoples from squandering in nuclear weapons out of their limited resources and will protect them from eventually being attacked in such fashion within their territories. This constitutes a considerable contribution award avoiding proliferation of nuclear weapons as well as a giant step towards general and complete disarmament. It will also constitute evidence that Latin America, faithful to its universalist tradition, not only must make a greater effort towards proscribing from its territories the treat of a nuclear war, but also must use all its resources to persevere in its struggle for welfare and progress of its peoples, cooperating along with the rest of the world to achieve the ideals of mankind as a whole

  14. Multifractal structure in Latin-American market indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Figliola, Alejandra; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Perez, Dario G.; Garavaglia, Mario; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the multifractal nature of daily price and volatility returns of Latin-American stock markets employing the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US) we conclude that the multifractality degree is higher for emerging markets. Moreover, we propose a stock market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. Finally, we analyze the sources of multifractality quantifying the contributions of two factors, the long-range correlations of the time series and the broad fat-tail distributions. We find that the multifractal structure of Latin-American market indices can be mainly attributed to the latter.

  15. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  16. Latin American Philosophers: Some Recent Challenges to Their Intellectual Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Nuccetelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For Latin American philosophers, the quality of their own philosophy is a recurrent issue. Why hasn’t it produced any internationally recognized figure, tradition, or movement? Why is it mostly unknown inside and outside Latin America? Although skeptical answers to these questions are not new, they have recently shifted to some critical-thinking competences and dispositions deemed necessary for successful philosophical theorizing. Latin American philosophers are said to lack, for example, originality in problem-solving, problem-making, argumentation, and to some extent, interpretation. Or does the problem arise from their vices of “arrogant reasoning?” On my view, all of these answers are incomplete, and some even self-defeating. Yet they cast some light on complex, critical-thinking virtues and vices that play a significant role in philosophical thinking.

  17. State of Art of Cancer Pharmacogenomics in Latin American Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Cortés

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, several studies have shown that tumor-related somatic and germline alterations predicts tumor prognosis, drug response and toxicity. Latin American populations present a vast geno-phenotypic diversity due to the great interethnic and interracial mixing. This genetic flow leads to the appearance of complex characteristics that allow individuals to adapt to endemic environments, such as high altitude or extreme tropical weather. These genetic changes, most of them subtle and unexplored, could establish a mutational profile to develop new pharmacogenomic therapies specific for Latin American populations. In this review, we present the current status of research on somatic and germline alterations in Latin America compared to those found in Caucasian and Asian populations.

  18. Latin-American and Chinese students coping with acculturation stress

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    N M Lykova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the research of coping styles of Latin-American and Chinese students from Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in conditions of acculturation stress, in comparison with coping styles of Chinese students who study in their homeland.

  19. Latin American electric power developments and hydrocarbon demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sierra, G.

    1995-01-01

    Latin American countries must address issues such as financing, management (business, technical, environmental) and low-income sectors to promote the structural changes required in energy supply and demand to optimise efficient use. Private sector participation is not only a matter of ownership but raising the level of efficiency. The state's role will be to ensure stability, confidence and environmental safeguards. (author)

  20. Latin American Independence: Education and the Invention of New Polities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined…

  1. Latin American space activities based on different infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Ruth

    The paper deals with recent basic space research and space applications in several Latin-American countries. It links space activities with national scientific and institutional infrastructures and stresses the importance of interdisciplinary space programs, that can play a major role in the developing countries achievement of self reliance in space matters.

  2. ICT and Marketing Challenges in Latin American Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Lourdes

    Latin American libraries have experienced an important development in the last two decades. Telecommunications and Information Technologies (ITC) have been key elements in this process. There are leading institutions with remarkable programs; nevertheless it is necessary to design marketing strategies to improve their benefits. A case study based…

  3. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  4. DOES A LATIN-AMERICAN SECURITY COMMUNITY EXIST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO S. BARROSO CORTÉS

    2017-09-01

    Similarly, the article points out the main characteristics that the Latin American security community would present, and the challenges and handicaps to overcome. To conclude, the article demonstrates how the integration process in this special field continues on, even though the existing context characterized by austerity and a low level of insecurity.

  5. Drug-Induced Anaphylaxis in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jares, Edgardo José; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Ensina, Luis Felipe C; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos; Monsell, Silvana; Schuhl, Juan; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the clinical features and management of drug-induced anaphylaxis (DIA) in Latin America is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess implicated medications, demographics, and treatments received for DIA in Latin American patients referred to national specialty centers for evaluation. A database previously used to compile information on drug-induced allergic reactions in 11 Latin American countries was used to identify and characterize patients presenting specifically with a clinical diagnosis of DIA. Information regarding clinical presentation, causative agent(s), diagnostic studies performed, treatment, and contributing factors associated with increased reaction severity was analyzed. There were 1005 patients evaluated for possible drug hypersensitivity reactions during the study interval, and 264 (26.3%) met criteria for DIA. DIA was more frequent in adults and in elderly females (N = 129 [76.6%] and N = 30 [75%], respectively) compared with children and/or adolescents (N = 21 [42.9%], P asthma (N = 22 vs 35 [38.6% vs 61.4%], P Latin American patients referred for evaluation of DIA, NSAIDs and antibiotics were implicated in approximately 80% of cases. Most of these reactions were treated in the emergency department. Epinephrine was administered in only 27.6% of all cases, although more frequently for anaphylactic shock. Dissemination of anaphylaxis guidelines among emergency department physicians should be encouraged to improve management of DIA. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids.

  7. Master Simon Rodriguez: A critical thinker of latin american education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Antonio Hurtado Arias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lost educational proposals critical Latin American seems a quixotic action in the context of current political realities - economic neoliberal, where the call to the ephemeral and trivial market appears to be from Adorno and Horkheimer: the new “siren” or following the old thesis of Marx, “the new opium of the people”. This text intends to approach the thought of one of the initiators of the movement of popular education or education critic in Latin America; In fact, the teacher Simon Rodriguez (1769 - 1854

  8. Latin American income tax systems and current double taxation agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espinosa Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax systems in Latin America have played a very important role as the main, and in some cases the only, means of obtaining revenue to finance the major public expenditure that is necessary for the work of the states through time. Below is a short review of the main aspects of tax systems in the región, with emphasis on the impact of taxes on income in force in the majorLatin American countries, as well as a brief explanation of the network of agreements to avoid double taxation that are in force in each of them.

  9. The challenge to innovate in the latin american university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Fernández Lamarra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a characterization of the situation of higher education in Latin America. From there are outlined some of the problems that universities, and particularly scholars, must face today. It is also defined some challenges to be affronted with regard to the political, social, academic and the need for one strategy to overcome them based on a fundamental axis: innovation. Finally, we present some ideas on regional convergence as a space to think innovative policies that allow overcoming the problems and current challenges in the Latin American university.

  10. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  11. Social Group Dynamics and Patterns of Latin American Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Dubé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to incorporate social psychology elements with mainstream political science and international relations theories to help understand the contradictions related to the integration processes in Latin America. Through a theoretical analysis, it contributes to the challenge proposed by Dabène (2009 to explain the “resilience” of the Latin American regional integration process in spite of its “instability and crises.” Our main proposition calls for considering Latin America as a community and its regional organizations as “social groups.” In conclusion, three phenomena from the field of social psychology and particularly social group dynamics shed light on these contradictory patterns: the value of the group and the emotional bond, groupthink, and cognitive dissonance.

  12. Coping with Financial Crises: Latin American Answers to European Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.Cavallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe faces challenges reminiscent of Latin American financial crises, namely unsustainable sovereign spreads, banking system distress, sudden stops in capital flows and growth rate collapse. The failure of recent liquidity support to normalize the situation suggests the need to refocus the policy debate on fundamentals: structural reform for growth and, where needed, restructuring to resolve banking crises and the debt overhang.  Latin America’s experience yields relevant policy lessons for Europe on all these fronts, tempered only by the slight exception that sharp real devaluation, which was key to spearheading recovery in Latin America, is unfeasible in the eurozone. Struggling eurozone countries are caught between a rock and a hard place, as the currency union imposes strict policy constraints while the reintroduction of national currencies under conditions of crisis would be catastrophic. Nevertheless, contemporary Europe stands a better chance of recovery because, in contrast with the Latin America experience, the European Union possesses greater avenues for international cooperation. With respect to financial support, a resourceful European Central Bank able to avoid chaotic adjustment by brute force is a decisive advantage of Europe relative to Latin America, which only had access to the weaker and less reliable IMF. Arguably, the limited nature of external support strongly contributed to the depth of Latin America’s great collapses. European cooperation can explore and exhaust alternatives to a euro exit to the benefit of all union members and, if dissolution becomes unavoidable, ensure amicable support to ease the transition. The path to success remains uncharted, however, and implementation of the necessary regional mechanisms will require innovation and political will. If the available means of cooperation are not used effectively, crisis countries in Europe may fare worse than those in Latin America.

  13. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increase in Mexican and Latin American scientific articles on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, R; López-Colombo, A; Schmulson, M

    2015-01-01

    There is an implied perception that little scientific information on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) comes out of Mexico and Latin America in the international medical literature, but the number and tendencies of articles from the region on IBS are not known. To determine the number and type of Mexican and Latin American articles on IBS published between 1990-2015. A systematic search of Medline was carried out employing the terms « Irritable Bowel Syndrome » or its abbreviation (IBS). Mexico and every other Latin American country were added to specify the search. The articles were selected if they were published in Mexico and/or the rest of Latin America, if they were international papers on IBS in the region, or if they were written by Mexican and/or Latin American authors. In addition, the articles were classified into the following categories: Reviews/Editorials/Letters to the Editor (REV/ED), Epidemiology/Quality of Life/Psychosocial Factors (EPI/QOL), Diagnostic (DX), Treatment (TX), and Translational/Pathophysiologic (TRANS) studies. A total of 66 articles from Mexico and 47 from Latin America were identified, but only 87.7 and 48.9%, respectively, fit the selection criteria. Category distribution was: EPI/QOL: 36.2%, REV/ED: 27.5%, TRANS: 18.8, TX: 10%, and DX: 7.5% and was similar between Mexico and Latin America (p=0.33). The year 2005 saw an increase in the number of articles in Mexico, with a peak in 2010. The figures for Latin American articles remained stable over the years, with a peak in 2012. A noticeable increase has been observed over the last decade in the research conducted on IBS in Mexico and Latin America. Even though the EPI/QOL studies predominate, the sophistication of research is reflected in the TRANS studies that are in third place of frequency. The information referred to herein demonstrates maturity in the field, making it possible to carry out consensuses based on local data. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de

  15. PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes Filho, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations

  16. Impact and productivity of Latin American publications about mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Maria Torres-Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available More than a century room recently they have been carrying out, frequently annual Educational Mathematics Latin American Meetings (RELME and the works presented in the event, after a revision for even of experts, the ALME is published (Latin American Mathematics Education Act. We present a qualitative analysis of the impact of publications recorded in ALME in the period between 2000 and 2009. They use scientific production indicators, indicators of impact or influence: who provided the scientific community use made of these results based on the count of citations received by papers published in ALME in the publication itself, supplemented by an analysis of citations according to Google Scholar and collaboration indicators that showed the type of existing collaboration in the scientific community.

  17. Latin American image quality survey in digital mammography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Khoury, Helen; Bitelli, Regina; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Garay, Fernando; Garcia Aguilar, Juan; Gamarra, Mirtha; Ubeda, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Under International Atomic Energy Agency regional programme TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures, Latin American countries evaluated the image quality and glandular doses for digital mammography equipment with the purpose of seeing the performance and compliance with international recommendations. Totally, 24 institutions participated from Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay and Venezuela. Signal difference noise ratio results showed for CR poor compliance with tolerances; better results were obtained for full-field digital mammography equipment. Mean glandular dose results showed that the majority of units have values below the acceptable dose levels. This joint Latin American project identified common problems: difficulty in working with digital images and lack of specific training by medical physicists from the region. Image quality is a main issue not being satisfied in accordance with international recommendations; optimisation processes in which the doses are increased should be very carefully done in order to improve early detection of any cancer signs. (authors)

  18. Globalization, Latin American Migration and Catalan: Closing the Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Garzón

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of globalization dynamics on the use of Catalan among Latin American migrants living in Catalonia. The globalization process pushes towards an increasing mobility of workers and companies. Barcelona is one of the cities where this dynamic has been more evident in the last two decades, with big areas of the city being reshaped in order to suit the needs of global capital. At the same time, Catalonia has been receiving vast numbers of Latin American migrants who already speak Spanish, one of the official languages of the region, but not the other, Catalan. This article will examine the conflicting pressures experienced by those migrants both in the labor market and in their communities.

  19. 1st Latin American Congress on Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Baca, José; Moreno, Héctor; Carrera, Isela; Cardona, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1st Latin American Congress on Automation and Robotics held at Panama City, Panama in February 2017. It gathers research work from researchers, scientists, and engineers from academia and private industry, and presents current and exciting research applications and future challenges in Latin American. The scope of this book covers a wide range of themes associated with advances in automation and robotics research encountered in engineering and scientific research and practice. These topics are related to control algorithms, systems automation, perception, mobile robotics, computer vision, educational robotics, robotics modeling and simulation, and robotics and mechanism design. LACAR 2017 has been sponsored by SENACYT (Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacion of Panama).

  20. CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in Peru

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, Organising Committee

    2013-01-01

    The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics.   Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...

  1. Fourth Latin-American workshop on plasma physics. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of this series of Workshops is to provide a periodic meeting place for Latin-American researchers in plasma physics together with colleagues from other countries around the world. This volume includes the contributed papers presented at the Workshop on Plasma Physics held in Buenos Aires in 1990. The scope of the Workshop can be synthesized in the following main subjects: Tokamak experiments and theory; alternative confinement systems and basic experiments; technology and applications; general theory; astrophysical and space plasmas

  2. 10. Latin American Regional Congress IRPA Protection and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The 10.Latin American Regional Congress IRPA Protection and Radiation Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the april 12 and 17, 2015. In this event, were presented almost 400 papers about these subjects: radiation protection in medicine and industry; radiological and nuclear emergencies; NORM (Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials); reactors; radiation dosimetry; radiotherapy; non-ionizing radiations; policies and communications; etc.

  3. Routine clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals in Latin American developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitta, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the routine clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals in the developing countries of Latin America made possible by: (1) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which sent experts and equipment to many countries and made a substantial bibliographic contribution on the subject; (2) the Latin American Association of Societies of Nuclear Biology and Medicine (ALASBIMN), which fostered the exchange of data on techniques of radiopharmaceutical preparation and quality control by providing materials for tests, etc., and by publishing quality control manuals in some countries, finally in 1982 producing the Manual of Radiopharmaceutical Quality Control, in collaboration with the Inter-American Nuclear Energy Commission (CIEN) and published by the Organization of American States (OAS); (3) the countries themselves under agreements between their atomic energy commissions; (4) radiopharmacy courses organized by universities, either alone or in collaboration with the IAEA, WHO, etc.; (5) professional workers who established radiopharmaceutical services at private centres. Finally, the societies of nuclear medicine and biology in each country, the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, the ALASBIMN, the IAEA, etc. organized symposia and meetings which afforded opportunities to professionals of these countries to receive and exchange information, since in Latin America, given its language and human characteristics, the problems are similar. The countries referred to are Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Panama; little is known about Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Cuba. (author)

  4. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Jorge Oteiza's Modernity and His Latin American Travels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pérez de Mendiola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with Eduardo Chillida, Jorge Oteiza is one of the best-known Basque sculptors of his generation. Although many scholars have written on Oteiza's significant contribution to the field of sculpture, and have analyzed his theories on the meaning of art, very few take into consideration Oteiza's 13 years in Latin America, much less acknowledge that these years had a decisive impact on his art and particularly on his critical essays and poetry. In this essay, I explore how Oteiza's stay in Latin America contributed to his reevaluation of the avant-garde movements in Europe and Latin America, and how it led him to redefine his relationship to progress, science, reason and nature, space and time, ethics, and national art. During the course of his interaction with Latin American artistic movements, Oteiza's thoughts on artistic singularity and universality matured, and he confirmed his strong sense of spirituality in order to liberate traditionally defined conceptual opposites such as the intellectual and the sacred from their teleological confinement.

  6. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  7. Regional variation in asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Aguirre-Camposano, Viviana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the distribution pattern of asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children aged 13-14 years. A randomized, cross-sectional and multicentric study on the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms (lifetime asthma, current wheezing, and frequent sleep disturbance by wheezing) was conducted in 165,917 schoolchildren from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries, as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), Phase Three. The prevalence of lifetime asthma prevalence ranged from 1.2% to 33.1%, whereas current wheezing went from 3.9% to 30.8% and frequent sleep disturbance from 0.6% to 6.1%. An important proportion of centers (55%) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms over 15%. There was no significant correlation between asthma symptom prevalence and latitude, altitude, or tropical setting. At country level, the prevalence of asthma was not associated with gross national income (GNI), proportion of population under the poverty line, or ancestry. This study suggests that ecological interactions, probably typical for each locality, may be the main determinants for the large variability of asthma prevalence in Latin America. The high prevalence of asthma symptoms found in children living in areas with low socioeconomic development would challenge the protective role against asthma of factors related to low hygiene and poverty; contrarily, in this region they would act as risk factors.

  8. Critical Poverty and Marginality in Latin America: Security and Defense Problems for the Latin American Countries in the Near Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vietry, Jose

    1997-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, the quality of life in Latin American countries has deteriorated drastically, observing in almost all the countries a decline in real salaries, because of an elevated rate...

  9. Embracing openness: the challenges of OER in Latin American education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Paola Mireles Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open Educational Resources (OER movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in education is a very innovative one, and it has not been embraced by many. In some regions, such as Latin America, OER is still in its early stages and faces many challenges that need to be addressed. Some of these challenges include awareness raising and capacity development. But there is a bigger challenge to face: embracing openness as a core value and an institutional strategy. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of the meaning of the term “open” in education and we analyze the challenges facing the OER in Latin American countries.

  10. Going private: the Latin American energy market heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The rising use of gas as a power generation fuel in nine Latin American countries was discussed. Demand for power in Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico, and Ecuador is expected to more than double by 2015, rising from a 1995 level of 568 terawatt-hours to 1,207 terawatt-hours. Gas demand in the area is expected to increase threefold during the same period, as low-cost, clean-burning natural gas turbines become the desirable means of generation. Recently, every country in Latin America has seen an increase in development which is expected to continue as governments transfer assets from public to private ownership and as demand continues to outpace resources of existing utilities. Mexico is expected to be the largest consumer and producer of natural gas if deregulation of the natural gas market continues successfully. Argentina will also play a major role in meeting the increased demand for natural gas

  11. Latin American Consensus for Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 2017: Latin American Pediatric Critical Care Society Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; Almonte, Enma; Alvarado, Manuel; Bogado, Norma Beatriz; Cyunel, Mariana; Escalante, Raffo; Finardi, Christiane; Guzmán, Gustavo; Jaramillo-Bustamante, Juan C; Madrid, Claudia C; Matamoros, Martha; Moya, Luis Augusto; Obando, Grania; Reboredo, Gaspar; López, Lissette R; Scheu, Christian; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Yerovi, Rocío; Yock-Corrales, Adriana

    2018-03-01

    To develop a Latin American Consensus about Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. To clarify, reinforce, and adapt some specific recommendations for pediatric patients and to stimulate the implementation of these recommendations in clinical practice. Expert consensus recommendations with Delphi methodology. Latin American countries. Experts in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation from 19 Latin American countries. Delphi methodology for expert consensus. The goal was to reach consensus with all the participating experts for every recommendation. An agreement of at least 80% of the participating experts had to exist in order to deliver a recommendation. Two Delphi voting rounds were sent out electronically. The experts were asked to score between 1 and 9 their level of agreement for each recommendation. The score was then classified into three groups: strong agreement (score 7-9), moderate agreement (score 4-6), and disagreement (score 1-3). Nineteen experts from 19 countries participated in both voting rounds and in the whole process of drafting the recommendations. Sixteen recommendations about organization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, prevention, basic resuscitation, advanced resuscitation, and postresuscitation measures were approved. Ten of them had a consensus of 100%. Four of them were agreed by all the participants except one (94.7% consensus). One recommendation was agreed by all except two experts (89.4%), and finally, one was agreed by all except three experts (84.2%). All the recommendations reached a level of agreement. This consensus adapts 16 international recommendations to Latin America in order to improve the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children. Studies should be conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of these recommendations.

  12. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Javier; González, Álvaro; Castillo, Andrés; Caneo, Luiz Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To review the principles of neonatal‐pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource‐limited countries in Latino America. Sources: The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly‐indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Summary of the findings: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides “time” for pulmonary and cardiac res...

  13. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Latin American regional co-operative programme on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The ''Latin American Regional Co-ordinated Research Programme on Food Irradiation'' was established in 1986 with the participation of research scientists from countries in the region to investigate the efficacy of food irradiation as a treatment to reduce post-harvest losses and improve the hygienic quality of food, to conduct techno-economic feasibility studies, and to disseminate knowledge about the scientific, health, legal and commercial aspects of food irradiation. This publication contains the final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme and summaries of individual research reports presented by the participating scientists

  15. [Latin American contribution to the study of Helicobacter pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2009-09-01

    We have reviewed Lilacs, PubMed and Google searching for original articles related to Helicobacter pylori published by Latin American investigators from 2003 to 2008. Contributions in the following fields by countries are: Molecular biology: Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal diseases: Brasil, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and extra digestive diseases: Brasil, Colombia and Venezuela. Pediatrics: Brasil, Cuba y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela.

  16. Renewable energy and power cooperation between China and six Latin American nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuetao; Yan, Bingzhong; Zhou, Shichun

    2018-02-01

    China has been entitled the biggest supplier and largest market of renewable energy for the past few years. With One Belt and One Road initiative carrying on, the China’s renewable energy industry is looking for opportunities across the world. Latin America, which has rich renewable energy resources and urge demand for a cleaner and more sustainable energy system, may become an important target market for China. The prospect and potential of renewable energy cooperation between China and Latin America are promising. In this paper, six Latin American nations of varied background were selected as study cases. Their nation profile, energy resources, power market, and energy development trends were analysed, and the cooperation prospect and potential between these nations and China in renewable energy sector were discussed. The results indicate that Argentina and Bolivia are most potential cooperation partners, and project development and equipment manufacturing of non-hydro renewable energy, along with power grid upgrading are the prioritized areas. In addition, recommendations and solutions addressing the issues and challenges incurred in the current bilateral energy cooperation between China and Latin American nations were proposed.

  17. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  18. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Javier; González, Álvaro; Castillo, Andrés; Caneo, Luiz Fernando

    To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Kattan

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. Sources: The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Summary of the findings: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides “time” for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. Conclusions: The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future.

  20. Ceftaroline activity tested against contemporary Latin American bacterial pathogens (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Flamm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2484 target bacterial pathogens were collected (one per patient episode from patients in 16 Latin American medical centers located in seven nations during 2011. Isolate identity was confirmed at a coordinating laboratory and susceptibility testing was performed for ceftaroline and comparator agents according to reference broth microdilution methods. A total of 30.0% of isolates were from respiratory tract, 29.4% from skin and skin structure, 21.4% from blood stream, 7.9% from urinary tract and 11.3% from other sites. Ceftaroline was active against Staphylococcus aureus (42.8% MRSA with 83.6% of the isolates at ≤1 mg/L and all isolates at ≤2 mg/L (MIC5090, 0.25/2 mg/L. National MRSA rates ranged from a low of 28.8% in Colombia to a high of 68.1% in Chile. All Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC50/90 values were at ≤0.015/≤0.015 mg/L for both. All Streptococcus pneumoniae were susceptible to ceftaroline, linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone was at 88.4% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria and 73.9% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria for all S. pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone susceptibility was only at 33.3% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria and 0.0% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria for penicillin-intermediate (penicillin MIC, 4 mg/L strains. All Haemophilus influenzae (29.4% β-lactamase-positive isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline, amoxicillin–clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin. For the Latin American region, the ESBL-phenotype rate was 37.6% for Escherichia coli and 53.3% for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ceftaroline was not active against ESBL-phenotype strains but was active against >90.0% of the non-ESBL-phenotype. The spectrum of activity of ceftaroline against pathogens from Latin America indicates that it merits further study for its potential use in the Latin American region.

  1. The Subject, Feminist Theory and Latin American Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Castro-Klaren

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, this essay reviews and analyzes the interaction between metropolitan feminist theories and their interphase with the academic criticism of texts written by Latin American women. Discussion focuses on the question of the subject, which the author believes to be paramount in feminist theory, in as much as the construction of gender and the historical subordination of women devolve on the play of difference and identity. This paper examines how the problematic assumption by feminist theorists in the North American academy of Freudian and Lacanian theories of the subject pose unresolved problems and unanticipated complications to subsequent deployment of this subject theory as modes of interpretation of texts written by women in Latin America or even to the emancipatory goals on feminists in the academy. This is a case where "traveling theory" must be examined and evaluated very carefully. The second part of the paper concentrates on the feminist challenges that have been already made to both Freudian and Lacanian theories of the feminine. It highlights the work of Jane Flax, Nacy Chodorov, Gayatri Spivak and Judith Butler in suggesting a way out of theories that rely on the primacy of the male subject formation and therefore occlude and preclude the investigation of the modes of women's agency.

  2. Nasal allergies in the Latin American population: results from the Allergies in Latin America survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffen, Hugo; Mello, Joao F; Sole, Dirceu; Naspitz, Charles K; Dodero, Alberto Eduardo; Garza, Héctor León; Guerra, Edgard Novelo; Baez-Loyola, Carlos; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Allergies in Latin America is the first cross-national survey that describes the symptoms, impact, and treatment of nasal allergies (NAs) in individuals >or=4 years old in Latin America (LA). In total, 22,012 households across the Latin American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela were screened for children, adolescents, and adults with a diagnosis of NA and either symptoms or treatment in the past 12 months. A total of 1088 adults and 457 children and adolescents were included and the sample was probability based to ensure valid statistical inference to the population. Approximately 7% of the LA population was diagnosed with NAs with two of three respondents stating that their allergies were seasonal or intermittent in nature. A general practice physician or otolaryngologist diagnosed the majority of individuals surveyed. Nasal congestion was the most common and bothersome symptom of NAs. Sufferers indicated that their symptoms affected productivity and sleep and had a negative impact on quality of life. Two-thirds of patients reported taking some type of medication for their NAs, with a roughly equal percentage of patients reporting taking over-the-counter versus prescription medications. Changing medications was most commonly done in those reporting inadequate efficacy. The most common reasons cited for dissatisfaction with current medications were related to inadequate effectiveness, effectiveness wearing off with chronic use, failure to provide 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects (e.g., unpleasant taste and retrograde drainage into the esophagus). Findings from this cross-national survey on NAs have confirmed a high prevalence of physician-diagnosed NAs and a considerable negative impact on daily quality of life and work productivity as well as substantial disease management challenges in LA. Through identification of disease impact on the LA population and further defining treatment gaps, clinicians in

  3. Latin American Bioethics: intangible outline of the continent’s reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Porto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This brief essay proposes to reflect on what could be Latin American bioethics, speculating about possible identity characteristics and operational limits of the idea of what constitutes Latin America, outlined conceptually by geographical, historical and cultural aspects. This attempt does not assume the task of defining exactly or definitively what Latin American bioethics is, but rather limits itself to the purpose of causing controversy in order to stimulate reflection on this topic to assess its usefulness.

  4. Earnings inequality within and across gender, racial, and ethnic groups in four Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Wendy; Jacobsen, Joyce P.

    2008-01-01

    Latin American countries are generally characterized as displaying high income and earnings inequality overall along with high inequality by gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not a major contributor to the former phenomenon. Using household survey data from four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Guyana) for which stratification by race...

  5. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073181773; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since

  6. Family Literacy Practices and Parental Involvement of Latin American Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lorna; Lavan, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This article draws upon three years of interviews and participant observation research in the Chelsea Public Schools, to discuss the impact of the Chelsea Family Literacy Program on promoting Latin American immigrant mothers' involvement in their children's education. The authors present the voices of Latin American immigrant mothers who describe…

  7. From magic to science: a journey throughout Latin American medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Blas, G

    2000-01-01

    The start of Latin America's love story with fungi may be placed in pre-Hispanic times when the use of fungi in both ritual ceremonies and daily life were common to the native civilizations. But the medical mycology discipline in Latin America started at the end of the 19th Century. At that time, scholars such as A. Posadas, R. Seeber, A. Lutz and P. Almeida, discovered agents of fungal diseases, the study of which has influenced the regional research ever since. Heirs to them are the researchers that today thrive in regional Universities and Research Institutes. Two current initiatives improve cooperation among Latin American medical mycologists. First, the periodical organization of International Paracoccidioidomycosis Meetings (seven so far, from 1979 to 1999); second, the creation of the Latin American Association for Mycology in 1991 (three Congresses, from 1993 to 1999). Latin American publications have increased in international specialized journals such as that from our Society (ISHAM) (from 8% in 1967 to 19% in 1999), and the Iberoamerican Journal of Mycology (Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia; > 40% from 1997 to 1999). In addition, Latin American participation at ISHAM International Congresses has risen from 6.9% in 1975 to 21.3% in 1997, and 43.2% at the 14th ISHAM Congress, held for the first time in a Latin American country, Argentina. A significant contribution of women to the scientific establishment of Latin American medical mycology (e.g., 45% of Latin American papers vs. 18% of other regions published in Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in 1987, had women as authors or coauthors) suggests a better academic consideration of Latin American women against their counterparts in the developed world. Taken together, all these figures reflect the enthusiasm of our Latin American colleagues in the field, despite the difficulties that afflict our region, and affect our work.

  8. The Latin American contribution to the psychoanalytic concept of phantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Izelinda Garcia

    2012-12-01

    The author argues that the ubiquity of phantasies at various levels of mental functioning is undisputed in the current schools of psychoanalytic thought; however, she demonstrates some variations in their understanding of how the psychotherapeutic access to different configurations occurs. In the process of examining and acknowledging the central role played by unconscious phantasies in his patients' symptoms, Freud gradually broadened the vernacular meaning of the German word 'Phantasie' that refers to imagination and the world of imagination, conferring on it the specific features that came to characterize its use in the psychoanalytic vocabulary. Later, the expansion of the concept derived from Melanie Klein's clinical material obtained from child analyses gave rise to important debates. The author discusses the main points of disagreement that led to these debates, as well as their various theoretical and technical implications. Psychoanalytic associations in Latin America were strongly influenced by Klein and her followers. Thus, most of their scientific writings use the concept of unconscious phantasy put forward by the Kleinian school. Taking Kleinian principles as their starting point, Baranger and Baranger made the most original Latin American contribution to the concept of unconscious phantasy with their works on the unconscious phantasies generated by the analytic pair. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Effective promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women newly immigrated to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman-Vitale, S; Murillo, E K

    1999-07-01

    Across the United States, advance practice nurses (APNs) are increasingly encountering recently immigrated Latin American populations. This article provides an overview of the situation of Latin Americans in the United States and discusses aspects of Latin American culture such as, respeto (respect), confianza (confidence), the importance of family, and the value of a personal connection. Strategies that will assist practitioners to incorporate culturally holistic principles in the promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women who are new arrivals in the United States are described. If practitioners are to respond to the increasing numbers of Latin American women who need health care services, and also provide thorough, holistic health care then health care activities must be integrated with cultural competence.

  10. Identifying the factors driving market selection in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Despite of the fact that the body on international marketing focuses on emerging markets is growing, the attention paid to the Latin American context continues to be very limited. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how a number of market conditions may constrain diffusion of franchising into those nations. They are: i) geographical distance; ii) cultural distance; iii) uncertainty avoidance; iv) individua...

  11. Latin American alternatives to Environmental Crisis gestated Beyond Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeaneth Nunes Stefaniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze some proposals contained in the laws Latin American for the treatment of nature and which opposes the capitalist mode of production, currently hegemonic, which have a destructive logic of reproduction, incessant expansion produced serious environmental crisis in which the planet is immersed. The constitution of Ecuador and the Law of Mother Earth in Bolivia, constitute revolutionary experiences in seeking a new format for sustainability, considering the environmental complexity, treats the earth as a living being and fundamental to the maintenance of the human existence, recreating the ethics of responsibility in the relationship with the environment. The nature so conceived has rights that must be protected on the basis of in dubio pro environment, placing environmental concerns at a higher hierarchical level, besides creating several mechanisms to ensure that alternative mode of living, there called good life, which distinguished contemporary societies live better on capitalist liberal guidance.

  12. Communication and Health - themes, issues and Latin American perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Inesita Soares de; Cabrera, Jesús Arroyave

    2012-01-01

    Editorial Reciis Vol 6, No. 4 -. Communication and Health - themes, issues and Latin American perspectives Editorial Vol Reciis 6, No. 4 -. De Comunicación y Salud - temas, problemas y perspectivas de América Latina A Comunicação e Saúde vem conhecendo nas duas últimas décadas uma grande expansão. Formada na interface de dois campos solidamente constituídos – o da Comunicação e o da Saúde – e frequentemente articulada com os da Ciência &Tecnologia e da Educação, a Comunicação e Saúd...

  13. Critics horizons of school management: Latin American perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz RAMÍREZ ARISTIZÁBAL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has defined a way to be school as a stage in which the State devises certain ways of behaviour, citizen education and institution conception specific for a determined social order. Consequently, the direction of the school becomes a key strategy of the hegemonic project. This article aims to outline some signs that demonstrate an alternative school management in order to contribute to the school of thought on Latin-American perspectives in education. It aims to offer other keys on the perception of the Colombian reality on school management from a critical position that allows the creation of scenarios full of learning possibilities in the inside and outside of the school.

  14. [Quality of life in Latin American immigrant caregivers in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Andreu; Taltavull, Joana Maria; Gastaldo, Denise; Luengo, Raquel; Izquierdo, María Dolores; Juando-Prats, Clara; Sáenz de Ormijana, Amaia; Robledo, Juana

    2015-01-01

    To describe perceived quality of life in Latin American caregivers working in Spain and how it varies in relation to certain variables shared by this group. We used the SF-36 to measure perceived quality of life in 517 women residing in five Spanish regions: the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, the Basque Country, the Canary Islands, and Madrid. Several variables related to the socio-demographic profile and migration process were studied using Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models. The participants scored very low on the dimensions of physical and emotional roles. The factors associated with lower quality of life scores within the group were working as a live-in caregiver, lack of contract, multitasking, irregular status, and younger age. The vulnerability of these women can be explained by poor working conditions and other factors related to the migratory process. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. [IBEAS design: adverse events prevalence in Latin American hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranaz-Andrés, J M; Aibar-Remón, C; Limón-Ramírez, R; Amarilla, A; Restrepo, F R; Urroz, O; Sarabia, O; Inga, R; Santivañez, A; Gonseth-García, J; Larizgoitia-Jauregui, I; Agra-Varela, Y; Terol-García, E

    2011-01-01

    To describe the methodological characteristics of the IBEAS study: adverse events prevalence in Latin American hospitals, with the aim of analysing the magnitude, significance and impact of adverse events (AE); to identify the main problems associated with patient safety AE; to increase the capacity of professionals involved in patient safety; and the setting up of patient safety agendas in the participating countries. A patient safety study launched in 35 Latin American hospitals through the analysis of AE in 5 countries: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico and Peru, using a cross-sectional study using a review of clinical records as the main method. The implications of using a cross-sectional design when studying AE are described, in terms of resources required, internal validity and usefulness related to risk management. The cross-sectional design seems an efficient methodology in terms of time and resources spent, as well as being easy to carry out. Although the cross-sectional design does not review the all hospital episodes, it is able to provide a reliable estimate of prevalence and to support a surveillance system. Because of a possible survival bias, it is likely that the AE which led to hospital admissions will be overestimated, as well as the health related infections or those adverse events which are difficult to identify if the patient is not examined (e.g. contusions). Communication with the ward staff (if the patient is still hospitalised) help in finding the causality and their prevention. Copyright © 2010 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  17. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  18. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kovalskys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  19. [Which are the most influential journals, books and scientists in Latin American biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

    2004-03-01

    A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial

  20. Do cultural differences influence batterer intervention program outcomes? A studywith Spanish and Latin American offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability, responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The sample consisted of 278batterers (211 Spanish and 67 Latin American who participated in a community-based battererintervention program. Results showed significant differences between Spanish and Latin Americanoffenders in perceived severity, victim blaming, violence against women acceptability, and benevolentsexism. Regarding batterer intervention program outcomes, results showed that despite initial differencesbetween Spanish and Latin American offenders, both groups benefit equally from the intervention.

  1. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different

  2. [Migrations in Latin American countries. Characteristics of the pediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-De Kartzow, Rodrigo; Castillo-Durán, Carlos; Lera M, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon among Latin American countries (LAC) as well as others; however, scarce information is available studying its impact on paediatric groups and its association with socioeconomic variables. To study the association among socioeconomic variables and the immigration rate of paediatric population in LAC. Official rates of migration of LAC were obtained from: International Organization for Migration, Pan American Health Organization, and United Nations Development Programme. Demographic and socioeconomic information was also obtained for: gross domestic product (GDP), human development index (HDI), Gini coefficient of inequality (GC), alphabetization rate for adults (AA), net migration rate (NMR), and immigration of childrenChile and Argentina. No association among NMR and GDP, HDI, GC, AA was found. A correlation of IM15 was found with: GC (r=0.668, P=.01), with GDP (r=-0.720; P=.01), AA (r=-0.755; P=.01) and with HDI (r=-0.799; P=.01). Rate of IM15 was lower in LA countries with advanced/medium development (GDP>median) vs those with low development (Fisher, P<.0001). There is a direct inverse association between GDP per capita, HDI, AA and GC and the proportion of each country IN15. We did not observe an association between NMR and HDI, AA, and GC. The health impact of these migrations should be analysed. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  4. Latin American electric power developments and hydrocarbon demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy sectors in Latin American countries are undergoing a series of far-reaching changes in institutional arrangements and roles. These changes will have a decisive influence on energy sector evolution in coming decades. The results of two decades of mismanagement in the region's energy sector are outlined, showing stagnation in the electric power and petroleum industries caused by such factors as bureaucratic management, preferential treatment given to public enterprises, the adoption of objectives other than economic profitability, insufficient self-generation of resources due to tariffs not reflecting economic costs, and heavy debt burdens. If forecasts of future energy demand in Latin America are correct, the region's hydrocarbon sector will have to invest ca US$20 billion/y and the electric power sector nearly the same amount. This is considered beyond the capacity of the region's industries. Private sector participation is expected to raise the efficiency level of the hydrocarbon and power industries through such initiatives as privatization (complete or partial), joint government-private ventures, subcontracting, direct investment, and opening of monopolies such as power distribution to third-party competition. The state role in this process will be to create a suitable environment for private enterprise including clear and stable rules and regulatory frameworks. Financing options are discussed along with ways to reduce investment requirements. It is especially possible to reduce such requirements in the power sector through such means as retrofitting of plants with more modern equipment, reducing power losses, improved metering and billing, energy substitution, demand-side management, and energy conservation programs

  5. Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguimoto S Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

  6. 2015 Latin American School of High-Energy Physics | Ibarra, Ecuador | 4 - 17 March 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to draw your attention to the 2015 Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, to be held in Ibarra, Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015.   PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 21 NOVEMBER 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that financial support may be available for Latin American students attending the School. Although the School is targeted particularly at students from Latin American countries, it is open to self-funding students from other regions. More details can be found here.

  7. Training courses for Latin American human resources in subjects related to RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, T.E.; Harriague, S.; Perez, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1986, the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina organized three post-graduate courses on research reactors, aimed at the Latin American region. Twenty one university graduates from Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, and six from Argentina, attended the courses. Lecturers were in all cases staff members of CNEA. These activities of Manpower Development in the Latin American Region are part of an overall program starting in the early sixties at CNEA's Development Branch. The interest shown by many Latin American countries in these courses, the technical training received and the technical cooperation established among the participants, are taken as a measure of the success obtained. (Author)

  8. The future of the IMF: A Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Cabezas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating trend of globalization of the  world economy is putting high demands on global  institutions. The IMF has been looking for new  legitimacy in a world where countries traditionally seeking IMF support have become more financially independent. Latin America, a frequent user  of IMF lending facilities, has also entered a new  phase of economic autonomy with the IMF. This  has not come unnoticed since Latin America has  traditionally accounted for more than 40 per cent  of total IMF credit. This article brings up lessons  from Latin America’s long-term experience with  the IMF. It tries to assess whether the Institution  is still relevant for the region, and, if so, whether a  ‘mild’ reform is sufficient for the IMF or a more  radical reform is necessary to meet the challenges  faced by Latin American countries in a fast changing global economy. Resumen: El futuro del Fondo  Monetario Internacional: Una perspectiva latinoamericanaLa acelerada tendencia hacia la globalización de  la economía mundial está planteando enormes  demandas a las instituciones globales. El FMI ha  estado buscando una nueva legitimidad en un  mundo donde los países que solicitaban tradicionalmente el respaldo del FMI son cada vez más  independientes económicamente. América Latina,  un usuario frecuente de las facilidades crediticias  del FMI, también ha entrado en una nueva fase de  autonomía financiera con respecto al FMI. Esto  no ha pasado desapercibido, ya que América  Latina da cuenta tradicionalmente de más del 40  por ciento del total de los créditos del FMI. Este  artículo trata las lecciones de la larga experiencia  de América Latina con el FMI. Trata de determinar si la institución es todavía relevante para la  región y, en caso de ser así, si una reforma ‘moderada’ sería suficiente para el FMI o si se necesita  una reforma más radical para responder a los  desafíos que enfrentan los pa

  9. Assessing the economic effects of Latin American independence

    OpenAIRE

    Prados de la Escosura, Leandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic consequences of independence in Latin America. Grand interpretations that assess Nineteenth Century Latin America by comparison to the U.S. performance are examined and the alternative approach of using African and Asian post-colonial experiences as the yardstick is explored. Empirical evidence on the consequences of removing the colonial burden and opening up to the international economy is, then, examined. The paper concludes with discussion of when Latin A...

  10. Proceedings of the 2. Latin American Meeting on Atomic, Molecular and Electronic Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Pinho, A.G. de; Souza, G.G.B. de.

    1988-01-01

    Annals of the II Latin American Meeting on Atomic, Molecular and Electronic Collisions. Over than 50 people from Latin America participated on this meeting giving talks on different subjects (theoretical and experimental), related to atomic and molecular physics, as well as, nuclear physics. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  11. Evaluation of the Company Size Effect on Latin American Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the existence of the size effect on the most important stock markets in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru for the period between 2002 and 2012, using the cross-section contrast methodology of the size effect in the CAPM context. Results show that there is reversed effect in some of the Latin American markets.

  12. Foreign exchange intervention and central bank independence: The Latin American experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Mauricio; Da Silva, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Employing data from 13 Latin American countries, we find that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. We also find that the structural reforms that occurred in Latin America mostly in the 1990s helped to reduce the need for foreign exchange intervention.

  13. Some Contributions from Latin American Career Counselling for Dealing with Situations of Psychosocial Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Afonso; da Conceição Coropos Uvaldo, Maria; da Silva, Fabiano Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Facing a working world more flexible, unstable and potentially generator of vulnerabilities, the career counselling has required contemporary approaches that meet these demands, which ones have been present in Latin America for a long time. Thus, the present paper aimed to analyse some Latin American proposals and highlight general principles to…

  14. Technological Unemployment: an approximation to the Latin American Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS AGUILERA

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI, robotics, control systems, software and related technologies have revived the debate on the influence that technology has on labor markets. So far, the focus of the literature has been on advanced economies. This document aims to analyze the following variables: domestic spending in science and technology, GDP per capita, nominal minimum wage, domestic spending in education and their impact on unemployment rate in seven Latin American countries from 1996 to 2011. Panel data was used to measure the relation of these variables with unemployment rates in the region. The results allowed us to conclude that investment in Science and Technology in the region has not reached levels that potentially reduce employment; on the contrary, innovation is regarded as a source of labor productivity gains. The broader implications of technology and automation are yet to be seen, however, both firms and the public sector in the region must prepare for massive technological unemployement, as predicted by recent models.

  15. Maternal undernutrition and cardiometabolic disease: a Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Sotomayor-Rubio, Aristides; Mantilla-Garcia, Daniel; Lopez-Lopez, Jose

    2015-03-02

    The current epidemic of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases in developing countries is described as being driven by socioeconomic inequalities. These populations have a greater vulnerability to cardiometabolic diseases due to the discrepancy between the maternal undernutrition and its consequence, low-birth weight progeny, and the subsequent modern lifestyles which are associated with socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Maternal undernutrition can generate epigenetic modifications, with potential long-term consequences. Throughout life, people are faced with the challenge of adapting to changes in their environment, such as excessive intake of high energy density foods and sedentary behavior. However, a mismatch between conditions experienced during fetal programming and current environmental conditions will make adaptation difficult for them, and will increase their susceptibility to obesity and cardiovascular diseases. It is important to conduct research in the Latin American context, in order to define the best strategies to prevent the epidemic of cardiometabolic diseases in the region.

  16. Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Partner Violence Against Women Among Latin-American Immigrants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, first, data about perceptions and attitudes in Latin-American immigrants and the Spanish population towards intimate partner violence against women. Secondly, it explores correlates of attitudes towards reporting cases of partner violence against women in a sample of Latin-American immigrants. Three data sources, which include two representative samples of the Spanish population and a sample of Latin-American immigrants, are used. Results show significant differences between Spanish and immigrant perceptions and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women. Analyses also show that positive attitudes among Latin-American immigrants towards reporting cases of partner violence were more frequent among those who were less tolerant, who perceived it as a major problem in society, and tended not to blame the victims. These results underline the importance of public attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women for the understanding and prevention of this social problem.

  17. Latin American Perceptions of Regional Identity and Leadership in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Onuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Public opinion plays a growing role in foreign policy formation in democratic societies. In this study, we use survey data from The Americas and the World project to establish whether Latin Americans share a common regional identity, and regard Brazil as a regional leader. Our results indicate that the majority of Brazilians do not identify themselves as Latin Americans. Moreover, while they believe their country is the most suitable candidate for regional leadership, they are unwilling to bear the costs of assuming such a role. Our study also explores perceptions of regional identity and Brazilian leadership in other Latin American countries, based on their own respective power aspirations. It shows that less powerful Latin American nations recognise Brazil as a regional leader, but citizens in middle powers, like Argentina and Mexico, still believe their countries should play a prominent regional role.

  18. Latin American Integration: Regionalism à la Carte in a Multipolar World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Quiliconi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the different approaches proposed by authors who have done research on Latin American integration and regionalism, and suggests that there are three competing initiatives of integration and regionalism in the third wave of Latin American integration: Post-Liberal Regionalism contained within UNASUR and ALBA, Open Regionalism Reloaded in the region through the Pacific Alliance, and Multilateralism or Diplomatic Regionalism with a Latin American flavor envisaged in the recently created CELAC. The study concludes that these new developments of a regionalism à la carte are a product of dislocation of the economic agenda of regionalism towards a set of diverse issues. Hence it demands a rethinking of the theorization of Latin American Regionalism.

  19. Classical technical analysis of Latin American market indices. Correlations in Latin American Currencies (ARS, CLP, MXP) exchange rates with respect to DEM, GBP, JPY and USD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.; Ivanova, K.

    2004-06-01

    The classical technical analysis methods of financial time series based on the moving average and momentum is recalled. Illustrations use the IBM share price and Latin American (Argentinian MerVal, Brazilian Bovespa and Mexican IPC) market indices. We have also searched for scaling ranges and exponents in exchange rates between Latin American currencies ($ARS$, $CLP$, $MXP$) and other major currencies $DEM$, $GBP$, $JPY$, $USD$, and $SDR$s. We have sorted out correlations and anticorrelations of such exchange rates with respect to $DEM$, $GBP$, $JPY$ and $USD$. They indicate a very complex or speculative behavior.

  20. Comparison of Childrearing Practices of Anglos, Cuban-Americans, and Latin Americans. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escovar, Luis; Escovar, Peggy L.

    In this report perceived childrearing practices among three cultural groups (American Anglos, Cuban Americans, and Latin Americans) were compared. Subjects were 445 college students (168 males and females from universities in Colombia and Venezuela, and 154 from a university in South Florida). A multivariate analysis of covariance was used to…

  1. Prevalence of Sleep Related Symptoms in Four Latin American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouscoulet, Luis Torre; Vázquez-García, Juan Carlos; Muiño, Adriana; Márquez, Maria; López, Maria Victorina; de Oca, Maria Montes; Talamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuze, Julio; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: to estimate the prevalence of the most common sleep related symptoms (SRS) in the metropolitan areas of Mexico City, Montevideo (Uruguay), Santiago (Chile), and Caracas (Venezuela). Methods: The study consisted of a multistage cluster sampling of adults aged ≥ 40 years living in metropolitan areas. All participants completed a questionnaire on sleep related symptoms. Simplified respiratory polygraphy during sleep was conducted on 188 subjects from Mexico City. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was defined as Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 11 and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 15 events/h; a cut-off of 15 was chosen because of its high sensitivity and specificity in association with the portable monitor used in the study. Results: The study included 4,533 subjects (1,062 in Mexico City, 941 in Montevideo, 1,173 in Santiago, and 1,357 in Caracas). Snoring was reported by 60.2% (95% CI 58.8% to 61.6%), excessive daytime sleepiness by 16.4% (15.3% to 17.5%), observed apneas by 12.3% (11.4% to 13.3%), insomnia by 34.7% (33.3% to 36%), sedative use by 15.1% (14.1% to 16.2%), daytime napping by 29.2% (27.7% to 30.6%), and a combination of snoring, sleepiness, and observed apneas by 3.4% (2.9% to 4%). Men had a higher frequency of snoring and daytime napping, whereas women reported more insomnia and sedative use. Prevalence of OSAS varied from 2.9% among subjects who denied snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and observed apneas, to 23.5% among those reporting these 3 symptoms. Conclusions: A high prevalence of sleep related symptoms and undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea in Latin America was observed. Citation: Bouscoulet LT; Vázquez-García JC; Muiño A; Márquez M; López MV; Montes de Oca M; Talamo C; Valdivia G; Pertuze J; Menezes AMB; Pérez-Padilla R. Prevalence of Sleep Related Symptoms in Four Latin American Cities. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(6):579-585. PMID:19110888

  2. Assisted reproduction techniques in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier; Musri, Carolina; Urbina, Maria Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction techniques (IVF and intractytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI], frozen embryo transfer, oocyte donation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and fertility preservation) were collected from 159 institutions in 15 Latin American countries. A total of 41.34% of IVF-ICSI cycles were conducted in women aged 35-39 years and 23.35% in women aged 40 years and older. After removing freeze-all cases, delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 25.05% for ICSI and 27.41% for IVF. Multiple births included 20.78% twins and 0.92% triplets and over. In oocyte donation, twins reached 28.93% and triplets 1.07%. Preterm deliveries reached 16.4% in singletons, 55.02% in twins and 76% in triplets. Perinatal mortality in 18,162 births was 23 per 1000 in singletons, 35 per 1000 in twins, and 36 per 1000 in high-order multiples. Elective single embryo transfer represented 2.63% of fresh transfers, with a 32.15% delivery rate per transfer. Elective double embryo transfer represented 23.74% of transfers, with a 41.03% delivery rate per transfer; 11,373 babies (62.6%) were singletons; 6398 (35.2%) twins, and 391 (2.2%), triplets and more. Given the effect of multiple births on prematurity, morbidity and perinatal mortality, reinforcing the existing trend of reducing the number of embryos transferred is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Latin american sociology's contribution to sociological imagination: analysis, criticism, and social commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Tavares-dos-Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the role played by sociology in the analysis of the transformation processes in the Latin American societies, in following the construction process of both State and Nation, and in questioning the social issues in Latin America. Six periods of sociology in Latin America and in the Caribbean Islands are analyzed: (i sociology's intellectual inheritance; (ii the authoritative-teaching sociology; (iii the "scientific sociology" period and the configuration of the "critical sociology"; (iv the institutional crisis, consolidation of the "critical sociology", and the diversification of sociology; (v the sociology of authoritarianism, of democracy, and of exclusion; and (vi the institutional consolidation and the worldization of sociology in Latin America (from the year 2000 on. It can be said that the distinctive features of the sociological knowledge in the continent have been: internationalism, hybridism, critical approach to the processes and conflicts in the Latin American societies, and social commitment on the part of the sociologist.

  4. Beliefs About Health and Illness in Latin-American Migrants with Diabetes Living in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group inter...

  5. [The League of Nations Health Organization and the rise of Latin American participation, 1920-40].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The League of Nations Health Organization collaborated with Latin American specialists in public health and infectious diseases from the early 1920s to the outbreak of the Second World War. The League developed studies of infant health and nutrition, and leprosy. The approach was expert-oriented, and designed to develop public health on a scientific basis. There were conferences, tours and reports in Latin America. This paper demonstrates that the Latin American collaboration with the Health Organization was extensive and multi-faceted.

  6. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  7. Beyond Latin Americanism and other Accidental/Occidental tourism: Guatemala (NS) in seach of cultural theory, and more

    OpenAIRE

    Volek, Emil

    2005-01-01

    This essay focuses on the current malaise in Latin American studies. More generally, it discusses how dogmatic theoretical assumptions, specifically postmodern, impair productive critical diagnosis of rapidly changing reality, such as that of Latin America today. As a result, two very different images of present-day Latin America are put forth, one, by a diverse group of emerging new leading Latin American thinkers and scholars, critical of intellectual currents that coalesced in macondismo, ...

  8. Bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions in dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Polania, Felipe; Perilla-Gonzalez, Yuliana; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Baquero-Rodriguez, Juan D; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lagos-Gallego, Mariana; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts in prevention and control of dengue, it is still a public health problem in the region. There are estimations of 13 million people affected in the Americas, therefore, it is of outmost importance to research it. An assessment on the Latin- American contributions on dengue was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980- 2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980- 2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index have been conducted. At SCI, 2598 articles were retrieved (21% of the total). Brazil was found to be the highest contributor (31.2%), then Puerto Rico (12.9%) and Mexico (10.7%). At Scopus, there are 2646 articles (16.7% of the total), 31.2% Brazil, 11.1% Mexico, 9.3% Cuba; the region received 41881 citations, 25.4% from Brazil (H index=45), 14.4% Cuba (H index=35) and 12.88% Puerto Rico (H index=38); 9.1% in Brazil were from Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 1.6% of Mexico corresponded to Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, 4.9% of Cuba are from Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri. At Medline, there are 2799 records (33.9% from Brazil). At SciELO there are 825 records (46.6% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1178 records (46.8% Brazil). Brazil is the best producer in the region. In Puerto Rico and Brazil, there observed the epidemiologic burden of the disease. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is low, as compared to the high impact of the disease of in urban zones of the region.

  9. Gendered Boundaries among Latin American Migrants in Brussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Pérez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research conducted in Brussels, this article analyses gender-based constructions in relation to paid domestic work. We focus our attention on Latin American migrants who, unlike migrants from other regions, come from societies where paid domestic work has been the main occupation of women throughout the twentieth century, where it was strongly shaped by a colonial legacy. We identify two main tropes within the discourse of our informants regarding this kind of work: the ‘(gendered professional’ and the ‘(domestic worker’. In our analysis, particular attention is given to the participation of men in paid domestic work within the context of migratory experiences.Resumen: Trabajadores domésticos y fronteras generizadas entre migrantes latinoamericanos en BruselasA partir de una investigación etnográfica realizada en Bruselas, este artículo analiza las construcciones de género relacionadas con el trabajo doméstico remunerado. Focalizamos la mirada en migrantes latinoamericanos, quienes, a diferencia de migrantes de otras regiones, provienen de sociedades donde el trabajo doméstico remunerado ha sido la principal ocupación para las mujeres durante el siglo XX, fuertemente marcada por una herencia colonial. Identificamos dos tropos centrales en el discurso de nuestros informantes sobre dicho trabajo, el ‘profesional (generizado’ y el ‘trabajador (doméstico’. Merece atención particular en nuestro análisis la participación de los varones en el trabajo doméstico remunerado en el marco de experiencias migratorias.

  10. Latin-American guidelines for opioid use in chronic nononcologic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Solares, Argelia; Aguayo Zamora, Carlos; Amescua García, César; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Berenguel Cook, María Del Rosario; Bonilla Sierra, Patricia; Campos Kraychete, Durval; Flores Cantisani, José Alberto; Guerrero, Carlos; Guillén Núñez, María Del Rocío; Hernández Castro, John Jairo; Hernández Ortíz, Andrés; Jreige Iskandar, Aziza; Lech, Osvandré; Macías Guerra, Jacqueline; Ramírez Samayoa, Gerardo; Rangel Morillo, Edwin; Rico Pazos, María Antonieta; Sempértegui Gallegos, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Latin-American experts in the use of opioids in patients with chronic nononcologic pain (CNOP) have updated existing recommendations to current Latin-American reality. Several key opinion leaders from Latin America participated in a face-to-face meeting in Guatemala (April 2015) to discuss the use of opioids in CNOP. Subgroups of experts worked on specific topics, reviewed the literature and shaped the final manuscript. The expert panel developed guidelines taking into consideration the utility of both opioid and nonopioid analgesics and factors pertaining to their efficacy, safety, adherence, administration and risks for abuse/addiction. Latin-American guidelines for the use of opioids in CNOP should improve pain relief and patients' quality of life by increasing access to these effective agents.

  11. Challenges in the management of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Maillo, B; López-Vélez, R

    2017-05-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America. Due to migration the infection has crossed borders and it is estimated that 68,000-120,000 people with Chagas disease are currently living in Europe and 30% of them may develop visceral involvement. However, up to 90% of Chagas disease cases in Europe remain undiagnosed. The challenges which have to be overcome in Chagas disease in non-endemic countries are focused on related downing barriers to health care access, and related to screening, diagnostic tools and therapeutic management. The aim of this review is to highlight how healthcare management for Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe may be improved. Medical literature was searched using PubMed. No limits were placed with respect to the language or date of publication although most of the articles selected were articles published in the last five years. Chosen search terms were "Chagas disease" AND ("migrants" OR "screening" OR "transmission" OR "treatment"; OR "knowledge" OR "non-endemic countries"); migrants AND ("Public health" OR "Health Service Accessibility" OR "Delivery of Health care"); and "Congenital Chagas disease". Healthcare management of migrant populations with Chagas disease in Europe has to be improved: -Surveillance programmes are needed to measure the burden of the disease; -screening programmes are needed; -administrative and cultural barriers in the access to health care for migrants should be reduced; -education programmes on Chagas disease should be performed -research on new diagnostic tools and therapeutic options are required. This review highlights the needs of profound changes in the health care of Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Earthworms as Invasive Species in Latin America — the 2nd Latin American Meeting on Oligochaeta (Earthworm) Ecology and Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    This special issue is based on scientific contributions presented at the 2nd Latin American Symposium of Earthworm Ecology and Taxonomy (ELAETAO, for its Spanish acronym) held in San Juan, Puerto Rico November 14-18, 2005. The first of these symposia was organized by George G. Brown and Klaus D. Sautter and held at Londrina, Brazil from December 1-3, 2003.The objective...

  13. Violence in three Latin American cities: A comparative study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given Latin America's higher levels of economic and human development, experts ... and socially disadvantaged groups; - establish existing levels of cohesion, trust, ... Institution. Universidad de Chile. Pays d' institution. Chile. Site internet.

  14. Latin American Economic History, Business History and Economics of Enterprise: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Almaraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies about Latin American business are worried about their position on the emerging and global economies. In this article we want to remark the important role of the universities, institutes, schools, and research centers in Latin America that make possible the research work and the publication of Bulletins, Journals and books on business history. In this way, we observe the recent activities of associations and international groups that focus in Latin American Business History in the last twenty five years. We identify the advances and goals in this arena and agreed with Carlos Davila about the thematic diversity and the need to achieve methodological rigor and theoretical propositions. For this reason, we emphasize the historical role of Latin American enterprises and the role of the family business, and their position in the global economies. This article has a double aim, on the one hand, we offer an overview and a state of the art about Latin American Business History. And, on the other hand, we emphasize, within the field of Latin American business, emergent studies that show the potential of this discipline to participate in broader debates about innovation, corporate governance and learning.

  15. Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

    2007-05-01

    ; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

  16. Latin American Art Music in the Music History Curriculum: Taking Stock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Hess

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the teaching of Latin American art music in U.S. post-secondary education from the 1930s to the present. After a rush of enthusiasm during the Good Neighbor period (World War II, decades of indifference set in. After 2000, an increasing number of instructors began either (1 teaching the art music of Latin America in courses dedicated to all types of Latin America music or (2 incorporating the subject into existing courses on Western art music. Yet many instructors still omit Latin American art music, as do certain authors. In this essay, I question such a stance. Not only does Latin American art music offer a window into Latin American culture but it can help counteract persistent stereotypes about Latin America, a perspective that is all the more critical in light of recent demographic trends in the United States and recent political developments.

  17. Assessing Liberalization and Deep Integration in FTAs: A Study of Asia-Latin American FTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshan Wignaraja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-regional free trade agreements (FTAs - notably between Asia and Latin America - are growing in numbers and complexity. There is an absence of an agreed methodology for empirical assessments on the content of FTAs and little research. This paper proposes a framework to assess liberalization in FTAs in goods and services and new trade policy issues relating to regulatory barriers. Next, it applies this framework to studying the 22 Asia-Latin America FTAs in existence. The findings suggest that Asia-Latin American FTAs have laid the foundations for inter-regional integration by liberalizing the trade in goods and services and reducing some regulatory barriers. Deepening FTAs and adopting structural reforms will enhance Asia-Latin American integration in the future.

  18. The PREEV project of the Latin American Forum.Regulatory practices on aging and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The American Forum Plenary approved in 2008 the PREEV project, Regulatory Practices in Aging and Life Extension, whose main objective is to improve the regulatory action with regard to the management programs of life and long-term operation of nuclear power plants in the countries of the region Latin American.

  19. Book review: The Latin American left after more than a decade in power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Reneé Barrientos Garrido

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed books: Pedrosa, Fernando La otra izquierda. La socialdemocracia en América Latina. Capital Intelectual, 2012. 484 págs. Levitsky, Steven y Roberts, Kenneth (eds. The Resurgence of the Latin American Left. The John Hopkins University Press, 2011. 496 págs. Dominguez, Francisco; Lievesley, Ge­raldine y Ludlam, Steve (coords. Right-wing Politics in the New Latin America: Reaction and Revolt. ZedBooks, 2011. 280 págs.

  20. The Meaning of and Proposals for Latin-American Cooperation in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Agnaldo; Acevedo-Triana, César Andrés; López-López, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates several advantages and difficulties associated with international scientific cooperation. Due to the need to identify possible areas for cooperation between researchers in Latin America-a way of strengthening cooperation networks-the present qualitative study investigated the meaning of cooperation among Latin American authors and proposals to pursue this endeavor. A purposive sample of 26 researchers responded to 2 open questions. The responses were subjected to them...

  1. Urban development and transport disadvantage: Methodology to evaluate social transport needs in Latin American cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarraga, Carmen; Jaramillo, Ciro; Grindlay, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the theoretical framework for accessibility, social exclusion and provision of public transport. The socio-economic and urban characteristics of Latin American cities require the creation of specific indices to determine social needs for public transport. In the article an index of social transport needs is drawn up. It can be used to highlight a problem which is severely affecting wide groups in Latin America who suffer social exclusion aggravated by a deficient provisi...

  2. An approach to the broadband effect on Latin American growth: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Verónica Alderete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the fixed broadband penetration effect on Latin American economic growth. The methodology employed consists of using a simultaneous equation model based on Koutroumpis (2009 and Katz and Callorda (2013. To aid this process, we use country level data from the World Bank and the Regional Dialogue about the Information Society-DIRSI for the 2010-2014 period. The results obtained stress the importance of broadband penetration for economic growth in Latin America.

  3. U.S.-Latin American Nuclear Relations: From Commitment to Defiance

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public display, distribution unlimited "Latin America is once again playing an active role in economic and world affairs. This recent activism is taking place after the region experienced decades of stagnant growth, financial chaos, and political instability. To date, Latin American countries are experiencing robust economic growth, spurred mostly by a strong Asian demand for commodities and the rapid expansion of middle classes across the region. In this context, there is a g...

  4. CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics | Arequipa, Peru | 6-19 March 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics targets particularly at students in experimental HEP who are in the final years of work towards their PhDs.   However, it is anticipated that some post-doctoral students in experimental HEP, and some students in phenomenology, including some Masters students, will also be accepted. It should be noted that some pre-knowledge of the subjects is necessary in order to be able to profit fully from the lecture courses. Demand for admission to the CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics exceeds the number of available places, so a competitive selection is made based on information provided on the application form and the letter of recommendation from the candidate's professor or supervisor. The application deadline is 16 November 2012 More information here.

  5. Scientific Strategies and practices in Latin American Scientific Communication Reviews. An approach to their structural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gustavo A. León Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific production of the magazines here analyzed emphasizes the existence of a specializing and dominant perspective of study in the field of the Latin-American research in communication in the last years. This perspective of study has clearly two trends of practical boarding. A trend is the one that is debated in the research applied to the communication in means, where there exists the predominance of two particular lines of study and today probably turned into both principal slopes of study inside the Latin-American research of the communication. On the other hand, there is emphasized the research of the properly academic communication, where, in general lines, his idea of construction it develops from a particular perspective of study of the communication that no doubt is analogous to what they raise and demand separately and with different shades two of the principal institutional initiatives and collective academic that generate nowadays the Latin-American Thought of the Communication (PLC: The called Latin-American School of the Communication (ELACOM and the Researcher Latin-American Association of the Communication (ALAIC.

  6. "THE ALEPH LATIN AMERICAN" The simultaneity as a symptom for literary criticism in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Franco Castaño

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of literary criticims in latin America along with the dialogue other disciplines, such as the mass media role and the popular discourses, have provoked firts, a line of work whit resilient proposal towards the totalization, radicalism and monological responses, where the literature situation is shown as an objet of culture comprehension. And second, the cultural context as a principle for the aesthetics understanding hang this in mind. The purpose of this article is to digin on how those phenomen of cultural criticism in Latin America, have been oriented, in the last decade, and how their different and eclectic proposals offer a vission of what national and national literature, are in a time in which globalization, simultaneity and hybridation still being the reference for literature discourses.

  7. 10th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Angelo Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the most important and traditional events on High Energy Physicsin Latin America. Bringing together theorists and experimentalists to present the state of the art of many different topics, it provides a major forum for the discussion of the latest developments in the field. It is a unique opportunity to exchange new ideas and to foster new collaborations.

  8. Latin American Urbanization Presented as a Decision-Making Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengert, Arlene C.; Monk, Janice J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college-level geography unit on the socioeconomic influences affecting urban migration of women in Latin America. In role-playing modules, students explore dilemmas influencing individual migration decisions, Peace Corps project planning, and long-term international aid programs for urban Peruvian women. (AM)

  9. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  10. Digital Poverty : Latin American and Caribbean Perspectives | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    information et de la communication (TIC) et le besoin d'établir des politiques de TIC favorables aux pauvres et adaptées au contexte de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes. Les auteurs montrent à quel point les réformes du marché ont ...

  11. Analysis and Overall Evaluation of Latin American Trade Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sideri (Sandro)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractDevelopment thlnking and practive in Latin America have been strongly influenced by the centre-periphery approach with its heavy emphasis on international trade, considered the most important variable in the analytical explanation of the origin of underdevelopment as well as in the

  12. Language Policy and Planning: Challenges for Latin American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Rainer Enrique; Álvarez López, Elisa; Carvalhal, Tatiana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Latin America as a context for language policy and planning (LPP) decisions in the academic field. Then it gives a brief overview of the language policy challenges faced by universities to cope with neoliberal internationalisation. A conceptualisation of the domain as a…

  13. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechelli, C.M.; Brandt, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay

  14. Critical Vision of Security Governance in Three Latin American ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    María José Peréz

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... It will compare security policies in 3 capitals of Latin America from 2008 to 2013. • Special attention ... Council. ▫ Deputy ministers or vice ministers. Critical aspect. Lack of political weigtht to ... ▫Interventions should be based on.

  15. Latin-American writing initiatives in engineering from Spanish-speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Narváez-Cardona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Latin-American publications from Spanish Speaking countries to map programs pursued in the Region and then provide a context to envision further research agendas for Latin-American Writing Studies in engineering. The analysis of 22 publications suggests that initiatives and studies in engineering are recent (as of 2009. The sample reveals an emphasis on pedagogically-oriented publications focused on engineering as one field. The trends suggest that the Latin-American writing advocates in engineering might benefit by incorporating theoretical frameworks for a exploring and understanding different roles of writing across time and curriculum in student learning and by engineering subfields and, b exploring theoretical approaches to understand genres beyond individual texts (i.e., genre repertoires and genre systems.

  16. Latin-American writing initiatives in engineering from Spanish-speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Narváez-Cardona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n3p223 This article analyzes Latin-American publications from Spanish Speaking countries to map programs pursued in the Region and then provide a context to envision further research agendas for Latin-American Writing Studies in engineering. The analysis of 22 publications suggests that initiatives and studies in engineering are recent (as of 2009. The sample reveals an emphasis on pedagogically-oriented publications focused on engineering as one field. The trends suggest that the Latin-American writing advocates in engineering might benefit by incorporating theoretical frameworks for a exploring and understanding different roles of writing across time and curriculum in student learning and by engineering subfields and, b exploring theoretical approaches to understand genres beyond individual texts (i.e., genre repertoires and genre systems.

  17. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  18. [Professional opinion about hospitalising Latin-American immigrant children in Andalucía, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María J

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increase in paediatric hospital attention being provided for Latin-American immigrant patients in Spain during the recent years. This work was aimed at ascertaining professionals' opinion regarding this population's specific and differential needs concerning Latin-American immigrant children being hospitalised. The study consisted of a qualitative, phenomenological type of investigation, based on semi-structured interviews of key informers in Andalusia (Spain). The subjects of the study were professionals from paediatric services in hospital centres in Andalusia. One of the most prominent (positive) results revealed that the Latin-American immigrant population presented less difficulties regarding hospital functioning when compared to other immigrant groups. The psychological aspects which had most impact on paediatric hospitalisation would be emotional alterations, such as the presence of anxiety and stress, or other aspects, like a lack of trust when being hospitalised.

  19. The burden of asthma in children: a Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Mocelin, Helena Teresinha

    2005-03-01

    Worldwide, studies on asthma prevalence have shown major rises over the last 30 years. The impact on the burden of asthma is being increasingly recognised. In some countries in Latin America, the prevalence of asthma is among the highest in the world. Asthma admissions are very common in children, leading to high costs for the health systems of those countries. Unfortunately, Latin America has limited resources to pay for appropriate treatment. The main goals of the international guidelines for asthma treatment are not being met. However, asthma programmes operating in some countries are showing promising results in reducing asthma admissions and consequently decreasing the burden of asthma. Local adaptation of international guidelines must be implemented in order to decrease costs and optimise outcomes.

  20. Comings and Goings: The Multiple Faces of Latin American Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Kemper

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available – Displacements and Diasporas: Asians in the Americas, edited by Wanni W. Anderson and Robert G. Lee. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press, 2005. – Indigenous Mexican Migrants in the United States, edited by Jonathan Fox and Gaspar Rivera-Salgado. Distributed by Lynn Rienner Publishers for the Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UCSD, and the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, UCSD, 2004. – Diáspora michoacana, edited by Gustavo López Castro. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán y el Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán, 2003. – The Japanese in Latin America, by Daniel M. Masterson (with Sayaka FunadaClassen. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004. – Jewish Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean: Fragments of Memory, edited by Kristin Ruggiero. Brighton, East Sussex: Sussex Academic Press, 2005.

  1. 11th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the premier series of international meetings – High energy physics in Latin America. The present edition will be held in the city of Antigua Guatemala, from November 14 - 18th 2016. The program contains plenary talks aimed at reviewing the status of the recent advances in frontier topics in High Energy Physics, both theoretical and experimental. It also includes parallel sessions of specialized talks.

  2. Latin American Civil-Military Relationships in a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has historically speaking been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil p...

  3. Atopic Dermatitis Guideline. Position Paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the nal version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the nal document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians, patients and academic institutions such as universities and scienti c societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the nal drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists. This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that

  4. Atopic dermatitis guideline. Position paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías, A; Olmos, C; de Falco, A

    2014-01-01

    As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI) conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the final version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the final document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians), patients and academic institutions such as universities and scientific societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the final drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists). This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that can be

  5. A Brief History of International Latin American Student Fraternities: A Movement That Lasted 86 Years (1889-1975)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An international Latin American student fraternity movement preceded the current Latino Greeks that are seen on college campuses today. This document provides new information that has not been published. The movement lasted 86 years and primarily served wealthy international Latin American students who came to the United States to study and, once…

  6. The Literary Agent as 'Broker': A Case Study on the Latin American 'Boom' and the Book Market in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuitert, L.

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses the agents active in the ‘boom’ of Latin American literature in the Netherlands. Initially, the interest in Latin American literature was very limited in the Netherlands. Spanish writers were more popular. On the basis of bibliographical information, one can clearly see how

  7. Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture through Film: "Raices de mi corazon" and Cuba's "Guerrita de los Negros"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown an absence of Afro-Latin American culture at all levels of Spanish instruction. In this essay, I propose the use of film to expand the undergraduate curriculum. Film provides both a visual and cultural narrative for the understanding of Latin American history, culture, and literature, and is an invaluable resource for teaching…

  8. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET

  9. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  10. Water Landscapes Volcano approximation to Latin American political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimonda, Hector

    2008-01-01

    The field of Political Ecology in Latin America has been formed more as a place of intellectual exchange than as a scientific and specialized discipline. This is a critical approach open to questions and feedback among several areas of knowledge. It put in place. A reflection about the relationships between knowledge (about nature) and power. There are two may approaches: one materialist, and the other, constrictive. A step forward may result from conciliation between those studying distributive conflicts and those paying attention to process of appropriation and control of nature

  11. Cyber Security and Habeas Data: The Latin American response to information security and data protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Parraguez Kobek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Habeas Data is not a commonly known concept, yet it is widely acknowledged in certain circles that deal with information security and data protection. Though it has been around for decades, it has recently gained momentum in Latin America. It is the legal notion that protects any and all information pertaining to the individual, from personal to financial, giving them the power to decide how and where such data can be used. At the same time, most Latin American countries have created laws that protect individuals if their  information is misused. This article examines the concept of Habeas Data from its inception to its current applications, and explains the different approaches and legislations passed in Latin American countries on data protection due to the rise of global cybercrime.

  12. Desloratadine therapy improves allergic rhinitis symptoms in latin american children aged 6 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Paolo; Suárez, Nelson R; Centeno, Jorge; Velásquez, Janina Vergara; Aguirre-Mariscal, Héctor; Gonzálezdíaz, Sandra N; Jerves, Alfredo Fernández de Córdova

    2009-04-01

    : To determine the effectiveness of desloratadine syrup in relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) among children in Latin America. : In an open-label trial conducted in 5 Latin American countries, 455 children aged 6 to 12 years with seasonal or perennial AR were treated with desloratadine syrup 2.5 mg/d for 6 weeks. Thirty percent of subjects were concomitantly taking corticosteroids, and 21.3% had a history of asthma. Efficacy was measured by improvement in the Total Symptom Severity 4 questionnaire and decrease in severity of individual nasal symptoms of congestion, rhinorrhea, pruritus, and sneezing. Physicians and subjects' caregivers rated symptom improvement in a separate assessment at final visit. : Treatment with desloratadine led to a significant decrease in mean Total Symptom Severity 4 score, from 7.54 at baseline to 1.96 at study end (P Latin American children.

  13. Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

    2013-04-01

    Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.

  14. Proceedings of the 6. Brazilian Congress on Energy; 1. Latin-American Seminary on Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A diversity of topics and a great range of studies pertinent to the subject 'energy' are presented in these Proceedings of the 6. Brazilian Congress on Energy and 1. Latin-American Seminary on Energy, including environment, institutional models of energy sector, planning and energy politics, production, conversion and energy use, technology innovation and methodology

  15. Machismo: Manifestations of a cultural value in the Latin American casino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W N

    1991-06-01

    Casino operations were observed in twelve Latin American countries. Owners, managers, employees, players, and government regulators in each of these countries were interviewed. The concept of machismo is described in its historical and cultural context. It is then used to illuminate casino operations and the mode of play in existence in these casinos.

  16. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  17. Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

  18. Film as Revolutionary Weapon: A Pedagogical Analysis. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Riverside. Latin American Studies Program.

    This paper describes a university course designed to examine the use of film as a revolutionary medium in Latin American countries. Objectives of the course were to illustrate the complexity of studying a film genre, develop an analytical framework for comparing revolutionary films, and encourage students to reach their own conclusions about the…

  19. Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

  20. Commodity versus Common Good: Internationalization in Latin-American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Marco Aurelio Navarro

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the meaning of internationalization using some Latin American experiences of higher education, to identify two views of this activity and pose the need for reflection upon internationalization as a means that should correspond to pedagogical ends in the context of globalization. [For the complete Volume 15…

  1. Two Decades of Planning in Latin American Universities: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel J.

    The paper provides a framework for identifying trends in planning in Latin American universities for the last 20 years. Identification of the planning trends is based on two main dimensions: the purpose of the relationship between universities and the external environment (organization-centered versus society-centered), and the degree by which the…

  2. Daily Family Conflict and Emotional Distress among Adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained…

  3. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  4. Latin American social medicine across borders: South-South cooperation and the making of health solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles

    2018-02-22

    Latin American social medicine efforts are typically understood as national endeavours, involving health workers, policymakers, academics, social movements, unions, and left-wing political parties, among other domestic actors. But Latin America's social medicine trajectory has also encompassed considerable between-country solidarity, building on early twentieth century interchanges among a range of players who shared approaches for improving living and working conditions and instituting protective social policies. Since the 1960s, Cuba's country-to-country solidarity has stood out, comprising medic exchanges, training, and other forms of support for the health and social struggles of oppressed peoples throughout Latin America and around the world, recently via Misión Barrio Adentro in Venezuela. These efforts strive for social justice-oriented health cooperation based on horizontal power relations, shared political values, a commitment to social and economic redistribution, bona fide equity, and an understanding of the societal determination of health that includes, but goes well beyond, public health and medical care. With Latin America's left-wing surge now receding, this article traces the provenance, dynamics, impact, challenges, and legacy of health solidarity across Latin American borders and its prospects for continuity.

  5. Social Representations of Latin American History and (PostColonial Relations in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Alves Brasil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of history play an important role in defining the identity of national and supranational groups such as Latin America, and also influencing present-day intergroup relations. In this paper, we discuss a study that aimed to analyse and compare social representations of Latin American history among Brazilian, Chilean, and Mexican participants. We conducted a survey with 213 university students, aged 18 to 35 years old, from these three countries, through an online questionnaire with open-ended questions about important events and people in the region's history. Despite the reference to different historical events and the existence of national specificities, several common topics were noteworthy across the three samples. There was a centrality of events involving political issues, conflicts and revolutions, as well as a recency effect and a sociocentric bias, replicating previous research about social representations of world history in different countries. There was also a strong prominence of colonization and independence issues in all samples. Through an emphasis on a common narrative of struggle and overcoming difficulties, the participants’ social representations of Latin American history may favour mobilization and resistance, challenging the stability and legitimacy of the existing social order. Furthermore, the findings are discussed in terms of their potential connections with present-day intergroup relations within Latin America, and between Latin America and other parts of the world.

  6. Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it. PMID:21547054

  7. Segmenting the Latin American travel market to South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.

  8. The Abortion Issue in the Development Agenda of Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lamas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which offers a regional overview of the feminist struggle for abortion rights in Latin America, begins by reminding the reader of the context, characterized by poverty and marginalization, in which the region's women become mothers, as well as the deadly consequences of illegal abortion. It subsequently outlines the political tension between some state governments and feminists, particularly the friction that results from interference by the Catholic church hierarchy. The article outlines a few paradigmatic cases that exemplify the Vatican's sensationalist strategy as well as feminist responses by means of networks and taking advantage of regional and international arenas. It argues that abortion rights are a question of social justice and public health and form part of aspirations for democracy. It also makes mention of the theoretical debate on how differences between the sexes are handled by legal systems.

  9. Science in the Press in Nine Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Massarani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present a panorama of the journalistic coverage of science and technology themes in Latin America, taking as a case study 12 newspapers of signifcant impact in the region, involving nine countries. We collected the stories published in the science section from January to April 2006, and analyzed them based on the constructed week methodology and using quantitative tools. In total, our sample amounted to 681 stories. Among our fndings, we observed an important presence of medicine and health issues as main topics of the stories. National science has space in the newspapers, although less than scientifc results from developed countries. Benefts are stressed in the stories, while a low level of controversies is observed. Scientists are the main source for the journalists, with a low representation of the former in stereotyped images in most of the newspapers.

  10. Indoor radon measurements and methodologies in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.; Lopez, F.O.; Arnaud, M.I.; Oliveira, A.A.; Neman, R.S.; Hadler, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio, A.M.; Aparecido, R.; Rodriguez, C.; Moreno, V.; Vasquez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Martinez, T.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, I.; Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Tamez, E.; Pereyra, P.; Lopez-Herrera, M.E.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2001-01-01

    According to the current international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and to know the indoor radon levels, specially since most of the natural radiation dose to man comes from radon gas and its progeny. Several countries have established National Institutions and National Programs for the study of radon and its connection with lung cancer risk and public health. The aim of this work is to present the indoor radon measurements and the detection methods used for different regions of Latin America (LA) in countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. This study shows that the passive radon devices based on alpha particle nuclear track methodology (NTM) is one of the more generalized methods in LA for long term indoor radon measurements, CR-39, LR-115 and Makrofol being the more commonly used detector materials. The participating institutions and the radon level measurements in the different countries are presented in this contribution

  11. Assisted reproductive techniques in Latin America: The Latin American Registry, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A.; Musri, Carolina; Urbina, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction techniques undertaken in 2014 were collected from 159 institutions in 15 countries in Latin America. Treatments included IVF/ ICSI, FET, OD, PGD and fertility preservation (FP). 41.34% of IVF/ICSI cycles were performed in women aged 35 to 39 years and 23.35% in women aged 40 and older. After removing cases with total freezing, delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 25.05% for ICSI and 27.41% for IVF. Multiple births included 20.78% twins and 0.92 % triplets and over. In OD, twins reached 28.93% and triplets 1.07 %. Preterm deliveries reached 16.4% in singletons, 55.02% in twins and 76% in triplets. Perinatal mortality in 18,162 births was 23 per 1000 in singletons, 35 per 1000 in twins, and 36 per 1000 in high-order multiples. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) represented only 2.63 % of fresh transfers, with a delivery rate of 32.15% per transfer. Elective double embryo transfer (eDET) represented 23.74% of transfers, with a delivery rate of 41.03% per transfer. Among babies born during this period 11,373 (62.6%) were singletons; 6,398 (35.2%) twins, and 391 (2.2%), triplets and more. Given the effect of multiple births on prematurity, morbidity and perinatal mortality, reinforcing the existing trend of reducing the number of embryos transferred is mandatory PMID:28837023

  12. Is International Relations still an American social science discipline in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Duarte Villa

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 40 years, investigations have shown the discipline of International Relations to reproduce the American influence on its methods, paradigms, and institutional dynamics. This article explores the case for the Latin American community, based on the survey data from the Teaching, Research, and International Politics project (TRIP 2014 developed by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations of the College of William and Mary, Virginia (USA. TRIP evaluated International Relations communities in 32 countries around the world. The article aims to answer two main questions: (i is American influence still dominant over epistemological, methodological, paradigmatic, and institutional representative terms in Latin American International Relations communities, as has been considered in the past? (ii Is there in the region any contestation to this supposed influence? Primarily, the present article shows an affirmative answer for the first issue. Therefore, and most importantly, the data analysis shows upcoming local pressures rooted in American influence, especially on its epistemic and paradigmatic terms. The data strengthens the miscegenation tendency on its epistemological and paradigmatic aspects, which underlines a lack of consensus over the structure of American dominance over the discipline of International Relations in Latin America, especially if one observes the most numerous and structured group in the region: the Brazilian International Relations community.

  13. The first Latin American workshop on professional skills for young female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, A.; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Ponce-Dawson, Silvina

    2015-12-01

    To effectively build capacity for research and training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) across Latin America and the Caribbean, a gender perspective must be factored in. Working from an awareness of the gender situation as well as of the multiple personal challenges experienced due to gender disparity, a group of Latin American female scientists organized a workshop with the goal of empowering young female scientists and assessing the challenges they face. In this paper we summarize the outcomes of the workshop, highlighting the barriers that are common in the region. Among other aspects, the workshop stressed the need for resource platforms for finding technical and professional networks, jobs, and scholarships.

  14. Impacts of Climate Variability on Latin American Small-scale Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Defeo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries (SSFs are social-ecological systems that play a critical role in terms of food security and poverty alleviation in Latin America. These fisheries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic and climatic drivers acting at multiple scales. We review the effects of climate variability on Latin American SSFs, and discuss the combined effects of two additional human drivers: globalization of markets and governance. We show drastic long-term and large-scale effects of climate variability, e.g., sea surface temperature anomalies, wind intensity, sea level, and climatic indices, on SSFs. These variables, acting in concert with economic drivers, have exacerbated stock depletion rates in Latin American SSFs. The impact of these drivers varied according to the life cycle and latitudinal distribution of the target species, the characteristics of the oceanographic systems, and the inherent features of the social systems. Our review highlights the urgent need to improve management and governance systems to promote resilience as a way to cope with the increasing uncertainty about the impacts of climate and globalization of markets on Latin American SSFs.

  15. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Cons-Molina, F; Deleze, M; Ragi, S; Haddock, L; Zanchetta, J R; Jaller, J J; Palermo, L; Talavera, J O; Messina, D O; Morales-Torres, J; Salmeron, J; Navarrete, A; Suarez, E; Pérez, C M; Cummings, S R

    2009-02-01

    In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries. These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those found in the USA using the same standardized methodology. We report the first study of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin America. An age-stratified random sample of 1,922 women aged 50 years and older from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico were included. In all cases a standardized questionnaire and lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine were obtained after informed consent. A standardized prevalence of 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) was found. The prevalence was similar in all five countries, increasing from 6.9% (95% CI 4.6-9.1) in women aged 50-59 years to 27.8% (95% CI 23.1-32.4) in those 80 years and older (p for trend < 0.001). Among different risk factors, self-reported height loss OR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18-2.25), and previous history of fracture OR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03) were significantly (p < 0.003 and p < 0.04 respectably) associated with the presence of radiographic vertebral fractures in the multivariate analysis. In the bivariate analyses HRT was associated with a 35% lower risk OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.93) and physical activity with a 27% lower risk of having a vertebral fracture OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.98), but were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses We conclude that radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures are common in Latin America. Health authorities in the region should be aware and consider implementing measures to prevent vertebral fractures.

  16. [From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletta, H

    1988-12-01

    The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling

  17. Evaluating the costs of pneumococcal disease in selected Latin American countries Evaluación de los costos de la enfermedad neumocócica en países seleccionados de América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna Constenla

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the costs of pneumococcal disease in Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, to describe how these costs vary between different patient groups, and to discuss factors that affect these cost variations. METHODS: The cost of pneumococcal disease was estimated from the health care perspective. For each country, baseline cost estimates were primarily developed using health resources information from patient-level data and facility-specific cost data. A regression model was constructed separately for four types of pneumococcal diseases. The skewness-kurtosis test and the Cook-Weisberg test were performed to test the normality of the residuals and the heteroscedasticity, respectively. RESULTS: The treatment of pneumococcal meningitis generated up to US$ 5 435 per child. The treatment costs of pneumococcal pneumonia were lower, ranging from US$ 372 per child to US$ 3 483 per child. Treatment of acute otitis media cost between US$ 20 per child and US$ 217 per child. The main source of treatment costs variations was level of service provided and country in which costs were incurred. However, the tendency of costs to change with these variables was not statistically significant at the 5% level for most pneumococcal disease models. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal disease resulted in significant economic burden to selected health care systems in Latin America. The patterns of treatment cost of pneumococcal disease showed a great deal of variation.OBJETIVOS: Estimar los costos de la enfermedad neumocócica en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, describir cómo varían estos costos entre diferentes grupos de pacientes y discutir los factores que influyen en las variaciones de estos costos. MÉTODOS: El costo de la enfermedad neumocócica se estimó desde la perspectiva de la atención sanitaria. Inicialmente se establecieron estimados de referencia de los costos para cada país a partir de la información de los recursos sanitarios empleados, según los datos de

  18. Latin American integration and sub-regionalization: political and ideological dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regionalism and regionalization in modern Latin America paying special attention to political and ideological factors, which have already shifted political and economic landscape of Latin America and encouraged sub-regional differentiation, with each of the sub-regional integration association following its own (and sometimes competing development pattern. At the same time the region witnesses the consolidation of UNASUR that assumes a leading role trying to converge the sub-regional alternative patterns and to strengthen political and economic ties, based on regional leadership of Brazil, civilizational unity and imminent security threats. The author also uses comparative method to speculate on the model of Latin American integration. 

  19. An Overview of Latin American Health Policies and Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Cristina Laurell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is now 15 years since the publication of Investing in Health (World Bank, 1993, a report which set the course for health care system reform in Latin America and around of the world. Since that time a great many studies about the reforms have been published and new reforms have been launched to “correct” the defects of the earlier ones. The objective of this paper is to call into question the entire current political debate over health care, as well as to clarify key concepts and practices. To this end I will analyze the current vogue of interrelated proposals for a second reform of the state. I will examine debates over insurance as a way of grant universal coverage; the separation between the regulation, financing and provision of health services; and the public private partnerships for the construction, financing, and management of hospitals. This paper will also examine the development of a new scientific discourse around “evidence-based policies” and academic referral networks. The goal of this paper is not to offer a comprehensive treatment of these issues, but rather to question some assumptions and contribute to the larger debate.

  20. Gender differences in Latin-American patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Martínez, Carolina; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Pineda-Tamayo, Ricardo; Mantilla, Rubén D; Castellanos-de la Hoz, Juan; Bernal-Macías, Santiago; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Data on the effect of gender in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in non-Caucasian populations is scarce. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a large population with unique characteristics, including high admixture. Our aim was to examine the effect of gender in patients with RA in LAC. This was a 2-phase study. First we conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in which 1128 consecutive Colombian patients with RA were assessed. Second, a systematic review of the literature was done to evaluate the effect of gender in LAC patients with RA. Our results show a high prevalence of RA in LAC women with a ratio of 5.2 women per man. Colombian women with RA are more at risk of having an early age at onset and developing polyautoimmunity and abdominal obesity, and they perform more household duties than their male counterparts. However, male gender was associated with the presence of extra-articular manifestations. Of a total of 641 potentially relevant articles, 38 were considered for final analysis, in which several factors and outcomes related to gender were identified. RA in LAC women is not only more common but presents with some clinical characteristics that differ from RA presentation in men. Some of those characteristics could explain the high rates of disability and worse prognosis observed in women with RA in LAC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Latin American research and development in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    This report is divided into six main sections. The first outlines the conceptual framework and methodology stressing the limitations that impede greater depth of analysis. The second, on the types and directions of research and development (R and D) activities in Latin America, is divided into three subsections, covering New and Renewable Sources of Energy (NRSE); conventional energy (including nuclear energy); and integrated energy resource R and D (primarily energy conservation and substitution, as well as energy policy and planning studies). In each subsection, I endeavoured to describe and critically assess R and D activities, achievements, and failures within the context of the limitations. Conclusions and recommendations in each case are implicitly or explicitly made depending on the field. In the third section, the state of science and technology policy on energy resources is presented. The fourth section draws together the conclusions and recommendations on further work to be done. The fifth section is a bibliography of 64 annotated and 52 unannotated items and the sixth, an appendix, is a directory of people working in the field of energy research

  2. Transformational development in a changing context: A Latin American perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique J.W.M. van Zeeland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the challenges for the strategies and practices of transformational development in a changing context. This reflection is based on contributions received during the process of dialogues and regional consultations, realised from August 2012 until March 2014, of the ACT Alliance, an international coalition of churches and faith-based organisations (FBOs working in the areas of humanitarian response, development and advocacy. The main processes that affect the changing development context are addressed, such as the ongoing globalisation as well as the consequences, mainly regarding the shrinking space for civil society. It discusses the concepts of human development and of transformational development, based on a people-centred development vision, a human rights-based approach and advocacy, which addresses the root causes and effects of poverty, inequality and injustice. Transformational development practices, from Latin America, are presented and analysed. The article concludes that the changing development context also offers opportunities, especially regarding regional and global alliances of FBOs, civil society organisations and of social movements.

  3. Transformational development in a changing context: A Latin American perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique J.W.M. van Zeeland

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the challenges for the strategies and practices of transformational development in a changing context. This reflection is based on contributions received during the process of dialogues and regional consultations, realised from August 2012 until March 2014, of the ACT Alliance, an international coalition of churches and faith-based organisations (FBOs working in the areas of humanitarian response, development and advocacy. The main processes that affect the changing development context are addressed, such as the ongoing globalisation as well as the consequences, mainly regarding the shrinking space for civil society. It discusses the concepts of human development and of transformational development, based on a people-centred development vision, a human rights-based approach and advocacy, which addresses the root causes and effects of poverty, inequality and injustice. Transformational development practices, from Latin America, are presented and analysed. The article concludes that the changing development context also offers opportunities, especially regarding regional and global alliances of FBOs, civil society organisations and of social movements.

  4. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. latin American literary testimony: historical foreshadowing of gender in the revolutionary discourse of the sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of testimonio in Latin American literary field, initiated at the end of the ‘60, makes part of the institutionalization of the Cuban revolution, process where its projection to the rest of Latin America constitued a central problem. This paper studies political preconditions of testimonio. In particular, it analizes certain aspects of Cuban revolutionary discourse that anticipate features eventually developed by the literary genre, in the ways the relation between literature and politics is represented, and in the subjects of discourse that are proposed as embodiments of such relation. The paper introduces the question of Cuban revolution, as regards the exemplary status it acquired in Latin America during the sixties. Then, it examines the literary positioning represented by testimonio, as the corollary of a reflexive reconsideration operated by some Latin American writers and critics, concerning their historical role. Finally, it considers three representative documents of Cuban revolution and its continental projection: History will absolve me, by Fidel Castro, and Reminiscences of the Cuban revolutionary war and Bolivian diary, by Ernesto Guevara. We show the textual configuration of a revolutionary subject whose legitimity emerges not only from a political experience which testimony enunciates, but also from particular ways of living and representing literature in the context of a revolutionary practice. In the end of the sixties, the continental literary field would reaffirm such features as its discourse legitimating criteria, during the institutionalization of testimonio as its privileged genre.

  6. Book Review on: Patrick Barrett, Daniel Chavez and Cesar Rodriguez Garavito. The New Latin American Left. Utopia Reborn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Icaza Garza (Rosalba)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBarret, Chavez and Rodriguez main task in The New Latin American Left. Utopia Reborn?, is that of identifying what are the factors that can explain the emergence of a new left in Latin America. The result is a nicely edited collection of expert voices on leftist politics in the region

  7. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garza, D.R.; Thompson, C.C.; Loureiro, E.C.; Dutilh, B.E.; Inada, D.T.; Junior, E.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Nunes, M.R.; Lima, C.P. de; Silvestre, R.V.; Nunes, K.N.; Santos, E.C.; Edwards, R.A.; Vicente, A.C.; Sa Morais, L.L. de

    2012-01-01

    The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic

  8. Use of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in eight Latin American Countries between 1999 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Mol, Peter G. M.; Verdijk, Jonneke; Stichele, Robert H. Vander; Taxis, Katja

    OBJECTIVE: To assesses the safety and rationale of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in Latin America and determine the extent of their use. METHODS: Analysis of FDCs was based on retail sales data for eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,

  9. Articles by latin american authors in prestigious journals have fewer citations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Meneghini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The journal Impact factor (IF is generally accepted to be a good measurement of the relevance/quality of articles that a journal publishes. In spite of an, apparently, homogenous peer-review process for a given journal, we hypothesize that the country affiliation of authors from developing Latin American (LA countries affects the IF of a journal detrimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven prestigious international journals, one multidisciplinary journal and six serving specific branches of science, were examined in terms of their IF in the Web of Science. Two subsets of each journal were then selected to evaluate the influence of author's affiliation on the IF. They comprised contributions (i with authorship from four Latin American (LA countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico and (ii with authorship from five developed countries (England, France, Germany, Japan and USA. Both subsets were further subdivided into two groups: articles with authorship from one country only and collaborative articles with authorship from other countries. Articles from the five developed countries had IF close to the overall IF of the journals and the influence of collaboration on this value was minor. In the case of LA articles the effect of collaboration (virtually all with developed countries was significant. The IFs for non-collaborative articles averaged 66% of the overall IF of the journals whereas the articles in collaboration raised the IFs to values close to the overall IF. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The study shows a significantly lower IF in the group of the subsets of non-collaborative LA articles and thus that country affiliation of authors from non-developed LA countries does affect the IF of a journal detrimentally. There are no data to indicate whether the lower IFs of LA articles were due to their inherent inferior quality/relevance or psycho-social trend towards under-citation of articles from these countries. However

  10. The Latin American Drug Trade: Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the forefront of the trade: the Gulf cartel, La Familia, Los Zetas, the Beltrán Leyva orga- nization, the Sinaloa cartel, the Carrillo Fuentes...blocs that essentially pitch the Sinaloa cartel, the Gulf cartel, and La Familia—which collectively formed the New Federation in February 2010...interacted with other trans- border concerns, such as weapon trafficking, people smuggling, and the migration of Central American gang violence. It is in

  11. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, A C F; Musso, C; Graffigna, M N; Soutelo, J; Migliano, M; Carvalho, H B; Berg, G

    2014-03-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) and obesity is a well-established major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease. However, the literatures are scarce about these informations in adolescents from low-and-middle income countries. This school-based survey was carried out among students from Maringá (Brazil) and Buenos Aires (Argentina) selected random sampling. We studied 991 Brazilian adolescents (54.5% girls) in the age range of 14-18 years. In Argentina, we studied 933 adolescents (45.9% female) in the age range of 11-17 years. The outcomes of this study are general obesity, abdominal obesity and HBP. The associated factors analysed were gender, age and health behaviours. The prevalence of obesity was 5.8% in Brazil and 2.8% in Argentina, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 32.7% in Brazil and 11.1% in Argentina, the prevalence of HBP was 14.9% in Brazil and 13.5% in Argentina. The multilevel analysis showed that older adolescents (>14 years old) have a little likelihood of being overweight, whereas male adolescents are more likely to be obese and have HBP. The abdominal obesity in both indicators were not associated with the independent variables. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is high in Latin American adolescents independent of each country, and was associated with male gender.

  12. Effects of Internationalization on Ownership Structure: Evidence from Latin American Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsia Hua Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the direct and simultaneous effects of internationalization on the ownership structure of Latin American companies based on agency theory. Using a sample of 425 Latin American firms between 2007 and 2011, which corresponds to 1,776 observations, we use random effects and three-stage least squares panel data regression to test these effects. We find that the hypothesized positive effect of internationalization on ownership concentration is rejected. Our results support the negative relationship that is predicted by principal-agent theory when analyzing the effect of ownership on the degree of internationalization. Greater internationalization via the equity entry mode is associated with lower levels of ownership concentration. Finally, there is simultaneity in the determination of the relationship between the degree of internationalization and ownership concentration.

  13. Democracy, Support for Democracy and Corruption. A Longitudinal Study of Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although often unable to satisfactorily solve the problem, democracy (especially enduring democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption. Yet, both Transparency International and the World Bank continue to attach a high risk of corruption to Latin American countries: corruption and impunity remain prevalent in the area, despite consolidating democratic regimes and recent anticorruption reforms. Using level of democracy and its endurance, as well as information on the perceptions of democratic performance and corruption obtained from the Latinobarometro, we analyzed a panel data covering the period 2005-2010 in 14 Latin American countries. Our main results show that levels of democracy and citizens' assessment of government fairness have a positive impact on corruption. However, satisfaction towards democracy has the opposite effect: when citizens believed democratic governments and public administrations to be efficient, they also perceived that gains against corruption had significantly decreased.

  14. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roura

    Full Text Available An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities.We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012-March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain. We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants' insights.The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations' health.Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers' emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants highlights the need for greater

  15. The House, the Street and the Brothel: Gender in Latin American History

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Kuznesof

    2013-01-01

    This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English) defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be preval...

  16. Concerning at distance: digital activism and social media empowerment between Latin-American migrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Plascencia, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing some important points about the use of social platforms in the life of Latin-Americans in Spain, particularly Mexican, Colombian and Venezuelan migrants. It shows the outcomes of data collected on closed groups in Facebook. The main topic centers on how social networks catalyze the spread of political engagement and public activism in between migrants concerning public matters in their homelands. Final outcomes will show that there is a clear inclination in us...

  17. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Kattan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The best results in short‐ and long‐term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future.

  18. Consumer acculturation of Latin American visitors in Taiwan : a study of food and clothing products

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Aihwa; Lee, Yi-Fan

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the factors influencing consumer acculturation of Latin American student visitors in Taiwan for the product categories of food and clothing. This research found: (1) some variables of acculturation influence, marketing practices, and situation factors are significantly related to consumer acculturation; (2) four acculturation patterns are discovered and they coincide with Berry's (1997) typology;(3) visitors do not travel in family units, hence their food habits ...

  19. Latin American Counterinsurgency: Early 20th Century Lessons for Afghanistan Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    have in all aspects of the counterinsurgency is also being neglected or ignored. The Latin American examples provide a warning about mission creep if...him to pay for agricultural development that benefits them directly but unfortunately the crop of choice is the opium poppy, profits of which feed ...descriptions of killing not only insurgents but also “bandit animals,” of which seven horses and thirty cattle were slaughtered and other homes and

  20. Enemies of the People: Latin-American Populism, Political Myth, and the Psychodynamics of Conspiracy Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliou, Phaidon Thymios Benedetti

    2017-01-01

    This article examines Latin-American populism from a psychonalytical perspective and suggests a possible understanding of the role played by group dynamics, such as group regression and large-group identity, in the rise of conspiracy thinking associated with populist mobilization. It argues that conspiracy thinking is an inextricable feature of populist movements, since both come about as interrelated manifestations of a defensive psychological response intertwined with a preexisting politica...

  1. 7th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; CLASHEP 2013; CLASHEP2013

    2015-01-01

    The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions, cosmic-ray physics, cosmology, recent highlights of LHC results, practical statistics for particle physicists and a short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  2. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA; Xiana BUENO GARCÍA; Teresa CASTRO MARTÍN

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them correspondin...

  3. Developing Renewable Energy: Comparative Scenarios and Public Policy Perspectives from some Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Cecilia Lardizabal; Ismene Rosales; Janaina Camile Pasqual; Gricelda Herrera; Sandra Mejia; Mariel Álvarez Cancino

    2014-01-01

    The energy matrix of Latin American and the Caribbean countries has one of the largest renewable energy components when compared to other regions of the world. Nonetheless, by 2009 nearly three-quarters of its structure corresponded to fossil fuels, with most of the countries being net importers of these fuels. This situation marks the region´s dependence on the effects of changes in energy commodities. Therefore, the opportunity lies in higher use of renewable energy sources that contribute ...

  4. International financial linkages of Latin American banks: the effects of political risk and deposit dollarisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon-Ballester, Francisco; Wezel, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the extent to which the financial linkages of Latin American banks with the exterior are influenced by political risk and deposit dollarisation. We find that the sum of banks’ foreign assets and liabilities is a function of risk-return considerations and excess domestic credit demand. An increase in political risk is shown to be associated with a build-up of foreign positions by the banking sector, but this adverse effect on the banking system is mitigated ...

  5. 5th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Grojean, C; Spiropulu, M

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, flavour physics and CP violation, particle cosmology, high-energy astro-particle physics, and heavy-ion physics, as well as trigger and data acquisition, and commissioning and...

  6. La Traduccion de la Nueva Novela Latinoamericana al Ingles (English Translation of the New Latin American Novel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ayona, Gerardo

    1978-01-01

    While distinguishing between literary criticism and the scientific study of translation, Latin American translations are analyzed according to the identification of "speech facts," levels of stylistic performance, translating from scratch, and the stylistic features of Rabassa. (NCR)

  7. X Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The 10th Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications will be held on December 1-6, 2013 in Montevideo, Uruguay. The symposium will be preceded by a School on Medical Physics, on November 29-30, 2013. The symposium is organized by the Universidad de la Repùblica, Montevideo, by the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan, USA, and by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Virginia, USA. This is the tenth event in a series which were previously held in Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Chile and Ecuador. Traditionally, the purpose of these symposia is the dissemination of major theoretical and experimental advances in nuclear science, with emphasis on research topics carried out by Latin American groups or in collaborations involving institutions from Latin America. The topics of the symposium include: Nuclear and Hadron Structure and Interactions Nuclear Reactions and Phases of Nuclear Matter Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics Tests of Fundamental Symmetries and Properties of Neutrinos Nuclear Applications New Facilities and Instrumentation.The 10th Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications will be held on December 1-6, 2013 in Montevideo, Uruguay. The symposium will be preceded by a School on Medical Physics, on November 29-30, 2013. The symposium is organized by the Universidad de la República, Montevideo, by the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan, USA, and by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Virginia, USA. This is the tenth event in a series which were previously held in Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Chile and Ecuador. Traditionally, the purpose of these symposia is the dissemination of major theoretical and experimental advances in nuclear science, with emphasis on research topics carried out by Latin American groups or in collaborations involving institutions from Latin America. The topics of the symposium include

  8. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  9. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical tests

  11. Pharmacogenetics in Latin American populations: regulatory aspects, application to herbal medicine, cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Remírez-Figueredo, Diadelis; García-Mesa, Milagros; Dorado, Pedro; LLerena, Adrián

    2012-01-01

    Meeting report of the "Second Symposium on Pharmacology of Cytochrome P450 and Transporters" organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology in collaboration with the European Society of Pharmacogenetics and Theranostics (ESPT) and the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (www.ribef.com). The Symposium covered different topics on pharmacogenetics and its clinical implications, focusing on Latin-American populations. The activities of the ESPT were also presented and discussed. The topics addressed were regulatory aspects, the use of pharmacogenetics in pre-clinical research, herbal medicine, and natural products, ending with a discussion about translation into clinical practice, specifically for cardiovascular disorders and psychiatry. Finally, the implication for population diversity in Latin America was also discussed. The RIBEF initiative represents a promising step towards the inclusion of Latin American populations among those to benefit from the implementation of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. Among current RIBEF activities, the CEIBA.FP Consortium aims to study the variability of pheno- and genotypes in Hispanics that are relevant to pharmacogenetics. For this purpose, populations from Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia, Brasil, Perú, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Portugal, and Spain are currently being studied. The meeting's main conclusion was that population pharmacogenetic studies as well as academic clinical trials might need to be conducted in the different geographic locations/countries. This is important in order to improve drug safety, dosage recommendations, and pharmacovigilance programs, because environmental and ethnic factors vary across locations.

  12. Institutional Support to Latin American Policy Research Organizations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will strengthen the ability of the 12 selected research institutions to provide, disseminate and communicate high-quality research. This will be achieved through measures aimed at enhancing the ability of staff to conduct sound research, improving organizational governance, and communicating with policymakers.

  13. Health impact assessment in Latin American countries: Current practice and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Carlos A.R.; Périssé, André R.S.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Utzinger, Jürg; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the objective to avoid and mitigate potential adverse health impacts of projects, programmes and policies, health impact assessment (HIA) offers an opportunity for disease prevention and health promotion. Although HIA has gained importance over the past two decades, it is unclear whether and to what extent HIA practice has been established and institutionalised in Latin America. To address this issue, the current practice and prospects of HIA in Latin America was assessed in the peer-reviewed literature and existing guidelines. Methodology: The peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched using five electronic databases until February 2016. Studies were included on a set of pre-defined criteria. The search was carried out in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish. Additionally, a search for HIA guidelines used in Latin American countries and territories was performed by means of a Google search and on websites of government departments and institutions that may promote HIA. Results: The search yielded 167 hits in the peer-reviewed literature of which 17 articles met inclusion criteria. Only four peer-reviewed articles described prospective HIAs and four featured a discussion of the HIA approach. The remaining nine articles presented health impact evaluations. Most studies were published only recently, after 2012 (88%). Seven HIA guideline documents were identified, two of which were country-specific (i.e. Brazil and Mexico) and the remaining five addressed HIA at the regional level. Conclusions: This study confirmed the paucity of literature pertaining to HIA implementation, as well as HIA guidelines in Latin America. Mexico, Brazil and Cuba have the longest track record in scientific literature and guidelines on HIA. In order to better understand current barriers and limitations to practice and institutionalisation of HIA in Latin American countries, a broad discussion among policy makers, academic institutions and HIA practitioners is

  14. Analysis of the features of the entrepreneurship and leadership in the Asian and Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.

  15. Production of scientific articles on health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pellegrini Filho

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of articles resulting from biomedical, clinical, and public health studies that originated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela from 1973 through 1992 was analyzed to discover trends in health research in Latin America. From the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, 41 238 articles with first authors who resided in those countries were extracted. These articles were analyzed by subject area, type of study, country, number of authors and institutions that participated in the investigation, and citations received by each article. Also analyzed were 95 articles in epidemiology selected from a pool of 570 published by authors from the six countries in 11 public health journals that enjoy international prestige. The results showed that the number of published works increased by 117% between the first and last five-year periods within the study period. Clinical research was distributed the most evenly among the countries, and public health research was the most concentrated (60.7% originated in Brazil. The numbers of biomedical and public health research articles showed relatively more growth than those reporting on clinical research throughout the period. A relative decrease was found in articles by only one author, which suggests a greater frequency of team efforts, and an increase was seen in articles with authors tied to two or more national or foreign institutions, which indicates greater cooperation between institutions and countries. The average number of citations received by each article was three, which was less than half the number received per article in the ISI database (7.78. Regarding the subset of 95 articles in epidemiology, the great majority (96% dealt with infectious diseases or maternal and child health, while in the international literature 78% of such articles were about chronic diseases. This group of articles gave evidence of more cooperation with international

  16. Production of scientific articles on health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Filho Alberto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of articles resulting from biomedical, clinical, and public health studies that originated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela from 1973 through 1992 was analyzed to discover trends in health research in Latin America. From the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, 41 238 articles with first authors who resided in those countries were extracted. These articles were analyzed by subject area, type of study, country, number of authors and institutions that participated in the investigation, and citations received by each article. Also analyzed were 95 articles in epidemiology selected from a pool of 570 published by authors from the six countries in 11 public health journals that enjoy international prestige. The results showed that the number of published works increased by 117% between the first and last five-year periods within the study period. Clinical research was distributed the most evenly among the countries, and public health research was the most concentrated (60.7% originated in Brazil. The numbers of biomedical and public health research articles showed relatively more growth than those reporting on clinical research throughout the period. A relative decrease was found in articles by only one author, which suggests a greater frequency of team efforts, and an increase was seen in articles with authors tied to two or more national or foreign institutions, which indicates greater cooperation between institutions and countries. The average number of citations received by each article was three, which was less than half the number received per article in the ISI database (7.78. Regarding the subset of 95 articles in epidemiology, the great majority (96% dealt with infectious diseases or maternal and child health, while in the international literature 78% of such articles were about chronic diseases. This group of articles gave evidence of more cooperation with international

  17. [Mixed vaginitis prevalence in Latin-American women, according to physician perception. Preference, effectiveness and security of clindamycin plus ketoconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Bueno, José Alberto; Vázquez Alanís, Alejandro; Olguín Ramírez, Claudia; Dumet Hinostroza, Pablo F; Gutiérrez Ramos, Miguel; De Zordo, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Vaginitis is an inflammatory process in vaginal mucosa that affects millions of woman worldwide. To evaluate prevalence perception and prescription preference among Latin-American gyneco-obstetricians in mixed vaginitis, and to identify attributes of various active principles. multicentric and transversal study during January 2008. Close Up was used to poll gyneco-obstetricians prescribing clyndamicin plus ketoconazole. 1,198 gyneco-obstetricians were selected to answer a poll (scales and measuring attributes) to identify differences among various therapeutic schemes to mixed vaginitis. 34% of gyneco-obstetricians consider that 30 to 50% of them patients had mixed vaginitis, 38% consider a 50 to 70% of its prevalence, and 20% a 70% or higher figure. In a bad to excellent scale, 97% had very good to excellent results with antimycotic and antibacterial mix, 73% had a bad to good result with antimycotics alone and 79% with antibacterial alone. Clyndamicin plus ketoconazole had a meaningful difference from mean results (standard), and from the second best mix (metronidazole plus nystatin), with a rapid itch healing, efficacy, and relapse decrease. Metronidazole plus nystatin had the highest score in tolerance and treatment period. 90% of polled Latin-American obstetricians prescribe clyndamicin plus ketoconazole as the best available treatment to mixed vaginitis.

  18. A Multicenter Comparative Study of Impulse Control Disorder in Latin American Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Gómez, Carolina Candelaria; Serrano Dueñas, Marcos; Bernal, Oscar; Araoz, Natalia; Sáenz Farret, Michel; Aldinio, Victoria; Montilla, Verónica; Micheli, Federico

    Impulse control disorder (ICD) is a common adverse effect in patients with Parkinson disease who receive dopamine agonists; however, other factors are involved in its manifestations. To study the frequency and factors involved in the development of this adverse effect in a Latin American population, we conducted a cross-sectional multicenter study. Two hundred fifty-five patients in 3 Latin American centers were evaluated by examination and application of scales (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr, Clinical Impression of Severity Index for Parkinson's Disease). Of the patients, 27.4% had ICD, most of whom were on dopamine agonists. Other associated risk factors included a younger age at onset of Parkinson disease, moderate symptoms, a shorter evolution of the clinical manifestations, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disorder behavior, and the consumption of tea, mate, and alcohol. The frequency of ICD is higher in Latin America than in Anglo-Saxon populations. Consuming tea and mate, in addition to the use of dopamine agonists, is a factor that may demonstrate a genetic link that predisposes patients to the establishment of an ICD.

  19. Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fisberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15–65 years were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS, a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country’s health intervention proposals.

  20. Latin American Marxism paper . The editorial policy of Jorge Abelardo Ramos in the early sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Ribadero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Marxism in the Latin-American thought has been indicated in repeated opportunities. Its aptitude to generate diverse political and cultural projects was a central characteristic of the above mentioned tradition, opened across different agents and institutions from the arrival of the writings of Marx and Engels to Latin America at the end of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, good part of this history is still partial, anchored in national perspectives and little commits an outrage against the study of its material forms, this is, to those aspects across which the Marxist speech managed to shape a specific materiality, so much for the theoretical making as the action of militants, workers, students and intellectuals. The work aims to propose an exploration of the Latin-American Marxism from the perspective of the reconstruction of its printed world, from delineating a series of problems, topics and reflections settled in the study of the publishing house Coyoacán of Jorge Abelardo Ramos in the early 1960s in Argentina

  1. Bolivar and Marti: emancipatory voices from a look comunicacionalpara a Latin American identity culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreína Antonia Bermúdez Di Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, mass media is one of the ways for getting the construction of the collective imaginary of wor ld’s countries, taking into account some negative consequences as the alienation and the acquisition of some anti values. In Latin America, particularly in Venezuela , an effort has been made to have some mass media for attending the social necessities of the communities. So, t his article has the following purpose: making a historic and social approximation of the Latin American identity for improving the communicational ethic and the sensibility of our history, taking as referent the Bolivar’s and Marti’s thoughts specifically from two newspapers: Correo del Orinoco (1818 and Patria (1892 . Therefore, the communication and the education are two of the essential categories for improving the Latin American culture identity which makes a new communicational e thic. Finally, in this arti cle, a pedagogical experience is presented which consists in a radio program en titled Voces de Nuestra América: Cultura Identitaria Latinoamericana , from the Cátedra Bolívar - Martí of the Venezuelan Bolivarian University. It was c reated for getting an audiovisual space that improves the identity values from the big land.

  2. 2nd Latin American Workshop on Magnetism, Magnetic Materials, and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, J

    1994-01-01

    During August 24-27, 1993, approximately 60 scientists from the Americas, Europe and Japan, gathered in the city of Guanajuato, in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, at the II Latin American Workshop on Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and their Applications. The group of scientists converging into the beautiful city of Guanajuato had come from Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Venezuela, Cuba, several places in Mexico, U. S. A. , Japan, Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Denmark. The event attested to the success of the previous Workshop on Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and their Applications, held in Havana, Cuba, in 1991, as well as to the interest, level of activity and quality of the work being carried out in Latin America in the area of magnetism and magnetic materials. Equally important to everyone present was the fact that we had come to honor a friend, Professor L. M. Falicov, on his sixtieth birthday. The choice of a Latin American Workshop on magnetism as a Festschrift for Leo Falicov was,...

  3. Differences on Primary Care Labor Perceptions in Medical Students from 11 Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R.; Abudinén A., Gabriel; Azucas-Peralta, Rita; Barrezueta-Fernandez, Jorge; Cerna-Urrutia, Luis; DaSilva-DeAbreu, Adrián; Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Moya, Geovanna; Valverde-Solano, Christian D.; Theodorus-Villar, Rhanniel; Vizárraga-León, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Background The shortage in Latin-American Primary Care (PC) workforce may be due to negative perceptions about it. These perceptions might be probably influenced by particular features of health systems and academic environments, thus varying between countries. Methods Observational, analytic and cross-sectional multicountry study that evaluated 9,561 first and fifth-year medical students from 63 medical schools of 11 Latin American countries through a survey. Perceptions on PC work was evaluated through a previously validated scale. Tertiles of the scores were created in order to compare the different countries. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using simple and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance. Results Approximately 53% of subjects were female; mean age was 20.4±2.9 years; 35.5% were fifth-year students. Statistically significant differences were found between the study subjects’ country, using Peru as reference. Students from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Paraguay perceived PC work more positively, while those from Ecuador showed a less favorable position. No differences were found among perceptions of Bolivian, Salvadoran, Honduran and Venezuelan students when compared to their Peruvian peers. Conclusions Perceptions of PC among medical students from Latin America vary according to country. Considering such differences can be of major importance for potential local specific interventions. PMID:27414643

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes,1 Maria Y Makuch,1 Ilza Monteiro,1 Victor Marin,2 Richard Lynen3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Central, Petróleos Mexicanos, México City, Mexico; 3Bayer HealthCare, Newark, NJ, USA Background: Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs, including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS, are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs.Methods: A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs.Results: Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0% to 205 (97.6%. Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did

  5. [Health-related quality of life in Latin American adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Villagra Astudillo, Hermán Ariel; Moya Morales, José María; del Campo Vecino, Juan; Pires Júnior, Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to find out if there are differences in terms of sex, age, or country of origin for the components of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in samples of adolescents from three cities-in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, respectively-using data collected through an internationally recognized and validated survey questionnaire, KIDSCREEN-52. The KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire was administered to 1 357 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age (48.6% of them male) in selected samples in the three countries. Univariate analysis of variation (ANCOVA) was used. Not only sex and age differences, but also differences for each component of HRQL, were found between the three country groups. The data showed significant differences between the three countries for each of the specific components of HRQL. Males scored significantly higher than females in the following components: Physical Well-being (P Bullying) increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). The evidence suggests that interventions in disease prevention and health promotion should be developed for specific target groups, using appropriate actions depending on the sex and age of the adolescents.

  6. Development and implementation of the regulatory control of sources in Latin American Model Project countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferruz Cruz, P.

    2001-01-01

    After a general assessment of the situation regarding radiation safety and the radiation protection infrastructure in Latin American countries, several of them were invited to participate in a Model Project oriented, in some cases, towards establishing a mechanism for national regulatory control of radiation sources, and in others, towards upgrading their national control programme. All these activities aimed at reaching an effective and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure based on international basic safety standards. The paper presents a general overview of the current situation with regard to radiation protection within the Model Project countries in Latin America after almost five years of activities. It includes: the implementation of regulatory issues; the control of occupational, medical and public exposures; emergency response and waste safety issues. The paper also presents some lessons learned during implementation concerning the numerous activities involved in this interregional project. (author)

  7. Concerning at distance: digital activism and social media empowerment between Latin-American migrants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David RAMIREZ PLASCENCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on developing some important points about the use of social platforms in the life of Latin-Americans in Spain, particularly Mexican, Colombian and Venezuelan migrants. It shows the outcomes of data collected on closed groups in Facebook. The main topic centers on how social networks catalyze the spread of political engagement and public activism in between migrants concerning public matters in their homelands. Final outcomes will show that there is a clear inclination in using social platforms to discuss, organize and participate in public activism focused on resolving homeland problems. In this context, these virtual spaces serve as a link to stay in touch with their communities in Latin-America. Migrants are not only using social networks to make new relations in their new context but to ensure not to lose the connection with their friends and relatives, and of course, participate in social and political activism.

  8. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  9. Intercultural Dialogue and Ethical Challenge in the Latin-American Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Martin Fiorino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some central problems of the intercultural dialogue in the context of philosophical, historiographical and political debates promoted by the contemporary LatinAmerican thought. The analysis concerns: the anthropological and ethical approach of interculturalityby Arturo Andrés Roig, its relation with the literary avant-gardes in Latin Americaand its expression in a liberationist philosophy oriented to overcome the patriarchalism; the interculturality as a space for the asking by the other and as intelligence to live together,as well as its educational consequences, with regard to a pedagogy and to an ethics of decolonization; the relation between interculturality and integration of peoples, on the basis of the proposal of Giuseppe Cacciatore about the ethics of imagination.

  10. Development of an Educational Network to Strengthen Education, Training and Outreach in Latin America: LANENT-Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In the current century, networks have played an important role in the dissemination of experiences, information exchange and training of human resources for different area of expertise. The IAEA has encouraged in regions, through its member states, the creation of educational networks to meet rapidly and efficiently the dissemination and exchange of knowledge between professionals and students in the nuclear area. With this vision, the Latin American Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (LANENT) was established to contribute to preserving, promoting and sharing nuclear knowledge as well as fostering nuclear knowledge transfer in the Latin American region. LANENT seeks to increase technical and scientific cooperation among its members in so far as to promote the benefits of nuclear technology and foster the progress and development of nuclear technology in areas such as education, health, the industry, the government, the environment, the mining industry, among others. By means of LANENT, the participating institutions of this network, devoted to education and training of professionals and technicians in the Latin American region, may have access to major information on nuclear technology so as to make their human resources broaden their nuclear knowledge. Moreover, this network seeks to communicate the benefits of nuclear technology to the public with the aim of arousing interest in nuclear technology of the younger generations. This paper will present and analyze results and initiatives developed by LANENT in Latin America. (author

  11. Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954

  12. The Lives and Politics of Latinas in the United States: A Selective Bibliography [and] Women and Politics in Latin America: A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Catherine, Comp.; Searing, Susan, Comp.

    Two bibliographies list over 200 sources of information on Latin American women living in the United States and in Latin America. The first bibliography cites books, chapters from books, journal articles, pamphlets, dissertations, and theses dealing with the lives and politics of Mexican-American, Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Central and South…

  13. Evidences on weaknesses and strengths from health financing after decentralization: lessons from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Orozco, Emanuel; De Icaza, Esteban

    2005-01-01

    The main objective was to identify trends and evidence on health financing after health care decentralization. Evaluative research with a before-after design integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis. Taking into account feasibility, political and technical criteria, three Latin American countries were selected as study populations: Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru. The methodology had two main phases. In the first phase, the study referred to secondary sources of data and documents to obtain information about the following variables: type of decentralization implemented, source of finance, funds of financing, providers, final use of resources and mechanisms for resource allocation. In the second phase, the study referred to primary data collected in a survey of key personnel from the health sectors of each country. The trends and evidence reported in all five financing indicators may identify major weaknesses and strengths in health financing. Weaknesses: a lack of human resources trained in health economics who can implement changes, a lack of financial resource independence between the local and central levels, the negative behavior of the main macro-economic variables, and the difficulty in developing new financing alternatives. Strengths: the sharing between the central level and local levels of responsibility for financing health services, the implementation of new organizational structures for the follow-up of financial changes at the local level, the development and implementation of new financial allocation mechanisms taking as a basis the efficiency and equity principles, new technique of a per-capita adjustment factor corrected at the local health needs, and the increase of financing contributions from households and local levels of government.

  14. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  15. Management of Type II Odontoid Fractures: Experience from Latin American Spine Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Righesso, Orlando; da Silva, Pedro Guarise; Siri, Carlos Rocca; Daniel, Jefferson W; Esteves Veiga, José Carlos; de Azevedo, Gustavo Borges Laurindo; Carelli, Luis Eduardo; Yurac, Ratko; Sanchez Chavez, Felix Adolfo; Sfreddo, Ericson; Cecchini, Andre; do Reis, Marcelo Martins; Jiménez Avila, Jose Maria; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-02-01

    To analyze characteristics of type II odontoid fracture (TII-OF), including clinical and radiographic factors, that influence surgical planning in 8 Latin American centers. Retrospective chart review was performed of 88 patients with TII-OF between 2004 and 2015 from 8 Latin American centers. Parameters studied included 1) demographic data and causes of TII-OF, 2) clinical and neurologic presentation, 3) characteristics of fracture (degree of odontoid displacement, displacement of odontoid relative to C2 body, anatomy of fracture line, distance between fragments, presence of comminution, contact area between odontoid and C2 body), 4) type of treatment, and 5) clinical and radiographic outcome. Bone fusion was assessed using computed tomography. Mean patient age was 45.33 years ± 23.54; 78.4% of patients were male. Surgery was the primary treatment in 65 patients (73.8%), with an anterior approach in 64.6%. Surgery was usually preferred in patients with posterior or horizontal oblique fracture lines, local pain, and a smaller bone contact surface between the odontoid and the body of C2. A posterior approach was chosen when distance between the fractured bone fragments was >2 mm or after failed conservative or anterior odontoid screw treatment in a symptomatic patient. The treatment of choice for TII-OF in 8 Latin American trauma centers was surgery through an anterior approach using screw fixation. Posterior segmental C1-C2 fixation was indicated when distance between bone fragments was >2 mm and in symptomatic patients with nonunion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental Complexity: ethic-environmental propositions of the Latin- American Environmental Thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera de Echeverri, Ana Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In this article, are compiled the most important ethic-environmental propositions of the Latin- American Environmental Thought, that had been growing up 30 years ago. In it are authors outlined in the field of the philosophic environmental thought, as the philosopher and Colombian thinker, of Latin-American transcendence, Augusto Angel Maya, who pustules the possibility of build en Ethical - Esthetic Environmental Philosophy, in fact of the Modern Philosophy have been metaphysic, even in the empiric, positivist and neo-positivist tendencies. It has been outlined the Enrique Leff's work, Mexican, who proposes his concepts of Complexity and Environmental Known as an initial point of an ethic in the education, science and technology into of an systemic and holistic relations. Equally, the Julio Carrizosa's ethical - esthetic proposition, also Colombian, which this essay shows as a fundamental political propose against Colombian problems as violence and exclusion. The propositions of Colombian philosophers of big relevance in the politic-moral philosophy had become in a public and communicative environmental ethic, that's the case of Guillermo Hoyos Vasquez and other thinkers as in Colombia and so other Latin-American countries which are shown in this space, with the finality of to pick up in a critical way our ideas about the possibility of an environmental ethic, that means an decentred ethic, with out subject and object, and systemic ethic, where the values has come being constructed 2.500 millions years ago, of which we are pure threads, an ethic that pass of been an object to be first a value in his greater sense

  17. Clinical nursing and midwifery research in Latin American and Caribbean countries: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Sarah; Stonbraker, Samantha; Larsen, Brandon; Santos, Islane; Faria, Renata; Góes, Fernanda S N; Binfa, Lorena; Larson, Elaine

    2018-04-01

    To identify and describe published, nursing-led and midwifery-led, clinical research that has been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. Peer-reviewed published research may correspond to and elucidate country's realities, priorities, and needs. A 6-stage scoping review methodology was used to search scientific databases using an applied search strategy. Five databases were searched for articles published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese conducted in a Latin American or Caribbean country between January 1, 2006 and June 14, 2016. Articles were independently considered for inclusion by 2 researchers, data extracted, and study characteristics described. Of 6922 articles identified, 404 were included. The majority were conducted in Brazil (90.6%) followed by Chile (2.5%). Most were nurse-led (95.8%) and were implemented in hospitals (48.6%). Studies frequently explored patient knowledge or characterized patient populations (61.3%) and commonly assessed chronic disease (19.3%) or maternity/child health outcomes (15.9%). Findings revealed a large number of publications but an uneven geographical distribution of nurse-led clinical research and an evident gap of midwifery-related research in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results may be used to build research agendas to promote nursing and midwifery research capacity and further establish evidence-based practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. The House, the Street and the Brothel: Gender in Latin American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kuznesof

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be prevalent principally among the non-white and non-elite populations. From 1750 to 1930, profound and contradictory changes included a secularization process that caused women’s loss of many colonial protections. However, new opportunities developed for women’s employment and control of property. Women were essentially controlled within the private sphere during the colonial period, but that control moved to the workplace in the nineteenth century, and to the state in the early twentieth century. Gender was an important discourse in struggles to define the nation-state, with prostitution and disease as central themes. In the twentieth century social historians have demonstrated the differential gender impacts of economic and technological change brought by development projects, industrialization, and shifting strategies of multinational corporations. The most striking contributions of recent books on gender in Latin America include the continuing significance of honor after independence. Motherhood is another recurring theme in writings about women and their history in Latin America.

  19. Latin American critical ('Social') epidemiology: new settings for an old dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breilh, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    Epidemiology's role as the 'diagnostic' arm of public health has submitted epidemiological reasoning and practice to the crossfire of oppositional social values and demands. In Latin America, the visible signs of extreme social and political authoritarianism and inequity, as well as the growing unfairness of the World economy, inspired a culture of social critique and a corresponding academic reform movement, which nurtured a profound social awareness among health scientists. Aims The authors' aim is to call attention to the need to overcome this scientific North/South divide. An imperative, at a moment when the demolition of health standards under the pressures of global economic acceleration and 'unhealthy health policies,' confront us all with the common challenge of cross-fertilizing the strengths of academic traditions from both South and North. The present paper offers a fresh perspective from the South about the relevance of progressive Latin American public health (termed 'collective health') by highlighting a number of its hard scientific contributions which, unfortunately, remain almost unknown to mainstream medical and public health researchers outside Latin America. An armed form of structural greed has now placed the world on the brink of destruction. At the same time, however, fresh winds blow in the continent. This paper is an invitation to confront the menacing forces producing our unhealthy societies and an opportunity to form fraternal partnerships on the intercultural road to a better world, where only an epidemiology of dignity and happiness will make sense.

  20. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plagiarism Allegations Account for Most Retractions in Major Latin American/Caribbean Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Renan Moritz V R; de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Catelani, Fernanda; Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports (JCR). LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords "retracted", "retraction" "withdrawal", "withdrawn", "removed" and "redress". Documents were manually checked to identify those that actually referred to retractions, which were then analyzed and categorized according to the reasons alleged in the notices. Dates of publication/retraction and time to retraction were also recorded. Searching procedures were performed between June and December 2014. Thirty-one retraction notices were identified, fifteen of which were in JCR-indexed journals. "Plagiarism" was alleged in six retractions of this group. Among the non-JCR journals, retraction reasons were alleged in fourteen cases, twelve of which were attributed to "plagiarism". The proportion of retracted articles for the SciELO database was approximately 0.005 %. The reasons alleged in retraction notices may be used as signposts to inform discussions in Latin America on plagiarism and research integrity. At the international level, these results suggest that the correction of the literature is becoming global and is not limited to mainstream international publications.

  2. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  3. 9th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is targeted particularly at students in experimental HEP who are in the final years of work towards their PhDs. However, it is anticipated that some post-doctoral students in experimental HEP, and some students in phenomenology, including some masters students, will also be accepted. It should be noted that some pre-knowledge of the subjects is necessary in order to be able to profit fully from the lecture courses.

  4. Height, trade, and inequality in the Latin American periphery, 1950-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Markus; Baten, Jörg

    2008-07-01

    Which variables determine whether a country chooses an open or protected market? It has been argued that economic downturn leads to a higher propensity for protectionism. We find for seven Latin American countries in the second half of the 20th century that declining GDP motivated the opening wave, especially during the 1980s. Moreover, inequality could play a role, either in favor of "opening", as Stolper-Samuelson models would predict, or in favor of closing, as recent empirical studies found that open periods were associated with higher inequality. Using anthropometric indicators, we find that inequality in general tended to motivate "closing", whereas inequality did not stimulate opening.

  5. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.

  6. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, M.-E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Caspani, C. E. M.; Fleitas, I.; de-la-Mora, R.; Miranda, A. A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Betancourt, C.-M.; Borras, C.

    2001-10-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services.

  7. Proceedings of the 2011 CERN - Latin American School of High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grojean, C.; Mulders, M.; Spiropulu

    2011-01-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results form the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation

  8. 6th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; Spiropulu, M; CLASHEP 2011; CLASHEP2011

    2013-01-01

    The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and a short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  9. Strategies to face violence against women: Latin American feminists´ reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Sagot

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents violence against women as a social problem of high magnitude as well as based on gender inequality. The author summarizes both the main discussion issues and the last decades´ Latin American feminist fight. She highlights the conception of violence against women as a public problem, a negation of citizenship rights and as a law matter. Despite the withdrawals and the contradictory character of the relations between the feminist movement and social institutions, there is no doubt that the configuration of a new social practice related to violence perpetrated against women is taking place. 

  10. Evaluation of mammography equipment performance, dose and image quality in five Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandan, M.-E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Caspani, C. E. M.; Fleitas, I.; Mora, R. de la; Miranda, A. A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Betancourt, C.-M.; Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of radiology experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities. Evaluation of the equipment performance and dose measurements in 21 mammographic units show that, on the average, 75% of the units comply with recommendations issued by various organizations. An independent evaluation of the quality of the clinical images show strong variations among the different radiological services

  11. Evaluation of diagnostic radiology services in five Latin American countries: Results for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandan, M.E.; Caspani, C.E.M.; Mora, R. de la; Miranda, A.A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities, which indicate that the failure to comply with the international standards of quality control produces images of unacceptable quality, as measured either by using a phantom or by an independent evaluation of the clinical images. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the 2011 CERN - Latin American School of High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grojean, C.; Mulders, M.; Spiropulu, [eds.

    2011-07-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results form the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  13. The BIS and the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Piet Clement; Ivo Maes

    2013-01-01

    The Latin American debt crisis, which broke out in August 1982, was the first global financial crisis in the postwar period. While the crisis started in the "periphery", it constituted a threat to the "core" of the world economy, as the banking system was under severe pressure. Alongside the IMF, the BIS played an important role in coordinating the international response to the crisis. Moreover, a lot of work at the BIS in the second half of the 1970s had aimed at restraining the debt build-u...

  14. Energy intake and food sources of eight Latin American countries: results from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Pareja, Rossina G; Yépez García, Martha C; Cortés Sanabria, Lilia Y; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Rigotti, Attilio; Guajardo, Viviana; Zalcman Zimberg, Ioná; Nogueira Previdelli, Agatha; Moreno, Luis A; Koletzko, Berthold

    2018-05-31

    Few previous studies in Latin America (LA) have provided data on dietary intake composition with a standardized methodology. The present study aimed to characterize energy intake (EI) and to describe the main food sources of energy in representative samples of the urban population from eight LA countries from the Latin American Study in Nutrition and Health (ELANS). Cross-sectional study. Usual dietary intake was assessed with two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Urban areas from eight countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela), September 2014 to July 2015. Adolescents and adults aged 15-65 years. Final sample comprised 9218 individuals, of whom 6648 (72·1 %) were considered plausible reporters. Overall, mean EI was 8196 kJ/d (1959 kcal/d), with a balanced distribution of macronutrients (54 % carbohydrate, 30 % fat, 16 % protein). Main food sources of energy were grains, pasta and bread (28 %), followed by meat and eggs (19 %), oils and fats (10 %), non-alcoholic homemade beverages (6 %) and ready-to-drink beverages (6 %). More than 25 % of EI was provided from food sources rich in sugar and fat, like sugary drinks, pastries, chips and candies. Meanwhile, only 18 % of EI was from food sources rich in fibre and micronutrients, such as whole grains, roots, fruits, vegetables, beans, fish and nuts. No critical differences were observed by gender or age. Public health efforts oriented to diminish consumption of refined carbohydrates, meats, oils and sugar and to increase nutrient dense-foods are a priority in the region to drive to a healthier diet.

  15. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (≥30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

  16. Community integration and participation: the role of the social network in latin american migrants in a rural province (Teruel, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gil-Lacruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social network play an important role in both the decision to emigrate and the choice of location. Related to migrants and its social net, very little is known about patterns of integration and community participation in rural and low population density contexts in Spain. This article explores these issues and is based on a study, in the province of Teruel (Spain, using a sample of 324 Latin American migrants over the age of 18, selected by sex and place of residence. A standardised test - the Musitu and Gracia AC-90 Community Social Support Questionnaire and open questions were employed. ANOVAS analysis showed significant differences in community integration and participation in accordance with socioeconomic, motivational and social interaction variables.

  17. Progress towards elimination of trans-fatty acids in foods commonly consumed in four Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Alfaro, Thelma; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Villalpando, Salvador; Bernal, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    To assess progress towards the elimination of trans-fatty acids (TFA) in foods after the 2008 Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendation of virtual elimination of TFA in Latin America. A descriptive, comparative analysis of foods that were likely to contain TFA and were commonly consumed in four cities in Latin America. San José (Costa Rica), Mexico City (Mexico), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Foods from each city were sampled in 2011; TFA content was analysed using GC. TFA of selected foods was also monitored in 2016. In 2011-2016, there was a significant decrease in the content of TFA in the sampled foods across all sites, particularly in Buenos Aires (from 12·6-34·8 % range in 2011-2012 to nearly 0 % in 2015-2016). All sample products met the recommended levels of TFA content set by the PAHO. TFA were replaced with a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fats. Our results indicate a virtual elimination of TFA from major food sources in the cities studied. This could be due to a combination of factors, including recommendations by national and global public health authorities, voluntary and/or mandatory food reformulation made by the food industry.

  18. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-08-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI ( r 2 0.86; P chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Even though renal Tx is feasible, its growth rate is still not as fast as it should be in order to compensate for the increased prevalence of patients on waiting lists. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost-effective forms of RRT are needed in the region. Regional cooperation among Latin American countries, allowing the more developed to

  19. Special situations in inflammatory bowel disease: First Latin American consensus of the Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (PANCCO) (Second part).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Bosques-Padilla, F; Daffra, P; De Paula, J A; Etchevers, J; Galiano, M T; Ibañez, P; Juliao, F; Kotze, P G; Marroquín de la Garza, J M; Monreal Robles, R; Rocha, J L; Steinwurz, F; Vázquez-Frías, R; Veitia, G; Zaltman, C

    This is the first Latin American Consensus of the Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (PANCCO) regarding special situations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this consensus is to raise awareness in the medical community in all Latin American countries with respect to pregnancy, vaccinations, infections, neoplasms, including colorectal cancer, and pediatric issues in patients with IBD. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  1. Genealogical information and the structure of rural Latin-American populations: reality and fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Adams, J

    1996-01-01

    Genetic data organized in the form of genealogies can provide much information regarding the history and genetic structure of human populations. A large proportion of the population of Latin America is organized in small rural semi-isolated communities, with little immigration, and until the last 50-100 years, little emigration. These communities have a strong sense of their genealogical history, and this "genealogical conscience' is a frequent leitmotif in modern Latin-American literature. In this communication, we compare the characteristics of fictitious genealogies described in two masterpieces of Latin-American literature, García Márquez' Cien Años de Soledad (A Hundred Years of Solitude), and Verissimo's O Tempo e o Vento (Time and the Wind), with one existing well-studied population in Argentina, Aicuña. All three populations exhibit a number of common characteristics, such as histories of long periods of civil war, and large pedigrees with complex paths of inheritance resulting in complex patterns of inbreeding. Genetic themes common to all three are: (1) the use of genealogical records to substantiate the property of the land or the political power of a kinship; (2) the genealogical registry of biological descendants, independent of their legal or marital status in the clan; (3) the existence of pedigrees of the aristocratic branches in the same kindreds, which illustrate the legal principle of primogeniture; (4) the value of last names as indicators of kinships and the extent of genetic isolation, and (5) the awareness of the deleterious consequences of consanguinity.

  2. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

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    Baltica Cabieses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  3. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  4. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization.

  5. Metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American HIV-infected patients receiving HAART

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    P Cahn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities (MA and estimate the 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD among Latin American HIV-infected patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. METHODS: A cohort study to evaluate MA and treatment practices to reduce CVD has been conducted in seven Latin American countries. Adult HIV-infected patients with at least one month of HAART were enrolled. Baseline data are presented in this analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4,010 patients were enrolled. Mean age (SD was 41.9 (10 years; median duration of HAART was 35 (IQR: 10-51 months, 44% received protease inhibitors. The prevalence of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome was 80.2% and 20.2%, respectively. The overall 10-year risk of CVD, as measured by the Framingham risk score (FRF, was 10.4 (24.7. Longer exposure to HAART was documented in patients with dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The FRF score increased with duration of HAART. Male patients had more dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, smoking habit and higher 10-year CVD than females. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional risk factors for CVD are prevalent in this setting leading to intermediate 10-year risk of CVD. Modification of these risk factors through education and intervention programs are needed to reduce CVD.

  6. Human Rights, Culture, and Literature. An Example in the Narrative of Latin American Social Criticism

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    Malvina Guaraglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the theoretical proposal of Amartya Sen to consider human rights as demands of an ethical nature, capable of articulating a particular type of moral reciprocity, the article proposes to deepen the idea of human rights as cultural artifacts inseparable from the public sphere and from their logic of creation and legitimization of political and social identities. To do this, the paper adopts the advances of a recent field of research exploring the relation between literature and human rights, and discusses their possibilities for the case of Latin American literature. Through the analysis of four novels, belonging to the social criticism narrative in the middle of the twentieth century, the article shows the way in which the literary discourse has been involved in the promotion and expansion of human rights, and in the defense of new subjects of rights. When studying the way in which these fictions build arguments in favor of the expansion of the political space and of a more equitable reorganization of the national community, the article dares to contribute to a better understanding of both the way in which human rights are integrated and consolidated in other discourses, and the key role that literature claimed to have in the construction of a democratic ethics in the Latin American national states.

  7. Developing Renewable Energy: Comparative Scenarios and Public Policy Perspectives from some Latin American Countries

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    Claudia Cecilia Lardizabal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The energy matrix of Latin American and the Caribbean countries has one of the largest renewable energy components when compared to other regions of the world. Nonetheless, by 2009 nearly three-quarters of its structure corresponded to fossil fuels, with most of the countries being net importers of these fuels. This situation marks the region´s dependence on the effects of changes in energy commodities. Therefore, the opportunity lies in higher use of renewable energy sources that contribute to the country´s energy security and represent significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of current energy scenarios of six Latin American countries (Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile in order to evaluate the policies, programs and strategies implemented in the search for greater participation of renewable energy. Considering the importance of the water-energy nexus that could serve to promote renewables under conditions of water scarcity, a qualitative data comparison was accomplished, considering energy consumption, CO2 emissions, GDP and water withdrawals per country. The authors conclude that, despite technological and financial constraints, all the involved countries are moving towards the substitution of a fossil fuel based matrix to a renewable one. This process could be seen as a result of clear policies and strategies that have been set, which include (but are not limited to price regulations setting, preferential prices to electricity generated through renewable energy technologies and incentives formulated to encourage the production of biofuels.

  8. Power law for the duration of recession and prosperity in Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    Ormerod and Mounfield [P. Ormerod, C. Mounfield, Power law distribution of duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: Breakdown of scaling, Physica A 293 (2001) 573] and Ausloos et al. [M. Ausloos, J. Mikiewicz, M. Sanglier, The durations of recession and prosperity: Does their distribution follow a power or an exponential law? Physica A 339 (2004) 548] have independently analyzed the duration of recessions for developed countries through the evolution of the GDP in different time windows. It was found that there is a power law governing the duration distribution. We have analyzed data collected from 19 Latin American countries in order to observe whether such results are valid or not for developing countries. The case of prosperity years is also discussed. We observe that the power law of recession time intervals, see Ref. [1], is valid for Latin American countries as well. Thus an interesting point is discovered: the same scaling time is found in the case of recessions for the three data sets (ca. 1 year), and this could represent a universal feature. Other time scale parameters differ significantly from each other.

  9. Socioenvironmentalism and Nature 's Rights in Latin American Integration for Good Lives

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    William Paiva Marques Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed of reconstruction of legal, economic, political and social instability in the countries of South America necessarily permeates an analysis of movement enshrined by the New Latin American Constitutionalism Democratic founded on the idea of   buen vivir. The exhaustion of the Continental-European neoconstitucional model in South America is evident primarily from the Constitution of Ecuador (2008 and the Constitu- tion of Bolivia (2009, quite innovative in terms of political and democratic relationships, the result of this constitutional motion. They are seeking a more participatory democratic model, inclusive, egalitarian and horizontal in the relationship between citizens and the state. In light of this new legal-political phenomenon becomes urgent revision of tradi- tional concepts that permeate socioenvironmentalism, the rights of nature and partici- patory democracy. Legal recognition of nature as a subject of dignity and rights requires rationality and sensitivity of lawyers and implies an epistemological reinterpretation of the recognition of dignity and rights for all living beings, since, from the anthropocentric view - European cartesian matrix, these features were reserved only to humans for the effectiveness of Latin American integration project for the good living.

  10. Full-text publication of abstracts presented at meetings of a Latin American scientific society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicembrino, Manuela; Anderson, Mariana; Vely, Ana Gabriela; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Ferrero, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the proportion of abstracts presented at meetings of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Research that are fully-published, to describe the reasons for not publishing papers, and to assess the impact of funding on the publication rate. Abstracts presented at meetings held between 2005 and 2009 were included. Authors were contacted and invited to take a survey on the publication of their work or the reasons not to do it. Information was collected on 232 (71.4%) of the 325 abstracts presented. Of these, 58.6% were fully-published (136/232). Funded studies (40.0%) had more chances of publication (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-3.9). "Lack of time" was the most common reason for failure to publish (35/96). 58.6% of abstracts presented at meetings of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Research, were published as full-text articles; lack of time was the most common reason for failure to publish. Funded research had more chances of being published.

  11. Use of health services by adult Latin American immigrants residing in Seville

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    José Rafael González-López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This work sought to describe the use of health services by adult Latin American immigrants from Seville. Methodology. This was a descriptive cohort study with the participation of 190 adult Latin American immigrants from 25 to 44 years of age, residing in the city of Seville (Spain in 2011. A self-report survey was applied. Results. Within the past year, 67% of the individuals have visited a physician and 23% have attended nursing consultation. A total of 14% of the immigrants who called on a healthcare center reported that their experience was worse than that of others. La annual prevalence by accidents was: 10% domestic, 4% traffic-related and 9% occupational; nearly half these accidents justified emergency care or hospitalization due to their severity. The logistic regression model revealed that health services were used mostly by: women, those in poor self-perceived health status, those with secondary level of education, the elderly, and those who were single. Conclusion. The population studied presents adequate use of health services, although it would be recommendable to implement prevention activities by nurses in the immigrant's work and family environment to reduce the accident incidence described by this group.

  12. Latin American Development Trends and Brazil’s Role in the Region

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    Paulo Roberto De Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of development of Latin American countries in XX century, defines the features of the process of economic stabilization (the case of Argentina and Brazil, the resolution of debt crisis, the development of democratization and the influence of globalization. The author reveals the main features of the integration processes in the region (Mercosur, UNASUR, the Pacific Alliance and the Venezuelan project of Alba, the consequences of the implosion of the FTAA. The author shows that most of Latin American countries followed their roles of primary products exporters, a characteristic even reinforced in the last decade by the impressive growth of China. The role of trade and economic policy of China in the region has changed and it turned into the main regional trade partner, taking the place previously held by the United States. The analyses of the successes and failures in the implementation of economic reforms in Brazil is provided. Three scenarios of regional development are proposed depending on the degree of regional inclusion in the process of globalization.

  13. Latin-American inmigration in Spain in the 21st Century

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    Aurora García Ballesteros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Latino-American immigration in Spain increased in the last fourth of the 20th century and in the first decade of the 21st century, promoted by historical and social links and by bilateral covenants. Country provenance also changed due to the social-economic and political circumstances the countries were going through. Nowadays, most immigrants come from Ecuador and Colombia. The main effects that this emigration had on the countries of origin as well as immigrants’ legal situation in Spain are studied. The age and gender structures and their health situation are also analysed. Later on, their spatial distribution is looked into, specially in Madrid and Barcelona where almost half of Latin-Americans are concentrated. In the last part, labour and their main activities are examined as well as the existing differences depending on the country of origin.

  14. Validity of the effort/reward imbalance questionnaire in health professionals from six Latin-American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-García, Arturo; Vera-Calzaretta, Aldo; Blanco-Gomez, Gisela; Gómez-Ortíz, Viviola; Hernández-Mendoza, Elena; Jacinto-Ubillus, José; Choi, Bongkyoo

    2015-06-01

    This study tests the validity and the invariance of ERI questionnaire (ERIQ) data from health professionals in six different Latin-American countries. One thousand two hundred ninety-two (1292) participants who worked in hospitals in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela completed the ERI and GHQ questionnaires. Partial correlations were carried out as well as reliability statistics and confirmatory factor analyses to examine factor structure and invariance of ERIQ in each subsample. Overall confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the theoretical structure of the ERIQ. The effort and overcommitment scales were invariant (equivalent) across the six countries, but the reward scale was only partially invariant. Several associations between ERIQ and mental health remain significant after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Although the validity of the ERIQ' scales were generally satisfactory in most Latin-American samples, future research should examine in depth the equivalence of reward scale across Latin-American cultures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Respiratory medication used in COPD patients from seven Latin American countries: the LASSYC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Alejandro; Montes de Oca, Maria; Menezes, Ana Mb; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Lopez Varela, Maria Victorina; Mendoza, Laura; Ramírez, Larissa; Miravitlles, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding medication use in COPD patients from Latin America. This study evaluated the type of medication used and the adherence to different inhaled treatments in stable COPD patients from the Latin American region. This was an observational, cross-sectional, multinational, and multicenter study in COPD patients attended by specialist doctors from seven Latin American countries. Adherence to inhaled therapy was assessed using the Test of Adherence to Inhalers (TAI) questionnaire. The type of medication was assessed as: short-acting β-agonist (SABA) or short-acting muscarinic antagonist (SAMA) only, long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), long-acting β-agonist (LABA), LABA/LAMA, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), ICS/LABA, ICS/LAMA/LABA, or other. In total, 795 patients were included (59.6% male), with a mean age of 69.5±8.7 years and post-bronchodilator FEV 1 of 50.0%±18.6%. The ICS/LAMA/LABA (32.9%) and ICS/LABA (27.7%) combinations were the most common medications used, followed by LABA/LAMA (11.3%), SABA or SAMA (7.9%), LABA (6.4%), LAMA (5.8%), and ICS (4.3%). The types of medication most commonly used in each Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2013 category were ICS/LABA (A: 32.7%; B: 19.8%; C: 25.7%; D: 28.2%) and ICS/LAMA/LABA (A: 17.3%; B: 30.2%; C: 33%; D: 41.1%). The use of long-acting bronchodilators showed the highest adherence (good or high adherence >50%) according to the TAI questionnaire. COPD management in specialist practice in Latin America does not follow the current guideline recommendations and there is an overuse of ICSs in patients with COPD from this region. Treatment regimens including the use of long-acting bronchodilators are associated with the highest adherence.

  16. Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Caribbean: a mapping of selected diseases.

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    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work towards their elimination. In 2009, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO received a mandate to support the countries in the Region in eliminating neglected diseases and other poverty-related infections. The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of selected diseases using geo-processing techniques. Five diseases with information available at the first sub-national level (states were mapped, showing the presence of the disease ("hotspots" and overlap of diseases ("major hotspots". In the 45 countries/territories (approximately 570 states of the Region, there is: lymphatic filariasis in four countries (29 states, onchocerciasis in six countries (25 states, schistosomiasis in four countries (39 states, trachoma in three countries (29 states, and human rabies transmitted by dogs in ten countries (20 states. Of the 108 states with one or more of the selected diseases, 36 states present the diseases in overlapping areas ("major hotspots". Additional information about soil-transmitted helminths was included. The analysis suggests a majority of the selected diseases are not widespread and can be considered part of an unfinished agenda with elimination as a goal. Integrated plans and a comprehensive approach, ensuring access to existing diagnostic and treatment methods, and establishing a multi-sectoral agenda that addresses social determinants, including access to adequate water and sanitation, are required. Future studies can include additional diseases, socio-economic and environmental variables.

  17. Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Caribbean: a mapping of selected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Aguilera, Ximena Paz; Barbosa da Silva Junior, Jarbas; Ault, Steven Kenyon; Najera, Patricia; Martinez, Julio; Requejo, Raquel; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Yadon, Zaida; Silva, Juan Carlos; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2011-02-15

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work towards their elimination. In 2009, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) received a mandate to support the countries in the Region in eliminating neglected diseases and other poverty-related infections. The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of selected diseases using geo-processing techniques. Five diseases with information available at the first sub-national level (states) were mapped, showing the presence of the disease ("hotspots") and overlap of diseases ("major hotspots"). In the 45 countries/territories (approximately 570 states) of the Region, there is: lymphatic filariasis in four countries (29 states), onchocerciasis in six countries (25 states), schistosomiasis in four countries (39 states), trachoma in three countries (29 states), and human rabies transmitted by dogs in ten countries (20 states). Of the 108 states with one or more of the selected diseases, 36 states present the diseases in overlapping areas ("major hotspots"). Additional information about soil-transmitted helminths was included. The analysis suggests a majority of the selected diseases are not widespread and can be considered part of an unfinished agenda with elimination as a goal. Integrated plans and a comprehensive approach, ensuring access to existing diagnostic and treatment methods, and establishing a multi-sectoral agenda that addresses social determinants, including access to adequate water and sanitation, are required. Future studies can include additional diseases, socio-economic and environmental variables.

  18. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  19. Attitudes toward Family Obligations among American Adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Tseng, Vivian; Lam, May

    1999-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward family obligations in American tenth and twelfth graders from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Found that even within a society emphasizing adolescent autonomy and independence, youths from families with collectivistic traditions retain their parents' familial values and…

  20. Attitudes towards treatment among patients suffering from sleep disorders. A Latin American survey

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    Lloret Santiago

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sleep disorders are common, they frequently remain unnoticed by the general practitioner. Few data are available about the willingness and reasons of patients with sleep disturbances to seek for medical assistance. Methods The results of a cross-sectional community-based multinational survey in three major Latin American urban areas, i.e. Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Sao Paulo, are reported. Two-hundred subjects suffering sleep disturbances and 100 non-sufferers were selected from the general population in each city (total number: 600 sufferers vs. 300 non-sufferers. A structured interview was conducted, sleep characteristics, feelings about sleep disturbances and strategies to cope with those problems being recorded. Data were analyzed by employing either t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA to the Z-transformed proportions. Results 22.7 ± 3.5 % (mean ± SEM of subjects reported to suffer from sleep disturbances every night. About 3 out of 4 (74.2 ± 2.0 % considered their disorder as mild and were not very concerned about it. Only 31 ± 2 % of sufferers reported to have sought for medical help. Although 45 ± 2 % of sufferers reported frequent daily sleepiness, trouble to remember things, irritability and headaches, they did not seek for medical assistance. Among those patients who saw a physician with complaints different from sleep difficulties only 1 out of 3 (33 ± 2 % of patients were asked about quality of their sleep by the incumbent practitioner. Strategies of patients to cope with sleep problems included specific behaviors (taking a warm bath, reading or watching TV (44 ± 1.6 %, taking herbal beverages (17 ± 1.2 % or taking sleeping pills (10 ± 1.1 %. Benzodiazepines were consumed by 3 ± 0.6 % of sufferers. Conclusion Public educational campaigns on the consequences of sleep disorders and an adequate training of physicians in sleep medicine are needed to educate both the public and the general

  1. Intercultural Education Series. An Introduction to Selected Latin American Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Frank W. R.; And Others

    This is the first publication in a series developed by the Programa de Educacion Interamericana designed to enrich and strengthen the knowledge and understanding of Texas teachers and students in the field of intercultural education, with particular reference to Mexico and the republics of Central and South America. The project hopes to produce a…

  2. Study and analysis of information technology in dentistry in Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Jordi, María Del C; Figueiredo, Marcia Ç; Barone, Dante; Pereira, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    Dentistry increasingly uses Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which has impact on teaching, research, the profession and dental care in general. However, there is a lack of valid information on ICT resources and use in Latin America. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multi-center, interdisciplinary study, the aim of which was to conduct a survey on how extensively ICT is used in Dentistry in Latin American countries by enquiring into two primary components: 1) use of ICT in student training and 2) use of ICT by professionals in consulting rooms and services. Two questionnaires on ICT were prepared: one for teachers/researchers and another for students/professionals. We received 94 answers from teachers/researchers at universities in the region providing information on ICT resources for teaching (type and implementation) and 221 answers from professionals (personal use and use in healthcare). Data are presented as absolute relative frequencies and analyzed quantitatively as percentages. 1) Teachers highlight ICT as an instrument for development, democratization and fairness in access to knowledge for higher education. 2) ICT supports collaborative learning and generates other innovative resources (e.g. simulators). 3) Innovations in telemedicine and experiences with electronic clinical history were identified in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia. These results are a basis upon which to reach a consensus regarding a set of ICT indicators which are comparable at regional level and serve as input to unify the design and implementation of ICTs experiences in both teaching and dental care in Latin America. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  3. Diet and Respiratory Health in Children from 11 Latin American Countries: Evidence from ISAAC Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alfonso Mario; Thawer, Sumaiyya; Boyle, Robert J; Villalba, Sara; Jaller, Rodolfo; Tapias, Elmy; Segura, Ana María; Villegas, Rodrigo; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa

    2017-12-01

    The burden of childhood asthma and its risk factors is an important but neglected public health challenge in Latin America. We investigated the association between allergic symptoms and dietary intake in children from this region. As part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase III, questionnaire collected dietary intake was investigated in relation to risk of parental/child reported current wheeze (primary outcome) and rhino-conjunctivitis and eczema. Per-country adjusted logistic regressions were performed, and combined effect sizes were calculated with meta-analyses. 143,967 children from 11 countries had complete data. In children aged 6-7 years, current wheeze was negatively associated with higher fruit intake (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65; 95% CI 0.74, 0.97). Current rhino-conjunctivitis and eczema were statistically negatively associated with fruit intake (aOR 0.72; 95% CI 0.64, 0.82; and OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.56, 0.74, respectively). Vegetable intake was negatively associated with risk of symptoms in younger children, but these associations were attenuated in the 13-14 years old group. Fastfood/burger intake was positively associated with all three outcomes in the older children. A higher intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower prevalence of allergic symptoms in Latin American children. Conversely, intake of fastfood was positively associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze in adolescents. Improved dietary habits in children might help reduce the epidemic of allergic symptoms in Latin America. Food interventions in asthmatic children are needed to evaluate the possible public health impact of a better diet on respiratory health.

  4. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical testsEsse artigo tem 3 contribuições à literatura de ciclos de negócios. A primeira é a de construir indicadores coincidentes de atividade econômica para Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia e México, usando pesos idênticos para as séries de Emprego, Produção, Renda, e Vendas. Para tal, tivemos que fazer o back-cast de algumas séries chave para poder construir esses indicadores. A segunda é a de estabelecer uma cronologia de recessões para esses países no período 1980-2012 em bases mensais. Com base na última, fazemos comparações em várias dimensões. Finalmente, nossa última contribuição é propor um índice coincidente agregado para a América Latina, que é comparado ao índice agregado dos EUA. Esta comparação indica que o índice coincidente dos EUA Granger-causa o da América Latina, mas a recíproca não é verdadeira

  5. Images of another modernity: Gilberto Freyre and the Latin American space-time

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    Sergio Barreira de Faria Tavolaro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15n34p196 Time and space are two key categories in Gilberto Freyre’s intellectual program. Keeping in mind his most renown and celebrated work on the Brazilian social formation, this article seeks to identify the meanings and connotations that Freyre attributes to both notions while coming to grips with the place and importance of Latin America in modernity. As I intend to demonstrate, for Freyre the Latin American time-space configuration was irreducible to that of the so-called central modern societies, both on the conceptual level and on the level of everyday experience, which in and of itself is said to account for the peculiar patterns of sociability found in one and other societal contexts. Last but not least, the article aims at investigating the occasional existence of convergences between Freyre’s research agenda and a set of contemporary approaches that have emerged in sociological theory in recent times.

  6. Uncivil actors and violence systems in the Latin American urban domain

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    Dirk Kruijt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The character and quality of Latin America’s democracy is in dispute. Uncertainties about its nature and future prevail in the development debate. In the early 2000s the UNDP (2004 coined the terms “low-intensity citizenship” and “low-intensity democracy” to describe the post-dictatorship democracy in the region. When in the 1980s the military establishment withdrew from the political arena and democracy was restored, a severe economic crisis affected the region, producing long lasting effects in terms of mass poverty, informality and social exclusion. In the urban domain, and especially in territories where the representatives of law and order are relatively absent, “uncivil” nonstate actors surfaced, including local drug lords and their small territorial armies; youth gangs; organised crime and the so-called “dark forces”, joined by former belligerent actors of the Andean and Central American civil wars. In this article, I will analyse and typify this erosion of formal social order and the emergence of parallel and informal structures and hierarchies throughout Latin America.

  7. Prevalence of Chagas disease in medical students from 16 Latin American countries attending

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    Miguel A. Serra Valdés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the infectious illnesses that have repercussion in Latin America are the Chagas illness. Objective: with the objective of identifying the students with positive serology for the illness of Chagas and describe the characteristics in the same thing with focussing epidemiological carried out to him the present study. Method: It become fulfilled a observational investigation, descriptive and prospectival. It decided the prevalencial in the Latin American students of medicine that resides in the school Salvador Allende in the period understanded between October of the 2009 to January of the 2010 by means of serology, other clinical studieses and examination. They took shelter the variables of the clinical records and of personal interview.. Results: Affected 50 of the Bolivian delegation. The prevalence went of 6.6% of this delegation. Have clinical symptoms. The detected alterations went the ventricular hypertrophy left and the disorders of transportation and of the rhythm for electrocardiogram. It predominated the masculine sex and the rural origin. It found variability in the results of laboratory, being positive in their country and negative in Cuba and vice versa. Single 56% fulfilled the treatment. The adverse reactions went minims. Conclusion: It constitutes a sanitary problem and demands a better diagnosis, control and follow-up.

  8. Use of strong opioids for chronic pain in osteoarthritis: an insight into the Latin American reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Iban, Miguel Angel; Benavides, Javier; Forero, Juan Pablo; Bittelman, Sacha; Martinez, Rafael; Mite, Miguel Angel; Diaz Heredia, Jorge; Ulloa, Sergio; Lizárraga Ferrand, Mauro Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of arthritis and one of the main causes of chronic pain. Although opioids are frequently employed for chronic pain treatment, their usage for osteoarthritis pain remains controversial due to the associated adverse effects. Most guidelines reserve their use for refractory pain in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. The situation is even more complex in Latin America, where the prevalence of insufficient pain treatment is high because of the limited availability and use of strong opioids. Areas covered: In this article we review the epidemiology of osteoarthritis, its socioeconomic burden, its impact as a chronic pain cause and the pharmacological treatment options, giving emphasis to the role of strong opioids, their safety and efficacy, especially in Latin American countries, where restrictions regulate their usage. Expert commentary: Usage of strong opioids is safe and effective in the short-term management of osteoarthritis with moderate to severe pain, when other pharmacological treatments are inadequate and surgery is contraindicated, provided their use adheres to existing guidelines. Educational programs for patients and physicians and further research on treating chronic pain with opioids should be implemented to reduce adverse effects and improve care quality.

  9. State, market and civil society: Latin American development in comparative perspective

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    Menno Vellinga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s Latin America made a radical break with the model of development that had been pursued by most countries on the continent for the last fifty years and implemented a new development strategy, defined along neo-liberal lines. These changes have taken place under conditions of increasing globalization, e.g. they had to be realized increasingly within globally defined parameters and structures. The relationship between the state, the market and civil society was redefined. The traditional structures of interest representation of groups and classes, their legitimacy and effectiveness underwent significant changes in many countries. In this article we will explore the nature of these changes and their consequences for state reform and the relation to problems of national development. We will do so in a comparative perspective, including experiences from South East Asia. The debate about the relationship between state, market and civil society has received a new impetus from the 2008 crisis of the international financial system and the widely spread criticism of the workings of the market capitalism that it has generated. For Latin American development the conclusions of this debate and their possible translation into concrete policies are of the utmost importance.

  10. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-10-30

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support.

  11. Left ventricular functional parameters by gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, Miguel; Beltran, Alvaro; Beretta, Mario; Mut, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    There is paucity of data on left ventricular (LV) functional parameters using gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) from the Latin American region. This study provides detailed information in low-risk patients both at rest and during exercise. We studied 90 patients (50 men) with a very low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Gated-SPECT MPI was performed with Tc-99m MIBI using a 2-day protocol, with 16 frames/R-R cycle. The LV ejection fraction and volumes were not different between the rest and post-stress images. LVEF was 68 ± 7% post-stress and 70 ± 7% at rest in women, and 62 ± 7% and 63 ± 7%, respectively, in men (P = .19, .26). LV volumes were larger in men than women (P stress. Transient ischemic dilatation was similar, with upper limits of 1.20 and 1.19 in women and men, respectively (P = NS). These data could prove helpful for the interpretation of gated SPECT MPI data in Latin America using identical protocol as used in this study.

  12. Agreements and disagreements in the strategic Euro-Latin American association: Balance and asymmetry

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    Anna Ayuso

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ten years on from the launching of the Strategic Association between the European Union (EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, it is time to carry out an assessment of its progress. During this period, many changes have taken place, both within each of the regions and in the international context, and these have affected different areas of the Association. There is awareness of the need to cooperate and develop the bi-regional association, but the expectations and incentives of the various countries and sub-regions are different. In the time that remains until the next EU-LAC summit, priority attention will be focused on the progress of the ongoing negotiations with the three blocs: Central America, the countries of CAN (Andean Community and MERCOSUR (Mercado Común del Sur, or Southern Common Market. With respect to the two cooperation priorities, support for regional integration and social cohesion should be made integral components of the policies devised for the region. The definition of a more constructive EU role in light of the reshaping of the map of Latin American integration makes it necessary to identify the real incentives, and to this end generate synergies between the different cooperation instruments, based on greater policy coherence.

  13. Science, technology and innovation policies for development the Latin American experience

    CERN Document Server

    Dutrénit, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in eight Latin American countries and the different paths these policies have taken. It provides empirical evidence to examine the extent to which STI policies are contributing to the development of the region, as well as to the solution of market failures and the stimulus of the region’s innovation systems. Since the pioneering work of Solow (1957), it has been recognized that innovation is critical for economic growth both in developed and in less-developed countries. Unfortunately Latin America lags behind world trends, and although over the last 20 years the region has established a more stable and certain macroeconomic regime, it is also clear that these changes have not been enough to trigger a process of innovation and productivity to catch-up. Against this rather grim scenario there is some optimism emerging throughout the region. After many years of inaction the region has begun to invest in science, technology...

  14. The challenge of changing the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in Latin America: declaration of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza Helena; Avila-Agüero, María Luisa; Brea del Castillo, José; Mariño, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America. 1. The optimal proposed schedule consists of four IPV doses (three doses in the primary schedule plus a booster dose), whether IPV is combined or not with other indicated vaccines in the immunization program of the country. During the OPV to IPV transition phase, an alternative schedule is acceptable; 2. Countries should set optimal strategies in order to maintain and improve vaccination coverage, and implement a nominal immunization registry; 3. Improving the Epidemiological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and setting up an environmental surveillance program; 4. Setting up strategies for introducing IPV in National Immunization Programs, such as communicating properly with the population, among others; 5. Bringing scientific societies closer to decision makers; 6. Ensuring optimal supply and prices for IPV introduction; 7. Training vaccination teams; 8. Enhancing the distribution and storing logistics of vaccines. In addition to the

  15. Monstrosity and War Memories in Latin American Post-conflict Cinema

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    Maria Chiara D'Argenio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between inhumanity, monstrosity, war and memory in two Latin American films: Días de Santiago (Peru, 2004 and La sombra del caminante (Colombia, 2004. These aesthetically innovative films tackle the internal armed conflicts that have occurred in Colombia and Peru in recent years. Focusing on former soldiers’ reintegration into civilian life, they display war as a traumatic experience that produces monstrosity, understood as a dehumanisation of the individual. By analysing the tropes of monstrosity and the haunting past, and the films’ aesthetics, I show how the performance of the monster articulates a tension between inhumanity and humanness, which can be read as a metaphor for the tension between the acts of remembering, investigating and forgetting within post-conflict societies.

  16. Stigma of poverty. The discursive construction of ­"South" term in Latin American countries

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    GÓMEZ QUINTERO, Juan David

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects a general knowledge and a macro-paradigmatic contribution of developmentalist discourses, in particular, its modernist and Eurocentric roots. In particular we analyze the artificiality of the discursive construction of certain categories that represent geopolitical stigma of poverty, such as ­Third World® or ­South® or ­underdeveloped® adopted in the field of international relations and the development cooperation. It notes that there are not metaphors opposite (North-South in its own right, the ­South® is not the opposite of the ­North®, but its negative extension, as evidenced by the imaginarium of most Latin American countries. The metaphors that stigmatize poverty are symbolic discourse used to define in a European way the identity of the winner (rich people.

  17. 13th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Caetano, E; Torres, C; Pizarro, C; Alfonso, L; LACAME 2012

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the Thirteenth Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, Medellin, Colombia, November 11-16, 2012. The broad scope of the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect to interdisciplinary subjects makes this volume an outstanding source of information to researchers and graduate students, who will find the unique results of Mössbauer spectroscopy a valuable aid and complement to their research in conjunction with other techniques. In this volume, applications to mineralogy, catalysis, soil science, amorphous materials, nanoparticles, magnetic materials, nanotechnology, metallurgy, corrosion, and magnetism, have been put together in original works produced by invited speakers and different research teams across the continent. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume

  18. Urban violence: the Latin American Women and Habitat Network (the case of Colombia

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    María Catalina Monroy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the international programmes of the Latin American Women and Habitat Network and draws some lines of action for incorporating a rights perspective into the formulation of public policies. The purpose of it is to close the gap that exists between international standards and the reality of women in cities. By juxtaposing feminist concepts and the experiences of the Women and Habitat Network, the need to implement public policies that guarantee the rights of women is discussed. In this sense, the article conceptualises the spaces of the home as part of the city, questions the limits of women’s mobility and autonomy and recognises the intersectionality of violence.

  19. Social integration of Latin-American immigrants in Spain: the influence of the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society.

  20. Latin American collaboration to the CERN-LHC accelerator assembly and its projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo B, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Summary of Latin American (LA) scientists main contributions to the construction of a heavy ion detector assembly currently operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva,Switzerland is given with description of the provided support for posterior data analysis. This joint effort highlights the much needed recognition of LA as a technologically emerging region. It has also shown a net benefit in development of science for our region. Details are given on the LHC-Alice experiment where several LA countries have contributed with innovative technological solutions. These include the ability to build part of the numerous detectors, including the central barrel as well as acquired knowledge on aspects concerning high energy dosimetry and radiation damage. (Author)

  1. Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, C.; Recalde, M.

    2010-01-01

    From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

  2. Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanodi, Oroma

    2017-09-08

    This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.

  3. Challenges of SOA adoption in the Telco domain for Latin American researchers

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    Fernando Mendioroz-Cotelo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication service providers such as Mobile Network Operators are currently under the vortex arising from paradigm shifts imposed by the omnipresence of the Internet. The adoption of Service Oriented Architecture and the shift to Next Generation Networks constitute some of the efforts of these organizations at the conflence toward these new business models. This article introduces a review of the concepts behind these proposals within Telco organizations, identifis gaps and discusses about the challenges that research and development groups are facing in the Latin American context; obstacles to overcome for converging and creating a synergic environment of common interests oriented to the innovation around the subject.

  4. Latin American Social Medicine and the Report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health

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    RAFAEL GONZALEZ GUZMAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In October 2008 the Latin American Social Medicine Association (ALAMES organized an international workshop entitled “The Social Determinants of Health.” Representatives of ALAMES’ seven regions participated in discussions of the various consultative papers prepared by the working groups of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health as well as the Commission’s final report. The workshop considered how ALAMES should respond to the work of the Commission. In this paper we summarize the main points outlined in the position paper prepared by the Organizing Committee1 as well as a synopsis of the main contributions made by each of the workshop’s study sections.

  5. 10th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Partiti, C; Gancedo, J. R; Larica, C; LACAME 2006

    2009-01-01

    Proceedings of the 10th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, LACAME 2006, held in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, 5-9 November 2006. This volume demonstrates the way in which researchers, on a wide range of topics, many interdisciplinary, find the applications of the Mössbauer Effect an outstanding method whose results, sometimes unique, complements and improves the information obtained by other techniques to deepen the understanding of the matter under research. This volume comprises research papers recording original investigations on applications to diverse areas like archaeology, metallurgy, soil science, geology, industrial applications, new instrumentation, corrosion, and chemical applications. The papers present the latest scientific work of various regional investigators. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume

  6. Potential dividends and actual cash flows. A regional latin american analysis1

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    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the value market assigns to components of the cash flow to equity including potential dividends. We study non financial publicly traded firms from five Latin American countries. The model includes four variables: market value of equity, dividends paid, change in equity investment and change in liquid assets (potential dividends and are regressed with actual equity value as dependent variable. Tests applied give robust results. The main conclusions: Market assigns less than one dollar to a future dollar for any of the variables studied. Potential dividends destroy value. A dollar invested in liquid assets has a negative Net Present Value and it is not zero NPV investments. We confirm the agency costs of keeping undistributed cash flows.

  7. Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroma Nwanodi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.

  8. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  9. Spanish recruitment programmes for Latin Americans in countries of origin: a flexible management framework

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    Ana Mª López-Sala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, countries whose markets needed seasonal labour have sought new ways of importing foreign workers through channelling and recruitment programmes in countries of origin. This article seeks to demonstrate that, in the case of Spain, the effective development of this process has only been possible because of a flexible and dynamic system in which bilateral agreements have played a major role, among them those signed with some Latin American countries. Flexible management of these programmes has been implemented via legislation, via the institutions and actors involved, and via the immigrants themselves, who have managed (or been forced to adapt to the changes of a labour market conditioned by the globalisation of labour and capital.

  10. Latin American collaboration to the CERN-LHC accelerator assembly and its projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.

    2016-10-01

    Summary of Latin American (LA) scientists main contributions to the construction of a heavy ion detector assembly currently operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva,Switzerland is given with description of the provided support for posterior data analysis. This joint effort highlights the much needed recognition of LA as a technologically emerging region. It has also shown a net benefit in development of science for our region. Details are given on the LHC-Alice experiment where several LA countries have contributed with innovative technological solutions. These include the ability to build part of the numerous detectors, including the central barrel as well as acquired knowledge on aspects concerning high energy dosimetry and radiation damage. (Author)

  11. THE SPANISH AND LATIN AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF WORK LIFE BALANCE: KEYS FOR INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has led us to ask how to generate competitive advantages that have an impact on organizational effectiveness without jeopardizing the employees’ quality of life. The importance of the development of health and safety policies (Montero, Araque, & Rey, 2009, and within these, family-friendly policies promoting the work-life balance (WLB of employees (Leon & Chinchilla, 2010; Urcelay, 2005 has been pointed out by various authors in our country. This article reviews the main Spanish and Latin American contributions on work-life balance (WLB published in the last eight years, and presents the research work of the ASH-PsicoSAO Group (University of Barcelona related to this topic. The objective of our work is to contribute to both the scientific and the occupational fields, with particular attention to the role of supervisor.

  12. Respiratory medication used in COPD patients from seven Latin American countries: the LASSYC study

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    Casas A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alejandro Casas,1 Maria Montes de Oca,2 Ana MB Menezes,3 Fernando C Wehrmeister,3 Maria Victorina Lopez Varela,4 Laura Mendoza,5 Larissa Ramírez,6 Marc Miravitlles7 On behalf of the LASSYC team 1Fundación Neumológica Colombiana, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia; 2Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela; 3Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; 4Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay; 5Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile; 6AstraZeneca, San José, Costa Rica; 7Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain Background: Limited information is available regarding medication use in COPD patients from Latin America. This study evaluated the type of medication used and the adherence to different inhaled treatments in stable COPD patients from the Latin American region.Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, multinational, and multicenter study in COPD patients attended by specialist doctors from seven Latin American countries. Adherence to inhaled therapy was assessed using the Test of Adherence to Inhalers (TAI questionnaire. The type of medication was assessed as: short-acting β-agonist (SABA or short-acting muscarinic antagonist (SAMA only, long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA, long-acting β-agonist (LABA, LABA/LAMA, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, ICS/LABA, ICS/LAMA/LABA, or other.Results: In total, 795 patients were included (59.6% male, with a mean age of 69.5±8.7 years and post-bronchodilator FEV1 of 50.0%±18.6%. The ICS/LAMA/LABA (32.9% and ICS/LABA (27.7% combinations were the most common medications used, followed by LABA/LAMA (11.3%, SABA or SAMA (7.9%, LABA (6.4%, LAMA (5.8%, and ICS (4.3%. The types of medication most commonly used in each Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2013 category were ICS/LABA (A: 32.7%; B: 19.8%; C: 25.7%; D: 28.2% and

  13. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Blaauw, M.

    2015-01-01

    The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing

  14. Analyses of Some Studies on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Family Planning in Several Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, New York, NY.

    Research dealing with population and family planning in specific Latin American countries is summarized in this collection of demographic studies. Countries for which information is provided include Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. Each country…

  15. Educating Counseling and Guidance Professionals from a Pedagogy Perspective: Experiences from a Latin American Undergraduate Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, George Davy; Jiménez, Dorelys

    2015-01-01

    Specialized literature shows that counseling and guidance represents an interdisciplinary profession, practiced differently in various Latin American countries. Likewise, counseling and guidance is understood as being a multicontextual and politically worthy profession that is connected to the personal, socioeconomic, cultural, and collective…

  16. Ten Years of "Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education" RELEA: Achievements and Challenges for International Astronomy Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Jafelice, Luiz C.; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews 10 years of "Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education" (RELEA), showing that the journal has become a valuable resource for publishing and highlights its pathway as scholarly journal. Furthermore, it is also a call to astronomy education specialists to consolidate their efforts considering similar journals…

  17. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  18. Freedom of Speech and Democratization in the New Latin American Constitucionalism: The Communitary Radios in Ecuador's Media Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Thais Leite dos Santos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, through bibliographic and documental research, studies the new law of Media in Equator, in the context of the new latin american constitucionalism, into the perspective of community radios, zas popular communication media which promote citizenship and social mobilization. The communication media democratization also goes through the concretization of the freedom of expression as a participation right.

  19. Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

  20. The multi-layered-ness of urban segregation. On the simultaneous inclusion and exclusion in Latin American cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, P.G.S.M.; Salman, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Although segregation is a worldwide phenomenon, this paper will focus mainly on Latin American urban areas. We will discuss approaches - rooted in e.g. geography, economics, sociology, and anthropology - for measuring, analysing and describing segregation patterns at places of residence, workplaces,

  1. Beliefs about health and illness in latin-american migrants with diabetes living in sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: 'freedom from disease or feeling of well-being', and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual's beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health.

  2. Life-Space Assessment scale to assess mobility: validation in Latin American older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Alvarado, Beatriz E; Gomez, Fernando; Guerra, Ricardo; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2013-10-01

    The Life-Space Assessment (LSA) instrument of the University of Alabama and Birmingham study is a useful and innovative measure of mobility in older populations. The purpose of this article was to assess the reliability, construct and convergent validity of the LSA in Latin American older populations. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 150 women and 150 men, aged 65-74 years, were recruited from seniors' community centers in Manizales, Colombia and Natal, Brazil. The LSA questionnaire summarizes where people travel (5 levels from room to places outside of town), how often and any assistance needed. Four LSA variables were obtained according to the maximum life space achieved and the level of independence. As correlates of LSA, education, perception of income sufficiency, depression, cognitive function, and functional measures (objective and subjectively measured) were explored. The possible modifying effect of the city on correlates of LSA was examined. Reliability for the composite LSA score was substantial (ICC = 0.70; 95 % CI 0.49-0.83) in Manizales. Average levels of LSA scores were higher in those with better functional performance and those who reported less mobility difficulties. Low levels of education, insufficient income, depressive symptoms, and low scores of cognitive function were all significantly related to lower LSA scores. Women in both cities were more likely to be restricted to their neighborhood and had lower LSA scores. This study provides evidence for the validity of LSA in two Latin American populations. Our results suggest that LSA is a good measure of mobility that reflects the interplay of physical functioning with gender and the social and physical environment.

  3. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429 BNP CABA (Argentina); Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J. [Universidad Nacionald de La Plata, Av. 7 No. 1776, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stuck O, M. [Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valdivia, P., E-mail: lbdnet@googlegroups.co [Comision Chilena de Energia, Amutanegui 95, Santiago Centro, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-10-15

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  4. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Stuck O, M.; Valdivia, P.

    2010-10-01

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  5. Main activities of the Latin American Network of Biological Dosimetry (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Garcia Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; Gonzalez Mesa, J.E.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Guerrero Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.; Barquinero, F.; Roy, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) was constituted in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of a radiation emergency in the region supported by IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/054 and RLA/9/061. The main objectives are: a) to strengthen the technical capacities of Biological Dosimetry Services belonging to laboratories existing in the region (Argentine, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) integrated in National Radiological Emergency Plans to provide a rapid biodosimetric response in a coordinated manner between countries and with RANET-IAEA/BioDoseNet-WHO, b) to provide support to other countries in the region lacking Biological Dosimetry laboratories, c) to consolidate the organization of the Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network for mutual assistance. The activities developed include technical meetings for protocols and chromosomal aberration scoring criteria unification, blood samples cultures exercises, chromosomal aberrations analysis at microscope, discussion of statistical methods and specialized software for dose calculation, the intercomparison between laboratory data after the analysis of slides with irradiated material and the intercomparison of the analysis of captured images distributed electronically in the WEB. The last exercise was the transportation of an irradiated human blood sample to countries inside and outside of the region. At the moment the exercises are concluded and they are pending to be published in reference journals. Results obtained show the capacity in the region for a biodosimetric response to a radiological accident. In the future the network will integrate techniques for high dose exposure evaluation and will enhance the interaction with other emergency systems in the region. (authors) [es

  6. The Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA): contributions and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal (http://www.relea.ufscar.br), published in 15 issues. The articles were classified by: year of publication, issue, author's institutions, grade level, focus of the study and content. The results show that the number of articles is still small - although the journal has been initially qualified as B3 within the Journal Ranking scheme Qualis CAPES and in the latest ranking (current) advanced to the concept B1 in the Qualis, it is too early to expect an increase in the number of articles submitted. Among the main factors for the relatively low number of articles we can mention that the initially nominated Editorial Board did not succeed in a proper dissemination of the journal and call for papers, the ongoing absence of a ``critical mass'' of astronomy education researchers and the lack of publishing tradition in the area. Important aspects of the writing of articles submitted are also discussed, such as refereeing, acceptance rate of articles, participation of authors from countries other than Brazil and theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as the recent editorial restructuration of the international Editorial Board of the RELEA and the nomination of Associate Editors from Brazil. Concluding, it is possible to note the contribution to the field up to the moment through citations in other works in the field. However, it is necessary to advance with regard to: publishing more articles, articles from greater variety of Latin American countries, training of the community for a minimum quality of the writing of articles submitted for publication in a journal aimed at education research. In this sense, additional analyses of the published papers would be desirable. Finally, it is pointed out the need for greater

  7. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude

  8. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans report...

  9. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  10. Research trends in Carrion's disease in the last 60 years. A bibliometric assessment of Latin American scientific production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Ramos-Cedano, Emanuel; Helguero-Santin, Luis; Niño-Garcia, Roberto; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2018-03-01

    Carrion's disease is a major re-emerging and occupational health disease. This bibliometric study aimed to evaluate scientific production on this disease both globally and in Latin America. SCI-E, MEDLINE/GoPubMed, SCOPUS, ScIELO, and LILACS databases were searched for Carrion's disease-related articles. They were classified according to publication year, type, city and institution of origin, international cooperation, scientific journal, impact factor, publication language, author(s), and H-index. There were 170 articles in SCI-E. The USA was the largest contributor (42.9%), followed by Peru (24.1%) and Spain (12.4%). Latin American publications were cited 811 times (regional H-index=18). There were 335 articles in SCOPUS: 25.9%, 11.6%, and 8.3% were published by the USA, Peru, and Spain, respectively. Latin American publications were cited 613 times (H-index=12): Peru, Colombia, and Brazil received the most citations (n=395, H-index=10; n=61, H-index=1; and n=54, H-index=4, respectively). The most scientifically productive American institution was the University of Montana (2.9% of American production). In Peru, it was the Institute of Tropical Medicine Alexander von Humboldt of Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia (6.5% of Peruvian scientific production). There were 3,802 articles in Medline (1.2% were Peruvian), 35 in SciELO (94.3% were from Peru), and 168 in LILACS (11% were published in 2010-2014; only one article was published in 2015). Scientific production worldwide is led by the USA, and, in Latin America, by Peru and Brazil. However, Latin American scientific production in bibliographic databases is much lower than in other regions, despite being an endemic area for Carrion's disease.

  11. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Huitron, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  12. Los museos latinoamericanos de ciencia y la equidad Latin American science museums and equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tagüeña

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available América Latina y el Caribe constituyen una región muy variada, pero culturalmente afín. Los orígenes de sus países, sus riquezas y también sus problemas son muy semejantes; inclusive se encuentran puntos claros de contacto en aspectos más fundamentales, como la visión del mundo de cada sociedad. En toda esta región existe una corriente democratizadora muy fuerte que busca sociedades más justas y educadas. La ciencia juega un papel fundamental en el desarrollo como una poderosa arma de tolerancia y equidad. Por ello debe ser divulgada al mayor número posible de latinoamericanos. Para ayudar a lograr esta meta se creó la Red de Popularización de la Ciencia y la Tecnología para América Latina y el Caribe (Red POP, auspiciada por ORCYT-Unesco, que es una red interactiva que agrupa a centros y programas de popularización de la ciencia y la tecnología y que favorece el intercambio, la capacitación y el aprovechamiento de recursos entre sus miembros.Latin America and the Caribbean form a region of great variations yet marked by cultural resemblances. The origins of the region's countries, of their wealth, and also of their problems are quite similar. Indeed, there are clear points of contact in the most basic aspects, such as each society's worldview. Throughout the region there is a very strong democratizing trend that seeks more just and more educated societies. Science plays a key role in development as a powerful weapon for tolerance and equity and therefore should be disseminated among the greatest possible number of Latin Americans. Red POP the Network for the Popularization of Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean - was created to help reach this goal. Under the auspices of ORCYT-UNESCO, Red POP is an interactive network of centers and programs that work to bring science and technology to the public at large. It fosters exchange, skill-acquisition, and resource use among its members. Based on the network

  13. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  14. Genome Analysis of Latin American Cervical Cancer: Frequent Activation of the PIK3CA Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hong; Villagran, Guillermo; Boland, Joseph F; Im, Kate M; Polo, Sarita; Zhou, Weiyin; Odey, Ushie; Juárez-Torres, Eligia; Medina-Martínez, Ingrid; Roman-Basaure, Edgar; Mitchell, Jason; Roberson, David; Sawitzke, Julie; Garland, Lisa; Rodríguez-Herrera, Maria; Wells, David; Troyer, Jennifer; Pinto, Francisco Castillo; Bass, Sara; Zhang, Xijun; Castillo, Miriam; Gold, Bert; Morales, Hesler; Yeager, Meredith; Berumen, Jaime; Alvirez, Enrique; Gharzouzi, Eduardo; Dean, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality for women living in poverty, causing more than 28,000 deaths annually in Latin America and 266,000 worldwide. To better understand the molecular basis of the disease, we ascertained blood and tumor samples from Guatemala and Venezuela and performed genomic characterization. We performed human papillomavirus (HPV) typing and identified somatically mutated genes using exome and ultra-deep targeted sequencing with confirmation in samples from Mexico. Copy number changes were also assessed in the exome sequence. Cervical cancer cases in Guatemala and Venezuela have an average age of diagnosis of 50 years and 5.6 children. Analysis of 675 tumors revealed activation of PIK3CA and other PI3K/AKT pathway genes in 31% of squamous carcinomas and 24% of adeno- and adenosquamous tumors, predominantly at two sites (E542K, E545K) in the helical domain of the PIK3CA gene. This distribution of PIK3CA mutations is distinct from most other cancer types and does not result in the in vitro phosphorylation of AKT. Somatic mutations were more frequent in squamous carcinomas diagnosed after the age of 50 years. Frequent gain of chromosome 3q was found, and low PIK3CA mutation fractions in many tumors suggest that PI3K mutation can be a late event in tumor progression. PI3K pathway mutation is important to cervical carcinogenesis in Latin America. Therapeutic agents that directly target PI3K could play a role in the therapy of this common malignancy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Scientific research in malaria: bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Gomez-Suta, Daniela; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Medina-Morales, Diego A; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease of high global impact in public health, including Latin America. There should be more researched, particularly in this region. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American contributions about malaria was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/ GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). The studies were characterized by study type, year of publication, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, citations and H index. At SCI, 2,806 articles were retrieved (5.13% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (31.41%), followed by Colombia (14.3%) and Mexico (9.5%). The region received 39,894 citations, 32.2% from Brazil (H index=51), 12.75% Mexico (H index=38), 11.2% Colombia (H index=33). At Scopus, there are 4,150 articles (4.9% of the total), 33.0% Brazil, 11.3% Colombia and 8.8% Mexico; 17% in Brazil were from Universidad de São Paulo; 23.6% of Colombia from Universidad de Antioquia; 15.4% of Mexico from Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. At Medline there were 4,278 records (36.8% Brazil). At SciELO there are 792 records (45.3% Brazil). At LILACS there were 1744 records (34.3% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output of the region, as Venezuela the scientific production in Malaria was related with the burden of disease. This was not the case for Colombia. Scientific production at bibliographical databases, particularly regionals, is low, compared to the high incidence of this disease that requires more research and control.

  16. 8. Latin American Symposium on Environmental and Sanitary Analytical Chemistry: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The rapid changes and development of world economy, incidental to continued growth in consumption of industrial goods, continue presenting biological and biochemical interactions unsuspected or underestimated. This has imposed increasing challenges in the study of the effects on human health and environmental, vital issues that affect all citizens of the planet and the biota in general, but have not yet been sufficiently studied or well understood. Stringent criteria are needed to determine the impacts on health, long-term, of technical and chemical inventions today. This movement has received support from consumers and politicians, in the case of the European Union, the largest common market in the world. Large employers already know that it is necessary to develop the new green technology and its controls, if they are to survive in the global economy of a future that is next. The countries of the great region of Latin America have presented a specific weight very noticeable on the world community and have not been independent of the process generalized and they also correspond to scientifically scrutinize the environmental interactive phenomena to deal with possible negative consequences, give solutions and options satisfactory to their leaders and its population. The scientific program included new techniques, qualitative and quantitative, applied to the determination of substances and microorganisms in organisms and ecosystems. The evaluation of the effects of pollution on the environment has been focused so, as the development of standards for pollution control and various activities related to the study and solution of environmental problems facing the area. Abstracts of oral presentations and posters that were presented at the 8th Latin American Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry and Health were included in this compendium. (author) [es

  17. Trends in antibiotic utilization in eight Latin American countries, 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Dreser, Anahí; Gonzales, Ralph

    2010-03-01

    To describe the trends in antibiotic utilization in eight Latin American countries between 1997-2007 We analyzed retail sales data of oral and injectable antibiotics (World Health Organization (WHO) Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code J01) between 1997 and 2007 for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Antibiotics were aggregated and utilization was calculated for all antibiotics (J01); for macrolides, lincosamindes, and streptogramins (J01 F); and for quinolones (J01 M). The kilogram sales of each antibiotic were converted into defined daily dose per 1 000 inhabitants per day (DID) according to the WHO ATC classification system. We calculated the absolute change in DID and relative change expressed in percent of DID variation, using 1997 as a reference Total antibiotic utilization has increased in Peru, Venezuela, Uruguay, and Brazil, with the largest relative increases observed in Peru (5.58 DID, +70.6%) and Venezuela (4.81 DID, +43.0%). For Mexico (-2.43 DID; -15.5%) and Colombia (-4.10; -33.7%), utilization decreased. Argentina and Chile showed major reductions in antibiotic utilization during the middle of this period. In all countries, quinolone use increased, particularly sharply in Venezuela (1.86 DID, +282%). The increase in macrolide, lincosaminde, and streptogramin use was greatest in Peru (0.76 DID, +82.1%), followed by Brazil, Argentina, and Chile Analyzing antibiotic utilization in Latin America presents a series of challenges. Creating policy-relevant evidence based on antimicrobial consumption patterns is needed in order to foster policies aimed at improving appropriate use of antibiotics in the region.

  18. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; DeWalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  19. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC

  20. Late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Latin Americans: a distinct subgroup?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R; Imamura, P M; Wojdyla, D; Jacobelli, S; Massardo, L; Chacón Díaz, R; Guibert-Toledano, M; Alvarellos, A; Saurit, V; Manni, J A; Pascual-Ramos, V; Silva de Sauza, A W; Bonfa, E; Tavares Brenol, J C; Ramirez, L A; Barile-Fabris, L A; De La Torre, I Garcia; Alarcón, G S; Pons-Estel, B A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the characteristics of patients who developed late onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the GLADEL (Grupo Latino Americano de Estudio del Lupus) cohort of patients with SLE. Patients with SLE of less than two years of disease duration, seen at 34 centers of nine Latin American countries, were included. Late-onset was defined as >50 years of age at time of first SLE-related symptom. Clinical and laboratory manifestations, activity index (SLEDAI), and damage index (SLICC/ACR- DI) were ascertained at time of entry and during the course (cumulative incidence). Features were compared between the two patient groups (lupus, adjusting for other variables. Of the 1480 patients included, 102 patients (6.9 %) had late-onset SLE, 87% of which were female. Patients with late-onset SLE had a shorter follow-up (3.6 vs. 4.4 years, p  0.05). In multivariable analysis, late onset was independently associated with higher odds of ocular (OR = 3.66, 95% CI = 2.15-6.23), pulmonary (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.01-4.11), and cardiovascular (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.04-2.98) involvement and lower odds of cutaneous involvement (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.21-0.80), number of cumulative SLE criteria (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.97), use of cyclophosphamide (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.24-0.95), and anti-RNP antibodies (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.91). A Cox regression model revealed a higher risk of dying in older onset than the younger-onset SLE (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.2-5.6). Late-onset SLE in Latin Americans had a distinct disease expression compared to the younger-onset group. The disease seems to be mild with lower cumulative SLE criteria, reduced renal/mucocutaneous involvements, and less use of cyclophosphamide. Nevertheless, these patients have a higher risk of death and of ocular, pulmonary, and cardiovascular involvements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. [Estimations of maternal mortality using the sisterhood survival method: Latin American experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L R; Simons, H; Graham, W; Schkolnik, S

    1990-08-01

    The method of surviving sisters for indirectly estimating maternal mortality is still under development but shows promise for countries lacking alternative sources of data and good statistics. This work uses census or survey data to apply the method to rural villages in Gambia; Mapuche settlements in Cautin, Chile; marginal populations on the outskirts of Lima, Peru; and rural villages of Avaroa, Bolivia. The method is explained in detail following presentation of the results. The necessary basic information is outlined, and the particularities of its application to each Latin American case are discussed. The surviving sisters method was developed by Graham and Brass to derive indicators of maternal mortality based on the proportion of sisters who arrive at fertile age and die during pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period. The method transforms the proportions of sisters who died of maternal causes obtained from a census or survey into conventional probabilities of death. The basic information required concerns the numbers of sisters entering the reproductive period (excluding the respondent is she is a woman), the number surviving and decreased at the survey data, and the number who died during pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period. The probabilities of dying from a maternal cause were estimated on the basis of the sister survival method at 1/98 in Lima, 1/53 in Cautin, 1/17 in Gambia, and 1/10 in Bolivia. These probabilities correspond to ratios of maternal mortality per 100,000 live births of 286 in Lima, 414 in Cautin, 1005 in Gambia, and 1379 in Bolivia. The results demonstrate great variability in maternal mortality rates. In the cases of Lima and Cautin there were significant differences between estimates derived from the sister survival method and those derived from vital statistics. The 4 cases demonstrated the familiar association between maternal and infant mortality, fertility, and overall female mortality expressed in life expectancy at

  2. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

  3. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rios Garza

    Full Text Available The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic characteristics and the determinants of this altered sucrose fermenting phenotype, the genome of the strain IEC224 was sequenced. This paper reports a broad genomic study of this strain, showing its correlation with the major epidemic lineage. The potentially mobile genomic regions are shown to possess GC content deviation, and harbor the main V. cholera virulence genes. A novel bioinformatic approach was applied in order to identify the putative functions of hypothetical proteins, and was compared with the automatic annotation by RAST. The genome of a large bacteriophage was found to be integrated to the IEC224's alanine aminopeptidase gene. The presence of this phage is shown to be a common characteristic of the El Tor strains from the Latin American epidemic, as well as its putative ancestor from Angola. The defective sucrose fermenting phenotype is shown to be due to a single nucleotide insertion in the V. cholerae sucrose-specific transportation gene. This frame-shift mutation truncated a membrane protein, altering its structural pore-like conformation. Further, the identification of a common bacteriophage reinforces both the monophyletic and African-Origin hypotheses for the main causative agent of the 1991 Latin America cholera epidemics.

  4. Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

    In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

  5. Conditional cash transfer programs and the health and nutrition of Latin American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segura-Pérez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To 1 describe the benefits, conditions, coverage, funding, goals, governance, and structure of well-established conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs in Latin America and 2 identify their health and nutritional impacts among children under 5 years old. Methods A realist review was conducted. CCTs were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: 1 current national-level program; 2 coverage of at least 50% of the target population; 3 continuous operation at scale for 10+ years; 4 clear description of structure, funding sources, and governance; 5 both health/nutrition- and education-related conditions for participation; and 6 available impact evaluation studies with health, development, and/or nutrition indicators among children under 5 years old. Three CCTs (one each in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico met the criteria. Results There was consistent evidence that the three CCTs selected for review had positive impacts on child health and nutrition outcomes in their respective countries. In all three countries, the programs were scaled up and positive impacts were documented relatively quickly. All three programs had strong political support and clear and transparent governance structures, including accountability and social participation mechanisms, which might explain their success and sustainability. Conclusions CCTs in Latin America have had a positive impact on child health and nutrition outcomes among the poorest families. A key challenge for the future is to reform these programs to help families move out of not only extreme poverty but all poverty in order to lead healthy and productive lives, as called for in the post-2105 Sustainable Development Goals.

  6. Risk factors of breast cancer and knowledge about the disease: an integrative revision of Latin American studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira de Araújo Jerônimo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this integrative review was to compare Latin American literature about risk and knowledge on breast cancer. Of 47 studies selected, 20 were about knowledge or awareness and 27 about risk of breast cancer. English was the dominant language in studies about risk, whereas studies about knowledge were mainly written in Spanish or Portuguese. Studies about knowledge were all cross- sectional, whereas case- control studies dominated authors’ interest about risk of breast cancer. Studies about knowledge were mainly focused on early detection of the disease and the most common study objective was breast self- examination (N = 14. In contrast, few studies about risk of breast cancer focused on early detection (N = 5. Obesity and overweight (N = 14, family history (N = 13, decreased parity (N = 12, and short breastfeeding duration (N = 10 were among the most frequent identified risk factors. Socio- economic factors such as income and educational level had variable effects on breast cancer risk and affected also knowledge of women about risk factors and early detection. Present results indicated that studies about risk of breast cancer were more often based on a better sound analytical background, compared to studies about knowledge, which were mostly descriptive.

  7. Introducing Hyperworld(s: Language, Culture, and History in the Latin American world(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Allatson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This introduction to the January 2008 special edition of PORTAL engages with the processes by which, in the early 21st century—an information age of hypertechnology, post-nationalism, post-Fordism, and dominating transnational media—culture and economy have become fused, and globalizations tend towards the mercantilization, commodification, and privatization of human experience. We recognize that access to the technologies of globalizations is uneven. Although cyberspace and other hypertechnologies have become an integral part of workspaces, and of the domestic space in most households, across Western industrialized societies, and for the middle and upper-classes everywhere, this is not a reality for most people in the world, including the Latin American underclasses, the majority of the continent’s population. But we also agree with pundits who note how that limited access has not prevented a ‘techno-virtual spillover’ into the historical-material world. More and more people are increasingly touched by the techno-virtual realm and its logics, with a resultant transformation of global imaginaries in response to, for instance, the global spread of privatised entertainment and news via TV, satellites and the internet, and virtualized military operations (wars on terror, drugs, and rogue regimes. Under these hyperworldizing conditions, we asked, how might we talk about language, culture and history in Latin America, especially since language has an obvious, enduring importance as a tool for communication, and as the means to define culture and give narrative shape to our histories and power struggles? Our central term ‘hyperworld(s’ presents us with numerous conceptual and epistemological challenges, not least because, whether unintended or not, it evokes cyberspace, thus gesturing toward either the seamless integration of physical and virtual reality, or its converse, a false opposition between the material and the virtual. The term

  8. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends into Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    American Development Bank, and United States Export -Import Bank combined for that year.”7 Furthermore, China has signed free trade agreements with... American Relations, 930. 23   two countries is the result of China’s export to Mexico . China’s investment in Mexico is also substantially larger than... Mexico at War Against China in the WTO (2005) China Hits Markets (2005) The Dragon Monopolizes (2005) Chinese Pirates Invade Chiapas (2005

  9. Breast cancer age at diagnosis patterns in four Latin American Populations: A comparison with North American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Marina, Francisco; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Keating, Nancy L; Arreola-Ornelas, Hector; Marie Knaul, Felicia

    2015-12-01

    younger age at presentation of BC incident cases seen in the analyzed LAC registries, and possibly in many Latin American countries, is not only attributable to their relatively young population age structure but also to the low incidence rates in older women. As more recently born cohorts, with greater exposure to risk factors for postmenopausal BC, reach older age, incidence rates will be more similar to the rates seen in the USA and Canadian registries. There is a need for additional research to identify determinants of the higher BC rate among younger women in these countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constitutionalism (s and reframing Hermeneutics : Reflections from the Critical Perspective Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Fernandes Morcilo Lixa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the end of XX century, news and diffuse law speeches will pointing the emergence of innovative theoretical models self-proclaimed “critical”. In Brazil, in this context, is inaugurated an innovative and revolutionary face of constitutionalism which expands the power of the judiciary, for the preservation of democratic order and fundamental rights. On this track changes a new feature is the extensive social rights catalog that redefines the hermeneutic field, hitherto of modern formal legalistic tradition. However, the desire to consolidate and ensure both institutional and cultural fundamental rights, is being wit- nessing the first decade of XX century in Brazil as well as in some Latin American coun- tries, expanding the field of democratization and social policies. In this context, while it is being implemented a new constitutional paradigm from plurinationality, demodiversity and new rights linked to rationality, there is the expansion of the role of the judiciary which ultimately provoque a distortion of jurisdiction and hermeneutic fundamentals that serves as its legitimacy. It is from this unprecedented complexity that since Mark of the tradition of critical thinking, the juridical thinkers are forced to rethink hermeneutics from a new logic, new foundations and new epistemological elements, shifting the her- meneutical question to a different dimension than have been given by modern rationality and beyond what was bequeathed to the positivist tradition: the external field of norma- tive valuation. Challenge between oscillations and divergences can not be overlooked.

  11. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-04

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of agricultural trade openness on food price transmission in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Flachsbarth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade of agricultural commodities has grown significantly in most Latin American countries (LAC over the last two decades. However, after the international food price surges in 2006-08 and 2011-12 concerns about food access of the poor arose. Within a panel framework containing six LAC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, we used a single equation error correction model to identify possible cointegrating relationships between the food consumer price index (CPI and a set of trade related and domestic variables. The main focus of the study was to examine how different levels of trade openness impact international food price transmission to domestic markets. Our results confirm that deeper market integration increases global price transmission elasticities. In other words, more agricultural trade openness proves to elevate food CPIs during global price spikes. Thus, for poor consumers world price shocks can be deteriorating in the short-run and domestic food prices will slowly converge to a higher long-run equilibrium. Especially in increasingly integrated economies, effective policies to buffer food price shocks should be put in place, but must be carefully planned with the required budget readily available. We also found that exchange rate appreciations can buffer price shocks to a certain extent and that monetary policies seem to be an appropriate means for stabilizing food prices to safeguard food access of the poor population.

  13. Care and consumption: A Latin American social medicine's conceptual framework to comprehend oral health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Martínez-Parra, Adriana Gisela

    2017-10-01

    This article offers a conceptual framework that arises out of the Latin American Social Medicine/Collective Health (LASM/CH) tradition to comprehend inequalities in oral health. We conducted a dialogue between the LASM/CH proposal called social determination of health (in particular one of its nuclear categories 'ways of living together') and studies that address social inequalities and oral health. This dialogue allowed us to redefine oral health-disease-treatment as a process that either promotes or harms well-being and is modulated by different ways of living together where not only patients and professionals, but also governments, supranational bodies, and national and international markets represented by food, pharmaceutical, insurance, personal care, and cosmetic companies interact. The article proposes the cycle particular-consumption care/institutional-consumption care as the construct that allows investigators to think about how ways of living together relate to oral health inequalities. 'Particular-consumption care' includes ways and possibilities to access healthy foods and practice protective hygienic measures. 'Institutional-consumption care' refers to institutional responses related to supply, access to services, capabilities for resolution, and pedagogical practices.

  14. Socioeconomic Status Is Not Related with Facial Fluctuating Asymmetry: Evidence from Latin-American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Castillo, Lucía; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Everardo, Paola; De Avila, Francisco; Hünemeier, Tábita; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovani; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rosique, Javier; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; González-José, Rolando

    2017-01-01

    The expression of facial asymmetries has been recurrently related with poverty and/or disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Departing from the developmental instability theory, previous approaches attempted to test the statistical relationship between the stress experienced by individuals grown in poor conditions and an increase in facial and corporal asymmetry. Here we aim to further evaluate such hypothesis on a large sample of admixed Latin Americans individuals by exploring if low socioeconomic status individuals tend to exhibit greater facial fluctuating asymmetry values. To do so, we implement Procrustes analysis of variance and Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) to estimate potential associations between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and socioeconomic status. We report significant relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and age, sex, and genetic ancestry, while socioeconomic status failed to exhibit any strong statistical relationship with facial asymmetry. These results are persistent after the effect of heterozygosity (a proxy for genetic ancestry) is controlled in the model. Our results indicate that, at least on the studied sample, there is no relationship between socioeconomic stress (as intended as low socioeconomic status) and facial asymmetries.

  15. Los atolladeros de la economía latinoamericana The difficulties of the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El agravamiento de la crisis global acentúa las limitaciones de la economía latinoamericana para atemperar la turbulencia. Las enormes reservas terminarán socorriendo a los banqueros europeos si no hay avances en la moneda común. El extractivismo exportador impide repetir el desarrollo manufacturero asiático y refuerza la preeminencia de las empresas transnacionales. La batalla de los estudiantes chilenos ilustra cómo las resistencias sociales tienden a converger con la nueva oleada mundial de protesta juvenil.The aggravation of the global crisis stresses the limitations of the Latin American economy to restrain the turbulence. The huge reserves ended up rescuing European bankers because there was no improvement in the common currency. The exporting extraction prevents the repetition of the Asian manufacturing development, and it strengthens the transnational companies’ pre‑eminence. The Chilean students’ fight shows how the social resistances tend to converge on the new worldwide wave of young people’s protest.

  16. Incidence of dementia in elderly Latin Americans: Results of the Maracaibo Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Gladys E; Mena, Luis J; Melgarejo, Jesus D; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Pino-Ramírez, Gloria; Urribarrí, Milady; Chacon, Inara J; Chávez, Carlos A; Falque-Madrid, Luis; Gaona, Ciro A; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Lee, Joseph H; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2018-02-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of dementia in developing countries. We used longitudinal data from the Maracaibo Aging Study to accurately determine the age- and sex-specific incidence of dementia in elderly Latin Americans. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) was used to diagnose dementia, which was classified as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or other. Age- and sex-specific incidence was estimated as the number of new cases of dementia divided by person-years (p-y) of follow-up. The incidence of all dementia diagnoses was 9.10 per 1000 p-y (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.13-11.44; 8026 total p-y), 5.18 for Alzheimer's disease (95% CI 3.72-7.03; 7916 total p-y), and 3.35 for vascular dementia (95% CI 2.19-4.91; 7757 total p-y). Among Maracaibo Aging Study participants younger than 65 years, the incidence of dementia was higher than that of US Whites. Among individuals older than 65 years, the incidence was comparable to the mean of previous incidence estimates for other populations worldwide. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Latin American immigrant parents and their children's teachers in U.S. early childhood education programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Ansari, Arya

    2015-12-01

    For many immigrants, their children's schools offer their first sustained interaction with the major societal institutions of their new countries, and so exploring the ways in which immigrant parents manage their children's educational experiences offers insight into how they adapt to new cultural norms, customs and expectations and how they are treated in return. This study delved into the involvement of Latin American immigrant parents in U.S. education, shifting the traditional focus down from elementary and secondary school to early childhood education. Statistical analysis of nationally representative data revealed that Latina immigrants had lower frequencies of most home- and community-based involvement behaviours than U.S.-born and foreign-born parents of varying racial/ethnic backgrounds but higher frequencies of involvement behaviours requiring participation in early childhood education programmes. As a window into these national patterns, qualitative data from an early childhood programme in an immigration-heavy state revealed that Latina immigrant mothers and their children's teachers often talked about each other as partners in supporting children's educational experiences but that their actual interactions tended to socialise mothers into being more passive recipients of teachers' directives. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others.

  19. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bahamondes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs. Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4% to 203 (96.7% answered the questions. Most respondents (80% gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB.

  20. INTRODUCING INSTITUTIONAL VARIABLES IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE (EKC: A LATIN AMERICAN STUDY

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    ITALO ARBULÚ VILLANUEVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and per capita income.However, most of them did not take into account institutional quality and just focused on macroeconomicdeterminants. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by assessing the effects on theEnvironmental Kuznets Curve (EKC when institutional quality variables are introduced, especially those related tocorruption and rent-seeking behavior.This study considers 18 Latin American economies and panel data for 1998–2005. A standard reducedformmodeling approach with pool estimation was employed and, in order to introduce the heterogeneity of thedifferent countries, three different models were estimated. The first model corresponds to the basic EnvironmentalKuznets Curve (Basic Model, the second model introduced a sets of additional economic variables (ExtendedModel Nº 1, and finally, the third one introduced institutional variables into the previous formulation (ExtendedModel Nº 2.The expected results from this investigation lead us to support the EKC hypothesis while confirming theimportance of improvements in political institutions and governance for better environmental performances in theregion.

  1. Esbozo de un feminismo latinoamericano Outlines of a Latin American feminism

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    María Luisa Femenías

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available ¿Existe un feminismo latinoamericano? Creemos que sí, y que tienen sus propias raíces y su propio perfil, que abreva de las múltiples corrientes teóricas y filosóficas de los desarrollos actuales del feminismo. Creemos además que la situación periférica del continente le permite tomar y situar diversas lecturas, trazar redes conceptuales y aceptar el desafío de pensar y plantear sus propios problemas. Este artículo pretende dar cuenta de algunos de esos desafíos y recorridos.Does a Latin American feminism exist? We believe it does and that it has its own roots and profile which derives from different theoretical and philosophical lines of the most important feminist achievements. We also believe that the so-called peripheral situation of the continent allows to situate and locate different readings, draw conceptual maps and accept that feminism's own challenges. This paper intends to map out some of challenges and trajectories.

  2. Environmental health literacy within the Italian Asbestos Project: experience in Italy and Latin American contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of multidisciplinary approaches to foster scientific research in public health and strengthen its impact on society is nowadays unavoidable. Environmental health literacy (EHL may be defined as the ability to search for, understand, evaluate, and use environmental health information to promote the adoption of informed choices, the reduction of health risks, the improvement of quality of life and the protection of the environment. Both public health and environmental health literacy involve access to and dissemination of scientific information (including research findings, individual and collective decision-making and critical thinking. Specific experiences in environmental health literacy have been developed within the Italian National Asbestos Project (Progetto Amianto in Latin American countries where the use of asbestos is still permitted, and in Italy where a specific effort in EHL has been dedicated to the risks caused by the presence of fluoro-edenite fibers in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily. Taking into account the different geographical and socio-economic contexts, both public health and environmental health literacy were addressed to a wide range of stakeholders, within and outside the health domain.

  3. Oral Hygiene and Handwashing Practices among Middle School Students in 15 Latin American and Caribbean Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, T R; Jacobsen, K H

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between infrequent toothbrushing and infrequent handwashing among middle school students from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay). A secondary analysis was done of nationally-representative data from 33 174 middle school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2006 and 2011. In all 15 countries, the association between rarely brushing or cleaning teeth and rarely handwashing after using the toilet was significant for both boys and girls. The pooled odds ratio for this association was 6.7 (5.8, 7.7). Healthcare providers who notice signs of poor dental hygiene or infrequent bathing in adolescents should consider providing comprehensive hygiene education to their patients, since infrequent oral and body hygiene behaviours tend to co-exist and both are threats to health.

  4. The Emergence of Regional Organizations in Latin America and Implications for the Future of the Organization of American States (OAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    constitutes an “indispensable historic demand” and added that Cuba is a icon of the cause of Latin America. 6 CELAC also supported Argentina in the Malvinas...Southern Market (MERCOSUR) was created. In 1993, the US, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ). 106 In 1996, an...countries. 108 In 2004, The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) was established as an economic and political block constituted

  5. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process...

  6. A Norwegian speaks Norwegian : An analysis of categorization and identity construction in narratives of Latin American migrants in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Pajaro, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to trace how Latin American migrants residing in Oslo use group categories for self- and other-identification for the negotiation and construction of identities in interaction. Identity construction is an essential process for migration and resettlement, as the relocation of the self in a new context requires a constant process of redefinition of the self in relation to the new environment and community. I consider group categorization labels such as "foreigner," "Norweg...

  7. Severe menopausal symptoms in mid-aged Latin American women can be related to their indigenous ethnic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, E; Monterrosa, A; Blümel, J E; Escobar-López, J; Chedraui, P

    2011-02-01

    Latin American women present more severe menopausal symptoms when compared to those from other regions of the world. Since this population is an ethnic blend of Caucasian and indigenous people, we sought to test the hypothesis that severe menopausal symptoms in Latin American women are associated with an indigenous origin. To assess menopausal symptoms among two specific indigenous Latin American populations. A total of 573 natural postmenopausal indigenous women aged 45-59 years (288 Quechua (Peru) and 285 Zenú (Colombia)) living in isolated communities were surveyed with a general questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The total MRS score was significantly higher among Quechua women as compared to Zenú ones (22.7 ± 5.7 vs. 14.7 ± 2.5, p Quechua women presented more intense somatic and psychological symptoms as compared to Zenú (8.8 ± 2.3 vs. 5.3 ± 1.8; and 7.8 ± 2.4 vs. 3.2 ± 1.7, p Quechua. This was not the case for Zenú women. More than 90% of indigenous women (Quechua and Zenú) at all age intervals presented severe urogenital scores, a percentage that is much higher than that described in the world literature. Severe menopausal symptoms found among Latin American women could be the result of their indigenous ethnic origin; the urogenital domain is the most affected.

  8. A produção da "cidade latino-americana" The production of "the Latin American city"

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    Adrián Gorelik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe uma análise histórica da categoria "cidade latino-americana" como construção cultural. O argumento central é que, durante o período compreendido entre o segundo pós-guerra e a década de 1970, a idéia de "cidade latino-americana" funcionou como uma categoria do pensamento social, como uma figura do imaginário intelectual e político em amplas regiões do continente. Este texto procura reconstruir os principais itinerários conceituais e ideológicos da categoria, suas funções políticas e institucionais na conjuntura específica da região. Esse modo de entender a categoria "cidade latino-americana" em sua configuração histórica específica, sugere o autor, pode oferecer uma via produtiva para os estudos culturais latino-americanos.This paper suggests a historical analysis of the category "Latin American city" as a cultural construct. The central argument is that, during the period between the post-war and the 1970's, the idea of a Latin American city became a category of social thought, as part of the intellectual and political imagination in several regions of the continent. The text tries to rebuild the main conceptual and ideological turns, their political and institutional functions within the specific regional circumstances. The article suggests that this approach to the "Latin American city" category in its precise historical configuration may be a productive path for Latin-American cultural studies.

  9. TLD Intercomparison in accelerators for radiotherapy in three Latin american countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin N, J.; Perez, M.A.; Picon, C.; Castellanos, E.; Plazas, M.C.; Murcia, G.; Archundia, L.

    1998-01-01

    In Radiotherapy one of the objectives is to establish and to give follow up to quality assurance programs which make sure that the doses administered to the patients with cancer are a high probability of a success in external radiation. Likewise, one of the present preoccupations of the United Nations Agencies as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Pan-American Health Organization is the optimal employment of the radiations in the treatment of cancer patients since the administered dose in Radiotherapy suffers considerable variations by the lack of quality assurance programs. The use of Electron linear accelerators requires a program of quality assurance that includes expert personnel, equipment and adequate facilities. The more used methodology for the dosimetry calibration and characterization of X-ray beams and high energy electrons for radiotherapy use is using a ionization chamber dosemeter calibrated in a regional secondary standardization laboratory. However, to establish and give follow up to the quality assurance programs it is necessary the dosimetric intercomparison through TLD. In this study it was designed plastic phantoms with TLD crystals and it was made its characterization to realize an absorbed dose analysis in the crystals exposed at X-ray beams 6 MV and high energy electrons 10 and 12 MeV to standardize the dosimetric procedures and proceeding to realize an International Pilot intercomparison of absorbed doses in TLD crystals in three Latin American countries: Mexico, Peru and Colombia with the participation of accelerators of five different institutions. The found results show that the majority of the measured doses with TLD in the different accelerators were in the 0.95-1.05 range though it had two cases outside of this range. The use of the phantoms with TLD crystals shows that they are of excellent aid to make analysis of the doses administered to the patients and an intercomparison of results to standardize procedures at

  10. Development and territory A view from the soy-ization of the Latin American Southern Cone

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    Mabel Manzanal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will realize a critical analysis about the relationship between development and territory from the advance of the soy-ization in the Latin-American Southern Cone. The work begins with a chronological framework and an interpretation of the stages in which the issue of development and territory became a state policy. In this analysis we consider that the issue of development and territory and its recurring presence in the public policy has to do with the construction of hegemony through the discourse production, explicit through proposals, options, actions and instruments aimed at dealing with the social problem of unequal development (regarding spacial, economical, social o even institutional matters. From this interpretation we analyze he commodity expansion and the consolidation of an accumulative model that is more concentrated and regressive, and which produces a grater and growing inequality. This is an economical concentration that benefits a privileged minority whereas the rights of the unprotected and precarious sectors of the rural and urban area are humiliated. This work questions the hegemonic cultural context which makes the current consequences of the territory production and the capital valuation (linked to the extractivism and the refocusing of the south-American economies distant and incomprehensible for the majority of the population who ignore, minimize or disdain the deepening of the inequality and the social marginalization; the environmental political, economic, social and institutional consequences – nowadays or in the future – of the commodities advance; and the persecution, oppression and discrimination of the numerous parties.

  11. Latin American Special Economic Zones and Their Impacts on Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    6. SEZs in Latin America (Excluding Mexico ) ...................................................18 Figure 7. The Blend of Actors in SEZs...30 Forst, Terrorism, Crime, and Public Policy, 84. 18 Figure 6. SEZs in Latin America (Excluding Mexico )31 Turning to...Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations, (Washington: Congressional Research Service, March 2011), 7. 59 Ibid., 7. 60 Ministerio de Economia y Finanzias

  12. Exclusion Factors in Latin American Higher Education: A Preliminary Analyze From University Governing Board Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Diego; Rodríguez-Gómez, David; Gairín, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Access to higher education has increased substantially in Latin America, but inequalities in access to and completion of higher education still remain. In this regard, identifying vulnerable groups and exclusion factors is a priority in Latin America's university systems. The aim of this article is to understand in depth governing board…

  13. The Planning of Latin American Universities: In Search of Its Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel J.

    College planning in Latin America is discussed, with attention to underdevelopment, political instability, and the economic crisis of the 1980s. Alternative planning approaches used in U.S. higher education institutions are considered. Latin America refers to 18 Spanish-speaking republics of the Western Hemisphere, along with Brazil and Haiti. The…

  14. Coping with globalization: Asian versus Latin American strategies of development, 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul kohli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When compared to Latin America, Asian economies since 1980 have grown faster and have done so with relatively modest inequalities. Why? A comparison of Asia and Latin America underlines the superiority of the nationalist capitalist model of development, which has often been pursued more explicitly in Asia, over that of a dependent capitalist model, which has often been pursued in Latin America. In comparison to Latin America, the Asian model has facilitated higher and less volatile rates of economic growth and a greater political room to pursue social democratic policies. The "tap root" of these alternate pathways is relative autonomy from global constraints: states and economies in Asia have been more nationalist and autonomous than in Latin America.

  15. Current situation with the centralized storage facilities for non-power radioactive wastes in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Juan C.; Salgado, Mercedes; Idoyaga Navarro, Maria L.; Escobar, Carolina; Mallaupoma, Mario; Sbriz, Luciano; Moreno, Sandra; Gozalez, Olga; Gomez, Patricia; Mora, Patricia; Miranda, Alberto; Aguilar, Lola; Zarate, Norma; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several Latin American (LA) countries have been firmly committed to the peaceful applications of ionizing radiations in medicine, industry, agriculture and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development in diverse sectors. Consequently the use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. Moreover, such facilities are extremely expensive to develop. It is unlikely that such an option will become available in the foreseeable future for most of these countries, which do not have nuclear industries. Storage has long been incorporated as a step in the management of radioactive wastes. In the recent years, there have been developments that have led some countries to consider whether the roles of storage might be expanded to provide longer-term care of long-live radioactive wastes The aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation with the storage facilities/conditions for the radioactive wastes and disused sealed radioactive sources in Latin-American countries. In some cases a brief description of the existing facilities for certain countries are provided. In other cases, when no centralized facility exists, general information on the radioactive inventories and disused sealed sources is given. (author)

  16. ¿Mi cuerpo? ¡Mi vida! Voicing Latin American transgenders in Antwerp’s sex industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Rausenberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostitution is a well-known universal social phenomenon, from anywhere and at all times, that attracts many migrants. Yet sex work is clearly not evenly integrated into society. After all, there are still existing dominant conservative stigma that classify this sector as deviant. This causes sex work to exist further in the margins of contemporary societies while, in fact, prostitution is not more than a social construct which can differ in legal and moral terms. It goes without saying that sex workers often lead a double life. Latin American migrants selling sex furthermore live with two double stigma because they work in prostitution and are of foreign origin. If they are additionally transgendered, the stigma is even triple because they are also discriminated because of their sexual orientation and appearance. As an anthropologist, this asked for a broader understanding about the motives and effects of this activity in the sex industry as a Latin American transgender migrant. This consideration has led to this narrative study as a result by deploying the qualitative methods of participative observation and informal interviews. The purpose of this anthropological and phenomenological research project has been to find out who the Latin American transgender sex workers in Antwerp are, why they work in the sex industry, which journey brought them to Europe, how they experience life, how they feel about their bodies, identities and sexuality, and how art is used as a creative coping strategy to escape their remarkable reality.

  17. Gated communities in Latin American cities Barrios cerrados en ciudades latinoamericanas

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    Lucía Demajo Meseguer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban space in many Latin American cities is proliferating these last decades in a gated community form, being defined as enclosed housing developments, with controlled access and security devices. The search for security, the contact with nature and exclusivity are some common features of these urbanizations. These features are usually presented by advertising agencies as vital needs for this modern society. Development of gated communities entails consequences associated with urban space fragmentation, privatization of public space, social segregation and lack of a community belonging sense; hence the need to question these types of developments and to intervene to modify them. Interventions, both aimed to redirect the emerging urban model and to carry out specific actions in the already existing gated communities, should bet on following traditional neighborhood models. This article pretends to analyze the gated communities’ phenomenon occurring in Latin America, detecting it consequences and proposing possible intervention measures.

    El espacio urbano de algunas ciudades latinoamericanas está proliferando, en las últimas décadas, en forma de barrios cerrados; entendidos como áreas de viviendas cerradas, con acceso controlado y dispositivos de seguridad. La búsqueda de la seguridad, el contacto con la naturaleza y la exclusividad son algunos rasgos comunes de estos barrios que, en muchos casos, la publicidad trata de convertir en necesidades vitales para la sociedad. Los barrios cerrados llevan consigo consecuencias relacionadas con la fragmentación del espacio urbano, la privatización del espacio público, la segregación social y el sentimiento de comunidad; de ahí, la necesidad de cuestionarse este tipo de emprendimientos y de intervenir sobre ellos. Las intervenciones, ya sean dirigidas a redireccionar el modelo urbano emergente, como actuaciones puntuales en BC ya existentes, deberían apostar por seguir modelos de barrio

  18. Youth, Gener & TIC: Imaginaries in the Construction of Information Society in Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonder, Gloria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the social imaginary that sustains the dissemination of new information and communication technologies (ICTs as a condition for them to be accepted and granted social and subjective meaning. Based on applied research on digital literacy programs for Latin American youth, the paper delves into the construction of youth both as a category and as a social group. It analyzes the main characteristics and problems of youth in current environments, especially in Latin America, providing data on their access to ICTs. Based on a typology of the programs reviewed and a comparative analysis of adults and youth representations and assessment of ICTs, the article examines the dominant educational discourses and practices that encourage access to technology of excluded or at-risk youth population. It also discusses the ways in which these programs characterize and implement a gender equity approach.A partir de una investigación aplicada sobre programas de alfabetización digital de jóvenes latinoamericanas/os, el artículo ofrece una reflexión sobre los imaginarios sociales que sostienen la difusión de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC como condición para su aceptación y asignación de sentido social y subjetivo. Incursiona en el proceso de construcción de la juventud como concepto y como grupo social, presentando las principales características y problemáticas que experimentan las y los jóvenes en los contextos actuales, especialmente en América Latina, y brinda datos sobre su acceso a las TIC. A través de una tipología de los programas estudiados y de un análisis comparado de las representaciones y valoraciones de las TIC por parte de adultos y jóvenes, interroga sobre los discursos y las prácticas educativas dominantes que incentivan el acceso de la juventud excluida o en riesgo al mundo tecnológico y sobre las formas en que caracterizan y aplican al enfoque de equidad de género.

  19. Latin American radio pathology net, training program for the medical response in cases of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. R.; Valverde, N.; Sanhueza, S.; Di Tramo, J. L.; Gisone, P.; Cardenas, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latin America exists a wide application of the nuclear techniques in different fields. These tendencies, to the increasing use of nuclear techniques, should carry out the invigoration of the infrastructures and the development of the authorities in radiation protection charge of the regulate and control the sources and practical, associated to ionizing radiation, guided to guarantee their safe use and in consequence to minimize the derived risks of the same ones. In spite of the efforts before mentioned a potential possibility of occurrence of accidental radiological events linked to human errors and violation's of the principles of the radiation protection exists. Reason that they advise to have response capacities to confront and to mitigate the consequences in situations of radiological accidents, including in the same ones the medical assistance of the accident victims. However, the radiological accidents happened in the international environment in the last decades, they have demonstrated inability paradoxically to confront with effectiveness these fortuitous events. Being characterized additionally by the insufficient training of the medical professionals to interpret and to act in consequence before the prejudicial effects to the health of the ionizing radiation. In our geographical context this situation is even more complicated, if we consider the happened radiological accidents of span that put in risk the life and the health of people involved in the same ones, for examples: Argentina (1968, 1963), Brazil (1985, 1987, 1995), Costa Rica (1996). El Salvador (1989), Mexico (1962, 1983, 1984) and Peru (1984, 1999). These reasons justify the development of an action program with the purpose of the consolidate and to integrate the capacity of response of our countries as regards radiological emergencies. Regrettably in Latin American subsist inequalities the development radiation protection programs, that propitiate the possibility of accidental situations

  20. A Multitude of Latino Shakespeares [Review of Kliman, Bernice W. and Rick J. Santos (ed.. Latin American Shakespeares. Cranbury: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2005. 347 pp.] A Multitude of Latino Shakespeares [Review of Kliman, Bernice W. and Rick J. Santos (ed.. Latin American Shakespeares. Cranbury: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2005. 347 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Aromovich

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title of this volume of essays comes in handy: Latin American Shakespeares, in the plural, hinting at there being as many Shakespeares as there are productions, adaptations, translations, and films based on his work. Jorge Luis Borges himself affirmed, “When I think of Shakespeare I think of a multitude” (qtd in Tiffany 146. Nothing new here, since performance theory has made a point of not seeing the bard as one canonical, unified author, but as plural. The good news brought by this book is that it enables us to find out that so much has been written about Shakespeare in Latin America, especially in Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, while, alas, almost nothing appears from Paraguay or Bolivia. The editors, Bernice W. Kliman and Rick J. Santos, do not try to present hypotheses for this discrepancy, but the seventeen essays they select show a wide range of what has been studied in Brazil. The title of this volume of essays comes in handy: Latin American Shakespeares, in the plural, hinting at there being as many Shakespeares as there are productions, adaptations, translations, and films based on his work. Jorge Luis Borges himself affirmed, “When I think of Shakespeare I think of a multitude” (qtd in Tiffany 146. Nothing new here, since performance theory has made a point of not seeing the bard as one canonical, unified author, but as plural. The good news brought by this book is that it enables us to find out that so much has been written about Shakespeare in Latin America, especially in Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, while, alas, almost nothing appears from Paraguay or Bolivia. The editors, Bernice W. Kliman and Rick J. Santos, do not try to present hypotheses for this discrepancy, but the seventeen essays they select show a wide range of what has been studied in Brazil.

  1. ART integration in oral health care systems in Latin American countries as perceived by directors of oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a situation analysis of: a prevalence of ART training courses; b integration of ART into the oral healthcare systems and; c strengths and weaknesses of ART integration, in Latin American countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire, consisting of 18 questions, was emailed to directors of national or regional oral health departments of all Latin American countries and the USA. For two countries that had not responded after 4 weeks, the questionnaire was sent to the Dean of each local Dental School. The questions were related to ART training courses, integration of ART in the dental curriculum and the oral healthcare system, barriers to ART implementation in the public health system and recommendations for ART implementation in the services. Factor analysis was used to construct one factor in the barrier-related question. Means and percentages were calculated. RESULTS: The response rate, covering 55% of all Latin American countries, was 76%. An ART training course had been given in all Latin American countries that responded, with more than 2 having been conducted in 64.7% of the respondent countries. ART was implemented in public oral health services in 94.7 % of the countries, according to the respondents. In 15.8% of the countries, ART was applied throughout the country and in 68.4%, in some areas or regions of a country. ART had been used for more, or less, than three years in 42.1% and 47.4% of the countries, respectively. Evaluation and monitoring activities to determine the effectiveness of ART restorations and ART sealants had been carried out in 42.1% of the countries, while evaluation training courses had taken place in only 3 countries (15.8%. Respondents perceived the "increase in the number of treated patients" as the major benefit of ART implementation in public oral health services. The major perceived barrier factors to ART implementation were "operator opinion" and "high

  2. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  3. Physical Activity Among Organ Recipients: Data Collected From the Latin American Transplant Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamañuk, A N; Ortiz Fragola, J P; Casonu, M; Lirio, C; Graziano, V; Cicora, F

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular complications after transplantation are an important cause of non-transplant-related deaths. Depression and anxiety are not unusual among organ recipients. Physical activity reduces cardiovascular risk and promotes a sensation of well-being. The aims of the study were to examine how exercise affects psychological well-being sensation in organ recipients and to describe the physician's role in promoting and controlling safe sport training in transplanted patients. A descriptive study was conducted. A questionnaire was answered by participants of the "2012 Latin American Transplant Games." One hundred sixty-six organ recipients completed the questionnaire. Eleven percent heard about the transplant games from a physician. Seventy percent had not received a proper medical pre-competitive evaluation. Only 39% trained in a supervised manner and 53% had experienced some kind of sport-related injury. Self-perception of global health was reported as excellent by 19.75%, very good by 43.95%, good by 30.67%, and regular or poor by 5.73%. An excellent or very good health perception was reported by 47.8% of those who practiced only one kind of sport versus 71.5% of those who practiced more than one sport and by 89.6% of those who performed isometric activity versus 59.3% of those who did not perform isometric activity. Diversity of practiced sports and isometric activity are associated with a better self-reported health condition. Most participants had not received a proper medical pre-competitive evaluation; they trained in an unsupervised manner, and injuries were common. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pediatric chronic patients at outpatient clinics: a study in a Latin American University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveno, Renata A; Miranda, Caroline V; Passone, Caroline G; Waetge, Aurora R; Hojo, Elza S; Farhat, Sylvia C L; Odone-Filho, Vicente; Tannuri, Uenis; Carvalho, Werther B; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Silva, Clovis A

    2017-10-02

    To describe the characteristics of children and adolescentes with chronic diseases of outpatient clinics at a tertiary university hospital. A cross-sectional study was performed with 16,237 patients with chronic diseases followed-up in one year. The data were collected through the electronic system, according to the number of physician appointments in 23 pediatric specialties. Patients were divided in two groups: children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years). Early (10-14 years) and late (15-19 years) adolescent groups were also analyzed. Of the total sample, 56% were children and 46% were adolescents. The frequencies of following pediatric specialties were significantly higher in adolescents when compared with children: cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, nephrology/renal transplantation, neurology, nutrology, oncology, palliative and pain care, psychiatry, and rheumatology (p<0.05). The frequencies of emergency service visits (30% vs. 17%, p<0.001), hospitalizations (23% vs. 11%, p<0.001), intensive care unit admissions (6% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and deaths (1% vs. 0.6%, p=0.002) were significantly lower in adolescents than in children. However, the number of physician appointments (≥13) per patient was also higher in the adolescent group (5% vs. 6%, p=0.018). Further analysis comparison between early and late adolescents revealed that the first group had significantly more physician appointments (35% vs. 32%, p=0.025), and required more than two pediatric specialties (22% vs. 21%, p=0.047). Likewise, the frequencies of emergency service visits (19% vs. 14%, p<0.001) and hospitalizations (12% vs. 10%, p=0.035) were higher in early adolescents. This study evaluated a large population in a Latin American hospital and suggested that early adolescents with chronic diseases required many appointments, multiple specialties and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Semiperipheries in the World-System: Reflecting Eastern European and Latin American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Boatca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that, since many of the concepts relevant to our analysis of systemic change were coined in and about the core, the potential with which solutions to world-systemic crisis are credited in the long run should be assessed differently depending on the structural location of their origin. In the periphery, such concepts as conservatism, socialism and even liberalism took forms that often retained nothing of the original model but the name, such that strategies of applying them to (semiperipheral situations ranged from “stretching the ideology” to “discarding the (liberal myth” altogether. In a first step, “the hypothesis of semiperipheral development” (Chase-Dunn and Hall, according to which the semiperiphery represents the most likely locus of political, economical, and institutional change, is amended to say that, at least for the late modern world-system, the strength of the semiperiphery resides primarily in the cultural and epistemic sphere. In a second step, this contention is illustrated with the help of major challenges that the Eastern European and Latin American (semiperipheries have posed to the world-system’s political fields and institutional settings both in the past and to date—with different degrees of success corresponding to their respective structural position. In light of these examples, it is argued that a comparative analysis of continuities among political epistemologies developed in the semiperiphery can help us understand the ways in which similar attempts can become antisystemic today.

  6. Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Progression to Pigmentary Glaucoma in a Latin American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Goyeneche, Hector Fernando; Hernandez-Mendieta, Diana Patricia; Rodriguez, Diego Andres; Sepulveda, Ana Irene; Toledo, Jose Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To determine the progression of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) into pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in a population at the Central Military Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. A retrospective study was conducted, based on a review of medical records of patients with PDS evaluated in the Glaucoma Clinic. Data were collected in a database in excel and subsequently analyzed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), performing Chi-square test analysis and Spearman's rho test. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients were included. Forty-two percent were women and 58% were men. Pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork was the most frequent clinical sign (100%), followed by Krukenberg's spindle (91.7%), the least frequent were the iris concavity and iris heterochromia (4.2%), the average of the spherical equivalent was of - 1.33 (SD 2.07). The rate of conversion of PDS to PG was 37.5%, after an average follow-up of 50.7 months. Having an intraocular pressure (IOP) greater than 21 mm Hg was statistically the only significant risk factor for conversion. We found several differences in frequency and clinical signs in these patients in contrast to previous data, probably due to different racial characteristics. The rate of progression is similar to previous reports despite of heterogeneity of these. Having IOP > 21 mm Hg was the only risk factor associated with progression in this sample. How to cite this article: Gomez Goyeneche HF, Hernandez-Mendieta DP, Rodriguez DA, Sepulveda AI, Toledo JD. Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Progression to Pigmentary Glaucoma in a Latin American Population. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):69-72.

  7. Early treatment resistance in a Latin-American cohort of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Cristian; Gonzalez-Valderrama, Alfonso; Iruretagoyena, Barbara; Undurraga, Juan; Crossley, Nicolas A

    2018-03-08

    Failure to respond to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia is a common clinical scenario with significant morbidity. Recent studies have highlighted that many patients present treatment-resistance from disease onset. We here present an analysis of clozapine prescription patterns, used as a real-world proxy marker for treatment-resistance, in a cohort of 1195 patients with schizophrenia from a Latin-American cohort, to explore the timing of emergence of treatment resistance and possible subgroup differences. Survival analysis from national databases of clozapine monitoring system, national disease notification registers, and discharges from an early intervention ward. Echoing previous studies, we found that around 1 in 5 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were eventually prescribed clozapine, with an over-representation of males and those with a younger onset of psychosis. The annual probability of being prescribed clozapine was highest within the first year (probability of 0.11, 95% confidence interval of 0.093-0.13), compared to 0.018 (0.012-0.024) between years 1 and 5, and 0.006 (0-0.019) after 5years. Age at psychosis onset, gender, dose of clozapine used, and compliance with hematological monitoring at 12months, was not related to the onset of treatment resistance. A similar pattern was observed in a subgroup of 230 patients discharged from an early intervention ward with a diagnosis of non-affective first episode of psychosis. Our results highlight that treatment resistance is frequently present from the onset of psychosis. Future studies will shed light on the possible different clinical and neurobiological characteristics of this subtype of psychosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Public Outreach and Educational Experiences in Mexico and Latin American communities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda

    2015-08-01

    I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.

  9. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process where contradictory dynamics interact in the construction-deconstruction-reconfiguration of Latin American identity in specific historical contexts. Our continental collective identity is analyzed as the result of complex strains among various civilizational dynamics and opposing geopolitical forces. Dialectical and dialogical processes work together to allow the “reconciliation” of converse and diverse elements in innovative syntheses and create a space for dialogue that fosters what is shared to have a positive interaction, without denying the specific. In other words, they facilitate the interaction between “we” and the “others”, the “national” and the “continental”, the “local” and the “global”, enabling a better understanding of our inclusive continental nominative process: “Hispano-American”, “Ibero-American”, “Latin American”

  10. Report from the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine organization 2012 workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries.

  11. Tv food advertising geared to children in Latin-American countries and Hispanics in the USA: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a pandemic disease in Latin America. The purpose of this review was to analyze the studies exploring food advertising in TV conducted in Latin-American countries and in the USA geared to Hispanics. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCIELO, and CINAHL, databases and open access internet, of food advertising directed to children in TV in Latin American countries and Hispanics living in the USA, published from 1985 to January, 2015 RESULTS: Twenty three studies were found, six were conducted in Chile, five in Mexico, four in Brazil, three among Hispanics in the USA, and one in each of the following countries: Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. A high exposure of TV food advertised is geared toward children and their family. This exposure has been shown to be associated with the preference and purchase of those foods by adults and children with a high BMI, overweight and obesity. An alarming high exposure of the TV food advertised directed toward children was reported, which warrants effective regulations, supervision and accountability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Latin American Security Challenges: A Collaborative Inquiry from North and South

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cirino, Julio A; Elizondo, Silvana L; Wawro, Geoffrey; Taylor, Paul D; Delamer, Guillermo R

    2004-01-01

    .... The first essay, "Latin America's Lawless Areas and Failed States," builds upon the concepts of failed states and borderless regions to suggest how criminals and perhaps terrorists can find refuge...

  13. Constitutionalisation and Judicial Protection of Social Rights - An Approach to Latin American Case

    OpenAIRE

    German Lopez Daza

    2015-01-01

    Latin America is probably the region with greater social inequality, contrary to the amount of rights enshrined in their constitutions. In the last decade of the twentieth century, the area resulted in significant changes to democratization and constitutional changes. Through low-key public policy, political leaders activated participation in the culture of human rights. The struggle for social rights in Latin America has been a constant regulation. His consecration at th...

  14. Prevalence of Chagas Disease in a U.S. Population of Latin American Immigrants with Conduction Abnormalities on Electrocardiogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud I Traina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD affects over six million people and is a leading cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Given recent migration trends, there is a large population at risk in the United States (US. Early stage cardiac involvement from CD usually presents with conduction abnormalities on electrocardiogram (ECG including right bundle branch block (RBBB, left anterior or posterior fascicular block (LAFB or LPFB, respectively, and rarely, left bundle branch block (LBBB. Identification of disease at this stage may lead to early treatment and potentially delay the progression to impaired systolic function. All ECGs performed in a Los Angeles County hospital and clinic system were screened for the presence of RBBB, LAFB, LPFB, or LBBB. Patients were contacted and enrolled in the study if they had previously resided in Latin America for at least 12 months and had no history of cardiac disease. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunofluorescence assay (IFA tests were utilized to screen for Trypanosoma cruzi seropositivity. A total of 327 consecutive patients were screened for CD from January 2007 to December 2010. The mean age was 46.3 years and the mean length of stay in the US was 21.2 years. Conduction abnormalities were as follows: RBBB 40.4%, LAFB 40.1%, LPFB 2.8%, LBBB 5.5%, RBBB and LAFB 8.6%, and RBBB and LPFB 2.8%. Seventeen patients were positive by both ELISA and IFA (5.2%. The highest prevalence rate was among those with RBBB and LAFB (17.9%. There is a significant prevalence of CD in Latin American immigrants residing in Los Angeles with conduction abnormalities on ECG. Clinicians should consider evaluating all Latin American immigrant patients with unexplained conduction disease for CD.

  15. Evidence on equity, governance and financing after health care reform in Mexico: lessons for Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes evidence on equity, governance and health financing outcomes of the Mexican health system. An evaluative research with a cross-sectional design was oriented towards the qualitative and quantitative analysis of financing, governance and equity indicators. Taking into account feasibility, as well as political and technical criteria, seven Mexican states were selected as study populations and an evaluative research was conducted during 2002-2010. The data collection techniques were based on in-depth interviews with key personnel (providers, users and community leaders, consensus technique and document analysis. The qualitative analysis was done with ATLAS TI and POLICY MAKER softwares. The Mexican health system reform has modified dependence at the central level; there is a new equity equation for resources allocation, community leaders and users of services reported the need to improve an effective accountability system at both municipal and state levels. Strategies for equity, governance and financing do not have adequate mechanisms to promote participation from all social actors. Improving this situation is a very important goal in the Mexican health democratization process, in the context of health care reform. Inequality on resources allocation in some regions and catastrophic expenditure for users is unequal in all states, producing more negative effects on states with high social marginalization. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the main strengths and weaknesses, as relevant evidences for other Latin American countries which are designing, implementing and evaluating reform strategies in order to achieve equity, good governance and a greater financial protection in health.

  16. The burden of moderate/severe premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a cohort of Latin American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiola, Alexandre; Lowin, Julia; Lindemann, Marion; Patel, Renu; Endicott, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between symptom severity, cost, and impairment in women with moderate/severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in a Latin American setting. A model was constructed based on analysis of an observational dataset. Data were included from four Latin American countries. Responder-level data were analysed according to four categories of symptom severity: Category 1 comprised Daily Record of Severity of Problems score 21 to 41.9, Category 2 score was 42 to 62.9, Category 3 score was 63 to 83.9, and Category 4 was a score of 84 or higher. Burden was estimated in terms of impact on job and activities using the modified work productivity and impairment questionnaire and affect on quality of life using the SF-12 questionnaire. Costs were estimated in Brazilian reals from a Brazilian private health care and societal perspective. The outputs of the analysis were estimates of burden, mean annual cost and affect on quality of life (as measured by quality adjusted life years) by symptom severity. Confidence intervals around key outcomes were generated through nonparametric bootstrapping. Analysis suggests a significant cost burden associated with moderate/severe PMS and PMDD with mean per patient annual costs estimated at 1618 BRL (95% confidence interval 957-2,481). Although the relationship between cost, quality of life, and severity was not clear, analysis showed a consistent relationship between disease severity and measures of disease burden (job and daily activity). Burden on activities increased with disease severity. Our analysis, conducted from a Latin American perspective, suggests a significant burden and an increasing impairment associated with moderate/severe PMS and PMDD. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescents' educational aspirations and ethnic background: The case of students of African and Latin American migrant origins in Spain

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    Carlos J. Gil-Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an inconclusive question. Objective: This study investigates the educational aspirations of children of African and Latin American migrants in Spain, looking at four critical factors: (1 family background, (2 educational performance, (3 years lived in Spain, and (4 language used at home. Methods: Data comes from the 2010 General Evaluation of Educational Diagnostic (GEED on lower-secondary students aged 14 (n = 19,293, on average. Multivariate logistic models are applied using mediation and moderation analyses. Results: Results show that (1 minority students have higher college aspirations than students of Spanish origin after accounting for parental socioeconomic status and educational performance; (2 ethnic differentials in aspirations - especially for pupils with Latin American origin - are concentrated among low-performing and disadvantaged students; (3 recent arrival in Spain is not significantly associated with differences in educational aspirations within minority groups; (4 speaking Spanish at home does not lead to differences in aspirations for pupils of African origin. Conclusions: Migrant optimism, as opposed to family language use and years of contact with the Spanish culture and society, seems to be an important factor for the high (net educational aspirations of students from African and Latin American backgrounds. Contribution: The article provides new evidence on ethnic heterogeneity in educational aspirations, being the first that uses representative data from the whole Spanish educational system.

  18. Characterization and Clinical Impact of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Seven Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Pallares, Christian J; Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Correa, Adriana; Álvarez, Carlos; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Luna, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Cortesía, Manuel; Guzmán-Suárez, Alfonso; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health problem associated with higher mortality rates, longer hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. We carried out a study to describe the characteristics of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-CPE bloodstream infection (BSI) from Latin American hospitals and to determine the clinical impact in terms of mortality and antibiotic therapy. Between July 2013 and November 2014, we conducted a multicenter observational study in 11 hospitals from 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were included and classified either as CPE or non-CPE based on detection of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by polymerase chain reaction. Enrolled subjects were followed until discharge or death. Demographic, microbiological and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the information. A total of 255 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI were included; CPE were identified in 53 of them. In vitro non-susceptibility to all screened antibiotics was higher in the patients with CPE BSI, remaining colistin, tigecycline and amikacin as the most active drugs. Combination therapy was significantly more frequent in the CPE BSI group (p mortality was 37% (94/255). Overall and attributable mortality were significantly higher in patients with CPE BSI (p mortality. After multivariate adjustment, CPE BSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-9.5; p = 0.002) and critical illness (aOR 6.5; 95% CI 3.1-13.7; p mortality. This study provides valuable data on the clinical characteristics and mortality risk factors in patients with CPE BSI. We determined that CPE infection is an independent mortality predictor and thus Latin American hospitals should perform campaigns on

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes,1 Josefina Lira-Plasencia,2 Ricardo Martin,3 Victor Marin,4 Maria Y Makuch1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, México, DF, México; 3Hospital Universitario, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; 4Hospital Central, Petróleos Mexicanos, México, DF, México Background: Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives: To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC use. Methods: A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results: A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion: The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks

  20. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighbourhoods in urban Latin American.

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    Lívia Ribeiro Mendonça

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma.To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city.The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE. Skin prick test (SPT, total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy.Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity.The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

  1. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  2. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  3. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Hughes, James P; Gonzales, Marco A; Garcia, Patricia J; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2009-02-03

    Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18-29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%-12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%-14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%-3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23-2.09; > or = 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12-3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.72; > or = 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%-50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially

  4. Meaning in life as a mediator of ethnic identity and adjustment among adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28-52% of ethnic identity's protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents' lives.

  5. Profile and professional expectations of medical students from 11 Latin American countries: the Red-LIRHUS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2017-04-20

    Latin America is undergoing a human resource crisis in health care in terms of labor shortage, misdistribution and poor orientation to primary care. Workforce data are needed to inform the planning of long-term strategies to address this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the academic and motivational profile, as well as the professional expectations, of Latin American medical students. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, multi-country study evaluating medical students from 11 Spanish-speaking countries in 2011-2012. Motivations to study medicine, migration intentions, intent to enter postgraduate programs, and perceptions regarding primary care were evaluated via a self-administered questionnaire. Outcomes were measured with pilot-tested questions and previously validated scales. A total of 11,072 valid surveys from 63 medical schools were gathered and analyzed. This study describes the profile and expectations of the future workforce being trained in Latin America. The obtained information will be useful for governments and universities in planning strategies to improve their current state of affairs regarding human resources for health care professions.

  6. Living conditions and health. A population-based study of labour migrants and Latin American refugees in Sweden and those who were repatriated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, J

    1995-06-01

    To examine whether there are differences in living conditions and self-rated health between South European labour migrants and Latin American refugees and those who were repatriated to Latin America. Analysis of data from a survey (face-to-face interviews) in 1991 of 338 Latin American refugees and 60 repatriated refugees. A random sample of 161 South European and 396 Finnish labour migrants from the Swedish Annual Level-of-Living Surveys 1980-1981 and 1988-89 was analysed. A random sample of 1,159 age-, sex- and education-matched Swedes served as controls. Lund, a medium-sized town in southern Sweden, Santiago and Montevideo, capitals of Chile and Uruguay, respectively, and Sweden. Labour migrants and refugees in particular lived in rented flats while Swedes lived in privately-owned one-family homes. All immigrants and in particular repatriated Latin Americans had low material standard and meagre economic resources compared with Swedes. Being a Latin American refugee, a South European or Finnish labour migrant were independent risk indicators of self-rated poor health in logistic regression (multivariate analyses). Not feeling secure in everyday life and poor leisure opportunities were independent risk factors for poor health with an estimated odds ratio of 3.13(2.09-4.45) and 1.57(1.22-2.00), respectively. This study shows a clear ethnic segregation in housing and other living conditions between Swedes and immigrants, where Latin American refugees and repatriated Latin Americans were most vulnerable. All immigrants had increased self-rated poor health compared with Swedes. Being an immigrant was a risk factor for poor health of equal importance to more traditional risk factors such as lifestyle factors.

  7. Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in Latin American girls, boys, and young women

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela María Ruiz-Sternberg; Edson D. Moreira, Jr; Jaime A. Restrepo; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Robinson Cabello; Arnaldo Silva; Rosires Andrade; Francisco Revollo; Santos Uscanga; Alejandro Victoria; Ana María Guevara; Joaquín Luna; Manuel Plata; Claudia Nossa Dominguez; Edison Fedrizzi

    2018-01-01

    Background: A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58; 9vHPV) vaccine was developed to expand coverage of the previously developed quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18; qHPV) vaccine. Methods: Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety outcomes were assessed in Latin American participants enrolled in 2 international studies of the 9vHPV vaccine, including a randomized, double-blinded, controlled with qHPV vaccine, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety study in young women aged 16–26 years...

  8. Latin American vector in Russia’s Foreign Policy: Identities and interests in the Russian‑Venezuelan Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitenko Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Ukraine, that broke out in 2013 and escalated in 2014, has led to sanction policy and the emergence of significant political divergences between Russian Federation and the West. This has resulted in an intensification of Russia’s foreign and economic policy alliances with its neighboring countries as well as with the rest of the BRICS members. In his interview with Cuba’s Prensa Latina, Vladimir Putin further classified cooperation with Latin American states as one of the key and very promising lines of Russia’s foreign policy.

  9. Gender and Ethnicity as Barriers for Development: Indigenous Women, Access to Resources in Ecuador with a Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Radcliffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placing original research undertaken in Ecuador with Kichwa and Tsáchila women, into the Latin American context, the paper addresses the barriers experienced by indigenous women to voice, rights and resources in the context of development programmes. The paper identifies racism, biased knowledges, and entrenched assumptions about women and indigenous people as the primary factors influencing indigenous women’s marginalization. The paper ends with a discussion of indigenous women’s critiques of development, and their recommendations for the future.

  10. Differences between self-employed and employed mothers in balancing family and work responsibilities: Evidence from Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how self-employed and employed mothers in several Latin American countries allocate their time throughout the day in order to balance their family and work responsibilities. Using data from time-use surveys for Mexico (2009), Peru (2010), Panama (2011), Ecuador (2012) and Colombia (2012), we find that self-employed mothers devote less time to paid work and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers, in the five countries. Our results are co...

  11. The food industry and conflicts of interest in nutrition research: A Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Nestle, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk. Public health organizations and institutions should take measures to identify, manage, and limit (or eliminate) conflicts of interest caused by partnerships with food companies making and marketing unhealthful products.

  12. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  13. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  14. Climate change and topography as drivers of Latin American biome dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on Latin America. It uses paleobotanic data which are indicative of past vegetation and climate change on the basis of relationships between fossils left by the modern vegetation and modern environmental conditions. For the first time, palynological data is analyzed spatially in

  15. Organization of Cooperation in Education and Science with Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Moshlyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the above article the problems associated with the organization of student exchanges on the example of Argentina are revealed, as well as practical recommendations for improving the implementation of academic mobility with the countries of Latin America.

  16. Stereotypes of the Latin Image in American Films: Silent Period to 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Karen

    This paper presents a history of motion pictures that focuses on how motion pictures, from 1894 to the present, have portrayed Latins. The role that Hollywood has played in the perpetuation of stereotypes is illustrated. There is an explanation of how film has illuminated a world beyond everyday experiences and has introduced the movie-goer to new…

  17. Cite Globally, Analyze Locally: Citation Analysis from a Local Latin American Studies Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Suzanne M.; Todeschini, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This citation analysis examines the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles in PhD dissertations on Latin America at the University of New Mexico between 2000 and 2009. Two sets of data are presented: The first identifies the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles across 17 academic departments; and the…

  18. Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in Latin American girls, boys, and young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Ruiz-Sternberg

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58; 9vHPV vaccine was developed to expand coverage of the previously developed quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18; qHPV vaccine. Methods: Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety outcomes were assessed in Latin American participants enrolled in 2 international studies of the 9vHPV vaccine, including a randomized, double-blinded, controlled with qHPV vaccine, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety study in young women aged 16–26 years, and an immunogenicity and safety study in girls and boys aged 9–15 years. Participants (N=5312 received vaccination at Day 1, Month 2, and Month 6. Gynecological swabs were collected regularly in young women for cytological and HPV DNA testing. Serum was analyzed for HPV antibodies in all participants. Adverse events (AEs were also monitored in all participants. Results: The 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV 31-, 33-, 45-, 52-, and 58-related high-grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal dysplasia with 92.3% efficacy (95% confidence interval 54.4, 99.6. Anti-HPV6, 11, 16, and 18 geometric mean titers at Month 7 were similar in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccination groups. Anti-HPV antibody responses following vaccination were higher among girls and boys than in young women. Most (>99% 9vHPV vaccine recipients seroconverted for all 9 HPV types at Month 7. Antibody responses to the 9 HPV types persisted over 5 years. The most common AEs were injection-site related, mostly of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusions: The 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and well tolerated in Latin American young women, girls, and boys. These data support 9vHPV vaccination programs in Latin America, a region with substantial cervical cancer burden. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Cervical cancer, Persistent infection, 9vHPV

  19. Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in Latin American girls, boys, and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sternberg, Ángela María; Moreira, Edson D; Restrepo, Jaime A; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Cabello, Robinson; Silva, Arnaldo; Andrade, Rosires; Revollo, Francisco; Uscanga, Santos; Victoria, Alejandro; Guevara, Ana María; Luna, Joaquín; Plata, Manuel; Dominguez, Claudia Nossa; Fedrizzi, Edison; Suarez, Eugenio; Reina, Julio C; Ellison, Misoo C; Moeller, Erin; Ritter, Michael; Shields, Christine; Cashat, Miguel; Perez, Gonzalo; Luxembourg, Alain

    2018-06-01

    A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58; 9vHPV) vaccine was developed to expand coverage of the previously developed quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18; qHPV) vaccine. Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety outcomes were assessed in Latin American participants enrolled in 2 international studies of the 9vHPV vaccine, including a randomized, double-blinded, controlled with qHPV vaccine, efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety study in young women aged 16-26 years, and an immunogenicity and safety study in girls and boys aged 9-15 years. Participants (N=5312) received vaccination at Day 1, Month 2, and Month 6. Gynecological swabs were collected regularly in young women for cytological and HPV DNA testing. Serum was analyzed for HPV antibodies in all participants. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored in all participants. The 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV 31-, 33-, 45-, 52-, and 58-related high-grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal dysplasia with 92.3% efficacy (95% confidence interval 54.4, 99.6). Anti-HPV6, 11, 16, and 18 geometric mean titers at Month 7 were similar in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccination groups. Anti-HPV antibody responses following vaccination were higher among girls and boys than in young women. Most (>99%) 9vHPV vaccine recipients seroconverted for all 9 HPV types at Month 7. Antibody responses to the 9 HPV types persisted over 5 years. The most common AEs were injection-site related, mostly of mild to moderate intensity. The 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and well tolerated in Latin American young women, girls, and boys. These data support 9vHPV vaccination programs in Latin America, a region with substantial cervical cancer burden. Copyright © 2018 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., and The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chagas disease among the Latin American adult population attending in a primary care center in Barcelona, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Roca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease.We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA, a commercial kit (rELISA and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics (oELISA. Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6-4.12%. Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n=127 of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6-23.39%. ALL THE INFECTED PATIENTS WERE IN A CHRONIC PHASE OF CHAGAS DISEASE: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas.We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi-infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems.

  1. A Retrospective Examination of a University's Thirteen Years in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ronald E.; And Others

    The context of educational reform within which U.S. higher education has worked in selected Latin American countries is examined, with attention directed to the specific experience of the University of New Mexico. The evolution of the Latin American Programs in Education office (LAPE) in the university setting, the organizational milieu in which…

  2. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework-Effectively Maintained Inequality-and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context.

  3. Criminalisation of femicide/feminicide in Latin American countries / La criminalisation du féminicide dans les pays d’Amérique latine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsili Toledo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of expressions femicide and feminicide, mainly developed by academics in the sociological and anthropological fields as well as by feminist activists, have become frequent in the areas of law and public policy in Latin American countries. This article seeks to analyse the challenges currently faced regarding the interpretation and application of these new criminal offences in various countries, considering the strong questioning they have often received from the criminal law field. For this purpose, the article analyses briefly the origin and development of the expressions of femicide/feminicide, are as well as the main characteristics and problems of the new crimes and their incipient legal interpretation and application. L’uso dei termini femicidio/femminicidio, elaborati principalmente da studiosi negli ambiti della sociologia e dell’antropologia, così come da militanti femministe, è divenuto frequente nei paesi dell’America Latina in materia di diritto e politica pubblica. L’articolo intende analizzare le attuali sfide da affrontare relativamente all’interpretazione e all’applicazione di questi nuovi delitti in diversi paesi, tenendo in considerazione il dibattito accesosi in ambito penale. In tal senso, l’articolo analizza brevemente le origini e lo sviluppo dei termini femicidio/femminicidio unitamente alle caratteristiche essenziali e alle problematiche poste da queste nuove fattispecie criminose. L’utilisation du mot féminicide (en anglais : femicide et feminicide, développé principalement par des scientifiques dans les domaines de la sociologie et de l’anthropologie ainsi que par les militantes féministes, est devenue fréquente dans les pays d’Amérique latine en matière de loi et de politique publique. Cet article vise à analyser les défis actuels relatifs à l’interprétation et à l’application de ce nouveau délit dans plusieurs pays, compte tenu de la série de questions posées à son

  4. Has the First Global Financial Crisis Changed the Entrepreneurial Values in Digitalized Marketing-based Societies? The Case of GEM Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Saiz Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As the world economy is globalized, crises are rapidly spread due to the massive use of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies, also affecting the entrepreneurial values involved in business creation processes. In this sense, digital marketing has a key role to play, as it can serve as a tool based on technology applied to foster nascent entrepreneurship. Using data for GEM Latin American countries, and applying clustering analysis based on the K-means method, the objective of this work is to test if the actual First Global Financial Crisis (FGFC has altered the entrepreneurial values in Latin American firms. The main result of this work is that the traits of entrepreneurial activity in GEM Latin American countries have progressively shifted from quantity to quality, so digital marketing is having an increasing importance.

  5. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V and Its Use in Latin American Adolescents: Alcohol Consumption Pattern as an External Criterion for Its Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensation Seeking is a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense situations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, and financial risks for the sake of such experience. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V is the most widely used measure to assess this construct. In previous studies a variety of psychometric limitations were found when using the SSS-V with Latin American population. The purpose of this study is to present additional psychometric properties for its use with Latin American adolescents. It was applied to a 506 adolescent sample (from 12 to 20 years. The result is a scale of 22 items that cover four factors. It seems that sensation seeking among Latin American adolescents can be described in terms of four factors, but with some slightly content differences from what is usually found in adult samples from other countries. Future lines of research are proposed.

  6. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V) and Its Use in Latin American Adolescents: Alcohol Consumption Pattern as an External Criterion for Its Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanina; Molina, María Fernanda; Raimundi, María Julia

    2017-11-01

    Sensation Seeking is a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense situations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, and financial risks for the sake of such experience. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V) is the most widely used measure to assess this construct. In previous studies a variety of psychometric limitations were found when using the SSS-V with Latin American population. The purpose of this study is to present additional psychometric properties for its use with Latin American adolescents. It was applied to a 506 adolescent sample (from 12 to 20 years). The result is a scale of 22 items that cover four factors. It seems that sensation seeking among Latin American adolescents can be described in terms of four factors, but with some slightly content differences from what is usually found in adult samples from other countries. Future lines of research are proposed.

  7. A 6 month, prospective, observational study of PDE5 inhibitor treatment persistence and adherence in Latin American men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Reyes, Luis Antonio; Borregales, Leonardo; Cairoli, Carlos; Sorsaburu, Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    To assess persistence/adherence rates of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor (PDE5I) on-demand dosing in Latin American men with erectile dysfunction (ED), and explore patient characteristics and treatment factors that may be predictive for PDE5I persistence and adherence. Men from Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela with ED who were naïve to PDE5Is were prescribed sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, or lodenafil on-demand dosing and asked to provide information about PDE5I use at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Patients were persistent if they used ≥1 dose during the 4 week period prior to each evaluation. Patients were adherent if they complied with dosing instructions during most recent dose. Main outcome measures included Persistence and Adherence Questionnaire (PAQ), Partner Relationship Questionnaire (PRQ), Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) Questionnaire, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with persistence and adherence. A total of 511 men were enrolled; most had mild to moderate ED (77.1%); 317 patients (62.0%) were prescribed tadalafil, 116 (22.7%) sildenafil, 75 (14.7%) vardenafil, and 3 (0.6%) lodenafil (not further analyzed). A total of 340 patients (66.5%) were 'persistent' at 6 months; 345 (67.5%) were 'adherent'. Persistence and adherence were associated with age, education level, and ED duration. Reasons for non-persistence included medication cost and lack of efficacy. Study limitations included its design, brief observation period, its bias observed toward tadalafil selection; its dependence on patient self-reporting, limited number of factors that were analyzed for persistence/adherence association, its small number of participating patients and Latin American countries, and inherent differences in PDE5I preference and medical practices. Approximately two-thirds of PDE5I-naïve, Latin American men with ED were persistent and adherent after 6 months of

  8. Differentiation strategies in coffee global value chains through reference to territorial origin in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marescotti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years coffee has been regarded as a commodity. Recently, new trends both at consumption and production level created new opportunities for de-commodifying the coffee market, by a differentiation based on social, environmental and territorial resources, and consequently for strengthening local agro-food systems and improving the position of farmers in the value chain. In this perspective, territorial origin is one promising lever of differentiation, and there is a growing number of initiatives trying to develop protected Geographical Indications in coffee value chains. This work aims at identifying the different logics surrounding the construction of protected Geographical Indications (GIs in the coffee industry in Latin America, and to discuss the role of history and tradition in relation to the link to specific local resources. Our analysis highlights a variety of typologies of GI initiatives, which follow different logics and strategies, and interpret the concept of “origin” in different ways, especially when compared to the European Union one. However the role that history and traditions play in American coffee GIs is not yet relevant.Durante mucho tiempo, el café ha sido considerado como un producto commodity, de carácter indiferenciado. Recientemente, nuevas tendencias en la producción y el consumo de café han creado nuevas oportunidades para emprender estrategias de diferenciación (de-commodify en el mercado del café, basadas en los recursos locales de carácter social, medioambiental y territorial y, consecuentemente, con una finalidad de impulsar los sistemas agroalimentarios locales y de mejorar la situación de los agricultores en la cadena de valor. Desde esta perspectiva, el origen territorial se convierte en una herramienta prometedora de diferenciación del producto. Existe un número creciente de iniciativas cuyo propósito es desarrollar Indicaciones Geográficas (IGs en el ámbito de las cadenas de valor del

  9. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona-Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (SLAAI presents a document about the use of immunotherapy (IT in Latin America, where administration patterns, indications and contraindications, effects on health, adverse events and socioeconomic impact are reviewed. Objective: To review publications analyzing the use of IT in Latin America. Methods: A literature review was carried out in order to identify works addressing IT in Latin America. This review was focused on practical scientific information available on IT in the region, and a parallel comparison was made with practices observed in the United States and European countries. Results: Of the 21 Latin American countries included, only 9 had original articles meeting the selection criteria; a total of 82 articles were selected, most of them from Brazil and Mexico. Most widely used allergenic extracts in Latin America tropical and subtropical regions were those of mites and pollen. Conclusion: Although it is true that there are huge challenges for the future of IT in Latin America, studies on subcutaneous IT and sublingual IT are increasing, but most of them are retrospective and some have design bias, and more prospective studies are therefore required, using internationally validated scales for clinical evaluation.

  10. A note on the Pazos-Simonsen mechanism and Kaldor's early research on Latin American inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with the inflationary finance story, inflation acceleration in Latin America has been explained as the result of the interaction of inflation dynamics and the frequency of wage adjustments. Accordingly, small inflation disturbances are connected with a shift from moderate to high inflation (or beyond to hyperinflation though a mechanism that makes adjustment intervals in wage contracts endogenous. Rudiger Dornbusch (1986 labeled this process the "Pazos-Simonsen mechanism". In this note we summarize the basic contribution of both Felipe Pazos (1978 and Mario Henrique Simonsen (1983 and find crucial differences between their views on wage dynamics, specifically regarding the endogeneity of the time interval between wage readjustments. A remarkable affinity with Pazos's view on wage dynamics and inflation is found in an early and almost unknown essay written by Nicholas Kaldor in 1957 (inspired in his brief experience in Latin America.

  11. IAEA intercomparison exercises of thyroid measurement: performance of Latin American and Caribbean laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Cruz-Suarez, R.

    2016-01-01

    131 I is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean Region in the field of nuclear medicine and has been recognised as one of the main sources of potential intake of radionuclides by the staff. The In Vivo Monitoring laboratory of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD-CNEN-Brazil) organised three intercomparison exercises (2005, 2009 and 2013) in the scope of IAEA technical cooperation projects RLA9049 and RLA9066 aimed to disseminate and harmonise the technique for measuring 131 I in the human thyroid. The number of participants in Latin America increased from 9 to 20 institutions from 7 and 13 countries, respectively, over the last 10 y. The participants have improved significantly their ability on the in vivo measurement technique. In the 2013 round all laboratories which reported results presented performances in an acceptable range according to the ISO criteria indicating the benefit of such exercises in the region. (authors)

  12. Protectionism and industrialization: a critical assessment of the Latin American industrialization period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Levy-Orlik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protectionist policies were considered one of the pivotal features of the import industrialization process in Latin America. In this paper the effects of protectionist policies are assessed in terms of the principal macroeconomic variables, productive structure and external trade composition; also, ECLAC's perspective on the import substitution process is discussed. The main conclusions are that regional protectionist policies were spontaneous, and their effects were limited due to the generalized protection that took place and the government's commitment to price stability.

  13. Rethinking Latin American Communicology in the Age of Nomad Culture: Transnational Consumption and Cultural Hybridizations

    OpenAIRE

    Retis, Jéssica; Caballero, Francisco Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Using the theory of migratory networks and the legacy of the critical theory of the developmentalist models, this article puts forward a critical approach of the deficiencies of certain cultural consumption analyses in Latin America. It aims to develop an understanding of the production of high culture and distribution and reception processes in the transversal logic behind the constitution of migrating multitudes and their appropriation of the media content of global society. This work analy...

  14. THE LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIC COFFEE INDUSTRY: U.S. MARKET INROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Danilo; Epperson, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The U.S. organic coffee market has experienced extraordinary growth in the past five years because of an increase in c...

  15. Nuclear proliferation and Latin American security : is the "Bomb" program dead in Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    DeJesus, Eduardo De Jesus

    1994-01-01

    This thesis addresses the possibility of a Brazilian "hidden agenda" in order to support one of the most advanced nuclear research and nuclear power programs in Latin America. From the early 1970s to the late 1980s Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons. With the emergence of democratic regimes during the 1980s, these covert projects were halted or terminated. The civilian administration in Brazil is now supporting an ambiguous and uncompromising position by ...

  16. Latin American Civil-Military Relations in a Historical Perspective: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Elin; Malca, Camila Gianella

    2014-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil political actors has sh...

  17. Liberal vs Liberating Empowerment: A Latin American Feminist Perspective on Conceptualising Women's Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Sardenberg, Cecília Maria Bacellar

    2008-01-01

    Paper prepared for presentation to the Conference: Reclaiming Feminism – Gender and Neo-Liberalism, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, UK, 9-10 July 2007. A previous version of this paper was presented at the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment Research Programme Consortium Inception Workshop, Luxor, Egypt, September 2006. The term ‘women’s empowerment’ is viewed with a certain amount of distrust by feminists in Latin America. There has been some ambiguit...

  18. Re-reform of Latin American Private Pensions Systems: Argentinian and Chilean Models and Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Carmelo Mesa-Lago

    2009-01-01

    Between 1981 and 2008, 11 countries in Latin America structurally reformed their defined-benefit, Pay-As-You-Go, public pension systems, partially or totally replacing them with defined contribution, fully funded, privately managed schemes based on individual accounts. Initial failures in design and subsequent performance of the private systems led to partial corrections, but in 2008 two countries implemented far reaching “re-reforms”: Chile maintained and improved its system, whereas Argenti...

  19. Increase in Mexican and Latin American scientific articles on irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Porras

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: A noticeable increase has been observed over the last decade in the research conducted on IBS in Mexico and Latin America. Even though the EPI/QOL studies predominate, the sophistication of research is reflected in the TRANS studies that are in third place of frequency. The information referred to herein demonstrates maturity in the field, making it possible to carry out consensuses based on local data.

  20. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low-carbon ene......This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low......-carbon energy technologies. While many electricity markets in Latin America were liberalized during the 1990s and 2000s, such market-driven reform policies were far from uniform and in reality there exist a diversity of governance frameworks for national electricity markets, exemplified here by Argentina, Cuba...... to the debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation....