WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected key measurements

  1. Road map for selected key measurements from LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A.A., Jr; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Amoraal, J.; Anderson, J.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Arrabito, L.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Bailey, D.S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Pazos, MdC.Barandela; Barlow, R.J.; Barsuk, S.; Bates, A.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Bediaga, I.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bos, E.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bozzi, C.; Bressieux, J.; Brisbane, S.; Britsch, M.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Buchler-Germann, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cachemiche, J.P.; Cadeddu, S.; Caicedo Carvajal, J.M.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Cameron, W.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chlopik, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Clark, P.J.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Collins, P.; Constantin, F.; Conti, G.; Contu, A.; Corti, G.; Cowan, G.A.; D'Almagne, B.; D'Ambrosio, C.; d'Enterria, D.G.; Da Silva, W.; David, P.; De Bonis, I.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; De Vries, H.; Decamp, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Deissenroth, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Dima, M.; Donleavy, S.; Reis, A.C.dos; Dovbnya, A.; Pree, T.Du; Duval, P.Y.; Dwyer, L.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Eames, C.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eklund, L.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Esteve, L.; Eydelman, S.; Fanchini, E.; Farber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fungueirino Pazos, J.L.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J-C.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauvin, N.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gilitsky, Yu.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Guerrer, G.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Guzik, Z.; Gys, T.; Hachon, F.; Haefeli, G.; Haines, S.C.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harji, R.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, P.F.; He, J.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hofmann, W.; Holubyev, K.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Huston, R.S.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Escudero, C.Iglesias; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; John, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jost, B.; Kapusta, F.; Karbach, T.M.; Keaveney, J.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khalil, S.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y.M.; Knecht, M.; Knopf, J.; Koblitz, S.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolko, I.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Krasowski, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Krokovny, P.; Kruzelecki, K.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryashov, I.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Le Gac, R.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lessnoff, K.; Li, L.; Li, Y.Y.; Libby, J.; Lieng, M.; Lindner, R.; Lindsey, S.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Luisier, J.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Maier, A.; Mamunur, R.M.D.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Marin, F.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martinez Santos, D.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazurov, A.; McGregor, G.; Mcharek, B.; Mclean, C.; McNulty, R.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Merkin, M.; Messi, R.; Metlica, F.C.D.; Michalowski, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Minard, M.N.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morris, J.V.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Muresan, R.; Murtas, F.; Muryn, B.; Musy, M.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nardulli, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nedos, M.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolas, L.; Nies, S.; Niess, V.; Nikitin, N.; Noor, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Ostankov, A.; Palacios, J.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papadelis, A.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Paterson, S.K.; Patrick, G.N.; Pauna, E.; Pauna, C.; Pavel, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D.L.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Pessina, G.; Petrella, A.; Petrolini, A.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poss, S.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Pozzi, S.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reece, W.; Ricciardi, S.; Rinnert, K.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodrigues, F.; Rodriguez Cobo, C.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogers, G.J.; Romanovsky, V.; Rospabe, G.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sambade Varela, A.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santinelli, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schleich, S.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Shao, B.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Simioni, E.; Skottowe, H.P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, A.C.; Sobczak, K.; Soler, F.J.P.; Solomin, A.; Somogy, P.; Soomro, F.; De Paula, B.Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spiridenkov, E.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Straumann, U.; Styles, N.; Syryczynski, K.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Terrier, H.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; Tobin, M.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tran, M.T.; Traynor, S.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ullaland, O.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J.; van Eijk, D.; van Herwijnen, E.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Tilburg, J.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Videau, I.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Voss, H.; Wacker, K.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Witek, M.; Witzeling, W.; Wotton, S.A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, F.; Yang, Z.; Ybeles Smit, G.; Young, R.; Yushchenko, O.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zwahlen, N.

    2010-01-01

    Six of the key physics measurements that will be made by the LHCb experiment, concerning CP asymmetries and rare B decays, are discussed in detail. The "road map" towards the precision measurements is presented, including the use of control channels and other techniques to understand the performance of the detector with the first data from the LHC.

  2. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  3. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  4. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  5. Enzyme technology: Key to selective biorefining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    to the reaction is a unique trait of enzyme catalysis. Since enzyme selectivity means that a specific reaction is catalysed between particular species to produce definite products, enzymes are particularly fit for converting specific compounds in mixed biomass streams. Since enzymes are protein molecules...... their rational use in biorefinery processes requires an understanding of the basic features of enzymes and reaction traits with respect to specificity, kinetics, reaction optima, stability and structure-function relations – we are now at a stage where it is possible to use nature’s enzyme structures as starting...... point and then improve the functional traits by targeted mutation of the protein. The talk will display some of our recent hypotheses related to enzyme action, recently obtained results within knowledge-based enzyme improvements as well as cast light on research methods used in optimizing enzyme...

  6. Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2000-01-01

    Entanglement swapping between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs can be used to generate the same sequence of random bits in two remote places. A quantum key distribution protocol based on this idea is described. The scheme exhibits the following features. (a) It does not require that Alice and Bob choose between alternative measurements, therefore improving the rate of generated bits by transmitted qubit. (b) It allows Alice and Bob to generate a key of arbitrary length using a single quantum system (three EPR pairs), instead of a long sequence of them. (c) Detecting Eve requires the comparison of fewer bits. (d) Entanglement is an essential ingredient. The scheme assumes reliable measurements of the Bell operator. (20 refs).

  7. An Identification Key for Selecting Methods for Sustainability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel C. Zijp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments can play an important role in decision making. This role starts with selecting appropriate methods for a given situation. We observed that scientists, consultants, and decision-makers often do not systematically perform a problem analyses that guides the choice of the method, partly related to a lack of systematic, though sufficiently versatile approaches to do so. Therefore, we developed and propose a new step towards method selection on the basis of question articulation: the Sustainability Assessment Identification Key. The identification key was designed to lead its user through all important choices needed for comprehensive question articulation. Subsequently, methods that fit the resulting specific questions are suggested by the key. The key consists of five domains, of which three determine method selection and two the design or use of the method. Each domain consists of four or more criteria that need specification. For example in the domain “system boundaries”, amongst others, the spatial and temporal scales are specified. The key was tested (retrospectively on a set of thirty case studies. Using the key appeared to contribute to improved: (i transparency in the link between the question and method selection; (ii consistency between questions asked and answers provided; and (iii internal consistency in methodological design. There is latitude to develop the current initial key further, not only for selecting methods pertinent to a problem definition, but also as a principle for associated opportunities such as stakeholder identification.

  8. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators are financial and non financial indicators that organizations use inorder to estimate and fortify how successful they are, aiming previously established long lastinggoals. Appropriate selection of indicators that will be used for measuring is of a greatest importance.Process organization of business is necessary to be constitute in order to realize such effective andefficient system or performance measuring via KPI. Process organization also implies customerorientation and necessary flexibility in nowadays condition of global competition.Explanation of process organization, the way of KPI selection, and practical example of KPImeasuring in Toyota dealerships are presented in this paper.

  9. Key indicators for organizational performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Haddadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each organization for assessing the amount of utility and desirability of their activities, especially in complex and dynamic environments, requires determining and ranking the vital performance indicators. Indicators provide essential links among strategy, execution and ultimate value creation. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework, which identifies and prioritizes Key Performance Indicators (KPIs that a company should focus on them to define and measure progress towards organizational objectives. For this purpose, an applied research was conducted in 2013 in an Iranian telecommunication company. We first determined the objectives of the company with respect to four perspectives of BSC (Balanced Scorecard framework. Next, performance indicators were listed and paired wise comparisons were accomplished by company's high-ranked employees through standard Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP questionnaires. This helped us establish the weight of each indicator and to rank them, accordingly.

  10. Selecting of key safety parameters in reactor nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Fan; Yu Hong

    2014-01-01

    The safety parameters indicate the operational states and safety of research reactor are the basis of nuclear safety supervision institution to carry out effective supervision to nuclear facilities. In this paper, the selecting of key safety parameters presented by the research reactor operating unit to National Nuclear Safety Administration that can express the research reactor operational states and safety when operational occurrence or nuclear accident happens, and the interrelationship between them are discussed. Analysis shows that, the key parameters to nuclear safety supervision of research reactor including design limits, operational limits and conditions, safety system settings, safety limits, acceptable limits and emergency action level etc. (authors)

  11. Towards Comprehensive Food Security Measures: Comparing Key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security is a multi-dimensional issue that has been difficult to measure comprehensively, given the one-dimensional focus of existing indicators. Three indicators dominate the food security measurement debate: Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and Coping Strategies ...

  12. Three Key Questions on Measuring Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Jay

    2018-01-01

    The author examines three essential questions on educational assessment: What really matters in a contemporary education? How should we assess those things that matter? How might our assessments enhance learning that matters, not just measure it? In answering these question, he argues that schools need a broader collection of measures, with a…

  13. Lean Information Management: Criteria For Selecting Key Performance Indicators At Shop Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuga, Maria Virginia; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Rosca, Liviu-Ion

    2015-07-01

    Most successful organizations worldwide use key performance indicators as an important part of their corporate strategy in order to forecast, measure and plan their businesses. Performance metrics vary in their purpose, definition and content. Therefore, the way organizations select what they think are the optimal indicators for their businesses varies from company to company, sometimes even from department to department. This study aims to answer the question of what is the most suitable way to define and select key performance indicators. More than that, it identifies the right criteria to select key performance indicators at shop floor level. This paper contributes to prior research by analysing and comparing previously researched selection criteria and proposes an original six-criteria-model, which caters towards choosing the most adequate KPIs. Furthermore, the authors take the research a step further by further steps to closed research gaps within this field of study.

  14. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Togo, Y.

    1976-01-01

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  15. Measurement errors in voice-key naming latency for Hiragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2003-12-01

    This study makes explicit the limitations and possibilities of voice-key naming latency research on single hiragana symbols (a Japanese syllabic script) by examining three sets of voice-key naming data against Sakuma, Fushimi, and Tatsumi's 1997 speech-analyzer voice-waveform data. Analysis showed that voice-key measurement errors can be substantial in standard procedures as they may conceal the true effects of significant variables involved in hiragana-naming behavior. While one can avoid voice-key measurement errors to some extent by applying Sakuma, et al.'s deltas and by excluding initial phonemes which induce measurement errors, such errors may be ignored when test items are words and other higher-level linguistic materials.

  16. RULES FOR SELECTING AND USING KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR THE SERVICE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra - Elena RUSĂNEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no question that performance is the desired result of every activity or action. In order to correctly measure an organization’s performance it is necessary to select key performance indicators (KPIs that will deliver long-term value to the company. KPIs are presenting performance information for all levels of the organization and they are reflecting the progress made so far to achieve strategic objectives. The selection of the key performance indicators must be made according to the organization’s industry and activity. The company must truly understand its business and its mission. Also, KPIs must be closely linked to the strategic objectives. The focus of this research is to present effective rules for defining key performance indicators for the Service industry. This sector of economy consists in generating intangible goods like experience, expertise and information. Therefore, monitoring this type of services requires a different approach when defining performance indicators compared to the manufacturing industry.

  17. Key performance indicators for measuring sustainability in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key performance indicators for measuring sustainability in health care industry in Malaysia. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1S (2018) > ... Next, an in-depth meeting was conducted to gain insights and feedbacks with the management of a private hospital.

  18. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander May; Adrian Anslow; Udechukwu Ojiako; Yue Wu; Alasdair Marshall; Maxwell Chipulu

    2014-01-01

    This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that ...

  19. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance: Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Romeijn, J.W.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  20. Measurement invariance versus selection invariance : Is fair selection possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, Denny; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    This article shows that measurement invariance (defined in terms of an invariant measurement model in different groups) is generally inconsistent with selection invariance (defined in terms of equal sensitivity and specificity across groups). In particular, when a unidimensional measurement

  1. Selection of key terrain attributes for SOC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Adhikari, Kabindra; Chellasamy, Menaka

    As an important component of the global carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. SOC pool is the basic information to carry out global warming research, and needs to sustainable use of land resources. Digital terrain attributes are often use...... was selected, total 2,514,820 data mining models were constructed by 71 differences grid from 12m to 2304m and 22 attributes, 21 attributes derived by DTM and the original elevation. Relative importance and usage of each attributes in every model were calculated. Comprehensive impact rates of each attribute...

  2. Emergency medical services key performance measurement in Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Tanaka, Hideharu; Shin, Sang Do; Ng, Yih Yng; Piyasuwankul, Thammapad; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis. The data was collected from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) data among few Asian cities, namely, Tokyo, Osaka, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, and Seoul. The parameters of inclusions were broadly divided into structure, process, and outcome measurements. The data was collected by the site investigators from each city and keyed into the electronic web-based data form which is secured strictly by username and passwords. Generally, there seems to be a more uniformity for EMS performance parameters among the more developed EMS systems. The major problem with the EMS agencies in the cities of developing countries like Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur is inadequate or unavailable data pertaining to EMS performance. There is non-uniformity in the EMS performance measurement across the Asian cities. This creates difficulty for EMS performance index comparison and benchmarking. Hopefully, in the future, collaborative efforts such as the PAROS networking group will further enhance the standardization in EMS performance reporting across the region.

  3. Selecting a climate model subset to optimise key ensemble properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Herger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available End users studying impacts and risks caused by human-induced climate change are often presented with large multi-model ensembles of climate projections whose composition and size are arbitrarily determined. An efficient and versatile method that finds a subset which maintains certain key properties from the full ensemble is needed, but very little work has been done in this area. Therefore, users typically make their own somewhat subjective subset choices and commonly use the equally weighted model mean as a best estimate. However, different climate model simulations cannot necessarily be regarded as independent estimates due to the presence of duplicated code and shared development history. Here, we present an efficient and flexible tool that makes better use of the ensemble as a whole by finding a subset with improved mean performance compared to the multi-model mean while at the same time maintaining the spread and addressing the problem of model interdependence. Out-of-sample skill and reliability are demonstrated using model-as-truth experiments. This approach is illustrated with one set of optimisation criteria but we also highlight the flexibility of cost functions, depending on the focus of different users. The technique is useful for a range of applications that, for example, minimise present-day bias to obtain an accurate ensemble mean, reduce dependence in ensemble spread, maximise future spread, ensure good performance of individual models in an ensemble, reduce the ensemble size while maintaining important ensemble characteristics, or optimise several of these at the same time. As in any calibration exercise, the final ensemble is sensitive to the metric, observational product, and pre-processing steps used.

  4. Selecting a climate model subset to optimise key ensemble properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herger, Nadja; Abramowitz, Gab; Knutti, Reto; Angélil, Oliver; Lehmann, Karsten; Sanderson, Benjamin M.

    2018-02-01

    End users studying impacts and risks caused by human-induced climate change are often presented with large multi-model ensembles of climate projections whose composition and size are arbitrarily determined. An efficient and versatile method that finds a subset which maintains certain key properties from the full ensemble is needed, but very little work has been done in this area. Therefore, users typically make their own somewhat subjective subset choices and commonly use the equally weighted model mean as a best estimate. However, different climate model simulations cannot necessarily be regarded as independent estimates due to the presence of duplicated code and shared development history. Here, we present an efficient and flexible tool that makes better use of the ensemble as a whole by finding a subset with improved mean performance compared to the multi-model mean while at the same time maintaining the spread and addressing the problem of model interdependence. Out-of-sample skill and reliability are demonstrated using model-as-truth experiments. This approach is illustrated with one set of optimisation criteria but we also highlight the flexibility of cost functions, depending on the focus of different users. The technique is useful for a range of applications that, for example, minimise present-day bias to obtain an accurate ensemble mean, reduce dependence in ensemble spread, maximise future spread, ensure good performance of individual models in an ensemble, reduce the ensemble size while maintaining important ensemble characteristics, or optimise several of these at the same time. As in any calibration exercise, the final ensemble is sensitive to the metric, observational product, and pre-processing steps used.

  5. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  6. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  7. Is the Green Key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.; Van Rheede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if

  8. Unbiased roughness measurements: the key to better etch performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Andrew; Mack, Chris; Sirard, Stephen; Liang, Chen-wei; Yang, Liu; Jiang, Justin; Shamma, Nader; Wise, Rich; Yu, Jengyi; Hymes, Diane

    2018-03-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) has become an increasingly critical metric to enable Moore's Law scaling. Stochastic variations, as characterized for lines by line width roughness (LWR) and line edge roughness (LER), are dominant factors in EPE and known to increase with the introduction of EUV lithography. However, despite recommendations from ITRS, NIST, and SEMI standards, the industry has not agreed upon a methodology to quantify these properties. Thus, differing methodologies applied to the same image often result in different roughness measurements and conclusions. To standardize LWR and LER measurements, Fractilia has developed an unbiased measurement that uses a raw unfiltered line scan to subtract out image noise and distortions. By using Fractilia's inverse linescan model (FILM) to guide development, we will highlight the key influences of roughness metrology on plasma-based resist smoothing processes. Test wafers were deposited to represent a 5 nm node EUV logic stack. The patterning stack consists of a core Si target layer with spin-on carbon (SOC) as the hardmask and spin-on glass (SOG) as the cap. Next, these wafers were exposed through an ASML NXE 3350B EUV scanner with an advanced chemically amplified resist (CAR). Afterwards, these wafers were etched through a variety of plasma-based resist smoothing techniques using a Lam Kiyo conductor etch system. Dense line and space patterns on the etched samples were imaged through advanced Hitachi CDSEMs and the LER and LWR were measured through both Fractilia and an industry standard roughness measurement software. By employing Fractilia to guide plasma-based etch development, we demonstrate that Fractilia produces accurate roughness measurements on resist in contrast to an industry standard measurement software. These results highlight the importance of subtracting out SEM image noise to obtain quicker developmental cycle times and lower target layer roughness.

  9. One-sided measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wen-Fei; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Zheng, Yu-Lin; Li, Li; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol was proposed to remove all the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the trusted encoding systems. Here we propose a one-sided MDI-QKD (1SMDI-QKD) protocol, which enjoys detection loophole-free advantage, and at the same time weakens the state preparation assumption in MDI-QKD. The 1SMDI-QKD can be regarded as a modified MDI-QKD, in which Bob's encoding system is trusted, while Alice's is uncharacterized. For the practical implementation, we also provide a scheme by utilizing coherent light source with an analytical two decoy state estimation method. Simulation with realistic experimental parameters shows that the protocol has a promising performance, and thus can be applied to practical QKD applications.

  10. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations.

  11. Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, Christiana; Razavi, Mohsen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A protocol with the potential of beating the existing distance records for conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) systems is proposed. It borrows ideas from quantum repeaters by using memories in the middle of the link, and that of measurement-device-independent QKD, which only requires optical source equipment at the user's end. For certain memories with short access times, our scheme allows a higher repetition rate than that of quantum repeaters with single-mode memories, thereby requiring lower coherence times. By accounting for various sources of nonideality, such as memory decoherence, dark counts, misalignment errors, and background noise, as well as timing issues with memories, we develop a mathematical framework within which we can compare QKD systems with and without memories. In particular, we show that with the state-of-the-art technology for quantum memories, it is potentially possible to devise memory-assisted QKD systems that, at certain distances of practical interest, outperform current QKD implementations. (paper)

  12. Work required for selective quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Eiji

    2018-06-01

    In quantum mechanics, we define the measuring system M in a selective measurement by two conditions. Firstly, when we define the measured system S as the system in which the non-selective measurement part acts, M is independent from the measured system S as a quantum system in the sense that any time-dependent process in the total system S  +  M is divisible into parts for S and M. Secondly, when we can separate S and M from each other without changing the unitary equivalence class of the state of S from that obtained by the partial trace of M, the eigenstate selection in the selective measurement cannot be realized. In order for such a system M to exist, we show that in one selective measurement of an observable of a quantum system S 0 of particles in S, there exists a negative entropy transfer from M to S that can be directly transformed into an amount of Helmholtz free energy of where T is the thermodynamic temperature of the system S. Equivalently, an extra amount of work, , is required to be done by the system M.

  13. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with virtual photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijia; Zhang, Yichen; Xu, Bingjie; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2018-04-01

    The method of improving the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols by postselection has been recently proposed and verified. In continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocols, the measurement results are obtained from untrusted third party Charlie. There is still not an effective method of improving CV-MDI QKD by the postselection with untrusted measurement. We propose a method to improve the performance of coherent-state CV-MDI QKD protocol by virtual photon subtraction via non-Gaussian postselection. The non-Gaussian postselection of transmitted data is equivalent to an ideal photon subtraction on the two-mode squeezed vacuum state, which is favorable to enhance the performance of CV-MDI QKD. In CV-MDI QKD protocol with non-Gaussian postselection, two users select their own data independently. We demonstrate that the optimal performance of the renovated CV-MDI QKD protocol is obtained with the transmitted data only selected by Alice. By setting appropriate parameters of the virtual photon subtraction, the secret key rate and tolerable excess noise are both improved at long transmission distance. The method provides an effective optimization scheme for the application of CV-MDI QKD protocols.

  14. Adaptive measurement selection for progressive damage estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenfan; Kovvali, Narayan; Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Peralta, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Noise and interference in sensor measurements degrade the quality of data and have a negative impact on the performance of structural damage diagnosis systems. In this paper, a novel adaptive measurement screening approach is presented to automatically select the most informative measurements and use them intelligently for structural damage estimation. The method is implemented efficiently in a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) setting using particle filtering. The noise suppression and improved damage estimation capability of the proposed method is demonstrated by an application to the problem of estimating progressive fatigue damage in an aluminum compact-tension (CT) sample using noisy PZT sensor measurements.

  15. COMPREHENSIVE CHECK MEASUREMENT OF KEY PARAMETERS ON MODEL BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex measurements of characteristic parameters realised on a long distance model belt conveyor are described. The main objective was to complete and combine the regular measurements of electric power on drives of belt conveyors operated in Czech opencast mines with measurements of other physical quantities and to gain by this way an image of their mutual relations and relations of quantities derived from them. The paper includes a short description and results of the measurements on an experimental model conveyor with a closed material transport way.

  16. Key elements for a measurement framework for public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Carter Walter; Lopez-Bassols, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of recent NESTI work on developing guidelines for measuring public sector innovation (PSI). The paper includes an update on various ongoing activities which will contribute to the development of a measurement framework for PSI and outlines a number of areas which...

  17. Measuring Patient-Reported Outcomes: Key Metrics in Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Nelson, Jonas A; Klassen, Anne F; Pusic, Andrea L

    2018-01-29

    Satisfaction and improved quality of life are among the most important outcomes for patients undergoing plastic and reconstructive surgery for a variety of diseases and conditions. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are essential tools for evaluating the benefits of newly developed surgical techniques. Modern PROMs are being developed with new psychometric approaches, such as Rasch Measurement Theory, and their measurement properties (validity, reliability, responsiveness) are rigorously tested. These advances have resulted in the availability of PROMs that provide clinically meaningful data and effectively measure functional as well as psychosocial outcomes. This article guides the reader through the steps of creating a PROM and highlights the potential research and clinical uses of such instruments. Limitations of PROMs and anticipated future directions in this field are discussed.

  18. 7 key measures for France to enter energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creach, Morgane; Vandaele, Diane; Richard, Marion; Fink, Meike; Quirion, Philippe; Bonduelle, Antoine; Berthier, Julien; Mossalgue, Marc; Louchard, Olivier; Lenoir, Didier; Vormus, Joel; Charru, Madeleine; Claustre, Raphael; Mathis, Paul; Gauthier, Raphaelle; Couturier, Christian; Mijeon, Charlotte; Gavand, Karine; Majnoni d'Intignano, Sophia; Delcroix, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this report propose, describe and discuss seven measures to be taken to promote and support energy transition in France: to introduce a climate-energy contribution, to adopt a law for a progressive and complete nuclear phasing out, to set local communities at the heart of energy transition, to introduce a mandatory thermal renewal of existing buildings, to develop a less greenhouse gas emitter agricultural model, to enter into a low-carbon and energy efficient transport infrastructure scheme, and to plan the struggle against urban sprawl at the scale of the living area

  19. A Guide for Selecting Protection Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korn, H.; Strilek, I.

    2000-01-01

    An important task of emergency planning is to determine countermeasures during different time phases of an airborne plume. For this purpose a Catalogue of Countermeasures was created. The purpose of the catalogue it to be a primary guide for experts of competent governmental and state authorities as well as for persons belonging to the respective advisory and supporting panel, who have to assess and evaluate the situation and to select protection measures in the case of a nuclear event with radiological consequences off-site. Since radiation is generally not directly measurable, it is, for practical purposes, not the radiation dose itself but the derived measurable quantities that are used for decision-making. On this basis the catalogue is a tool for deciding on the initiation of countermeasures based on Operational Intervention Levels. (author)

  20. Interference Reduction Selected Measurement Signals of Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Monieta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents problems encountered at the signal processing of mechanical values with electric methods. Depending on the measured quantity, the location of the sensors and the analysis frequency band, they are differently interferences. The article presents the results of applying the analysis of parameters of working and accompanying process marine medium speed reciprocating engines in the time, amplitude, frequency domain and wavelet analysis to select a reasonable method. The applied signal acquisition program allows you to perform some analysis of signals in different areas and the transformation of the data to other programs. The ways of interference reducing at various stages of their occurrence and analysis are presented. [b]Keywords[/b]: electrical signals, domain analysis, measurement interference

  1. KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS APPLICATION ON BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Vural

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day, more than 7,000 different marine species are transferred to different ecosystems via ballast water in ships. The introduction of invasive species can cause problems for native species. After realizing the serious potential problems associated with the transport of organisms in ballast water, national and international regulations were developed. In 2004, the International Maritime Organization introduced the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. With these regulations, the problems caused by ballast water have attracted attention and many companies have started to research and develop technologies for the management of ballast water. Today, there are hundreds of different systems for ballast-water treatment, and the selection of the most suitable system for a specific vessel is an increasingly important issue as the Convention nears enforcement on September 8, 2017. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the application of key performance indicators (KPIs to the selection of a ballast-water treatment system (BWTS leads to a very useful tool with which shipyards can compare BWTSs. This allows them to make better choices and to designate the most suitable system for each of their ships. In this study, we examine two types of vessel from a shipyard in Istanbul, Turkey. They have different ballast-water capacities and equipment, and the most suitable system for each is selected by using the KPI method.

  2. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  3. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with correlated source-light-intensity errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with correlated source-light-intensity errors. Numerical results show that the results here can greatly improve the key rate especially with large intensity fluctuations and channel attenuation compared with prior results if the intensity fluctuations of different sources are correlated.

  4. Suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative of underground repository for HLW geological disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing; Fu Bingjun; Fan Xianhua; Chen Shi; Sun Donghui

    2006-01-01

    Site selection for the underground repository is a vital problem with respect to the HLW geological disposal. Over the past decades, we have been focusing our attention on granite as a priority in China. However, there are some problems have to be discussed on this matter. In this paper, both experiences gained and lessons learned in the international community regarding the site selection are described. And then, after analyzing a lot of some key factors affecting the site selection, some comments and suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative before final decision making in China are presented. (authors)

  5. ChemCam-like Spectrometer for Non-Contact Measurements of Key Isotopes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA SBIR topic S1.07 In Situ Sensors for Lunar and Planetary Science, particularly the need for measuring isotopic ratios of the key...

  6. Selection of a new nuclear unit for Slovakia: possibilities and key technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plans for construction of new nuclear unit at Jaslovske Bohunice brings forward the issue of selection of reactor design. This paper compares technical characteristics (safety and operational) of pressurized water reactors that are at present available in the market, such as AP 1000 (WEC), EPR (AREVA), AES 2006 (ASE), APWR 1700 (Mitsubishi) and APR 1400 (Korea Hydro and Nuclear). Selected parameters that require close attention in future negotiations with potential suppliers are discussed in detail. Compared are parameters as type of the reactor, reactor output power, quantified level of safety, compliance with national legislature and international safety requirements, operational flexibility in meeting requirements of the grid, using of verified technology, measures for coping with severe accidents, resistance against extreme external conditions etc. (authors)

  7. Selecting Candidates for Key Leadership Positions in Program Executive Offices Ground Combat Systems and Combat Service and Combat Service Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    start or continue a profitable growth pattern and boost morale and motivation, a poor decision may bring the company to the brink of financial...HON Frank Kendall issued a memorandum titled “Key Leadership Positions and Qualification Criteria” (Kendall, 2013). This memorandum provides a...Chief Developmental Tester • Program Lead, Business Financial Manager SELECTING CANDIDATES FOR KEY LEADERSHIP POSITIONS 4

  8. Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.

  9. Selection criteria for oxidation method in total organic carbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, GeunSeok; Park, Sang-Min; Yang, Heuiwon; Tsang, Daniel C W; Alessi, Daniel S; Baek, Kitae

    2018-05-01

    During the measurement of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon is converted into CO 2 by using high temperature combustion (HTC) or wet chemical oxidation (WCO). However, the criteria for selecting the oxidation methods are not clear. In this study, the chemical structures of organic material were considered as a key factor to select the oxidation method used. Most non-degradable organic compounds showed a similar oxidation efficiency in both methods, including natural organic compounds, dyes, and pharmaceuticals, and thus both methods are appropriate to measure TOC in waters containing these compounds. However, only a fraction of the carbon in the halogenated compounds (perfluorooctanoic acid and trifluoroacetic acid) were oxidized using WCO, resulting in measured TOC values that are considerably lower than those determined by HTC. This result is likely due to the electronegativity of halogen elements which inhibits the approach of electron-rich sulfate radicals in the WCO, and the higher bond strength of carbon-halogen pairs as compared to carbon-hydrogen bonds, which results in a lower degree of oxidation of the compounds. Our results indicate that WCO could be used to oxidize most organic compounds, but may not be appropriate to quantify TOC in organic carbon pools that contain certain halogenated compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Background The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. Objective The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. Methods We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. Results With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Conclusions Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. PMID:28446420

  11. Selected Geomagnetic Measurements From Several Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — More than 17 million selected magnetic observations from several orbiting low-altitude satellites are contained in this digital collection. Except for MAGSAT, all...

  12. Phase-encoded measurement device independent quantum key distribution without a shared reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo-Dan, Zhu; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Chen, Dong; Ying, Sun

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, a phase-encoded measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol without a shared reference frame is presented, which can generate secure keys between two parties while the quantum channel or interferometer introduces an unknown and slowly time-varying phase. The corresponding secret key rate and single photons bit error rate is analysed, respectively, with single photons source (SPS) and weak coherent source (WCS), taking finite-key analysis into account. The numerical simulations show that the modified phase-encoded MDI-QKD protocol has apparent superiority both in maximal secure transmission distance and key generation rate while possessing the improved robustness and practical security in the high-speed case. Moreover, the rejection of the frame-calibrating part will intrinsically reduce the consumption of resources as well as the potential security flaws of practical MDI-QKD systems.

  13. Multi-party Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Based on Cluster States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanqi; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Pei, Changxing

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on cluster states. A four-photon analyzer which can distinguish all the 16 cluster states serves as the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Any two out of four participants can build secure keys after the analyzers obtains successful outputs and the two participants perform post-processing. We derive a security analysis for the protocol, and analyze the key rates under different values of polarization misalignment. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 280 km in the optical fiber channel when the key rate is about 10- 6 with the polarization misalignment parameter 0.015. Moreover, our work takes an important step toward a quantum communication network.

  14. Selecting Capabilities for Quality of Life Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    The capability approach advocates that interpersonal comparisons be made in the space of functionings and capabilities. However, Amartya Sen has not specified which capabilities should be selected as the relevant ones. This has provoked two types of criticism. The stronger critique is Martha Nussbaum's claim that Sen should endorse one specific…

  15. Selected Aspects of Wear Affecting Keyed Joints and Spline Connections During Operation of Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębura Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with selected deficiencies of spline connections, such as angular or parallel misalignment (eccentricity and excessive play. It is emphasized how important these deficiencies are for smooth operation of the entire driving units. The aim of the study is to provide a kind of a reference list with such deficiencies with visual symptoms of wear, specification of mechanical measurements for mating surfaces, mathematical description of waveforms for dynamic variability of motion in such connections and visualizations of the connection behaviour acquired with the use of the FAM-C and FDM-A. Attention is paid to hazards to flight safety when excessively worn spline connections are operated for long periods of time

  16. Precision density measuring equipment: Design, selected examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasinski, T.; Patzelt, K.; Dieker, C.; Hansen, H.; Wenzl, H.; Schober, T.

    1987-06-01

    The report deals with solids density measurement using the pyknometer, the hydrostatic balance, or the floating specimen method. The mathematical relations are derived, and error sources are shown. A detailed description is given of a measuring set-up for measuring the density of solids and liquids. An error calculation is presented. After explaining the determination of density of a standard solid body, the report describes the density measurement of monocrystalline germanium, of niobium-tritide, Ni 3 Al, Ge-Si, and gallium arsenide, the determination of space-lattice expansion by hydrogen isotopes, and of the purity of H-D mixtures. (GG) [de

  17. A semi-automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion with adaptive key-frame selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Kuanyu; Xiong, Hongkai

    2014-11-01

    To compensate the deficit of 3D content, 2D to 3D video conversion (2D-to-3D) has recently attracted more attention from both industrial and academic communities. The semi-automatic 2D-to-3D conversion which estimates corresponding depth of non-key-frames through key-frames is more desirable owing to its advantage of balancing labor cost and 3D effects. The location of key-frames plays a role on quality of depth propagation. This paper proposes a semi-automatic 2D-to-3D scheme with adaptive key-frame selection to keep temporal continuity more reliable and reduce the depth propagation errors caused by occlusion. The potential key-frames would be localized in terms of clustered color variation and motion intensity. The distance of key-frame interval is also taken into account to keep the accumulated propagation errors under control and guarantee minimal user interaction. Once their depth maps are aligned with user interaction, the non-key-frames depth maps would be automatically propagated by shifted bilateral filtering. Considering that depth of objects may change due to the objects motion or camera zoom in/out effect, a bi-directional depth propagation scheme is adopted where a non-key frame is interpolated from two adjacent key frames. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme has better performance than existing 2D-to-3D scheme with fixed key-frame interval.

  18. Analysis of selected methods for the recovery of encrypted WEP key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Belka, Radosław

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with some of the WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) key decryption methods based on aircrack-ng software, which was embedded in Backtrack operating system (Linux distribution). The 64-bit (40-bit) and 128-bit (104- bit) key encrypted with RC4 cipher weakness was shown. Research methods were made in different network environments. In this work we compared different types of keys to check how strong the RC4 stream cipher can be. The 40-bit and 104-bit WEP key has been tested on IEEE 802.11 based wireless LAN using laptop with live-CD Linux operating system. A short analysis of key creation methods was performed to compare the amount of time necessary to decrypt random and nonrandom WEP keys.

  19. Accuracy and responses of genomic selection on key traits in apple breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muranty, Hélène; Troggio, Michela; Sadok, Ben Inès; Rifaï, Al Mehdi; Auwerkerken, Annemarie; Banchi, E.; Velasco, Riccardo; Stevanato, P.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guardo, Di M.; Kumar, S.; Laurens, François; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The application of genomic selection in fruit tree crops is expected to enhance breeding efficiency by increasing prediction accuracy, increasing selection intensity and decreasing generation interval. The objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of prediction and selection response in

  20. Measuring social inclusion--a key outcome in global mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-04-01

    Social inclusion is increasingly recognized as a key outcome for evaluating global mental health programmes and interventions. Whereas social inclusion as an outcome is not a new concept in the field of mental health, its measurement has been hampered by varying definitions, concepts and instruments. To move the field forward, this paper reviews the currently available instruments which measure social inclusion and are reported in the literature, realizing that no single measure will be appropriate for all studies or contexts. A systematic literature search of English language peer-reviewed articles published through February 2013 was undertaken to identify scales specifically developed to measure social inclusion or social/community integration among populations with mental disorders. Five instruments were identified through the search criteria. The scales are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinnings, domains and/or key items and their potential for use in global settings. Whereas numerous reviewed abstracts discussed mental health and social inclusion or social integration, very few were concerned with direct measurement of the construct. All identified scales were developed in high-income countries with limited attention paid to how the scale could be adapted for cross-cultural use. Social inclusion is increasingly highlighted as a key outcome for global mental health policies and programmes, yet its measurement is underdeveloped. There is need for a global cross-cultural measure that has been developed and tested in diverse settings. However, until that need is met, some of the scales presented here may be amenable to adaptation.

  1. Proposed system for measuring project performance using process-based key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haponava, T.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite some evidence of its usefulness, performance measurement by using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in the construction industry also has its critics. Among the shortcomings attributed to existing KPIs is the fact that almost all of them are product oriented. This means that the indicators

  2. Quantification of the Impact of Photon Distinguishability on Measurement-Device- Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett K. Simon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (MDI-QKD is a two-photon protocol devised to eliminate eavesdropping attacks that interrogate or control the detector in realized quantum key distribution systems. In MDI-QKD, the measurements are carried out by an untrusted third party, and the measurement results are announced openly. Knowledge or control of the measurement results gives the third party no information about the secret key. Error-free implementation of the MDI-QKD protocol requires the crypto-communicating parties, Alice and Bob, to independently prepare and transmit single photons that are physically indistinguishable, with the possible exception of their polarization states. In this paper, we apply the formalism of quantum optics and Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the impact of small errors in wavelength, bandwidth, polarization and timing between Alice’s photons and Bob’s photons on the MDI-QKD quantum bit error rate (QBER. Using published single-photon source characteristics from two-photon interference experiments as a test case, our simulations predict that the finite tolerances of these sources contribute ( 4.04 ± 20 / N sifted % to the QBER in an MDI-QKD implementation generating an N sifted -bit sifted key.

  3. Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.

  4. Noticeable aspects of selecting intervention measures for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yong; Shi Yuanming

    1993-01-01

    Referring to the experience of intervention measures taken for protecting the public after Chernobyl accident and to recent knowledge of source terms of reactor accidents, the noticeable aspects of selecting of intervention measures for nuclear accidents is discussed

  5. Ionospheric drift measurements: Skymap points selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Daniel; Boška, Josef; Galkin, I. A.; Santolík, Ondřej; Šauli, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2008), RS1S90/1-RS1S90/11 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1619; GA ČR GA205/06/1267; GA AV ČR IAA300420504 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC 296; MIERS(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : digisonde drift measurement * plasma drift * radio sounding * ionosphere * Doppler shift * skymap processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2008 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2007RS003633.shtml

  6. Long-distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with coherent-state superpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B

    2014-09-15

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case.

  7. Passive measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Chen, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Based on the orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation, we present a novel passive measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) scheme with the two-mode source. Combining with the tight bounds of the yield and error rate of single-photon pairs given in our paper, we conduct performance analysis on the scheme with heralded single-photon source. The numerical simulations show that the performance of our scheme is significantly superior to the traditional MDI-QKD in the error rate, key generation rate and secure transmission distance, since the application of orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation can exclude the basis-dependent flaw and increase the information content for each single photon. Moreover, the performance is improved with the rise of the frame length. Therefore, our scheme, without intensity modulation, avoids the source side channels and enhances the key generation rate. It has greatly utility value in the MDI-QKD setups.

  8. Key Aspects of Nucleic Acid Library Design for in Vitro Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Maria A.; Davydova, Anna S.; Vorobjev, Pavel E.; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V.; Venyaminova, Alya G.

    2018-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers capable of selectively recognizing their target molecules have nowadays been established as powerful and tunable tools for biospecific applications, be it therapeutics, drug delivery systems or biosensors. It is now generally acknowledged that in vitro selection enables one to generate aptamers to almost any target of interest. However, the success of selection and the affinity of the resulting aptamers depend to a large extent on the nature and design of an initial random nucleic acid library. In this review, we summarize and discuss the most important features of the design of nucleic acid libraries for in vitro selection such as the nature of the library (DNA, RNA or modified nucleotides), the length of a randomized region and the presence of fixed sequences. We also compare and contrast different randomization strategies and consider computer methods of library design and some other aspects. PMID:29401748

  9. Selection processes in a Delphi study about key qualifications in Senior Secondary Vocational Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolingen, S.J. van; Klaassen, C.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this study is the Delphi method. First, a short history of the Delphi method is given. Then, different types of the Delphi method are described, and the validity and reliability of the Delphi method are discussed. Finally, this study reports on the selection processes and assessments

  10. Recruitment and Selection of Staff - Key Components for the Reform of the Romanian Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria-Liliana-Amelia Purda-Nicoară (Netotea-Suciu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management is a complex and dynamic process, whose components interrelate and reinforce one another, constantly evolving due to internal influences or because of external pressures. This is a cyclical process, and its "beginning" is represented by the recruitment and selection of staff. In the present context, when the labor market has changed so dramatically, and the demands of the employers are also ever more complex, these activities prove to be essential for the further development and success of any organization. This happens because recruitment and selection of the most suitable people result in obtaining employees who possess multiple skills and qualifications, and who are able to readily obtain high performance, an enhancement of their motivations, building a strong and lasting team, and thus ensure excellent results for the company and the ability to adapt to the present day continuous changes. Therefore, professionally addressing the Romanian Police staff recruitment and selection is absolutely necessary. If the recruitment activities will point out the most suitable people, with potential for development in the organization, a quality selection activity may be the guarantee of identifying the candidates who have the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to transform the potential capabilities into professionalism. Only organizations that will know how to build multidisciplinary, competent and motivated teams will be ready to face new challenges.

  11. Measuring Patients' Experience of Rehabilitation Services Across the Care Continuum. Part II: Key Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Josephine; McNeil, Heather; Lafortune, Claire; Black, Samantha; Prorok, Jeanette; Stolee, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To identify key dimensions of patients' experience across the rehabilitative care system and to recommend a framework to develop survey items that measure the rehabilitative care experience. Data were sourced from a literature review that searched MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL (Ebsco), and PsycINFO (APA PsycNET) databases from 2004 to 2014, the reference lists of the final accepted articles, and hand searches of relevant journals. Four reviewers performed the screening process on 2472 articles; 33 were included for analysis. Interrater reliability was confirmed through 2 rounds of title review and 1 round of abstract review, with an average κ score of .69. The final sample of 33 accepted articles was imported into a qualitative data analysis software application. Multiple levels of coding and a constant comparative methodology generated 6 themes. There were 502 discreet survey questions measuring patient experience that were categorized using the following dimensions: rehabilitative care ecosystem, client and informal caregiver engagement, patient and health care provider relation, pain and functional status, group and individual identity, and open ended. The most common survey questions examine the care delivery ecosystem (37%), the engagement of clients and their informal caregivers (24.9%), and the quality of relations between providers and patients (21.7%). Examination of patient's functional status and management of pain yielded (15.3%) of the instruments' questions. Currently available instruments and questions that measure patients' experience in rehabilitative care are unable to assess the performance of rehabilitative delivery systems that aspire to integrate care across the continuum. However, question panels derived from our 6 key themes may measure the key concepts that define rehabilitative care and facilitate measurement of patient experience at the system level. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  12. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  13. IT Workforce: Key Practices Help Ensure Strong Integrated Program Teams; Selected Departments Need to Assess Skill Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    principles and steps associated with workforce planning that agencies can utilize in their efforts to assess and address IT skill gaps. See GAO-04-39...As another example, our prior review of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Farm Service Agency’s Modernize and Innovate the Delivery of...IT WORKFORCE Key Practices Help Ensure Strong Integrated Program Teams; Selected Departments Need to Assess Skill Gaps

  14. Finite-size analysis of continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Yichen; Zhao, Yijia; Wang, Xiangyu; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    We study the impact of the finite-size effect on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, mainly considering the finite-size effect on the parameter estimation procedure. The central-limit theorem and maximum likelihood estimation theorem are used to estimate the parameters. We also analyze the relationship between the number of exchanged signals and the optimal modulation variance in the protocol. It is proved that when Charlie's position is close to Bob, the CV-MDI QKD protocol has the farthest transmission distance in the finite-size scenario. Finally, we discuss the impact of finite-size effects related to the practical detection in the CV-MDI QKD protocol. The overall results indicate that the finite-size effect has a great influence on the secret-key rate of the CV-MDI QKD protocol and should not be ignored.

  15. Principles in selecting human capital measurements and metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharny D. Chrysler-Fox

    2014-09-01

    Research purpose: The study explored principles in selecting human capital measurements,drawing on the views and recommendations of human resource management professionals,all experts in human capital measurement. Motivation for the study: The motivation was to advance the understanding of selectingappropriate and strategic valid measurements, in order for human resource practitioners tocontribute to creating value and driving strategic change. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach, with purposively selectedcases from a selected panel of human capital measurement experts, generated a datasetthrough unstructured interviews, which were analysed thematically. Main findings: Nineteen themes were found. They represent a process that considers thecentrality of the business strategy and a systemic integration across multiple value chains inthe organisation through business partnering, in order to select measurements and generatemanagement level-appropriate information. Practical/managerial implications: Measurement practitioners, in partnership withmanagement from other functions, should integrate the business strategy across multiplevalue chains in order to select measurements. Analytics becomes critical in discoveringrelationships and formulating hypotheses to understand value creation. Higher educationinstitutions should produce graduates able to deal with systems thinking and to operatewithin complexity. Contribution: This study identified principles to select measurements and metrics. Noticeableis the move away from the interrelated scorecard perspectives to a systemic view of theorganisation in order to understand value creation. In addition, the findings may help toposition the human resource management function as a strategic asset.

  16. Ceftazidime Is the Key Diversification and Selection Driver of VIM-Type Carbapenemases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Laura; González-Alba, José M; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2018-05-08

    In recent decades, carbapenems have been considered the last line of antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative bacterial infections. Unfortunately, strains carrying a high diversity of β-lactamases able to hydrolyze carbapenems have emerged in the clinical setting. Among them, VIM β-lactamases have diversified in a bloom of variants. The evolutionary reconstructions performed in this work revealed that, at the end of the 1980s, two independent events involving diversification from VIM-2 and VIM-4 produced at least 25 VIM variants. Later, a third event involving diversification from VIM-1 occurred in the mid-1990s. In a second approach to understanding the emergence of VIM carbapenemases, 44 mutants derived from VIM-2 and VIM-4 were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis based on those positions predicted to be under positive selection. These variants were expressed in an isogenic context. The more-evolved variants yielded increased levels of hydrolytic efficiency toward ceftazidime to a higher degree than toward carbapenems. In fact, an antagonist effect was frequently observed. These results led us to develop an experimental-evolution step. When Escherichia coli strains carrying VIM-2 or VIM-4 were submitted to serial passages at increasing concentrations of carbapenems or ceftazidime, more-efficient new variants (such as VIM-11 and VIM-1, with N165S [bearing a change from N to S at position 165] and R228S mutations, respectively) were only obtained when ceftazidime was present. Therefore, the observed effect of ceftazidime in the diversification and selection of VIM variants might help to explain the recent bloom of carbapenemase diversity, and it also represents another example of the potential universal effect exerted by ceftazidime in the selection of more-efficient β-lactamase variants, as in TEM, CTX-M, or KPC enzymes. IMPORTANCE One of the objectives recently proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Assembly in the global plan on antimicrobial

  17. A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valivarthi, Raju; Zhou, Qiang; John, Caleb; Marsili, Francesco; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally realize a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system. It is based on cost-effective and commercially available hardware such as distributed feedback lasers and field-programmable gate arrays that enable time-bin qubit preparation and time-tagging, and active feedback systems that allow for compensation of time-varying properties of photons after transmission through deployed fiber. We examine the performance of our system, and conclude that its design does not compromise performance. Our demonstration paves the way for MDI-QKD-based quantum networks in star-type topology that extend over more than 100 km distance.

  18. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  19. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  20. Device independent quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks with memoryless measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Device independent quantum key distribution (QKD) aims to provide a higher degree of security than traditional QKD schemes by reducing the number of assumptions that need to be made about the physical devices used. The previous proof of security by Pironio et al (2009 New J. Phys. 11 045021) applies only to collective attacks where the state is identical and independent and the measurement devices operate identically for each trial in the protocol. We extend this result to a more general class of attacks where the state is arbitrary and the measurement devices have no memory. We accomplish this by a reduction of arbitrary adversary strategies to qubit strategies and a proof of security for qubit strategies based on the previous proof by Pironio et al and techniques adapted from Renner.

  1. The mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channel: key component of a plasmalemmal control centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, B. G.; Ding, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channels probably serve to detect not only mechanical stress but also electrical, thermal, and diverse chemical stimuli. Because all stimuli result in a common output, most notably a shift in second messenger calcium concentration, the channels are presumed to serve as signal integrators. Further, insofar as second messenger calcium in turn gives rise to mechanical, electrical, and diverse chemical changes, the channels are postulated to initiate regulatory feedbacks. It is proposed that the channels and the feedback loops play a wide range of roles in regulating normal plant function, as well as in mediating disturbance of normal function by environmental stressors and various pathogens. In developing evidence for the physiological performance of the channel, a model for a cluster of regulatory plasmalemmal proteins and cytoskeletal elements grouped around a set of wall-to-membrane and transmembrane linkers has proved useful. An illustration of how the model might operate is presented. It is founded on the demonstration that several xenobiotics interfere both with normal channel behaviour and with gravitropic reception. Accordingly, the first part of the illustration deals with how the channels and the control system within which they putatively operate might initiate gravitropism. Assuming that gravitropism is an asymmetric expression of growth, the activities of the channels and the plasmalemmal control system are extrapolated to account for regulation of both rate and allometry of cell expansion. Finally, it is discussed how light, hormones, redox agents and herbicides could in principle affect growth via the putative plasmalemmal control cluster or centre.

  2. The future of cytotoxic therapy: selective cytotoxicity based on biology is the key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bono, Johann S de; Tolcher, Anthony W; Rowinsky, Eric K

    2003-01-01

    Although mortality from breast cancer is decreasing, 15% or more of all patients ultimately develop incurable metastatic disease. It is hoped that new classes of target-based cytotoxic therapeutics will significantly improve the outcome for these patients. Many of these novel agents have displayed cytotoxic activity in preclinical and clinical evaluations, with little toxicity. Such preferential cytotoxicity against malignant tissues will remain tantamount to the Holy Grail in oncologic therapeutics because this portends improved patient tolerance and overall quality of life, and the capacity to deliver combination therapy. Combinations of such rationally designed target-based therapies are likely to be increasingly important in treating patients with breast carcinoma. The anticancer efficacy of these agents will, however, remain dependent on the involvement of the targets of these agents in the biology of the individual patient's disease. Results of DNA microarray analyses have raised high hopes that the analyses of RNA expression levels can successfully predict patient prognosis, and indicate that the ability to rapidly 'fingerprint' the oncogenic profile of a patient's tumor is now possible. It is hoped that these studies will support the identification of the molecules driving a tumor's growth, and the selection of the appropriate combination of targeted agents in the near future

  3. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  4. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  5. Competitiveness of Serbia as a tourist destination: Analysis of selected key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesku Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the favourable competitiveness position, tourist destination has to offer quality experiences to tourists that can make the destination more attractive compared to other tourist destinations. The role of destination management is to exploit and develop existing resources by using clear and effective strategies for developing tourism products and creating additional value of tourist experience. The first step of analysis is to define destination competitiveness by using the indicators which will review and give the guidelines for improvement of competitive position. This paper discusses the tourist destinations' competitiveness and indicators for its measurement with a special reference to Serbia. Tourism development of Serbia is a big chance for overall economic development of the country. Current competitive position of Serbian tourism on international market is not satisfactory and this paper is trying to analyze and to point out the reasons of Serbia's tourism low competitiveness. Conclusions about the competitive positioning of Serbia as a tourist destination are drawn out firstly based on the relevant studies as well as on the Serbian Tourism Development Strategy. The results of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (WEF TTCI reports for Serbia are also presented. Based on own research, this paper is also showing the results related to competitiveness of Serbia as a tourist destination in terms of two groups of indicators: natural, cultural and historical resources as well as destination management. According to the results, Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and historical resources comparing to the role of destination management.

  6. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fuzhong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. Methods In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. Results 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Conclusion Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to

  7. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Yanwei; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M; Dai, Di; Li, Fuzhong; Wu, Junqing; Xiang, Haiqing

    2007-09-18

    The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to policymaking and legislation for tobacco control in China.

  8. Reference-Frame-Independent and Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Using One Single Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Wei, Kejin; Pei, Changxing

    2018-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. However, practical implementations of MDI-QKD, which require two-photon interferences from separated independent single-photon sources and a nontrivial reference alignment procedure, are still challenging with current technologies. Here, we propose a scheme that significantly reduces the experimental complexity of two-photon interferences and eliminates reference frame alignment by the combination of plug-and-play and reference frame independent MDI-QKD. Simulation results show that the secure communication distance can be up to 219 km in the finite-data case and the scheme has good potential for practical MDI-QKD systems.

  9. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Huang, Peng; Bai, Dong-Yun; Wang, Shi-Yu; Bao, Wan-Su; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2018-04-01

    It has been found that non-Gaussian operations can be applied to increase and distill entanglement between Gaussian entangled states. We show the successful use of the non-Gaussian operation, in particular, photon subtraction operation, on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) protocol. The proposed method can be implemented based on existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the photon subtraction operation can remarkably increase the maximal transmission distance of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol, which precisely make up for the shortcoming of the original CV-MDI-QKD protocol, and one-photon subtraction operation has the best performance. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides a feasible method for the experimental implementation of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol.

  10. Backward compatibility as a key measure for smooth upgrades to the LHC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggiolini, V.; Csikos, D.; Tarasenko, P.; Zaharieva, Z.; Arruat, M.; Gorbosonov, R.

    2012-01-01

    It is a big challenge to smoothly upgrade the control system of a large operational accelerator such as the LHC without causing unnecessary downtime. We have identified backward compatibility as a key measure to achieve this, because a backward compatible component can be easily upgraded. This document describes the work the CERN Accelerator Controls group does to provide methods and tools supporting backward compatibility. We have identified four areas for which we want to provide tools: (1) dependency analysis to identify incoming dependencies, (2) backward compatibility validation to verify that API (Application Program Interface) changes are really backward compatible, (3) version upgrading with rules to clearly inform the dependent clients if a modification is backward compatible, and (4) API consolidation to clearly specify classes and methods belonging to the API and to enforce their appropriate usage

  11. Self-referenced continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Wang, Xudong; Li, Jiawei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying

    2018-05-01

    We propose a scheme to remove the demand of transmitting a high-brightness local oscillator (LO) in continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, which we call as the self-referenced (SR) CV-MDI QKD. We show that our scheme is immune to the side-channel attacks, such as the calibration attacks, the wavelength attacks and the LO fluctuation attacks, which are all exploiting the security loopholes introduced by transmitting the LO. Besides, the proposed scheme waives the necessity of complex multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can greatly simplify the QKD processes and improve the transmission efficiency. The numerical simulations under collective attacks show that all the improvements brought about by our scheme are only at the expense of slight transmission distance shortening. This scheme shows an available method to mend the security loopholes incurred by transmitting LO in CV-MDI QKD.

  12. Key Performance Indicators in Radiology: You Can't Manage What You Can't Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Aran, Shima; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Thrall, James H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is a fundamental component of every successful radiology operation. A radiology QA program must be able to efficiently and effectively monitor and respond to quality problems. However, as radiology QA has expanded into the depths of radiology operations, the task of defining and measuring quality has become more difficult. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are highly valuable data points and measurement tools that can be used to monitor and evaluate the quality of services provided by a radiology operation. As such, KPIs empower a radiology QA program to bridge normative understandings of health care quality with on-the-ground quality management. This review introduces the importance of KPIs in health care QA, a framework for structuring KPIs, a method to identify and tailor KPIs, and strategies to analyze and communicate KPI data that would drive process improvement. Adopting a KPI-driven QA program is both good for patient care and allows a radiology operation to demonstrate measurable value to other health care stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Key Performance Indicators to Measure Improvement After Implementation of Total Laboratory Automation Abbott Accelerator a3600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Marijana; Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Dukic, Lora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2017-12-27

    The aim of the study was to estimate improvement of work efficiency in the laboratory after implementation of total laboratory automation (TLA) by Abbott Accelerator a3600 in the laboratory with measuring different key performance indicators (KPIs) before and after TLA implementation. The objective was also to recommend steps for defining KPIs in other laboratories. For evaluation of improvement 10 organizational and/or technical KPIs were defined for all phases of laboratory work and measured before (November 2013) and after (from 2015 to 2017) TLA implementation. Out of 10 defined KPIs, 9 were successfully measured and significantly improved. Waiting time for registration of samples in the LIS was significantly reduced from 16 (9-28) to 9 (6-16) minutes after TLA (P performed at core biochemistry analyzers which significantly reduced walking distance for sample management (for more than 800 m per worker) and number of tube touches (for almost 50%). Analyzers downtime and engagement time for analyzers maintenance was reduced for 50 h and 28 h per month, respectively. TLA eliminated manual dilution of samples with extreme results with sigma values increment from 3.4 to >6 after TLA. Although median turnaround time TAT for potassium and troponin was higher (for approximately 20 min), number of outliers with TAT >60 min expressed as sigma values were satisfying (>3). Implementation of the TLA improved the most of the processes in our laboratory with 9 out of 10 properly defined and measured KPIs. With proper planning and defining of KPIs, every laboratory could measure changes in daily workflow.

  14. Measures and limits of models of fixation selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Wilming

    Full Text Available Models of fixation selection are a central tool in the quest to understand how the human mind selects relevant information. Using this tool in the evaluation of competing claims often requires comparing different models' relative performance in predicting eye movements. However, studies use a wide variety of performance measures with markedly different properties, which makes a comparison difficult. We make three main contributions to this line of research: First we argue for a set of desirable properties, review commonly used measures, and conclude that no single measure unites all desirable properties. However the area under the ROC curve (a classification measure and the KL-divergence (a distance measure of probability distributions combine many desirable properties and allow a meaningful comparison of critical model performance. We give an analytical proof of the linearity of the ROC measure with respect to averaging over subjects and demonstrate an appropriate correction of entropy-based measures like KL-divergence for small sample sizes in the context of eye-tracking data. Second, we provide a lower bound and an upper bound of these measures, based on image-independent properties of fixation data and between subject consistency respectively. Based on these bounds it is possible to give a reference frame to judge the predictive power of a model of fixation selection. We provide open-source python code to compute the reference frame. Third, we show that the upper, between subject consistency bound holds only for models that predict averages of subject populations. Departing from this we show that incorporating subject-specific viewing behavior can generate predictions which surpass that upper bound. Taken together, these findings lay out the required information that allow a well-founded judgment of the quality of any model of fixation selection and should therefore be reported when a new model is introduced.

  15. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  16. Nonperturbative theory of weak pre- and post-selected measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, Abraham G., E-mail: kofmana@gmail.com; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2012-11-01

    This paper starts with a brief review of the topic of strong and weak pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum measurements, as well as weak values, and afterwards presents original work. In particular, we develop a nonperturbative theory of weak PPS measurements of an arbitrary system with an arbitrary meter, for arbitrary initial states of the system and the meter. New and simple analytical formulas are obtained for the average and the distribution of the meter pointer variable. These formulas hold to all orders in the weak value. In the case of a mixed preselected state, in addition to the standard weak value, an associated weak value is required to describe weak PPS measurements. In the linear regime, the theory provides the generalized Aharonov–Albert–Vaidman formula. Moreover, we reveal two new regimes of weak PPS measurements: the strongly-nonlinear regime and the inverted region (the regime with a very large weak value), where the system-dependent contribution to the pointer deflection decreases with increasing the measurement strength. The optimal conditions for weak PPS measurements are obtained in the strongly-nonlinear regime, where the magnitude of the average pointer deflection is equal or close to the maximum. This maximum is independent of the measurement strength, being typically of the order of the pointer uncertainty. In the optimal regime, the small parameter of the theory is comparable to the overlap of the pre- and post-selected states. We show that the amplification coefficient in the weak PPS measurements is generally a product of two qualitatively different factors. The effects of the free system and meter Hamiltonians are discussed. We also estimate the size of the ensemble required for a measurement and identify optimal and efficient meters for weak measurements. Exact solutions are obtained for a certain class of the measured observables. These solutions are used for numerical calculations, the results of which agree with the theory

  17. Nonperturbative theory of weak pre- and post-selected measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, Abraham G.; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief review of the topic of strong and weak pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum measurements, as well as weak values, and afterwards presents original work. In particular, we develop a nonperturbative theory of weak PPS measurements of an arbitrary system with an arbitrary meter, for arbitrary initial states of the system and the meter. New and simple analytical formulas are obtained for the average and the distribution of the meter pointer variable. These formulas hold to all orders in the weak value. In the case of a mixed preselected state, in addition to the standard weak value, an associated weak value is required to describe weak PPS measurements. In the linear regime, the theory provides the generalized Aharonov–Albert–Vaidman formula. Moreover, we reveal two new regimes of weak PPS measurements: the strongly-nonlinear regime and the inverted region (the regime with a very large weak value), where the system-dependent contribution to the pointer deflection decreases with increasing the measurement strength. The optimal conditions for weak PPS measurements are obtained in the strongly-nonlinear regime, where the magnitude of the average pointer deflection is equal or close to the maximum. This maximum is independent of the measurement strength, being typically of the order of the pointer uncertainty. In the optimal regime, the small parameter of the theory is comparable to the overlap of the pre- and post-selected states. We show that the amplification coefficient in the weak PPS measurements is generally a product of two qualitatively different factors. The effects of the free system and meter Hamiltonians are discussed. We also estimate the size of the ensemble required for a measurement and identify optimal and efficient meters for weak measurements. Exact solutions are obtained for a certain class of the measured observables. These solutions are used for numerical calculations, the results of which agree with the theory

  18. Conceptual framework in creating and selecting the performance measurement system for marketing strategy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement in modern conditions is one of the most important business requirements since enterprises face the need to exhibit returns for stockholders and investors, but also contribution of management to those returns, as well as contribution of certain business units, functional departments and activities within them. Hence, it is particularly important to assess marketing successfulness as a business function according to return on investment in marketing activities, but also according to the set of indicators from following performance groups - marketing effectiveness and marketing efficiency. Core issue is which measures to select and use in the marketing performance measurement system of certain enterprise so that it could be able to assess how effective and efficient its marketing is. In other words, adequate performance measurement system ought to contain performance measures that will be used to monitor effects and marketing strategy implementation process (controlling while implementing, and performance measures that can be applied to overall effect monitoring after the strategy implementation period. Otherwise, creating the marketing performance measurement system is a complex task for marketing managers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore key principles and develop conceptual framework for creating and selecting performance measurement system for marketing strategy control which is based on characteristics and key success factors of marketing strategy, that is activities and actions for its operationalizing and effective implementing.

  19. Properties of Risk Measures of Generalized Entropy in Portfolio Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxi Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematically investigates the properties of six kinds of entropy-based risk measures: Information Entropy and Cumulative Residual Entropy in the probability space, Fuzzy Entropy, Credibility Entropy and Sine Entropy in the fuzzy space, and Hybrid Entropy in the hybridized uncertainty of both fuzziness and randomness. We discover that none of the risk measures satisfy all six of the following properties, which various scholars have associated with effective risk measures: Monotonicity, Translation Invariance, Sub-additivity, Positive Homogeneity, Consistency and Convexity. Measures based on Fuzzy Entropy, Credibility Entropy, and Sine Entropy all exhibit the same properties: Sub-additivity, Positive Homogeneity, Consistency, and Convexity. These measures based on Information Entropy and Hybrid Entropy, meanwhile, only exhibit Sub-additivity and Consistency. Cumulative Residual Entropy satisfies just Sub-additivity, Positive Homogeneity, and Convexity. After identifying these properties, we develop seven portfolio models based on different risk measures and made empirical comparisons using samples from both the Shenzhen Stock Exchange of China and the New York Stock Exchange of America. The comparisons show that the Mean Fuzzy Entropy Model performs the best among the seven models with respect to both daily returns and relative cumulative returns. Overall, these results could provide an important reference for both constructing effective risk measures and rationally selecting the appropriate risk measure under different portfolio selection conditions.

  20. Note related to the elaboration of a coding by key sentences for the programming of a document automatic selection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, A.; Braffort, P.

    1959-01-01

    This note deals with the providing of CEA documentalists with a tool for coding studies. The authors first discuss issues related to code selection criteria (author classification, topic classification, and so on), and propose an overview and a discussion of linguistic models. They also comment how diagrams illustrating relationships between words are built up, and propose a diagram representation example which includes different concepts such as conditions, properties, object, tools or processes (for example hardness for a steel, batch processing for a condition, or sintering for a process), and also the introduction of negation. Then, the authors address how basic concepts can be highlighted, describe how key sentences can be built up, and propose an example analysis in the case of a published article dealing with nuclear reactors (in this case, the study of a liquid-metal neutron absorber for the control of a gas-cooled power reactor). Perspectives of evolution are finally discussed

  1. Glutamine 57 at the complementary binding site face is a key determinant of morantel selectivity for {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Mariana; Price, Kerry L; Lummis, Sarah C R; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2009-08-07

    Nicotinic receptors (AChRs) play key roles in synaptic transmission. We explored activation of neuronal alpha7 and mammalian muscle AChRs by morantel and oxantel. Our results revealed a novel action of morantel as a high efficacy and more potent agonist than ACh of alpha7 receptors. The EC(50) for activation by morantel of both alpha7 and alpha7-5HT(3A) receptors is 7-fold lower than that determined for ACh. The minimum morantel concentration required to activate alpha7-5HT(3A) channels is 6-fold lower than that of ACh, and activation episodes are more prolonged than in the presence of ACh. By contrast, oxantel is a weak agonist of alpha7 and alpha7-5HT(3A), and both drugs are very low efficacy agonists of muscle AChRs. The replacement of Gln(57) in alpha7 by glycine, which is found in the equivalent position of the muscle AChR, decreases the efficacy for activation and turns morantel into a partial agonist. The reverse mutation in the muscle AChR (epsilonG57Q) increases 7-fold the efficacy of morantel. The mutations do not affect activation by ACh or oxantel, indicating that this position is selective for morantel. In silico studies show that the tetrahydropyrimidinyl group, common to both drugs, is close to Trp(149) of the principal face of the binding site, whereas the other cyclic group is proximal to Gln(57) of the complementary face in morantel but not in oxantel. Thus, position 57 at the complementary face is a key determinant of the high selectivity of morantel for alpha7. These results provide new information for further progress in drug design.

  2. Enhancing the performance of the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair-coherent sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Liu, Ai-Ping [Institute of Signal Processing Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210003 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinw@njupt.edu.cn [Institute of Signal Processing Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210003 (China); Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose to implement the heralded pair-coherent source into the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. By comparing its performance with other existing schemes, we demonstrate that our new scheme can overcome many shortcomings existing in current schemes, and show excellent behavior in the quantum key distribution. Moreover, even when taking the statistical fluctuation into account, we can still obtain quite high key generation rate at very long transmission distance by using our new scheme. - Highlights: • Implement the heralded pair-coherent source into the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. • Overcome many shortcomings existing in current schemes and show excellent behavior. • Obtain quite high key generation rate even when taking statistical fluctuation into account.

  3. Role of institutional controls in selection of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, A.A.; Agoston, E.N.; McLeod, R.V.; Hicks, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the regulatory intent of CERCLA's definition and applicability of institutional controls at hazardous substance release sites undergoing remedial action and institutional controls that have been defined and implemented at selected CERCLA (Superfund) sites in the United States. Under provisions of CERCLA, institutional controls can be components of, or supplements to, interim or final remedial measures for hazardous substance [as defined under CERCLA 101(14)] releases. The use of institutional controls has been proposed in a number of RODs for large Superfund sites (e.g., Times Beach, Missouri; the Clothier Disposal Site in Oswego County, New York; and the Wildcat Landfill in Kent County, Delaware). In these cases, the selected remedial actions combine active response measures with institutional controls to protect human health and the environment. These RODs provide insight to how widely the concept of institutional controls is used and under what conditions. The use of institutional controls at large federal facilities is also discussed

  4. Final report of the key comparison CCQM-K106: Pb, As and Hg measurements in cosmetic (cream)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Qian; Yamani, Randa Nasr Ahmed; Shehata, Adel B.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Pavlin, Majda; Horvat, Milena; Tsoi, Y. P.; Tsang, C. K.; Shin, Richard; Chailap, Benjamat; Yafa, Charun; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; de Almeida, Marcelo; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Konopelko, Leonid; Ari, Betül; Tokman, Nilgün; Rienitz, Olaf; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Pape, Carola

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are used in practically all walks of life as a means of improving skin and beautifying complexion. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the cosmetic safety. In response to the cosmetic safety issue, the accurate measurement of the heavy metals in cosmetics is, therefore, particularly important. NMIs from different countries should establish their chemical metrology traceability system in this area, which includes both measurement methods research and certain CRMs development. It should be noted that because the matrix of many cosmetics is complex and the contents of the heavy metals are relatively low, it still is a challenging task to measure the analytes with high accuracy and precision. CCQM-K106 followed up CCQM pilot study 'CCQM-P128: Pb, As measurements in cosmetic (cream)' coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM) in 2009. The cream was selected as the testing material, which is widely used as a daily skin care worldwide. This is the first CCQM key comparison regarding the measurement of toxic metal elements with the cosmetic matrix, which includes pure water, liquid paraffin, silicone oil, synthetic squalane, hyaluronic acid, glycerin, propylene glycol, allantoin, preservative and so on. The aim of the CCQM-K106 is to demonstrate the capability of participating NMIs and designated institutes in measuring the contents of poisonous elements, including lead, arsenic and mercury in a cosmetic sample (cream), and support CMC claims relating to inorganic elements in cosmetic materials and similar chemical industry products. The cream matrix sample was prepared under the guidance of professional technicians. The formula of the cream was carefully chosen to match with a real cosmetic. The homogeneity and stability level of Pb, As and Hg in the cream sample were fit for the objective of the comparison. Each participant received two numbered bottles containing about 5g samples in each bottle. The instruction

  5. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  6. Entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Khadijeh [Department of Physics, Georgetown University,37th and O Sts. NW, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Rajabpour, M.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense,Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoatá, 24210-346, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-12-22

    We study bipartite post measurement entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains. We first study the quantity for the critical systems that can be described by conformal field theories. We find a connection between post measurement entanglement entropy and the Casimir energy of floating objects. Then we provide formulas for the post measurement entanglement entropy for open and finite temperature systems. We also comment on the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy in the context of the post measurement entanglement entropy. Finally, we also provide some formulas regarding modular hamiltonians and entanglement spectrum in the after measurement systems. After through discussion regarding CFT systems we also provide some predictions regarding massive field theories. We then discuss a generic method to calculate the post measurement entanglement entropy in the free fermion systems. Using the method we study the post measurement entanglement entropy in the XY spin chain. We check numerically the CFT and the massive field theory results in the transverse field Ising chain and the XX model. In particular, we study the post meaurement entanglement entropy in the infinite, periodic and open critical transverse field Ising chain and the critical XX model. The effect of the temperature and the gap is also discussed in these models.

  7. Entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Khadijeh; Rajabpour, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    We study bipartite post measurement entanglement entropy after selective measurements in quantum chains. We first study the quantity for the critical systems that can be described by conformal field theories. We find a connection between post measurement entanglement entropy and the Casimir energy of floating objects. Then we provide formulas for the post measurement entanglement entropy for open and finite temperature systems. We also comment on the Affleck-Ludwig boundary entropy in the context of the post measurement entanglement entropy. Finally, we also provide some formulas regarding modular hamiltonians and entanglement spectrum in the after measurement systems. After through discussion regarding CFT systems we also provide some predictions regarding massive field theories. We then discuss a generic method to calculate the post measurement entanglement entropy in the free fermion systems. Using the method we study the post measurement entanglement entropy in the XY spin chain. We check numerically the CFT and the massive field theory results in the transverse field Ising chain and the XX model. In particular, we study the post meaurement entanglement entropy in the infinite, periodic and open critical transverse field Ising chain and the critical XX model. The effect of the temperature and the gap is also discussed in these models.

  8. Hyperspectral band selection based on consistency-measure of neighborhood rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yao; Xie, Hong; Wang, Liguo; Tan, Kezhu; Chen, Yuehua; Xu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Band selection is a well-known approach for reducing dimensionality in hyperspectral imaging. In this paper, a band selection method based on consistency-measure of neighborhood rough set theory (CMNRS) was proposed to select informative bands from hyperspectral images. A decision-making information system was established by the reflection spectrum of soybeans’ hyperspectral data between 400 nm and 1000 nm wavelengths. The neighborhood consistency-measure, which reflects not only the size of the decision positive region, but also the sample distribution in the boundary region, was used as the evaluation function of band significance. The optimal band subset was selected by a forward greedy search algorithm. A post-pruning strategy was employed to overcome the over-fitting problem and find the minimum subset. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed band selection technique, two classification models (extreme learning machine (ELM) and random forests (RF)) were built. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can effectively select key bands and obtain satisfactory classification accuracy. (paper)

  9. The Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire. Method Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children - Parent Version (ADIS-C/P); SM severity was assessed using the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ); and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm EFA results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. Results The EFA yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: a) Social Situations Outside of School, b) School Situations, and c) Home and Family Situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity were also well supported. Conclusions Measure structure findings are consistent with the 3-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomenon beyond other child anxiety measures. PMID:18698268

  10. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K9.2: Subsequent key comparison on pH determination of phosphate buffer by Harned cell measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Petra; Giera, Janine; Fraga, Isabel C.; Tønnes Jakobsen, Pia; Jensen, Hans D.; Hyllested, Peter; Karpov, Oleg; Kutovoy, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Susumu; Vospelova, Alena; Zvezdina, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    CCQM-K9.2 was performed supplementary to the key comparison CCQM-K9 on the pH determination of a phosphate buffer with nominal pH ~ 6.9 (at 25 °C). The sample composition was very similar in both comparisons. Only the source of the starting material used for sample preparation was different. The comparison was restricted to the use of the primary method for pH (Harned cell measurement) as defined in the IUPAC Recommendations [2]. The measurement temperatures were 15 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C. CCQM-K9.2, CCQM-K.9 and the first supplementary comparison CCQM-K9.1 [5] are activities of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) of the CCQM. All three comparisons were coordinated by the PTB, Germany. The Danish Primary Laboratory (DPL) successfully took part in the CCQM-K9. Meanwhile the primary set-up for pH in Denmark moved from DPL affiliated to Radiometer Medical to DFM, Denmark. The subsequent comparison allows assessing the degree of equivalence for the measurement of pH at DFM after the move. Due to the interest of other laboratories in demonstrating their progress in pH measurements on the primary level the CCQM-K9.2 supplementary comparison was extended to other participants than DFM, namely NMIJ, VNIIFTRI, INMETRO and CMI. The reported quantity for CCQM-K9.2 was not the pH of the sample but the acidity function at zero chloride molality (see chapter 12). To calculate the pH value from the acidity function it is necessary to know the ionic strength of the sample buffer solution, which was undisclosed by the coordinator. With the exception of the Czech Metrology Institute, CMI, good agreement in the determined acidity function is found between the participants. The results reported by DFM and by PTB agree within their measurement uncertainty at all measurement temperatures. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report

  11. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  12. Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) on the Vision II turbine rotorcraft UAV over the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holasek, R. E.; Nakanishi, K.; Swartz, B.; Zacaroli, R.; Hill, B.; Naungayan, J.; Herwitz, S.; Kavros, P.; English, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES program, the NovaSol Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK) was flown as the payload on the unmanned Vision II helicopter. The goal of the May 2013 data collection was to obtain high resolution visible and near-infrared (visNIR) hyperspectral data of seagrasses and coral reefs in the Florida Keys. The specifications of the SHARK hyperspectral system and the Vision II turbine rotorcraft will be described along with the process of integrating the payload to the vehicle platform. The minimal size, weight, and power (SWaP) specifications of the SHARK system is an ideal match to the Vision II helicopter and its flight parameters. One advantage of the helicopter over fixed wing platforms is its inherent ability to take off and land in a limited area and without a runway, enabling the UAV to be located in close proximity to the experiment areas and the science team. Decisions regarding integration times, waypoint selection, mission duration, and mission frequency are able to be based upon the local environmental conditions and can be modified just prior to take off. The operational procedures and coordination between the UAV pilot, payload operator, and scientist will be described. The SHARK system includes an inertial navigation system and digital elevation model (DEM) which allows image coordinates to be calculated onboard the aircraft in real-time. Examples of the geo-registered images from the data collection will be shown. SHARK mounted below VTUAV. SHARK deployed on VTUAV over water.

  13. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Le; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. (paper)

  14. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  15. Azimuth selection for sea level measurements using geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Shuangcheng

    2018-03-01

    Based on analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath signals recorded by a geodetic GPS receiver, GPS Reflectometry (GPS-R) has demonstrated unique advantages in relation to sea level monitoring. Founded on multipath reflectometry theory, sea level changes can be measured by GPS-R through spectral analysis of recorded signal-to-noise ratio data. However, prior to estimating multipath parameters, it is necessary to define azimuth and elevation angle mask to ensure the reflecting zones are on water. Here, a method is presented to address azimuth selection, a topic currently under active development in the field of GPS-R. Data from three test sites: the Kachemak Bay GPS site PBAY in Alaska (USA), Friday Harbor GPS site SC02 in the San Juan Islands (USA), and Brest Harbor GPS site BRST in Brest (France) are analyzed. These sites are located in different multipath environments, from a rural coastal area to a busy harbor, and they experience different tidal ranges. Estimates by the GPS tide gauges at azimuths selected by the presented method are compared with measurements from physical tide gauges and acceptable correspondence found for all three sites.

  16. Practical performance of real-time shot-noise measurement in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-01-01

    In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system, real-time shot-noise measurement (RTSNM) is an essential procedure for preventing the eavesdropper exploiting the practical security loopholes. However, the performance of this procedure itself is not analyzed under the real-world condition. Therefore, we indicate the RTSNM practical performance and investigate its effects on the CVQKD system. In particular, due to the finite-size effect, the shot-noise measurement at the receiver's side may decrease the precision of parameter estimation and consequently result in a tight security bound. To mitigate that, we optimize the block size for RTSNM under the ensemble size limitation to maximize the secure key rate. Moreover, the effect of finite dynamics of amplitude modulator in this scheme is studied and its mitigation method is also proposed. Our work indicates the practical performance of RTSNM and provides the real secret key rate under it.

  17. Measuring process performance within healthcare logistics - a decision tool for selecting measuring technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Performance measurement can support the organization in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of logistical healthcare processes. Selecting the most suitable technologies is important to ensure data validity. A case study of the hospital cleaning process at a public Danish hospital...... was conducted. Monitoring tasks and ascertaining quality of work is difficult in such a process. Based on principal-agent theory, a set of decision indicator has been developed, and a decision framework for assessing technologies to enable performance measurement has been proposed....

  18. Selective solvent extraction of actinides associated to liquid scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardois, C.; Musikas, C.

    1997-01-01

    The problems associated to radioactive waste disposal have acquired a special attention due, particularly, to the element instability and, consequently, to their lixiviation and to their peculiarities which are essential in the radioactivity penetration in the food chains; the other important parameters are the produced amounts and the noxiousnesses. New commercial liquid scintillation counters allow rapid α/β measurements. Associated with liquid-liquid extraction techniques, rapid and selective actinide analyses are possible. Among various actinide extractants, such as amines or organophosphorus compounds, we were particularly interested in tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO). Uranium, thorium and americium extractions with (TOPO) in toluene have been investigated. A systematic study of the counting parameters of a PACKARD 2550 TR/AB TM liquid scintillation analyzer is under completion

  19. Jagiellonian University Selected measurements of rare decays at the LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392248

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb spectrometer is specifically designed to study heavy-flavour physics. These proceedings present a selection of rare decays analyses performed with 1 fb−1 and 2 fb−1 of proton–proton collision data collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Rare decays are highly suppressed (or forbidden) in the Standard Model, thus could provide indirect evidence of New Physics. Results of the angular analyses of the B0 → K∗0μ+μ−, B0 → K∗0e+e−, Λb0 → Λμ+μ−, and Bs0 → ϕμ+μ− decays, along with branching fraction measurements for the latter two channels, are summarized. In addition, a test of lepton flavour universality in B+ → K+ℓℓ decays and searches for the lepton flavour violating decays are presented.

  20. Measurement of Hubble constant: non-Gaussian errors in HST Key Project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Meghendra [Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, 226021 India (India); Gupta, Shashikant; Pandey, Ashwini [Amity University Haryana, Gurgaon, Haryana, 122413 India (India); Sharma, Satendra, E-mail: meghendrasingh_db@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: shashikantgupta.astro@gmail.com, E-mail: satyamkashwini@gmail.com, E-mail: ssharma_phy@yahoo.co.uk [Yobe State University, Damaturu, Yobe State (Nigeria)

    2016-08-01

    Assuming the Central Limit Theorem, experimental uncertainties in any data set are expected to follow the Gaussian distribution with zero mean. We propose an elegant method based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to test the above; and apply it on the measurement of Hubble constant which determines the expansion rate of the Universe. The measurements were made using Hubble Space Telescope. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties in the above measurement are non-Gaussian.

  1. A key performance measures for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a set of measures, evaluate their importance and effect in cold supply chain performance. This investigation reviewed previous research works on all the stages of the farm product supply chain. Based on farm product supply chain, 4 measures with 31 metrics were identified and developed to measure the cold supply chain performance. A survey was organized to establish the importance and the effect of identified measures. The 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among SC academics and practitioners. The observed finding infers that the measurement instrument was substantiating for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry. The new developed metrics will help firms improve the visibility of supply among partners and in better decision making. The investigation was enfolded up through the plan of direction intended for future study.

  2. Comparing ecosystem and soil respiration: Review and key challenges of tower-based and soil measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba, Josep; Cueva, Alejandro; Bahn, Michael; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Hanson, Paul J.; Jaimes, Aline; Kulmala, Liisa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Scott, Russell L.; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2018-02-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the difference between ecosystem CO2 assimilation and CO2 losses to the atmosphere. Ecosystem respiration (Reco), the efflux of CO2 from the ecosystem to the atmosphere, includes the soil-to-atmosphere carbon flux (i.e., soil respiration; Rsoil) and aboveground plant respiration. Therefore, Rsoil is a fraction of Reco and by definition has to be smaller than Reco at annual, seasonal and daily scales. However, several studies estimating Reco with the eddy covariance technique and measuring Rsoil within the footprint of the tower have reported higher Rsoil than Reco at different time scales. Here, we compare four different and contrasting ecosystems (from forest to grasslands, and from boreal to semiarid) to study whether, and under what conditions, measurements of Reco are lower than Rsoil. In general, both fluxes showed similar temporal patterns, but Reco was not consistently higher than Rsoil from daily to annual scales across sites. We identified several issues that apply for measuring NEE and measuring/upscaling Rsoil that could result in an underestimation of Reco and/or an overestimation of Rsoil. These issues are discussed based on (a) nighttime measurements of NEE, (b) Rsoil measurements, and (c) the interpretation of the functional relationships of these fluxes with temperature (i.e., Q10). We highlight that there is still a need for better integration of Rsoil with eddy covariance measurements to address challenges related to spatial and temporal variability of Reco and Rsoil.

  3. Security Analysis of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution in Collective-Rotation Noisy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Shuang; Li, Lei-lei; Li, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Noise is a problem that communication channels cannot avoid. It is, thus, beneficial to analyze the security of MDI-QKD in noisy environment. An analysis model for collective-rotation noise is introduced, and the information theory methods are used to analyze the security of the protocol. The maximum amount of information that Eve can eavesdrop is 50%, and the eavesdropping can always be detected if the noise level ɛ ≤ 0.68. Therefore, MDI-QKD protocol is secure as quantum key distribution protocol. The maximum probability that the relay outputs successful results is 16% when existing eavesdropping. Moreover, the probability that the relay outputs successful results when existing eavesdropping is higher than the situation without eavesdropping. The paper validates that MDI-QKD protocol has better robustness.

  4. ChemCam-like Spectrometer for Non-Contact Measurements of Key Isotopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the need for a non-contact instrument capable of measuring the isotopic ratios O-18/O-16 and D/H from water ice and other solid materials...

  5. EPA scientists develop Federal Reference & Equivalent Methods for measuring key air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA operates a nationwide air monitoring network to measure six primary air pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter as part of its mission to protect human health and the environment.

  6. Development of electrical conductivity measurement technology for key plant physiological information using microneedle sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eunyong; Lee, Junghoon; Choi, Seungyul; Yeo, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Kyoung Sub; Rathod, Mitesh L

    2017-01-01

    Impedance measurement is a widely used technique for monitoring ion species in various applications. In plant cultivation, the impedance system is used to measure the electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solutions. Recent research has shown that the quality and quantity of horticultural crops, e.g. tomato, can be optimized by controlling the salinity of nutrient solutions. However, understanding the detailed response of a plant to a nutrient solution is not possible until the fruit is fully grown or by sacrificing the stem. To overcome this issue, horticultural crop cultivation requires real-time monitoring of the EC inside the stem. Using this data, the growth model of a plant could be constructed, and the response of the plant to external environment determined. In this paper, we propose an implantable microneedle device equipped with a micro-patterned impedance measurement system for direct measurement of the EC inside the tomato stem. The fabrication process includes silicon-based steps such as microscale deposition, photolithography, and a deep etching process. Further, microscale fabrication enables all functional elements to fulfill the area budget and be very accurate with minimal plant invasion. A two-electrode geometry is used to match the measurement condition of the tomato stem. Real-time measurement of local sap condition inside the plant in which real-time data for tomato sap EC is obtained after calibration at various concentrations of standard solution demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device. (paper)

  7. Development of electrical conductivity measurement technology for key plant physiological information using microneedle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunyong; Choi, Seungyul; Yeo, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Kyoung Sub; Rathod, Mitesh L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2017-08-01

    Impedance measurement is a widely used technique for monitoring ion species in various applications. In plant cultivation, the impedance system is used to measure the electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solutions. Recent research has shown that the quality and quantity of horticultural crops, e.g. tomato, can be optimized by controlling the salinity of nutrient solutions. However, understanding the detailed response of a plant to a nutrient solution is not possible until the fruit is fully grown or by sacrificing the stem. To overcome this issue, horticultural crop cultivation requires real-time monitoring of the EC inside the stem. Using this data, the growth model of a plant could be constructed, and the response of the plant to external environment determined. In this paper, we propose an implantable microneedle device equipped with a micro-patterned impedance measurement system for direct measurement of the EC inside the tomato stem. The fabrication process includes silicon-based steps such as microscale deposition, photolithography, and a deep etching process. Further, microscale fabrication enables all functional elements to fulfill the area budget and be very accurate with minimal plant invasion. A two-electrode geometry is used to match the measurement condition of the tomato stem. Real-time measurement of local sap condition inside the plant in which real-time data for tomato sap EC is obtained after calibration at various concentrations of standard solution demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device.

  8. Obtaining better performance in the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been widely investigated due to its remarkable advantages on the achievable transmission distance and practical security. However, the relative low key generation rate limits its real-life implementations. In this work, we adopt the newly proposed four-intensity decoy-state scheme [Phys. Rev. A 93, 042324 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.042324] to study the performance of MDI-QKD with heralded single-photon sources (HSPS). Corresponding simulation results demonstrate that the four-intensity decoy-state scheme combining HSPS can drastically improve both the key generation rate and transmission distance in MDI-QKD, which may be very promising in future MDI-QKD systems.

  9. Fluctuations of Internal Transmittance in Security of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with an Untrusted Source*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Chen Rui-Ke; Zhou Chun; Jiang Mu-Sheng; Li Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to detector side channel attacks, which is a crucial security loophole problem in traditional QKD. In order to relax a key assumption that the sources are trusted in MDI-QKD, an MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source has been proposed. For the security of MDI-QKD with an untrusted source, imperfections in the practical experiment should also be taken into account. In this paper, we analyze the effects of fluctuations of internal transmittance on the security of a decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source. Our numerical results show that both the secret key rate and the maximum secure transmission distance decrease when taken fluctuations of internal transmittance into consideration. Especially, they are more sensitive when Charlie’s mean photon number per pulse is smaller. Our results emphasize that the stability of correlative optical devices is important for practical implementations . (paper)

  10. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    -aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also

  11. Active Multispectral Band Selection and Reflectance Measurement System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rennich, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    .... To aid in the selection of these bands, a novel multispectral band selection technique is presented based on the cross-correlation of the material class reflectance spectra over a wavelength range of 1 - 5 microns...

  12. Quantum measurement information as a key to energy extraction from local vacuums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a protocol is proposed in which energy extraction from local vacuum states is possible by using quantum measurement information for the vacuum state of quantum fields. In the protocol, Alice, who stays at a spatial point, excites the ground state of the fields by a local measurement. Consequently, wave packets generated by Alice's measurement propagate the vacuum to spatial infinity. Let us assume that Bob stays away from Alice and fails to catch the excitation energy when the wave packets pass in front of him. Next Alice announces her local measurement result to Bob by classical communication. Bob performs a local unitary operation depending on the measurement result. In this process, positive energy is released from the fields to Bob's apparatus of the unitary operation. In the field systems, wave packets are generated with negative energy around Bob's location. Soon afterwards, the negative-energy wave packets begin to chase after the positive-energy wave packets generated by Alice and form loosely bound states.

  13. Measurement of key pool boiling parameters in nanofluids for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-Wen; Wang, Hsin

    2007-01-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base fluid such as water, can afford very significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. Such engineered fluids potentially could be employed in reactors as advanced coolants in safety systems with significant safety and economic advantages. However, a satisfactory explanation of the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids is lacking. To close this gap, we have identified the important boiling parameters to be measured and have deployed a pool boiling facility to measure them. The facility is equipped with a thin indium-tin-oxide heater deposited over a sapphire substrate. An intra-red high-speed camera and an optical probe are used to measure the temperature distribution on the heater and the hydrodynamics above the heater, respectively. The first data generated with this facility already provide some clue on the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids. (author)

  14. Right Judicialization to Health and key Taken by CNJ Measures for Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Allisson Cardoso De Jesus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducts a study on the legalization of health. At the scope and complexity surrounding the issue, the central focus of the research is to investigate the main measures taken by the CNJ to resolve it. To accomplish this task, the right to health as a fundamental social right. Soon after, looking at its effectiveness in the Brazilian legal system and highlights the judiciary's role on the issue. For that, analyze the main measures taken by the CNJ, considering the recommendations and resolutions issued. To do so, used the deductive method of approach, through the techniques of documentary and bibliographical research.

  15. Measuring Public Leadership: Developing Scales for Four Key Public Leadership Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, Lars; Knies, Eva|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875421

    2016-01-01

    This article on public leadership contributes to the literature by (1) focusing on the ‘public’ aspect of leadership and (2) developing quantitative scales for measuring four public leadership roles. These roles all refer to the extent to which public leaders actively support their employees in

  16. Assessing Children's Understanding of Length Measurement: A Focus on Three Key Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents three different tasks that can be used to assess students' understanding of the concept of length. Three important measurement concepts for students to understand are transitive reasoning, use of identical units, and iteration. In any teaching and learning process it is important to acknowledge students'…

  17. Illicit drug use and harms, and related interventions and policy in Canada: A narrative review of select key indicators and developments since 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Murphy, Yoko; Rudzinski, Katherine; MacPherson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    By the year 2000, Canada faced high levels of illicit drug use and related harms. Simultaneously, a fundamental tension had raisen between continuing a mainly repression-based versus shifting to a more health-oriented drug policy approach. Despite a wealth of new data and numerous individual studies that have emerged since then, no comprehensive review of key indicators and developments of illicit drug use/harm epidemiology, interventions and law/policy exist; this paper seeks to fill this gap. We searched and reviewed journal publications, as well as key reports, government publications, surveys, etc. reporting on data and information since 2000. Relevant data were selected and extracted for review inclusion, and subsequently grouped and narratively summarized in major topical sub-theme categories. Cannabis use has remained the principal form of illicit drug use; prescription opioid misuse has arisen as a new and extensive phenomenon. While new drug-related blood-borne-virus transmissions declined, overdose deaths increased in recent years. Acceptance and proliferation of - mainly local/community-based - health measures (e.g., needle exchange, crack paraphernalia or naloxone distribution) aiming at high-risk drug users has evolved, though reach and access limitations have persisted; Vancouver's 'supervised injection site' has attracted continued attention yet remains un-replicated elsewhere in Canada. While opioid maintenance treatment utilization increased, access to treatment for key (e.g., infectious disease, psychiatric) co-morbidities among drug users remained limited. Law enforcement continued to principally focus on cannabis and specifically cannabis users. 'Drug treatment courts' were introduced but have shown limited effectiveness; several attempts cannabis control law reform have failed, except for the recent establishment of 'medical cannabis' access provisions. While recent federal governments introduced several law and policy measures reinforcing a

  18. On model selections for repeated measurement data in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baiming; Jin, Bo; Koch, Gary G; Zhou, Haibo; Borst, Stephen E; Menon, Sandeep; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-05-10

    Repeated measurement designs have been widely used in various randomized controlled trials for evaluating long-term intervention efficacies. For some clinical trials, the primary research question is how to compare two treatments at a fixed time, using a t-test. Although simple, robust, and convenient, this type of analysis fails to utilize a large amount of collected information. Alternatively, the mixed-effects model is commonly used for repeated measurement data. It models all available data jointly and allows explicit assessment of the overall treatment effects across the entire time spectrum. In this paper, we propose an analytic strategy for longitudinal clinical trial data where the mixed-effects model is coupled with a model selection scheme. The proposed test statistics not only make full use of all available data but also utilize the information from the optimal model deemed for the data. The performance of the proposed method under various setups, including different data missing mechanisms, is evaluated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed analytic procedure is more powerful than the t-test when the primary interest is to test for the treatment effect at the last time point. Simulations also reveal that the proposed method outperforms the usual mixed-effects model for testing the overall treatment effects across time. In addition, the proposed framework is more robust and flexible in dealing with missing data compared with several competing methods. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing a clinical trial on the cognitive effect of testosterone in geriatric men with low baseline testosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A decision modeling for phasor measurement unit location selection in smart grid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yup

    As a key technology for enhancing the smart grid system, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) provides synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and currents of wide-area electric power grid. With various benefits from its application, one of the critical issues in utilizing PMUs is the optimal site selection of units. The main aim of this research is to develop a decision support system, which can be used in resource allocation task for smart grid system analysis. As an effort to suggest a robust decision model and standardize the decision modeling process, a harmonized modeling framework, which considers operational circumstances of component, is proposed in connection with a deterministic approach utilizing integer programming. With the results obtained from the optimal PMU placement problem, the advantages and potential that the harmonized modeling process possesses are assessed and discussed.

  20. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the

  1. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  2. Measurement of key pool boiling parameters in nanofluids for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-Wen; Wang, Hsin

    2008-01-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base fluid such as water, can afford very significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. Such engineered fluids potentially could be employed in reactors as advanced coolants in safety systems with significant safety and economic advantages. However, a satisfactory explanation of the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids is lacking. To close this gap, we have identified the important boiling parameters to be measured. These are the properties (e.g., density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, vaporization enthalpy, surface tension), hydrodynamic parameters (i.e., bubble size, bubble velocity, departure frequency, hot/dry spot dynamics) and surface conditions (i.e., contact angle, nucleation site density). We have also deployed a pool boiling facility in which many such parameters can be measured. The facility is equipped with a thin indium-tin-oxide heater deposited over a sapphire substrate. An infra-red high-speed camera and an optical probe are used to measure the temperature distribution on the heater and the hydrodynamics above the heater, respectively. The first data generated with this facility already provide some clue on the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids. Specifically, the progression to burnout in a pure fluid (ethanol in this case) is characterized by a smoothly-shaped and steadily-expanding hot spot. By contrast, in the ethanol-based nanofluid the hot spot pulsates and the progression to burnout lasts longer, although the nanofluid CHF is higher than the pure fluid CHF. The presence of a nanoparticle deposition layer on the heater surface seems to enhance wettability and aid hot spot dissipation, thus delaying burnout. (author)

  3. Identification of key outcome measures when using the instrumented timed up and go and/or posturography for fall screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Renee Beach; Kinney, Allison L; Jackson, Kurt; Diestelkamp, Wiebke; Bigelow, Kimberly Edginton

    2017-09-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) has been commonly used for fall risk assessment. The instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) adds wearable sensors to capture sub-movements and may be more sensitive. Posturography assessments have also been used for determining fall risk. This study used stepwise logistic regression models to identify key outcome measures for the iTUG and posturography protocols. The effectiveness of the models containing these measures in differentiating fallers from non-fallers were then compared for each: iTUG total time duration only, iTUG, posturography, and combined iTUG and posturography assessments. One hundred and fifty older adults participated in this study. The iTUG measures were calculated utilizing APDM Inc.'s Mobility Lab software. Traditional and non-linear posturography measures were calculated from center of pressure during quiet-standing. The key outcome measures incorporated in the iTUG assessment model (sit-to-stand lean angle and height) resulted in a model sensitivity of 48.1% and max re-scaled R 2 value of 0.19. This was a higher sensitivity, indicating better differentiation, compared to the model only including total time duration (outcome of the traditional TUG), which had a sensitivity of 18.2%. When the key outcome measures of the iTUG and the posturography assessments were combined into a single model, the sensitivity was approximately the same as the iTUG model alone. Overall the findings of this study support that the iTUG demonstrates greater sensitivity than the total time duration, but that carrying out both iTUG and posturography does not greatly improve sensitivity when used as a fall risk screening tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality in transitional care of the elderly: Key challenges and relevant improvement measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Storm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elderly people aged over 75 years with multifaceted care needs are often in need of hospital treatment. Transfer across care levels for this patient group increases the risk of adverse events. The aim of this paper is to establish knowledge of quality in transitional care of the elderly in two Norwegian hospital regions by identifying issues affecting the quality of transitional care and based on these issues suggest improvement measures.Methodology: Included in the study were elderly patients (75+ receiving health care in the municipality admitted to hospital emergency department or discharged to community health care with hip fracture or with a general medical diagnosis. Participant observations of admission and discharge transitions (n = 41 were carried out by two researchers.Results: Six main challenges with belonging descriptions have been identified: (1 next of kin (bridging providers, advocacy, support, information brokering, (2 patient characteristics (level of satisfaction, level of insecurity, complex clinical conditions, (3 health care personnel's competence (professional, system, awareness of others’ roles, (4 information exchange (oral, written, electronic, (5 context (stability, variability, change incentives, number of patient handovers and (6 patient assessment (complex clinical picture, patient description, clinical assessment.Conclusion: Related to the six main challenges, several measures have been suggested to improve quality in transitional care, e.g. information to and involvement of patients and next of kin, staff training, standardisation of routines and inter-organisational staff meetings.

  5. Continuous performance task in ADHD: Is reaction time variability a key measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Pipingas, Andrew; Harris, Elizabeth V; Farrow, Maree; Silberstein, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    To compare the use of the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) reaction time variability (intraindividual variability or standard deviation of reaction time), as a measure of vigilance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and stimulant medication response, utilizing a simple CPT X-task vs an A-X-task. Comparative analyses of two separate X-task vs A-X-task data sets, and subgroup analyses of performance on and off medication were conducted. The CPT X-task reaction time variability had a direct relationship to ADHD clinician severity ratings, unlike the CPT A-X-task. Variability in X-task performance was reduced by medication compared with the children's unmedicated performance, but this effect did not reach significance. When the coefficient of variation was applied, severity measures and medication response were significant for the X-task, but not for the A-X-task. The CPT-X-task is a useful clinical screening test for ADHD and medication response. In particular, reaction time variability is related to default mode interference. The A-X-task is less useful in this regard.

  6. Automatic measurement of key ski jumping phases and temporal events with a wearable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Le Callennec, Benoit; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on inertial sensors, to automatically measure at high frequency the durations of the main phases of ski jumping (i.e. take-off release, take-off, and early flight). The kinematics of the ski jumping movement were recorded by four inertial sensors, attached to the thigh and shank of junior athletes, for 40 jumps performed during indoor conditions and 36 jumps in field conditions. An algorithm was designed to detect temporal events from the recorded signals and to estimate the duration of each phase. These durations were evaluated against a reference camera-based motion capture system and by trainers conducting video observations. The precision for the take-off release and take-off durations (indoor jumping technique did not influence the error of take-off release and take-off. Therefore, the proposed system can provide valuable information for performance evaluation of ski jumpers during training sessions.

  7. Automated measurement and monitoring of bioprocesses: key elements of the M(3)C strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-routine monitoring items established in the bioprocess industry as well as some important state-of-the-art methods are briefly described and the potential pitfalls discussed. Among those are physical and chemical variables such as temperature, pressure, weight, volume, mass and volumetric flow rates, pH, redox potential, gas partial pressures in the liquid and molar fractions in the gas phase, infrared spectral analysis of the liquid phase, and calorimetry over an entire reactor. Classical as well as new optical versions are addressed. Biomass and bio-activity monitoring (as opposed to "measurement") via turbidity, permittivity, in situ microscopy, and fluorescence are critically analyzed. Some new(er) instrumental analytical tools, interfaced to bioprocesses, are explained. Among those are chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry, flow and sequential injection analyses, field flow fractionation, capillary electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. This chapter surveys the principles of monitoring rather than compiling instruments.

  8. CONTACTLESS MEASUREMENT OF KEY PARAMETERS OF LIMB VESSELS ON AN OCCLUSAL PLETHYSMOGRAPHY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this publication – to familiarize the readers with the newest achievements in the field of vision   machine   technologies   with   regard to the   occlusal   plethysmography.   The   principle   of plethysmograph work is similar to a principle of mechanical occlusal plethysmograph work, with that only a difference that working measuring environment (gas or liquid is replaced with laser labels, and fixation of change of volume is made by machine vision with the subsequent computer processing. Application of laser technologies of machine vision in future considerably simplified process of diagnostics, will allow to carry out diagnostics repeatedly and under various conditions of, for example, case of external action on the examined finiteness of the of heat, cold, physical exercise, and so, is representative of more and accurate picture of the state of blood vessels in the dynamics.

  9. Research on key technology of the verification system of steel rule based on vision measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Siyuan; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Changjie; Fu, Luhua; Li, Yiming; Lu, Ruijun

    2018-01-01

    The steel rule plays an important role in quantity transmission. However, the traditional verification method of steel rule based on manual operation and reading brings about low precision and low efficiency. A machine vison based verification system of steel rule is designed referring to JJG1-1999-Verificaiton Regulation of Steel Rule [1]. What differentiates this system is that it uses a new calibration method of pixel equivalent and decontaminates the surface of steel rule. Experiments show that these two methods fully meet the requirements of the verification system. Measuring results strongly prove that these methods not only meet the precision of verification regulation, but also improve the reliability and efficiency of the verification system.

  10. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: the key function of lateral roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be

  11. Performance Measurement Model for the Supplier Selection Based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the supplier is a crucial factor for the success or failure of any company. Rational and effective decision making in terms of the supplier selection process can help the organization to optimize cost and quality functions. The nature of supplier selection processes is generally complex, especially when the company has a large variety of products and vendors. Over the years, several solutions and methods have emerged for addressing the supplier selection problem (SSP. Experience and studies have shown that there is no best way for evaluating and selecting a specific supplier process, but that it varies from one organization to another. The aim of this research is to demonstrate how a multiple attribute decision making approach can be effectively applied for the supplier selection process.

  12. Flavour-tagging and particle-identification calibration in key measurements with electrons at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099687

    The $\\textit{CP}$-violation observables $C$ and $S$ are measured in the study of decay-time-dependent $\\textit{CP}$ violation in the $B^0 \\rightarrow J\\mskip -3mu/\\mskip -2mu \\psi \\mskip 2mu K_\\text{S}^{0}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S) K_\\text{S}^{0}$ decays, where the $J\\mskip -3mu/\\mskip -2mu \\psi \\mskip 2mu$ candidate is reconstructed from two electrons and the $\\psi(2S)$ candidate from two muons. The analysis uses data recorded by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8$ TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3 \\, \\text{fb}^{-1}$ and was recently brought to publication [arXiv: 1709.03944]. This thesis provides the underlying flavour-tagging calibration for the$B^0 \\rightarrow J\\mskip -3mu/\\mskip -2mu \\psi \\mskip 2mu K_\\text{S}^{0}$ decay, which uses $B^{+} \\rightarrow J\\mskip -3mu/\\mskip -2mu \\psi \\mskip 2mu K^{+}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow J\\mskip -3mu/\\mskip -2mu \\psi \\mskip 2mu K^{*}$ decays, where the $J\\mskip -3mu/\\mskip -2mu \\psi \\mskip 2mu$ candidates are reconstructed ...

  13. Mediterranean coastal dune vegetation: Are disturbance and stress the key selective forces that drive the psammophilous succession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    Plant communities of coastal dunes are distributed along a characteristic sea-inland gradient. Generally, there is a shift from annual and short height species with small leaves in the initial successional stages to perennial tall shrubs with tough leaves in later phases. Assessing the community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values is used in plant ecology to describe ecosystem properties especially during succession. In particular, CSR (Competitive, Stress-tolerant, and Ruderal strategy) classification allows us to explore community functional shifts in terms of disturbance, stress and competition selective forces. The functional basis of the psammophilous succession was studied based on the following questions: (1) Can we circumscribe different functional types among plant species of Mediterranean coastal dunes? (2) How do CWM trait values vary along the environmental sea-inland gradient? (3) What is the relative importance of competition, stress and disturbance in the processes of plant community assembling? (4) Can we postulate that along primary successions there is generally a shift from ruderality to stress-tolerance? An explorative analysis of functional groups was performed by Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysing nine morpho-functional traits measured for 45 taxa from 880 dune plots localised in Tuscany (central Italy, Europe). NMDS ordination showed a scattered distribution of psammophytes that could not be delimited in precise plant functional types. The first NMDS axis has been interpreted as a leaf economics axis because it was correlated to leaf area (LA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC), while the second one was a plant size axis because of its correlation with canopy height. Along the sea-inland gradient, pioneer plant communities of upper beach were dominated by ruderals (with the lowest values of LDMC and specific leaf area - SLA), well-adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of coastal dunes. More distant from the sea, where

  14. Key Determinant Derivations for Information Technology Disaster Recovery Site Selection by the Multi-Criterion Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lee Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster recovery sites are an important mechanism in continuous IT system operations. Such mechanisms can sustain IT availability and reduce business losses during natural or human-made disasters. Concerning the cost and risk aspects, the IT disaster-recovery site selection problems are multi-criterion decision making (MCDM problems in nature. For such problems, the decision aspects include the availability of the service, recovery time requirements, service performance, and more. The importance and complexities of IT disaster recovery sites increases with advances in IT and the categories of possible disasters. The modern IT disaster recovery site selection process requires further investigation. However, very few researchers tried to study related issues during past years based on the authors’ extremely limited knowledge. Thus, this paper aims to derive the aspects and criteria for evaluating and selecting a modern IT disaster recovery site. A hybrid MCDM framework consisting of the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL and the Analytic Network Process (ANP will be proposed to construct the complex influence relations between aspects as well as criteria and further, derive weight associated with each aspect and criteria. The criteria with higher weight can be used for evaluating and selecting the most suitable IT disaster recovery sites. In the future, the proposed analytic framework can be used for evaluating and selecting a disaster recovery site for data centers by public institutes or private firms.

  15. Patient and personnel dose measurements at selective coronarangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maripuu, E.

    1977-01-01

    During 1975 dose measurements were performed on patients and doctors at the thoraxradiologic department of the Caroline Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The doses were measured during angiography. Skin doses are listed in tables. Also the doses to the bone marrow was estimated. LiF-dosemeters were used for the measurements. Calibration of the dosemeters and errors in the measurements are discussed

  16. Geography and Electronic Commerce: Measuring Convenience, Selection, and Price

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Forman; Anindya Ghose; Avi Goldfarb

    2006-01-01

    We develop a formal model of online-offline retail channel substitution to identify three factors that drive consumers to purchase online: convenience, selection, and price. This model builds hypotheses on how features of offline retail supply impact online purchasing. We then examine how the local availability of offline retail options drives use of the online channel and consequently how the convenience, selection, and price advantages of the online channel may vary by geographic location. ...

  17. Short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity ameliorates the suppressed expression of key β-cell factors under diabetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Naoki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuoka, Taka-aki, E-mail: matsuoka@endmet.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Miyatsuka, Takeshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunky-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421 (Japan); Takebe, Satomi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneto, Hideaki [Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-city, Okayama, 701-0192 (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Alleviation of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia improves pancreatic β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how the expression alterations of key β-cell factors are altered by the short-term selective alleviation of glucotoxicity or lipotoxicity. We treated db/db mice for one week with empagliflozin and/or bezafibrate to alleviate glucotoxicity and/or liptotoxicity, respectively. The gene expression levels of Pdx1 and Mafa, and their potential targets, insulin 1, Slc2a2, and Glp1r, were higher in the islets of empagliflozin-treated mice, and levels of insulin 2 were higher in mice treated with both reagents, than in untreated mice. Moreover, compared to the pretreatment levels, Mafa and insulin 1 expression increased in empagliflozin-treated mice, and Slc2a2 increased in combination-treated mice. In addition, empagliflozin treatment enhanced β-cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining. Our date clearly demonstrated that the one-week selective alleviation of glucotoxicity led to the better expression levels of the key β-cell factors critical for β-cell function over pretreatment levels, and that the alleviation of lipotoxicity along with glucotoxicity augmented the favorable effects under diabetic conditions. - Highlights: • One-week selective reduction of gluco- and lipo-toxicity in db/db mice was performed. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction increases key pancreatic β-cell factors expression. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction improves β-cell factors over pretreatment levels. • Selective glucotoxicity reduction turns β-cell mass toward increase. • Lipotoxicity reduction has additive effects on glucotoxicity reduction.

  18. Protonation of key acidic residues is critical for the K⁺-selectivity of the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Ratheal, Ian M; Artigas, Pablo; Roux, Benoît

    2011-09-11

    The sodium-potassium (Na/K) pump is a P-type ATPase that generates Na(+) and K(+) concentration gradients across the cell membrane. For each hydrolyzed ATP molecule, the pump extrudes three Na(+) and imports two K(+) by alternating between outward- and inward-facing conformations that preferentially bind K(+) or Na(+), respectively. Remarkably, the selective K(+) and Na(+) binding sites share several residues, and how the pump is able to achieve the selectivity required for the functional cycle is unclear. Here, free energy-perturbation molecular dynamics (FEP/MD) simulations based on the crystal structures of the Na/K pump in a K(+)-loaded state (E2·P(i)) reveal that protonation of the high-field acidic side chains involved in the binding sites is crucial to achieving the proper K(+) selectivity. This prediction is tested with electrophysiological experiments showing that the selectivity of the E2P state for K(+) over Na(+) is affected by extracellular pH.

  19. Quantum cryptography: Theoretical protocols for quantum key distribution and tests of selected commercial QKD systems in commercial fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz

    2016-06-01

    The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.

  20. Entry into Midgut Epithelial Cells is a Key Step in the Selection of Genotypes in a Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Clavijo; Trevor Williams; Delia Mu(n)oz; Miguel L(o)pez-Ferber; Primitivo Caballero

    2009-01-01

    An isolate of the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus comprises a stable proportion of deletion genotypes (e.g., SfNIC-C), that lack pif1 and pif2 rendering them noninfectious per os, and that survive by complementation with a complete genotype (SfNIC-B) in coinfected cells. To determine whether selection for particular ratios of complete and deletion genotypes occurs mainly during the establishment of the primary infection in insect midgut cells or during subsequent systemic infection, we examined genotype frequencies in insects that fed on OBs comprising different co-occluded mixtures of genotypes. Dramatic changes in genotype frequencies were observed between the OB inoculum and budded virus (BV) samples taken from larvae inoculated with OBs comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C indicating that a marked reduction of SfNIC-C genotype had occurred in the insect midgut due to the immediate elimination of all OBs that originated from cells that had been infected only by SfNIC-C. In contrast, immediate changes were not observed in OBs comprising mixtures of 50% SfNIC-B + 50% SfNIC-C or those comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C as most of the OBs in these mixtures originated from cells that had been infected by both genotypes. Subsequent changes in genotypic frequencies during five days of systemic infection were fairly small in magnitude for all genotypic mixtures. We conclude that the prevalence of defective genotypes in the SfNIC population is likely determined by a balance between host selection against OBs produced in cells infected by SfNIC-C alone and within-host selection for fast-replicating deletion genotypes. The strength of intra-host selection is likely modulated by changes in MOI during the infection period.

  1. Biometric templates selection and update using quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    To deal with severe variation in recording conditions, most biometric systems acquire multiple biometric samples, at the enrolment stage, for the same person and then extract their individual biometric feature vectors and store them in the gallery in the form of biometric template(s), labelled with the person's identity. The number of samples/templates and the choice of the most appropriate templates influence the performance of the system. The desired biometric template(s) selection technique must aim to control the run time and storage requirements while improving the recognition accuracy of the biometric system. This paper is devoted to elaborating on and discussing a new two stages approach for biometric templates selection and update. This approach uses a quality-based clustering, followed by a special criterion for the selection of an ultimate set of biometric templates from the various clusters. This approach is developed to select adaptively a specific number of templates for each individual. The number of biometric templates depends mainly on the performance of each individual (i.e. gallery size should be optimised to meet the needs of each target individual). These experiments have been conducted on two face image databases and their results will demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed quality-guided approach.

  2. Radon measurements-discussion of error estimates for selected methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovsky, Michael; Onischenko, Alexandra; Bastrikov, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    The main sources of uncertainties for grab sampling, short-term (charcoal canisters) and long term (track detectors) measurements are: systematic bias of reference equipment; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during calibration; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during measurements. The origins of non-Poisson random errors during calibration are different for different kinds of instrumental measurements. The main sources of uncertainties for retrospective measurements conducted by surface traps techniques can be divided in two groups: errors of surface 210 Pb ( 210 Po) activity measurements and uncertainties of transfer from 210 Pb surface activity in glass objects to average radon concentration during this object exposure. It's shown that total measurement error of surface trap retrospective technique can be decreased to 35%.

  3. Arg279 is the key regulator of coenzyme selectivity in the flavin-dependent ornithine monooxygenase SidA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Reeder; Franceschini, Stefano; Fedkenheuer, Michael; Rodriguez, Pedro J; Ellerbrock, Jacob; Romero, Elvira; Echandi, Maria Paulina; Martin Del Campo, Julia S; Sobrado, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    Siderophore A (SidA) is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the NAD(P)H- and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of ornithine in the biosynthesis of siderophores in Aspergillus fumigatus and is essential for virulence. SidA can utilize both NADPH or NADH for activity; however, the enzyme is selective for NADPH. Structural analysis shows that R279 interacts with the 2'-phosphate of NADPH. To probe the role of electrostatic interactions in coenzyme selectivity, R279 was mutated to both an alanine and a glutamate. The mutant proteins were active but highly uncoupled, oxidizing NADPH and producing hydrogen peroxide instead of hydroxylated ornithine. For wtSidA, the catalytic efficiency was 6-fold higher with NADPH as compared to NADH. For the R279A mutant the catalytic efficiency was the same with both coenyzmes, while for the R279E mutant the catalytic efficiency was 5-fold higher with NADH. The effects are mainly due to an increase in the KD values, as no major changes on the kcat or flavin reduction values were observed. Thus, the absence of a positive charge leads to no coenzyme selectivity while introduction of a negative charge leads to preference for NADH. Flavin fluorescence studies suggest altered interaction between the flavin and NADP⁺ in the mutant enzymes. The effects are caused by different binding modes of the coenzyme upon removal of the positive charge at position 279, as no major conformational changes were observed in the structure for R279A. The results indicate that the positive charge at position 279 is critical for tight binding of NADPH and efficient hydroxylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  5. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  6. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  7. Layer of protection analysis: Selecting cost effective safety measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.N.; Gort, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, in process industry risks are reduced by applying technical solutions and taking organisational measures. The performance of both types of 'solutions' depends on many factors and can not easily be compared. Especially the effectiveness of organisational measures such as the use of

  8. Selection of violent collisions by neutron calorimetry for interferometry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezac, L.; Lebrun, C.; Erazmus, B.; Eudes, P.; Guilbault, F.; Ghisalberti, C.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.; Ardouin, D.; Chbihi, A.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Morjean, M.; Peghaire, A.; Dabrowski, H.; Lednicky, R.; Pluta, J.; Siemssen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy collisions at intermediate energy produce a preequilibrium emission and neutron evaporation. Our work focuses on the conditions to choose to observe mainly light particle correlations coming from heavy equilibrated quasi-projectile nuclei and to sort them in several intervals of violence. We want to demonstrate that one can use a high efficiency 4 pi neutron detector as a calorimeter, and gain in the selectivity on the violence of a collision. (D.L.). 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Development of a questionnaire to measure the key attributes of the community palliative care specialist nurse role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Dee; Johnston, Bridget

    2015-02-01

    Recent worldwide economic events have forced an examination of the nurse's contribution to high-quality, effective, person-centred care. Since the role of specialist nurses is considered one of the least understood or valued developments in nursing, specialist nurses must demonstrate their contribution to quality, person-centred health care. To develop a questionnaire which aims to measure the quality of care provided by palliative care specialist nurses from the patients' perspective and to undertake initial validation. The process of questionnaire development involved six phases including systematic literature reviews, patient advisory groups and expert panel reviews, each of which contributed to the questionnaire face and content validity. Johnston's Expert Palliative Care Nurse Model (2002; 2005) provided an evidence-based framework for the development of the questionnaire, and enabled the identification of the key attributes of the palliative care specialist nurse role, thereby providing the themes on which to base the questionnaire. The Quality Measure for Palliative Nursing, a questionnaire, was developed. The themes identified in the questionnaire--personal characteristics, communication skills, knowledge, relationship with patient and providing comfort--aim to facilitate measurement of the quality of care provided by palliative care specialist nurses. Designed for use by palliative patients the Quality Measure for Palliative Nursing is a one-page questionnaire comprising of 15 questions. The Quality Measure for Palliative Nursing is unique since it aims to measure the quality of care provided by community palliative care specialist nurses, and could also be used to measure patient satisfaction with the quality of care provided. Further testing is recommended to ensure that this questionnaire can provide reliable and valid results.

  10. Criteria of reaction identification and selection of badly measured events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linetskij, A.R.; Lyubarskij, G.Ya.; Sagalovich, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Basing on photoemulsion methods of studying channels of multiparticle nuclear reactions the metrological characteristics of a physical technique are described in the process of its development. To increase the accuracy of reaction identification the technique for picture measuring has been complicated by introducing calibration measurements of tracks of stopped in the emulsion primary α-particles. Callibration measurements have support assumptions on energy oscillations of the primary beam and made possible the employment of actual values of this energy instead of rated one during mathematical processing. By using simulation reactions the effect of errors in determining the contraction ratio has been estimated. It has been found that rather a small error in determining the contraction (+-20%) results in additional casting-out 8-15% of measured events

  11. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  12. Indirect Estimation of Selected Measures of Fertility and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DLHS6

    2018-01-09

    Jan 9, 2018 ... marital status distribution data of India especially of the 2011 census in deriving indirectly the fertility measures .... 2011 Census, Economic and Political weekly, EPW Vol. ... Indirect Estimates of Total Fertility Rate Using Child.

  13. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  14. Telemetry Measurement of Selected Biological Signal Using Bluetooth Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cerny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work treats of using the Bluetooth technology in biomedical engineering. The Bluetooth is used for transmission of measured data from pulse oximeter, ECG and monitor of blood pressure. OEM modules realize the devices for pulse oximetry and ECG. Both these realized devices can communicate with computer by Bluetooth technology and standard serial link too. The realized system of measuring devices is very flexible and mobile, because the Bluetooth technology is used and accumulators can supply the realized devices. It is possible to measure other physical values converted to voltage, because the used OEM module for pulse oximetry include A/D converter. The part of this work is software visualisation of measured values to.

  15. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing, People' s Republic of China (China); Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N. [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg (United States); Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Tsukuba (Japan); Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A. [Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  16. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  17. Selected essential oils inhibit key physiological enzymes and possess intracellular and extracellular antimelanogenic properties in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaahira Aumeeruddy-Elalfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs extracted from six medicinal herbs and food plants [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ, Psiadia arguta (PA, Psiadia terebinthina (PT, Citrus grandis (CGp, Citrus hystrix (CH, and Citrus reticulata (CR] were studied for any inhibitory potential against key physiological enzymes involved in diabetes (α-glucosidase, skin aging (collagenase and elastase, and neurodegenerative disorders (acetylcholinesterase. Kinetic studies of the active EOs on the aforementioned enzymes were determined using Lineweaver–Burk plots. The intracellular and extracellular antimelanogenic potential of the EOs were evaluated on B16F10 mouse melanocytes. CH and CR were found to significantly inhibit (2.476 ± 0.13 μg/mL and 3.636 ± 0.10 μg/mL, respectively acetylcholinesterase, compared with galantamine (3.989 ± 0.16 μg/mL. CH inhibited collagenase (50% inhibitory concentration 28.71 ± 0.16 μg/mL compared with the control (24.45 ± 0.19 μg/mL. The percentage inhibition in the elastase assay of CH was 63.21% compared to the positive control (75.09%. In addition, CH, CR, CGp, CZ, and PT were found to significantly inhibit α-glucosidase (276.70 ± 0.73 μg/mL, 169.90 ± 0.58 μg/mL, 240.60 ± 6.50 μg/mL, 64.52 ± 0.69 μg/mL, and 313.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL, respectively, compared to acarbose (448.80 ± 0.81 μg/mL. Active EOs showed both uncompetitive and competitive types of inhibition. The EOs also inhibited intracellular (50% inhibitory concentration 15.92 ± 1.06 μg/mL, 23.75 ± 4.47 μg/mL, and 28.99 ± 5.70 μg/mL for CH, CR, and CGp, respectively and extracellular (< 15.625 μg/mL for CH, CR, CGp, and PT melanin production when tested against B16F10 mouse melanocytes. Results from the present study tend to show that EOs extracted from these medicinal plants can inhibit key enzymes and may be potential candidates for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Should diagnosis codes from emergency department data be used for case selection for emergency department key performance indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stuart C; Wills, Rachael A; Johnston, Trisha C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the suitability of emergency department (ED) discharge diagnosis for identifying patient cohorts included in the definitions of key performance indicators (KPIs) that are used to evaluate ED performance. Hospital inpatient episodes of care with a principal diagnosis that corresponded to an ED-defined KPI were extracted from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection (QHAPDC) for the year 2010-2011. The data were then linked to the corresponding ED patient record and the diagnoses applied in the two settings were compared. The asthma and injury cohorts produced favourable results with respect to matching the QHAPDC principal diagnosis with the ED discharge diagnosis. The results were generally modest when the QHAPDC principal diagnosis was upper respiratory tract infection, poisoning and toxic effects or a mental health diagnosis, and were quite poor for influenza. There is substantial variation in the capture of patient cohorts using discharge diagnosis as recorded on Queensland Hospital Emergency Department data. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? There are several existing KPIs that are defined according to the diagnosis recorded on ED data collections. However, there have been concerns over the quality of ED diagnosis in Queensland and other jurisdictions, and the value of these data in identifying patient cohorts for the purpose of assessing ED performance remains uncertain. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper identifies diagnosis codes that are suitable for use in capturing the patient cohorts that are used to evaluate ED performance, as well as those codes that may be of limited value. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? The limitations of diagnosis codes within ED data should be understood by those seeking to use these data items for healthcare planning and management or for research into healthcare quality and outcomes.

  19. Selective Linear or Quadratic Optomechanical Coupling via Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Vanner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer both linear and nonlinear coupling with a mechanical resonator is an important goal for the preparation and investigation of macroscopic mechanical quantum behavior. In this work, a measurement based scheme is presented where linear or square mechanical-displacement coupling can be achieved using the optomechanical interaction that is linearly proportional to the mechanical position. The resulting square-displacement measurement strength is compared to that attainable in the dispersive case that has a direct interaction with the mechanical-displacement squared. An experimental protocol and parameter set are discussed for the generation and observation of non-Gaussian states of motion of the mechanical element.

  20. The Key Factors of Selecting Electronics Manufacturing Service Suppliers – an Example of Company U in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Hui-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive environment with a developed network, the customers of electronics manufacturing service (EMS manufacturers always seek a wide range of choices. EMS manufacturers can attract loyal customers and establish long-term partnerships if they understand and satisfy their customers’ needs to execute a response plan successfully with limited resources. If these conditions are met, EMS manufacturers can create high customer equity. This study investigates how the demand of downstream enterprises can be satisfied on the basis of the opinion of upstream suppliers in the electronics manufacturing industry. Domestic and foreign literature related to the dimensions and elements of supplier evaluation criteria were investigated to extract 22 elements of supplier selection by corporate customers. Five supplier evaluation dimensions were then established through interviews with the internal experts of the case company. An analytic hierarchy process-based (AHP-based approach is used to design the questionnaire for the external corporate customers of the case company. The questionnaire is then used to investigate the supplier evaluation criteria of the customers of EMS manufacturers. Conclusions and suggestions are provided on the basis of the results to provide the case company with references that can be used to develop and maintain customer relationship and create high customer equity.

  1. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state

  2. A Review and Analysis of Selected School Climate Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jacob; Preston, Angela I.; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate; Cusumano, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that there is no universally accepted definition for school climate, most professionals ground it in shared beliefs, values, and attitudes reflecting the quality and character of life in schools. In this article, we review and analyze measures accessible to school personnel charged with documenting and monitoring…

  3. Same but different? Measurement invariance of the PIAAC motivation-to-learn scale across key socio-demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC revealed that countries systematically differ in their respondents’ literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology-rich environments skills; skill levels also vary by gender, age, level of education or migration background. Similarly, systematic differences have been documented with respect to adults’ participation in education, which can be considered as a means to develop and maintain skills. From a psychological perspective, motivation to learn is considered a key factor associated with both skill development and participation in (further education. In order to account for motivation when analyzing PIAAC data, four items from the PIAAC background questionnaire were recently compiled into a motivation-to-learn scale. This scale has been found to be invariant (i.e., showing full weak and partial strong measurement invariance across 21 countries. Methods This paper presents further analyses using multiple-group graded response models to scrutinize the validity of the motivation-to-learn scale for group comparisons. Results Results indicate at least partial strong measurement invariance across gender, age groups, level of education, and migration background in most countries under study (all CFI > .95, all RMSEA < .08. Thus, the scale is suitable for comparing both means and associations across these groups. Conclusions Results are discussed in light of country characteristics, challenges of measurement invariance testing, and potential future research using PIAAC data.

  4. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... storage periods up to 21 d at 2 C were evaluated for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Sensory, chemical, microbiological and physical quality attributes were evaluated and multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least- squares regression) applied for identification of key...... storage was low for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod and this fish raw material seemed the more appropriate for production of thawed chilled MAP products. Frozen storage inactivation of the spoilage bacteria of Photobacterium phosphorcum was modest in Barnets Sea cod, possibly due to high trimethylamine oxide...

  5. Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2010-03-23

    The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste [HLW]) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.

  6. Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2010-01-01

    The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste (HLW)) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.

  7. Selected Measurements of Rare Decays at the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pikies, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results of rare decays B$^0$$\\to K*^0\\mu\\mu$, B$^0 \\to K*^0$ee, $\\Lambda_b\\to\\Lambda\\mu\\mu$ and B$^0_s$ governed by Flavour Changing Neutral Current transitions are discussed in this paper. The angular distributions and differential branching fractions measurements were performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3:0 fb$^{-1}$ collected at the LHCb experiment.

  8. The Gulf Stream frontal system: A key oceanographic feature in the habitat selection of the leatherback turtle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambault, Philippine; Roquet, Fabien; Benhamou, Simon; Baudena, Alberto; Pauthenet, Etienne; de Thoisy, Benoît; Bonola, Marc; Dos Reis, Virginie; Crasson, Rodrigue; Brucker, Mathieu; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien

    2017-05-01

    Although some associations between the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea and the Gulf Stream current have been previously suggested, no study has to date demonstrated strong affinities between leatherback movements and this particular frontal system using thorough oceanographic data in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. The importance of the Gulf Stream frontal system in the selection of high residence time (HRT) areas by the North Atlantic leatherback turtle is assessed here for the first time using state-of-the-art ocean reanalysis products. Ten adult females from the Eastern French Guianese rookery were satellite tracked during post-nesting migration to relate (1) their horizontal movements to physical gradients (Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and filaments) and biological variables (micronekton and chlorophyll a), and (2) their diving behaviour to vertical structures within the water column (mixed layer, thermocline, halocline and nutricline). All the turtles migrated northward towards the Gulf Stream north wall. Although their HRT areas were geographically remote (spread between 80-30 °W and 28-45 °N), all the turtles targeted similar habitats in terms of physical structures, i.e. strong gradients of SST, SSH and a deep mixed layer. This close association with the Gulf Stream frontal system highlights the first substantial synchronization ever observed in this species, as the HRTs were observed in close match with the autumn phytoplankton bloom. Turtles remained within the enriched mixed layer at depths of 38.5±7.9 m when diving in HRT areas, likely to have an easier access to their prey and maximize therefore the energy gain. These depths were shallow in comparison to those attained within the thermocline (82.4±5.6 m) while crossing the nutrient-poor subtropical gyre, probably to reach cooler temperatures and save energy during the transit. In a context of climate change, anticipating the evolution of such frontal

  9. Key Performance Indicators Evaluation and Performance Measurement in Dry Port-Seaport System: A Multi Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimazahra BENTALEB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry port-seaport services are key elements of a multimodal transport. They represent the needed infrastructure for its development. In this case, evaluating and improving their performance is necessary to achieve international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model of performance measurement for the dry port-seaport system. To this aim, we have consolidated available researches and existing studies in order to identify and develop our proposed model framework. In this paper, a multi-criteria hierarchical model framework using MACBETH for dry port-seaport system has been developed. This framework can be used by managers at different levels of the system. The proposed model has been developed by exploring measurement gaps in multimodal transport field and by discovering prospective options from this area. The results and the methodology are practical. We obtain the global performance level of our involved system using our methodology, which can help managers in taken decisions and increase global performance of this system.

  10. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  11. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  12. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  13. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  14. Reliability of ultrasound for measurement of selected foot structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, G; Angin, S; Mickle, K J; Hill, S; Nester, C J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between the lower leg muscles, foot structures and function is essential to explain how disease or injury may relate to changes in foot function and clinical pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-operator reliability of an ultrasound protocol to quantify features of: rear, mid and forefoot sections of the plantar fascia (PF); flexor hallucis brevis (FHB); flexor digitorum brevis (FDB); abductor hallucis (AbH); flexor digitorum longus (FDL); flexor hallucis longus (FHL); tibialis anterior (TA); and peroneus longus and brevis (PER). A sample of 6 females and 4 males (mean age 29.1 ± 7.2 years, mean BMI 25.5 ± 4.8) was recruited from a university student and staff population. Scans were obtained using a portable Venue 40 musculoskeletal ultrasound system (GE Healthcare UK) with a 5-13 MHz wideband linear array probe with a 12.7 mm × 47.1mm footprint by two operators in the same scanning session. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) values for muscle thickness (ICC range 0.90-0.97), plantar fascia thickness (ICC range 0.94-0.98) and cross sectional muscle measurements (ICC range 0.91-0.98) revealed excellent inter-operator reliability. The limits of agreement, relative to structure size, ranged from 9.0% to 17.5% for muscle thickness, 11.0-18.0% for plantar fascia, and 11.0-26.0% for cross sectional area measurements. The ultrasound protocol implemented in this work has been shown to be reliable. It therefore offers the opportunity to quantify the structures concerned and better understand their contributions to foot function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Positional Differences in Elite Basketball: Selecting Appropriate Training - Load Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilar, Luka; Castellano, Julen; Jukic, Igor; Casamichana, David

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of this paper was to study the structure of interrelationships among external training load measures and how these vary among different positions in elite basketball. Eight external variables of jumping (JUMP), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC) and change of direction (COD), and two internal load variables (RPE and sRPE) were collected from 13 professional players with 300 session records. Three playing positions were considered: guards (n=4), forwards (n=4) and centers (n=5). High and total external variables (hJUMP and tJUMP, hACC and tACC, hDEC and tDEC, hCOD and tCOD) were used for the principal component analysis. Extraction criteria were set at the eigenvalue of greater than one. Varimax rotation mode was used to extract multiple principal components. The analysis showed that all positions had two or three principal components (explaining almost all of the variance), but the configuration of each factor was different: tACC, tDEC, tCOD and hJUMP for centers, hACC, tACC, tCOD and hJUMP for guards, and tACC, hDEC, tDEC, hCOD, and tCOD for forwards are specifically demanded in training sessions and, therefore, these variables must be prioritized in load monitoring. Furthermore, for all playing positions, RPE and sRPE have high correlation with the total amount of ACC, DEC and COD. This would suggest that, although players perform the same training tasks, the demands of each position can vary. A particular combination of external load measures is required to describe training load of each playing position, especially to better understand internal responses among players.

  16. Immune escape mutants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 selected using polyclonal sera: identification of key amino acids in the HA protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sitaras

    Full Text Available Evolution of Avian Influenza (AI viruses--especially of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N1 subtype--is a major issue for the poultry industry. HPAI H5N1 epidemics are associated with huge economic losses and are sometimes connected to human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination (either as a preventive measure or as a means to control outbreaks is an approach that splits the scientific community, due to the risk of it being a potential driving force in HPAI evolution through the selection of mutants able to escape vaccination-induced immunity. It is therefore essential to study how mutations are selected due to immune pressure. To this effect, we performed an in vitro selection of mutants from HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, using immune pressure from homologous polyclonal sera. After 42 rounds of selection, we identified 5 amino acid substitutions in the Haemagglutinin (HA protein, most of which were located in areas of antigenic importance and suspected to be prone to selection pressure. We report that most of the mutations took place early in the selection process. Finally, our antigenic cartography studies showed that the antigenic distance between the selected isolates and their parent strain increased with passage number.

  17. Do breath gas measurements hold the key to unlocking the genetics of feed efficiency in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Difford, Gareth; de Haas, Yvette; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    Recording dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows is the precursor to determining feed efficiency, a highly profitable and desirable selection trait. However records on large numbers of animals are expensive and prohibitive under commercial conditions. Usually small research herds are recorded...... for DMI and then used to predict breeding values for DMI along using other highly correlated traits like milk yield, body weight and chest width. Recent interest in greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), has seen the development of tools for measuring gas concentrations in the breath of the cow during...... milking in automated milking stations. This makes it possible to obtain records on large numbers of animals under commercial conditions. Since CH4 production is a conditional by-product of DMI, it is not surprising that DMI is the single best predictor of CH4 production. Traditionally, this relationship...

  18. The Reproducibility of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP Measurement: A Test Case for the Measurement of Key Air Pollutants from the Pan Frying of Fish Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the robustness of various indoor air quality (IAQ indices, we explored the possible role of reproducibility-induced variability in the measurements of different pollutants under similar sampling and emissions conditions. Polluted indoor conditions were generated by pan frying fish samples in a closed room. A total of 11 experiments were carried out to measure a list of key variables commonly used to represent indoor air pollution (IAP indicators such as particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP and a set of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs with some odor markers. The cooking activity conducted as part of our experiments was successful to consistently generate significant pollution levels (mean PM10: 7110 μg m−3 and mean total VOC (TVOC: 1400 μg m−3, resp.. Then, relative standard error (RSE was computed to assess the reproducibility between different IAP paramters measured across the repeated experiments. If the results were evaluated by an arbitrary criterion of 10%, the patterns were divided into two data groups (e.g., 10% for the remainders. Most noticeably, TVOC had the most repeatable results with a reproducibility (RSE value of 3.2% (n=11.

  19. A new diagnostic accuracy measure and cut-point selection criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tuochuan; Attwood, Kristopher; Hutson, Alan; Liu, Song; Tian, Lili

    2017-12-01

    Most diagnostic accuracy measures and criteria for selecting optimal cut-points are only applicable to diseases with binary or three stages. Currently, there exist two diagnostic measures for diseases with general k stages: the hypervolume under the manifold and the generalized Youden index. While hypervolume under the manifold cannot be used for cut-points selection, generalized Youden index is only defined upon correct classification rates. This paper proposes a new measure named maximum absolute determinant for diseases with k stages ([Formula: see text]). This comprehensive new measure utilizes all the available classification information and serves as a cut-points selection criterion as well. Both the geometric and probabilistic interpretations for the new measure are examined. Power and simulation studies are carried out to investigate its performance as a measure of diagnostic accuracy as well as cut-points selection criterion. A real data set from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative is analyzed using the proposed maximum absolute determinant.

  20. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the EU Power and Industry Sectors. An assessment of key technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootzen, Johan

    2012-11-01

    In February 2011, the European Council reconfirmed the goal of reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 % by 2050, as compared to the levels in 1990. The power and industrial sectors currently account for almost half of the total GHG emissions in the EU. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a technology-based perspective on the feasibility of significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU power and industrial sectors, with the emphasis on expected turnover in the capital stock of the existing infrastructure. Three sectors of industry are included: petroleum refining; iron and steel production; and cement manufacturing. The analysis is based on a thorough description and characterization of the current industry infrastructure and of the key mitigation technologies and measures in each sector. The analysis comprises investigations of how specific factors, such as the age structure of the capital stock, technology and fuel mix, and spatial distribution of the plant stock, contribute to facilitating or hindering the shift towards less-emission-intensive production processes. The results presented here are the synthesis of the results described in the following three papers: Paper I investigates the potential for CCS in industrial applications in the EU by considering branch- and plant-specific conditions; Paper II assesses strategies for CO{sub 2} abatement in the European petroleum refining industry; and Paper III explores in a scenario analysis the limits for CO{sub 2} emission abatement within current production processes in the power and industrial sectors. Together, the three papers provide a comprehensive assessment of the roles of technologies and measures that are commercially available today, as well as those of emerging technologies that are still in their early phases of development. The results presented in Paper III show that the EU goal for emissions reductions in the sectors covered by the EU ETS, i

  1. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method.

  2. The Analysis Of Accuracy Of Selected Methods Of Measuring The Thermal Resistance Of IGBTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górecki Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper selected methods of measuring the thermal resistance of an IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor are presented and the accuracy of these methods is analysed. The analysis of the measurement error is performed and operating conditions of the considered device, at which each measurement method assures the least measuring error, are pointed out. Theoretical considerations are illustrated with some results of measurements and calculations.

  3. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCEM key comparison CCEM.RF-K10.CL (GT-RF/99-2) 'Power in 50 Ω coaxial lines, frequency: 50 MHz to 26 GHz' measurement techniques and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Dieter; Inoue, T.; Michaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results and the measuring methods of an international key comparison between twelve national metrology institutes (NMIs) and is concerning the calibration factor of RF power sensors in the coaxial 3.5 mm line for frequencies up to 26 GHz. Two RF power travelling standards fitted with male PC 3.5 mm connectors were measured at seven frequencies. The following NMIs participated: NMIJ (Japan), NRC (Canada), NIST (USA), METAS (Switzerland), CSIR-NML (South Africa), NMIA (Australia), NPL (UK), SiQ (Slovenia), IEN (Italy), VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation), SPRING (Singapore) and PTB (Germany), as the pilot laboratory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. Selection/extraction of spectral regions for autofluorescence spectra measured in the oral cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skurichina, M; Paclik, P; Duin, RPW; de Veld, D; Sterenborg, HJCM; Witjes, MJH; Roodenburg, JLN; Fred, A; Caelli, T; Duin, RPW; Campilho, A; DeRidder, D

    2004-01-01

    Recently a number of successful algorithms to select/extract discriminative spectral regions was introduced. These methods may be more beneficial than the standard feature selection/extraction methods for spectral classification. In this paper, on the example of autofluorescence spectra measured in

  5. Solid-phase partitioning of mercury in artisanal gold mine tailings from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines, and its implications for mercury detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiso, Einstine M; Aseneiro, John Paul J; Banda, Marybeth Hope T; Tabelin, Carlito B

    2018-03-01

    The solid-phase partitioning of mercury could provide necessary data in the identification of remediation techniques in contaminated artisanal gold mine tailings. This study was conducted to determine the total mercury content of mine wastes and identify its solid-phase partitioning through selective sequential extraction coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. Samples from mine tailings and the carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process were obtained from selected key areas in Mindanao, Philippines. The results showed that mercury use is still prevalent among small-scale gold miners in the Philippines. Tailings after ball mill-gravity concentration (W-BM and Li-BM samples) from Mt Diwata and Libona contained high levels of mercury amounting to 25.024 and 6.5 mg kg -1 , respectively. The most prevalent form of mercury in the mine tailings was elemental/amalgamated mercury, followed by water soluble, exchangeable, organic and strongly bound phases, respectively. In contrast, mercury content of carbon-in-pulp residues were significantly lower at only 0.3 and 0.06 mg kg -1 for P-CIP (Del Pilar) and W-CIP (Mt Diwata), respectively. The bulk of mercury in P-CIP samples was partitioned in residual fraction while in W-CIP samples, water soluble mercury predominated. Overall, this study has several important implications with regards to mercury detoxification of contaminated mine tailings from Mindanao, Philippines.

  6. Airborne protein concentration: a key metric for type 1 allergy risk assessment-in home measurement challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulum, Liz; Deag, Zoë; Brown, Matthew; Furniss, Annette; Meech, Lynn; Lalljie, Anja; Cochrane, Stella

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to airborne proteins can be associated with the development of immediate, IgE-mediated respiratory allergies, with genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors also playing a role in determining the likelihood that sensitisation will be induced. The main objective of this study was to determine whether airborne concentrations of selected common aeroallergens could be quantified in the air of homes using easily deployable, commercially available equipment and analytical methods, at low levels relevant to risk assessment of the potential to develop respiratory allergies. Additionally, air and dust sampling were compared and the influence of factors such as different filter types on allergen quantification explored. Low volume air sampling pumps and DUSTREAM ® dust samplers were used to sample 20 homes and allergen levels were quantified using a MARIA ® immunoassay. It proved possible to detect a range of common aeroallergens in the home with sufficient sensitivity to quantify airborne concentrations in ranges relevant to risk assessment (Limits of Detection of 0.005-0.03 ng/m 3 ). The methodology discriminates between homes related to pet ownership and there were clear advantages to sampling air over dust which are described in this paper. Furthermore, in an adsorption-extraction study, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) filters gave higher and more consistent recovery values than glass fibre (grade A) filters for the range of aeroallergens studied. Very low airborne concentrations of allergenic proteins in home settings can be successfully quantified using commercially available pumps and immunoassays. Considering the greater relevance of air sampling to human exposure of the respiratory tract and its other advantages, wider use of standardised, sensitive techniques to measure low airborne protein concentrations and how they influence development of allergic sensitisation and symptoms could accelerate our understanding of human dose-response relationships

  7. An Interaction Measure for Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Bilinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    are needed to be controlled, are nonlinear and linear models are insufficient to describe the behavior of the processes. The focus of this paper is on the problem of control configuration selection for a class of nonlinear systems which is known as bilinear systems. A gramian-based interaction measure...... for control configuration selection of MIMO bilinear processes is described. In general, most of the results on the control configuration selection, which have been proposed so far, can only support linear systems. The proposed gramian-based interaction measure not only supports bilinear processes but also...

  8. Microfluidic sensor for ultra high redox cycling amplification for highly selective electrochemical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Straver, Martin; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a SU8/glass-based microfluidic sensor is described with two closely spaced parallel electrodes for highly selective measurements using the redox cycling (RC) effect. Using this sensor, a RC amplification of ~2000x is measured using the ferrocyanide redox couple, which is much

  9. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  10. A Proposed Model for Selecting Measurement Procedures for the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E

    2016-03-01

    Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment.

  11. Measuring Teaching Quality in Higher Education : Assessing the Problem of Selection Bias in Course Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Salomons, Anna; Goos, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching are widely used to measure teaching quality and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions: as such, they are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions as well as student course selection. However, the response on course evaluations is rarely perfect, rendering such uses unwarranted if students who participate in the evaluation are not randomly selected: this paper is the first to investigate this issue. We quanti...

  12. Covariance-Based Measurement Selection Criterion for Gaussian-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Auat Cheein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Process modeling by means of Gaussian-based algorithms often suffers from redundant information which usually increases the estimation computational complexity without significantly improving the estimation performance. In this article, a non-arbitrary measurement selection criterion for Gaussian-based algorithms is proposed. The measurement selection criterion is based on the determination of the most significant measurement from both an estimation convergence perspective and the covariance matrix associated with the measurement. The selection criterion is independent from the nature of the measured variable. This criterion is used in conjunction with three Gaussian-based algorithms: the EIF (Extended Information Filter, the EKF (Extended Kalman Filter and the UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter. Nevertheless, the measurement selection criterion shown herein can also be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithms. Although this work is focused on environment modeling, the results shown herein can be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithm implementations. Mathematical descriptions and implementation results that validate the proposal are also included in this work.

  13. Reliable Portfolio Selection Problem in Fuzzy Environment: An mλ Measure Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Feng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a fuzzy portfolio selection problem with guaranteed reliability, in which the fuzzy variables are used to capture the uncertain returns of different securities. To effectively handle the fuzziness in a mathematical way, a new expected value operator and variance of fuzzy variables are defined based on the m λ measure that is a linear combination of the possibility measure and necessity measure to balance the pessimism and optimism in the decision-making process. To formulate the reliable portfolio selection problem, we particularly adopt the expected total return and standard variance of the total return to evaluate the reliability of the investment strategies, producing three risk-guaranteed reliable portfolio selection models. To solve the proposed models, an effective genetic algorithm is designed to generate the approximate optimal solution to the considered problem. Finally, the numerical examples are given to show the performance of the proposed models and algorithm.

  14. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  15. The intracellular redox stress caused by hexavalent chromium is selective for proteins that have key roles in cell survival and thiol redox control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Judith M.; Antholine, William E.; Myers, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr intermediates that can directly oxidize some cell components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Inhalation is a major route of exposure which directly exposes the bronchial epithelium. Previous studies with non-cancerous human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that Cr(VI) treatment results in the irreversible inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the oxidation of thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx). The mitochondrial Trx/Prx system is somewhat more sensitive to Cr(VI) than the cytosolic Trx/Prx system, and other redox-sensitive mitochondrial functions are subsequently affected including electron transport complexes I and II. Studies reported here show that Cr(VI) does not cause indiscriminant thiol oxidation, and that the Trx/Prx system is among the most sensitive of cellular protein thiols. Trx/Prx oxidation is not unique to BEAS-2B cells, as it was also observed in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Increasing the intracellular levels of ascorbate, an endogenous Cr(VI) reductant, did not alter the effects on TrxR, Trx, or Prx. The peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP did not protect TrxR, Trx, Prx, or the electron transport chain from the effects of Cr(VI), implying that peroxynitrite is not required for these effects. Nitration of tyrosine residues of TrxR was not observed following Cr(VI) treatment, further ruling out peroxynitrite as a significant contributor to the irreversible inhibition of TrxR. Cr(VI) treatments that disrupt the TrxR/Trx/Prx system did not cause detectable mitochondrial DNA damage. Overall, the redox stress that results from Cr(VI) exposure shows selectivity for key proteins which are known to be important for redox signaling, antioxidant defense, and cell survival.

  16. If patient-reported outcome measures are considered key health-care quality indicators, who is excluded from participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Thilo; Wyke, Sally; Jahagirdar, Deepa; Ritchie, Karen

    2014-10-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures have received increasing attention with regard to ensuring quality improvement across the health service. However, there is a risk that people with disabilities and low literacy are systematically excluded from the development of these measures as well as their application in clinical practice. This editorial highlights some of these risks and the potential consequences of exclusion for these groups. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Measurement of collisional self broadening of atomic resonance lines in selective reflection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    A method is developed to measure directly the collisional self broadening rate for a dense atomic vapor from selective reflection spectra. Experimental realization for the atomic D 1 and D 2 resonance lines of Rb confirms a validity of the proposed technique. The deflection of experimentally measured values is not more than 20% from theoretically predicted ones in the atomic number density range of 7· 10 16 - 7· 10 17 cm - 3 . 10 refs

  18. Jagiellonian University Selected Results on the CKM Angle $\\gamma $ Measurement at the LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Krupa, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb is a single arm forward spectrometer designed to study heavy-flavour physics at the LHC. Its very precise tracking and excellent particle identification play currently a major role in providing the world-best measurements of the Unitary Triangle parameters. In this paper, selected results of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) angle $\\gamma$ measurements, with special attention for $B \\rightarrow DK$ decays family, obtained at the LHCb, are presented.

  19. Residual strain in the Nb-H system measured by selected area diffraction (SAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulhoes, I.A.M.; Akune, K.; Pinatti, Dyonisio G.

    1981-07-01

    Various specimens of Nb were annealed in vacuum of 10 -3 torr for four hours at 1770 0 K. These speciments were doped with hydrogen up to 1000 ppm by weight and then were analyzed selected area diffraction. The line resolution of the electron channelling pattern was meassured for the specimens with different hydrogen content. These measurements, combined with the measurement of density, permitted one to estimate the residual strain caused by hydrogen. (Author) [pt

  20. Development and Validation of Measures for Selecting Soldiers for the Officer Candidate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    SJT, there has been a debate about what SJTs actually measure and why they work (cf. Moss & Hunt, 1926; Thorndike , 1936), a debate that continues...meta-analytic review and integration. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 914-945. Thorndike , R. L. (1936). Factor analysis of social and abstract...intelligence. The Journal of Educational Psychology, XXVII, 231—233. Thorndike , R. L. (1949). Personnel selection: Test and measurement techniques. New York

  1. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  2. The Future of Natural Selection Knowledge Measurement: A Reply to Anderson et al. (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2010-01-01

    The development of rich, reliable, and robust measures of the composition, structure, and stability of student thinking about core scientific ideas (such as natural selection) remains a complex challenge facing science educators. In their recent article (Nehm & Schonfeld 2008), the authors explored the strengths, weaknesses, and insights provided…

  3. Moderate Physical Activity and Its Relationship to Select Measures of a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Frank; Dunnagan, Tim; Haynes, George; Moore, Sylvia; Pelican, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In rural communities, physical activity may influence and predict nutritional behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an individual's stage of participation in moderate physical activity was related to select measures of a healthy diet. Data were collected using a mail-in survey from a random sample conducted in the…

  4. Measuring Teaching Quality in Higher Education: Assessing Selection Bias in Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Maarten; Salomons, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are widely used to measure teaching quality in higher education and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions. Indeed, SETs are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions, student course selection, as well as for auditing practices demonstrating institutional…

  5. Measuring Teaching Quality in Higher Education : Assessing the Problem of Selection Bias in Course Evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Anna; Goos, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching are widely used to measure teaching quality and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions: as such, they are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions as well as student course selection. However, the response on course

  6. Reliable micro-measurement of strontium is the key to cracking the life-history code in the fish otolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, A.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Trompetter, W.J.; Dioses, T.; Gauldie, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    The fish otolith is a calcium carbonate (usually aragonite) crystal that grows continuously by accretion over the life of the fish and unlike bone is not continuously re-metabolised. Consequently, the otolith has long been regarded as a potential store of information about the life history of an individual fish, and this information is encoded in the deposition pattern of trace elements in the otolith. The code has been difficult to crack. However, recent developments have show that: (1) Sr is one of the few non-mobile trace elements in the otolith; and (2) the pattern of Sr deposition summarises the effects of environment changes that affect the growth rate of the otolith crystal. The remaining difficulties in cracking the chemical code in the otolith have hinged about making reliable micro-measurements of the stable Sr content at spatial resolutions of 10 μm or less; this interval represents about 4-6 days of otolith growth in most species of fish. This paper describes high beam resolution 2 μm linear measurements, and 6 μm square measurements over narrow windows of about 300 μm square, and links these micro-measures to macro-measures of 2D maps of the entire surface of sections of otoliths up to 5 mm square at beam resolutions of 25 μm square. The otoliths used in this study are from the Jurel, or Peruvian Jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi (Carangidae: Teleostei)

  7. Key Informant Models for Measuring Group-Level Variables in Small Groups: Application to Plural Subject Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algesheimer, René; Bagozzi, Richard P.; Dholakia, Utpal M.

    2018-01-01

    We offer a new conceptualization and measurement models for constructs at the group-level of analysis in small group research. The conceptualization starts with classical notions of group behavior proposed by Tönnies, Simmel, and Weber and then draws upon plural subject theory by philosophers Gilbert and Tuomela to frame a new perspective…

  8. Factors Impacting Student Service Utilization at Ontario Colleges: Key Performance Indicators as a Measure of Success: A Niagara College View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, David

    2015-01-01

    Student success in Ontario College is significantly influenced by the utilization of student services. At Niagara College there has been a significant investment in student services as a strategy to support student success. Utilizing existing KPI data, this quantitative research project is aimed at measuring factors that influence both the use of…

  9. Cost-Sensitive Feature Selection of Numeric Data with Measurement Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an essential process in data mining applications since it reduces a model’s complexity. However, feature selection with various types of costs is still a new research topic. In this paper, we study the cost-sensitive feature selection problem of numeric data with measurement errors. The major contributions of this paper are fourfold. First, a new data model is built to address test costs and misclassification costs as well as error boundaries. It is distinguished from the existing models mainly on the error boundaries. Second, a covering-based rough set model with normal distribution measurement errors is constructed. With this model, coverings are constructed from data rather than assigned by users. Third, a new cost-sensitive feature selection problem is defined on this model. It is more realistic than the existing feature selection problems. Fourth, both backtracking and heuristic algorithms are proposed to deal with the new problem. Experimental results show the efficiency of the pruning techniques for the backtracking algorithm and the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm. This study is a step toward realistic applications of the cost-sensitive learning.

  10. Design, building and use of a selective pyranometer for the definition and measurement of the lighting index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guicherd, Roger.

    1976-03-01

    The design, building, testing, calibration and operation of a selective pyranometer intended for the definition and measurement of the lighting index are described; with this original apparatus the energetic lighting at ground level is measured selectively and continuously. The measurement head has three transducers equipped with hollow hemispherical filters measuring energy in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared range respectively. In conclusion, a definition of the lighting index obtained with this thermally compensated, selective pyranometer P.S. is proposed [fr

  11. The postgraduate hospital educational environment measure (PHEEM questionnaire identifies quality of instruction as a key factor predicting academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Edson Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION: Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents' perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS: The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbach's alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS: The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbach's alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% ± 13.6%. Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% ± 15.4%. Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% ± 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% ± 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% ± 14.4% for Anesthesiology. Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire.

  12. When Field Experiments Yield Unexpected Results: Lessons Learned from Measuring Selection in White Sands Lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Kayla M.; Harmon, Luke J.; Hardwick, Scott D.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adaptive significance of phenotypic traits is key for understanding evolution and diversification in natural populations. However, evolutionary biologists have an incomplete understanding of how specific traits affect fitness in most populations. The White Sands system provides an opportunity to study the adaptive significance of traits in an experimental context. Blanched color evolved recently in three species of lizards inhabiting the gypsum dunes of White Sands and is likely an adaptation to avoid predation. To determine whether there is a relationship between color and susceptibility to predation in White Sands lizards, we conducted enclosure experiments, quantifying survivorship of Holbrookia maculate exhibiting substrate-matched and substrate-mismatched phenotypes. Lizards in our study experienced strong predation. Color did not have a significant effect on survival, but we found several unexpected relationships including variation in predation over small spatial and temporal scales. In addition, we detected a marginally significant interaction between sex and color, suggesting selection for substrate matching may be stronger for males than females. We use our results as a case study to examine six major challenges frequently encountered in field-based studies of natural selection, and suggest that insight into the complexities of selection often results when experiments turn out differently than expected. PMID:25714838

  13. Measuring process performance within healthcare logistics - a decision tool for selecting track and trace technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    quality of work. Data validity is essential for enabling performance measurement, and selecting the right technologies is important to achieve this. A case study of the hospital cleaning process was conducted at a public Danish hospital to develop a framework for assessing technologies in healthcare......Monitoring tasks and ascertaining quality of work is difficult in a logistical healthcare process due to cleaning personnel being dispersed throughout the hospital. Performance measurement can support the organization in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of processes and in ensuring...... logistics. A set of decision indicators was identified in the case study to assess technologies based on expected process performance. Two aspects of performance measurement were investigated for the hospital cleaning process: what to measure and how to measure it....

  14. The measurement of internal conversion electrons of selected nuclei: A physics undergraduate laboratory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, P.; Duggan, J.L.; Desmarais, D.

    1992-01-01

    Thin sources are now commercially available for a wide variety of isotopes that have measurable internal conversion coefficients. The authors have used standard surface barrier detectors, NIM electronics, and a personal computer analyzer to measure conversion electrons from a few of these sources. Conversion electrons energy and intensity were measured for 113 Sn, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, and 207 Bi. From the measured spectra the innershell binding energies of the K ampersand L Shell electrons from the daughter nuclei were determined and compared to theory. The relative conversion coefficients a k /a L and the K/L ration were also measured. The spin and parity change of the transitions will also be assigned based on the selection rules of the transitions

  15. Assessing participation in the ACL injured population: Selecting a patient reported outcome measure on the basis of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchford, Robert; Sparkes, Valerie; van Deursen, Robert W M

    2015-06-01

    A return to pre injury activity participation remains a common but often elusive goal following ACL injury. Investigations to improve our understanding of participation restrictions are limited by inconsistent use of insufficiently investigated measurement tools. The aim of this study was to follow the consensus based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments (COSMIN) guideline to provide a comparative evaluation of four patient reported outcomes (PROMs) on the basis of measurement properties. This will inform recommendations for measuring participation of ACL injured subjects, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS). Thirteen criteria were compiled from the COSMIN guideline. These included reliability, measurement error, content validity, construct validity, responsiveness and interpretability. Data from 51 subjects collected as part of a longitudinal observational study of recovery over the first year following ACLR was used in the analysis. Of the thirteen criteria, the required standard was met in 11 for Tegner, 11 for International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), 6 for Cincinnati Sports Activity Scale (CSAS) and 6 for Marx. The two weaknesses identified for the Tegner are more easily compensated for during interpretation than those in the IKDC; for this reason the Tegner is the recommended PROM. The Tegner activity rating scale performed consistently well in respect of all measurement properties in this sample, with clear benefits over the other PROMs. The measurement properties presented should be used to inform implementation and interpretation of this outcome measure in clinical practice and research. Level II prospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective functional activity measurement of a PEGylated protein with a modification-dependent activity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alfred; Engelmaier, Andrea; Mohr, Gabriele; Haindl, Sonja; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Turecek, Peter L

    2017-01-05

    BAX 855 (ADYNOVATE) is a PEGylated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) that showed prolonged circulatory half-life compared to unmodified rFVIII in hemophilic patients. Here, the development and validation of a novel assay is described that selectively measures the activity of BAX 855 as cofactor for the serine protease factor IX, which actives factor X. This method type, termed modification-dependent activity assay, is based on PEG-specific capture of BAX 855 by an anti-PEG IgG preparation, followed by a chromogenic FVIII activity assay. The assay principle enabled sensitive measurement of the FVIII cofactor activity of BAX 855 down to the pM-range without interference by non-PEGylated FVIII. The selectivity of the capture step, shown by competition studies to primarily target the terminal methoxy group of PEG, also allowed assessment of the intactness of the attached PEG chains. Altogether, the modification-dependent activity not only enriches, but complements the group of methods to selectively, accurately, and precisely measure a PEGylated drug in complex biological matrices. In contrast to all other methods described so far, it allows measurement of the biological activity of the PEGylated protein. Data obtained demonstrate that this new method principle can be extended to protein modifications other than PEGylation and to a variety of functional activity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Semidefinite Programming Based Search Strategy for Feature Selection with Mutual Information Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Tofigh; Hoffmann, Sarah; Pfister, Beat

    2015-08-01

    Feature subset selection, as a special case of the general subset selection problem, has been the topic of a considerable number of studies due to the growing importance of data-mining applications. In the feature subset selection problem there are two main issues that need to be addressed: (i) Finding an appropriate measure function than can be fairly fast and robustly computed for high-dimensional data. (ii) A search strategy to optimize the measure over the subset space in a reasonable amount of time. In this article mutual information between features and class labels is considered to be the measure function. Two series expansions for mutual information are proposed, and it is shown that most heuristic criteria suggested in the literature are truncated approximations of these expansions. It is well-known that searching the whole subset space is an NP-hard problem. Here, instead of the conventional sequential search algorithms, we suggest a parallel search strategy based on semidefinite programming (SDP) that can search through the subset space in polynomial time. By exploiting the similarities between the proposed algorithm and an instance of the maximum-cut problem in graph theory, the approximation ratio of this algorithm is derived and is compared with the approximation ratio of the backward elimination method. The experiments show that it can be misleading to judge the quality of a measure solely based on the classification accuracy, without taking the effect of the non-optimum search strategy into account.

  18. Final report on CCQM-K9.2 : subsequent key comparison on pH determination of phosphate buffer by Harned cell measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzer, Petra; Giera, Janine; Fraga, Isabel Cristina Serta; Jakobsen, Pia Tonnes; Jensen, Hans D.; Hyllested, Peter; Karpov, Oleg; Kutovoy, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Susumu; Vospelova, Alena; Zvezdina, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    CCQM-K9.2 was performed supplementary to the key comparison CCQM-K9 [1] on the pH determination of a phosphate buffer with nominal pH ~ 6.9 (at 25 °C). The sample composition was very similar in both comparisons. Only the source of the starting material used for sample preparation was different. The comparison was restricted to the use of the primary method for pH (Harned cell measurement) as defined in the IUPAC Recommendations [2]. The measurement temperatures were15 °C, 25 °C , 37...

  19. Measuring adherence to antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: The feasibility of collecting routine data for key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeg Hailu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An East African survey showed that among the few health facilities that measured adherence to antiretroviral therapy, practices and definitions varied widely. We evaluated the feasibility of collecting routine data to standardize adherence measurement using a draft set of indicators. Methods Targeting 20 facilities each in Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda, in each facility we interviewed up to 30 patients, examined 100 patient records, and interviewed staff. Results In 78 facilities, we interviewed a total of 1,631 patients and reviewed 8,282 records. Difficulties in retrieving records prevented data collection in two facilities. Overall, 94.2% of patients reported perfect adherence; dispensed medicine covered 91.1% of days in a six month retrospective period; 13.7% of patients had a gap of more than 30 days in their dispensed medication; 75.8% of patients attended clinic on or before the date of their next appointment; and 87.1% of patients attended within 3 days. In each of the four countries, the facility-specific median indicators ranged from: 97%-100% for perfect self-reported adherence, 90%-95% of days covered by dispensed medicines, 2%-19% of patients with treatment gaps of 30 days or more, and 72%-91% of appointments attended on time. Individual facilities varied considerably. The percentages of days covered by dispensed medicine, patients with more than 95% of days covered, and patients with a gap of 30 days or more were all significantly correlated with the percentages of patients who attended their appointments on time, within 3 days, or within 30 days of their appointment. Self reported recent adherence in exit interviews was significantly correlated only with the percentage of patients who attended within 3 days of their appointment. Conclusions Field tests showed that data to measure adherence can be collected systematically from health facilities in resource-poor settings. The clinical validity of these

  20. Novel Distance Measure in Fuzzy TOPSIS for Supply Chain Strategy Based Supplier Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pardha Saradhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment, organizations need to evaluate and select suppliers based on their manufacturing strategy. Identification of supply chain strategy of the organization, determination of decision criteria, and methods of supplier selection are appearing to be the most important components in research area in the field of supply chain management. In this paper, evaluation of suppliers is done based on the balanced scorecard framework using new distance measure in fuzzy TOPSIS by considering the supply chain strategy of the manufacturing organization. To take care of vagueness in decision making, trapezoidal fuzzy number is assumed for pairwise comparisons to determine relative weights of perspectives and criteria of supplier selection. Also, linguistic variables specified in terms of trapezoidal fuzzy number are considered for the payoff values of criteria of the suppliers. These fuzzy numbers satisfied the Jensen based inequality. A detailed application of the proposed methodology is illustrated.

  1. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-04-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity profiles from the entire cross section and multiple transects to determine a mean profile for the measurement. The use of an exponent derived from normalized data from the entire cross section is shown to be valid for application of the power velocity distribution law in the computation of the unmeasured discharge in a cross section. Selected statistics are combined with empirically derived criteria to automatically select the appropriate extrapolation methods. A graphical user interface (GUI) provides the user tools to visually evaluate the automatically selected extrapolation methods and manually change them, as necessary. The sensitivity of the total discharge to available extrapolation methods is presented in the GUI. Use of extrap by field hydrographers has demonstrated that extrap is a more accurate and efficient method of determining the appropriate extrapolation methods compared with tools currently (2012) provided in the ADCP manufacturers' software.

  2. A Generalized Measure for the Optimal Portfolio Selection Problem and its Explicit Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy Landsman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we offer a novel class of utility functions applied to optimal portfolio selection. This class incorporates as special cases important measures such as the mean-variance, Sharpe ratio, mean-standard deviation and others. We provide an explicit solution to the problem of optimal portfolio selection based on this class. Furthermore, we show that each measure in this class generally reduces to the efficient frontier that coincides or belongs to the classical mean-variance efficient frontier. In addition, a condition is provided for the existence of the a one-to-one correspondence between the parameter of this class of utility functions and the trade-off parameter λ in the mean-variance utility function. This correspondence essentially provides insight into the choice of this parameter. We illustrate our results by taking a portfolio of stocks from National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ.

  3. Why income inequality is so high in Serbia: Empirical evidence and a measurement of the key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Gorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the extent and evolution of income inequality in Serbia and examine factors that may have contributed to the high and rising inequality. Specifically, using data from the 2013 Survey of Income and Living Conditions, we focus on two issues: the effect of the quantity and quality of household members’ employment on the earnings of low-wage workers, and the role of taxes and social transfers in redistributing income from the betteroff to the poor. The results suggest that income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, has significantly increased in Serbia over the period of economic crisis, reaching 38.7 in 2013. The examined causes of such a high inequality are the high rate of low work intensity of household members and the high proportion of people working in non-standard forms of employment (i.e., part-time, temporary, and self-employment arrangements, mostly in the informal sector. In addition, the low coverage of social transfers, particularly monetary social assistance and child benefits, and the very low level of progressivity of the Serbian personal tax system explain the relatively modest - by international standards - redistributive role of direct taxes and social transfers.

  4. Statistical MOSFET Parameter Extraction with Parameter Selection for Minimal Point Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Alisjahbana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A method to statistically extract MOSFET model parameters from a minimal number of transistor I(V characteristic curve measurements, taken during fabrication process monitoring. It includes a sensitivity analysis of the model, test/measurement point selection, and a parameter extraction experiment on the process data. The actual extraction is based on a linear error model, the sensitivity of the MOSFET model with respect to the parameters, and Newton-Raphson iterations. Simulated results showed good accuracy of parameter extraction and I(V curve fit for parameter deviations of up 20% from nominal values, including for a process shift of 10% from nominal.

  5. The Multidimensional Card Selection Task: A new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjarny, Gal; Kamawar, Deepthi; Andrews, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Most executive function research examining preschoolers' cognitive flexibility, the ability to think about something in more than one way, has focused on preschoolers' facility for sequentially switching their attention from one dimension to another (e.g., sorting bivalent cards first by color and then by shape). We know very little about preschoolers' ability to coordinate more than one dimension simultaneously (concurrent cognitive flexibility). Here we report on a new task, the Multidimensional Card Selection Task, which was designed to measure children's ability to consider two dimensions, and then three dimensions, concurrently (e.g., shape and size, and then shape, size, and color). More than half of the preschoolers in our sample of 107 (50 3-year-olds and 57 4-year-olds) could coordinate three dimensions simultaneously and consistently across three test trials. Furthermore, performance on the Multidimensional Card Selection Task was related, but not identical, to performance on other cognitive tasks, including a widely used measure of switching cognitive flexibility (the Dimensional Change Card Sort). The Multidimensional Card Selection Task provides a new way to measure concurrent cognitive flexibility in preschoolers, and opens another avenue for exploring the emergence of early cognitive flexibility development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectral Collection of Polyethylene Pellets at nearly Cryogenic Temperature to Improve Selectivity of Raman Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Saetbyeol; Lee, Sanguk; Hwang, Jinyoung; Chung, Hoeil

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used for analysis of diverse polymer samples. Normally, Raman spectral collection of samples is routinely performed at room temperature for convenience. However, the feasibility of improving spectral selectivity and the resulting quantitative accuracy, when samples are measured at nearly cryogenic temperature, has not been investigated. For this purpose, we attempted to measure the density of polyethylene (PE) pellets at cryogenic temperatures and the resulting accuracies were compared with that from room temperature measurement. Initially, each of 25 PE sample was allowed to cool down to cryogenic temperature and the corresponding Raman spectra were continuously collected while the temperature of sample increased. When the temperature of sample was at cryogenic temperature, the resulting band widths were narrower compared to those at room temperature, thereby improving the accuracy of density measurement. In overall, the proposed Raman scheme is simple and efficient; therefore, it could be further applied for analysis of other polymers.

  7. Ultra-small time-delay estimation via a weak measurement technique with post-selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chen; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Yu, Yang; Li, Qinzheng; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Weak measurement is a novel technique for parameter estimation with higher precision. In this paper we develop a general theory for the parameter estimation based on a weak measurement technique with arbitrary post-selection. The weak-value amplification model and the joint weak measurement model are two special cases in our theory. Applying the developed theory, time-delay estimation is investigated in both theory and experiments. The experimental results show that when the time delay is ultra-small, the joint weak measurement scheme outperforms the weak-value amplification scheme, and is robust against not only misalignment errors but also the wavelength dependence of the optical components. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions that have not been previously verified by any experiment. (paper)

  8. Demonstration of Key Elements of a Dual Phase Argon Detection System Suitable for Measurement of Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, B; Celeste, W; Christian, H; Wolfgang, S; Norman, M

    2007-01-01

    This feasibility study sought to demonstrate several necessary steps in a research program whose ultimate goal is to detect coherent scattering of reactor antineutrinos in dual-phase noble liquid detectors. By constructing and operating a Argon gas-phase drift and scintillation test-bed, the study confirmed important expectations about sensitivity of these detectors, and thereby met the goals set forth in our original proposal. This work has resulted in a successful Lab-Wide LDRD for design and deployment of a coherent scatter detector at a nuclear reactor, and strong interest by DOE Office of Science. In recent years, researchers at LLNL and elsewhere have converged on a design approach for a new generation of very low noise, low background particle detectors known as two-phase noble liquid/noble gas ionization detectors. This versatile class of detector can be used to detect coherent neutrino scattering-an as yet unmeasured prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. Using the dual phase technology, our group would be the first to verify the existence of this process. Its (non)detection would (refute)validate central tenets of the Standard Model. The existence of this process is also important in astrophysics, where coherent neutrino scattering is assumed to play an important role in energy transport within nascent neutron stars. The potential scientific impact after discovery of coherent neutrino-nuclear scattering is large. This phenomenon is flavor-blind (equal cross-sections of interaction for all three neutrino types), raising the possibility that coherent scatter detectors could be used as total flux monitors in future neutrino oscillation experiments. Such a detector could also be used to measure the flavor-blind neutrino spectrum from the next nearby (d ∼ 10kpc) type Ia supernova explosion. The predicted number of events [integrated over explosion time] for a proposed dual-phase argon coherent neutrino scattering detector is 10000 nuclear

  9. The impact of precise robotic lesion length measurement on stent length selection: ramifications for stent savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul T; Kruse, Kevin R; Kroll, Christopher R; Patterson, Janet Y; Esposito, Michele J

    2015-09-01

    Coronary stent deployment outcomes can be negatively impacted by inaccurate lesion measurement and inappropriate stent length selection (SLS). We compared visual estimate of these parameters to those provided by the CorPath 200® Robotic PCI System. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary stent placement utilizing the CorPath System were evaluated. The treating physician assessed orthogonal images and provided visual estimates of lesion length and SLS. The robotic system was then used for the same measures. SLS was considered to be accurate when visual estimate and robotic measures were in agreement. Visual estimate SLSs were considered to be "short" or "long" if they were below or above the robotic-selected stents, respectively. Only 35% (21/60) of visually estimated lesions resulted in accurate SLS, whereas 33% (20/60) and 32% (19/60) of the visually estimated SLSs were long and short, respectively. In 5 cases (8.3%), 1 less stent was placed based on the robotic lesion measurement being shorter than the visual estimate. Visual estimate assessment of lesion length and SLS is highly variable with 65% of the cases being inaccurately measured when compared to objective measures obtained from the robotic system. The 32% of the cases where lesions were visually estimated to be short represents cases that often require the use of extra stents after the full lesion is not covered by 1 stent [longitudinal geographic miss (LGM)]. Further, these data showed that the use of the robotic system prevented the use of extra stents in 8.3% of the cases. Measurement of lesions with robotic PCI may reduce measurement errors, need for extra stents, and LGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  11. Self-Report Measures of the Home Learning Environment in Large Scale Research: Measurement Properties and Associations with Key Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…

  12. Model selection for marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data with missing observations and covariate measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Missing observations and covariate measurement error commonly arise in longitudinal data. However, existing methods for model selection in marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data fail to address the potential bias resulting from these issues. To tackle this problem, we propose a new model selection criterion, the Generalized Longitudinal Information Criterion, which is based on an approximately unbiased estimator for the expected quadratic error of a considered marginal model accounting for both data missingness and covariate measurement error. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method performs quite well in the presence of missing data and covariate measurement error. On the contrary, the naive procedures without taking care of such complexity in data may perform quite poorly. The proposed method is applied to data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to assess the relationship of depression with health and social status in the elderly, accommodating measurement error in the covariate as well as missing observations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A Selected Review of the Underpinnings of Ethics for Human Performance Technology Professionals--Part One: Key Ethical Theories and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a review of the key ethical theories and relevant empirical research relating to the practice of human performance technology. Topics addressed include ethics, morals, business ethics, ethics officers, empiricism versus normative ethical theory, consequentialism, utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism, Kohlberg model of cognitive moral…

  14. Gene selection and classification for cancer microarray data based on machine learning and similarity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qingzhong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data have a high dimension of variables and a small sample size. In microarray data analyses, two important issues are how to choose genes, which provide reliable and good prediction for disease status, and how to determine the final gene set that is best for classification. Associations among genetic markers mean one can exploit information redundancy to potentially reduce classification cost in terms of time and money. Results To deal with redundant information and improve classification, we propose a gene selection method, Recursive Feature Addition, which combines supervised learning and statistical similarity measures. To determine the final optimal gene set for prediction and classification, we propose an algorithm, Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization. By using six benchmark microarray gene expression data sets, we compared Recursive Feature Addition with recently developed gene selection methods: Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination, Leave-One-Out Calculation Sequential Forward Selection and several others. Conclusions On average, with the use of popular learning machines including Nearest Mean Scaled Classifier, Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes Classifier and Random Forest, Recursive Feature Addition outperformed other methods. Our studies also showed that Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization is superior to random strategy; Recursive Feature Addition with Lagging Prediction Peephole Optimization obtained better testing accuracies than the gene selection method varSelRF.

  15. Sensorineural hearing loss degrades behavioral and physiological measures of human spatial selective auditory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lengshi; Best, Virginia; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2018-01-01

    Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss often have trouble understanding speech amid other voices. While poor spatial hearing is often implicated, direct evidence is weak; moreover, studies suggest that reduced audibility and degraded spectrotemporal coding may explain such problems. We hypothesized that poor spatial acuity leads to difficulty deploying selective attention, which normally filters out distracting sounds. In listeners with normal hearing, selective attention causes changes in the neural responses evoked by competing sounds, which can be used to quantify the effectiveness of attentional control. Here, we used behavior and electroencephalography to explore whether control of selective auditory attention is degraded in hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. Normal-hearing (NH) and HI listeners identified a simple melody presented simultaneously with two competing melodies, each simulated from different lateral angles. We quantified performance and attentional modulation of cortical responses evoked by these competing streams. Compared with NH listeners, HI listeners had poorer sensitivity to spatial cues, performed more poorly on the selective attention task, and showed less robust attentional modulation of cortical responses. Moreover, across NH and HI individuals, these measures were correlated. While both groups showed cortical suppression of distracting streams, this modulation was weaker in HI listeners, especially when attending to a target at midline, surrounded by competing streams. These findings suggest that hearing loss interferes with the ability to filter out sound sources based on location, contributing to communication difficulties in social situations. These findings also have implications for technologies aiming to use neural signals to guide hearing aid processing. PMID:29555752

  16. Understanding key performance indicators for breast support: An analysis of breast support effects on biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Debbie; Milligan, Alexandra; Berns, Jason; Brown, Nicola; Scurr, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of breast support previous studies monitored breast kinematics and kinetics, subjective feedback, muscle activity (EMG), ground reaction forces (GRFs) and physiological measures in isolation. Comparing these variables within one study will establish the key performance variables that distinguish between breast supports during activities such as running. This study investigates the effects of changes in breast support on biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures during running. Ten females (34D) ran for 10 min in high and low breast supports, and for 2 min bare breasted (2.8 m·s -1 ). Breast and body kinematics, EMG, expired air and heart rate were recorded. GRFs were recorded during 10 m overground runs (2.8 m·s -1 ) and subjective feedback obtained after each condition. Of the 62 variables measured, 22 kinematic and subjective variables were influenced by changes in breast support. Willingness to exercise, time lag and superio-inferior breast velocity were most affected. GRFs, EMG and physiological variables were unaffected by breast support changes during running. Breast displacement reduction, although previously advocated, was not the most sensitive variable to breast support changes during running. Instead breast support products should be assessed using a battery of performance indicators, including the key kinematic and subjective variables identified here.

  17. Procedural Factors That Affect Psychophysical Measures of Spatial Selectivity in Cochlear Implant Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cosentino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral measures of spatial selectivity in cochlear implants are important both for guiding the programing of individual users’ implants and for the evaluation of different stimulation methods. However, the methods used are subject to a number of confounding factors that can contaminate estimates of spatial selectivity. These factors include off-site listening, charge interactions between masker and probe pulses in interleaved masking paradigms, and confusion effects in forward masking. We review the effects of these confounds and discuss methods for minimizing them. We describe one such method in which the level of a 125-pps masker is adjusted so as to mask a 125-pps probe, and where the masker and probe pulses are temporally interleaved. Five experiments describe the method and evaluate the potential roles of the different potential confounding factors. No evidence was obtained for off-site listening of the type observed in acoustic hearing. The choice of the masking paradigm was shown to alter the measured spatial selectivity. For short gaps between masker and probe pulses, both facilitation and refractory mechanisms had an effect on masking; this finding should inform the choice of stimulation rate in interleaved masking experiments. No evidence for confusion effects in forward masking was revealed. It is concluded that the proposed method avoids many potential confounds but that the choice of method should depend on the research question under investigation.

  18. Guidelines and Criteria for the Search Strategy, Evaluation, Selection, and Documentation of Key Data and Supporting Data Used for the Derivation of AEGL Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is Section 2.3 of the Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Chemicals. It discusses methodologies used to search for and select data for development of AEGL values.

  19. Quantum to Classical Transitions via Weak Measurements and Post-Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eliahu; Aharonov, Yakir

    Alongside its immense empirical success, the quantum mechanical account of physical systems imposes a myriad of divergences from our thoroughly ingrained classical ways of thinking. These divergences, while striking, would have been acceptable if only a continuous transition to the classical domain was at hand. Strangely, this is not quite the case. The difficulties involved in reconciling the quantum with the classical have given rise to different interpretations, each with its own shortcomings. Traditionally, the two domains are sewed together by invoking an ad hoc theory of measurement, which has been incorporated in the axiomatic foundations of quantum theory. This work will incorporate a few related tools for addressing the above conceptual difficulties: deterministic operators, weak measurements, and post-selection. Weak Measurement, based on a very weak von Neumann coupling, is a unique kind of quantum measurement with numerous theoretical and practical applications. In contrast to other measurement techniques, it allows to gather a small amount of information regarding the quantum system, with only a negligible probability of collapsing it onto an eigenstate of the measured observable. A single weak measurement yieldsan almost random outcome, but when performed repeatedly over a large ensemble, the averaged outcome becomes increasingly robust and accurate. Importantly, a long sequence of weak measurements can be thought of as a single projective measurement. We claim in this work that classical variables appearing in the o-world, such as center of mass, moment of inertia, pressure, and average forces, result from a multitude of quantum weak measurements performed in the micro-world. Here again, the quantum outcomes are highly uncertain, but the law of large numbers obliges their convergence to the definite quantities we know from our everyday lives. By augmenting this description with a final boundary condition and employing the notion of "classical

  20. Selecting quantitative water management measures at the river basin scale in a global change context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Caballero, Yvan; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the European Union is the definition of programme of measures to reach the good status of the European water bodies. In areas where water scarcity is an issue, one of these challenges is the selection of water conservation and capacity expansion measures to ensure minimum environmental in-stream flow requirements. At the same time, the WFD calls for the use of economic analysis to identify the most cost-effective combination of measures at the river basin scale to achieve its objective. With this respect, hydro-economic river basin models, by integrating economics, environmental and hydrological aspects at the river basin scale in a consistent framework, represent a promising approach. This article presents a least-cost river basin optimization model (LCRBOM) that selects the combination of quantitative water management measures to meet environmental flows for future scenarios of agricultural and urban demand taken into account the impact of the climate change. The model has been implemented in a case study on a Mediterranean basin in the south of France, the Orb River basin. The water basin has been identified as in need for quantitative water management measures in order to reach the good status of its water bodies. The LCRBOM has been developed using GAMS, applying Mixed Integer Linear Programming. It is run to select the set of measures that minimizes the total annualized cost of the applied measures, while meeting the demands and minimum in-stream flow constraints. For the economic analysis, the programme of measures is composed of water conservation measures on agricultural and urban water demands. It compares them with measures mobilizing new water resources coming from groundwater, inter-basin transfers and improvement in reservoir operating rules. The total annual cost of each measure is calculated for each demand unit considering operation, maintenance and

  1. The measurement of acetanilide in plasma by spectrophotometric and selected ion monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, J D; Playfer, J; Evans, D A; Lamb, J

    1977-08-01

    Plasma samples from volunteers who had received an oral dose of acetanilide have been analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and ultraviolet absorption techniques. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry method involved extraction of the plasma and analysis of the acetanilide using selected ion monitoring with a deuterated internal standard. In the ultraviolet method the plasma was hydrolysed with acid to convert the acetanilide to aniline, and this compound was diazotized and coupled with N-1-naphthylethylene-diamine. The absorbance of the resulting complex was read at 550 nm. Acetanilide levels in plasma determined by the selected ion monitoring method were significantly lower than those measured by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic data calculated from the results obtained using these two assays are very different and illustrate the need for an accurate and specific method of analysis. The major metabolites of acetanilide are shown not to interfere with these assays and the results suggest the possible presence of a new metabolite of acetanilide.

  2. Selection of violent collisions by means of a neutron calorimeter for interferometry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, C.; Sezac, L.

    1993-01-01

    Two-particle correlation measurements can be used to study heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy to obtain information on the space-time characteristics of the emitting source as well as on the temperature deduced from the population of excited states. Improvement in this approach can be obtained by selecting the involved impact parameter interval. An experiment is described, in which a 208 Pb beam at 29 MeV per nucleon on a 93 Nb target was used. The aim of the experiment is to choose experimental conditions to observe mainly light particle correlations coming from heavy equilibrated quasi-projectile nuclei and to sort the events in several intervals of reaction violence. It is demonstrated that one can use a high efficiency 4π neutron detector as a calorimeter and gain with such an instrument high selectivity on the violence of a collision. (K.A.) 17 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  3. [Selection of medical students : Measurement of cognitive abilities and psychosocial competencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwibbe, Anja; Lackamp, Janina; Knorr, Mirjana; Hissbach, Johanna; Kadmon, Martina; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2018-02-01

    The German Constitutional Court is currently reviewing whether the actual study admission process in medicine is compatible with the constitutional right of freedom of profession, since applicants without an excellent GPA usually have to wait for seven years. If the admission system is changed, politicians would like to increase the influence of psychosocial criteria on selection as specified by the Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020.What experiences have been made with the actual selection procedures? How could Situational Judgement Tests contribute to the validity of future selection procedures to German medical schools?High school GPA is the best predictor of study performance, but is more and more under discussion due to the lack of comparability between states and schools and the growing number of applicants with top grades. Aptitude and knowledge tests, especially in the natural sciences, show incremental validity in predicting study performance. The measurement of psychosocial competencies with traditional interviews shows rather low reliability and validity. The more reliable multiple mini-interviews are superior in predicting practical study performance. Situational judgement tests (SJTs) used abroad are regarded as reliable and valid; the correlation of a German SJT piloted in Hamburg with the multiple mini-interview is cautiously encouraging.A model proposed by the Medizinischer Fakultätentag and the Bundesvertretung der Medizinstudierenden considers these results. Student selection is proposed to be based on a combination of high school GPA (40%) and a cognitive test (40%) as well as an SJT (10%) and job experience (10%). Furthermore, the faculties still have the option to carry out specific selection procedures.

  4. Predictive power of Brazilian equity fund performance using R2 as a measure of selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Guzella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aimed to investigate the impact of levels of selectivity on the performance of equity funds using a methodology applied for the first time ever (as far as we know in the Brazilian market. As an indicator of the activity level of a fund, we proposed the coefficient of determination (R2 of the regression of its returns over market returns. In total, 867 funds were analyzed in the period between November 2004 and October 2014. The hypothesis tested is that more selective funds perform better to compensate for their higher operating costs. This hypothesis was confirmed in the Brazilian market. Dynamic equally-weighted portfolios of funds were simulated, according to their past R2 and alphas, with monthly rebalancing and 12-month moving windows. The portfolio of the most selective funds had a Sharpe ratio of 0.0494, on a monthly basis, while the portfolio of the least selective funds had a Sharpe ratio of -0.0314. Performance was also higher in evaluations involving excess returns, Jensen’s alpha, and accumulated returns, as well as when compared to randomly selected portfolios. Moreover, past performance (as measured by Jensen’s alpha was also a predictor of future performance. Particularly, the portfolio composed by funds with a higher past alpha and lower past R2 presented a Sharpe ratio of 0.1483 and a Jensen’s alpha of 0.87% (significant at 1%, while the one composed of funds with a lower past alpha and lower activity level presented a Sharpe ratio of -0.0673 and an alpha of -0.32% (also significant at 1%.

  5. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  6. Automated method for measuring the extent of selective logging damage with airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendy, L.; Hagen, S. C.; Sullivan, F. B.; Pearson, T. R. H.; Walker, S. M.; Ellis, P.; Kustiyo; Sambodo, Ari Katmoko; Roswintiarti, O.; Hanson, M. A.; Klassen, A. W.; Palace, M. W.; Braswell, B. H.; Delgado, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    Selective logging has an impact on the global carbon cycle, as well as on the forest micro-climate, and longer-term changes in erosion, soil and nutrient cycling, and fire susceptibility. Our ability to quantify these impacts is dependent on methods and tools that accurately identify the extent and features of logging activity. LiDAR-based measurements of these features offers significant promise. Here, we present a set of algorithms for automated detection and mapping of critical features associated with logging - roads/decks, skid trails, and gaps - using commercial airborne LiDAR data as input. The automated algorithm was applied to commercial LiDAR data collected over two logging concessions in Kalimantan, Indonesia in 2014. The algorithm results were compared to measurements of the logging features collected in the field soon after logging was complete. The automated algorithm-mapped road/deck and skid trail features match closely with features measured in the field, with agreement levels ranging from 69% to 99% when adjusting for GPS location error. The algorithm performed most poorly with gaps, which, by their nature, are variable due to the unpredictable impact of tree fall versus the linear and regular features directly created by mechanical means. Overall, the automated algorithm performs well and offers significant promise as a generalizable tool useful to efficiently and accurately capture the effects of selective logging, including the potential to distinguish reduced impact logging from conventional logging.

  7. Key Ingredients-Target Groups, Methods and Messages, and Evaluation-of Local-Level, Public Interventions to Counter Stigma and Discrimination: A Lived Experience Informed Selective Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Laura J; Gordon, Sarah E; Reeves, Racheal A

    2018-04-01

    A proliferation of recent literature provides substantial direction as to the key ingredients-target groups, messages and methods, and evaluation-of local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination. This paper provides a selective narrative review of that literature from the perspective or standpoint of anti-stigma experts with lived experience of mental distress, the key findings of which have been synthesised and presented in diagrammatic overviews (infographics). These are intended to guide providers in planning, delivering and evaluating lived experience-directed local-level, public interventions to counter stigma and discrimination in accord with current best practice.

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of APMP.T-K6 (original name APMP-IC-1-97): Comparison of humidity measurements using a dew point meter as a transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Takahashi, C.; Hussain, F.; Hong, Yi; Nham, H. S.; Chan, K. H.; Lee, L. T.; Chahine, K.

    2007-01-01

    This APMP key comparison of humidity measurements using a dew point meter as a transfer standard was carried out among eight national metrology institutes from February 1999 to January 2001. The NMC/SPRING, Singapore was the pilot laboratory and a chilled mirror dew point meter offered by NMIJ was used as a transfer standard. The transfer standard was calibrated by each participating institute against local humidity standards in terms of frost and dew point temperature. Each institute selected its frost/dew point temperature calibration points within the range from -70 °C to 20 °C frost/dew point with 5 °C step. The majority of participating institutes measured from -60 °C to 20 °C frost/dew point and a simple mean evaluation was performed in this range. The differences between the institute values and the simple means for all participating institutes are within two standard deviations from the mean values. Bilateral equivalence was analysed in terms of pair difference and single parameter Quantified Demonstrated Equivalence. The results are presented in the report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Stroop Color-Word Test: A Screening Measure of Selective Attention to Differentiate LD From Non LD Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Philip J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Used the Stroop Color-Word Test to measure selective attention in learning disabled (N=45) and nonLD (N=50) children. Results indicated that LD children have a significant weakness in the process of selective attention compared to the nonLD children. Findings suggested that the Stroop is an effective screening measure. (JAC)

  10. Selected environmental considerations and their measuring parameters for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The site selection process for nuclear power stations encompasses a broad range of considerations. A categorization of these considerations consistent with the needs of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, as the regulatory agency, and of the utility company involves these major areas of concern. They are issues related to safety, environmental impact, and engineering/economics. The more important environmental considerations and their measuring parameters presented in this paper include biota, ecological systems and water quality, land use, aesthetics, water availability, and meteorology. (U.S.)

  11. Thin film thickness measurement error reduction by wavelength selection in spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsepulin, Vladimir G; Perchik, Alexey V; Tolstoguzov, Victor L; Karasik, Valeriy E

    2015-01-01

    Fast and accurate volumetric profilometry of thin film structures is an important problem in the electronic visual display industry. We propose to use spectrophotometry with a limited number of working wavelengths to achieve high-speed control and an approach to selecting the optimal working wavelengths to reduce the thickness measurement error. A simple expression for error estimation is presented and tested using a Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental setup is designed to confirm the stability of film thickness determination using a limited number of wavelengths

  12. Selection of the ''best'' model for converting beta backscatter count readings into thickness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiriga, N.G.

    1976-01-01

    This report compares two models for converting beta backscatter count readings into thickness measurements. The necessary formulas to be used in an unweighted and weighted regression analysis are listed. The question of whether one should perform a regression analysis using the five available standard thicknesses or whether one should, in addition to these standard thicknesses, use zero as a standard thickness is decided. A weighted regression analysis is compared with an unweighted one for each model. The ''best'' model is selected, and the conclusions of the analysis are presented

  13. Robust portfolio selection based on asymmetric measures of variability of stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tan, Shaohua

    2009-10-01

    This paper addresses a new uncertainty set--interval random uncertainty set for robust optimization. The form of interval random uncertainty set makes it suitable for capturing the downside and upside deviations of real-world data. These deviation measures capture distributional asymmetry and lead to better optimization results. We also apply our interval random chance-constrained programming to robust mean-variance portfolio selection under interval random uncertainty sets in the elements of mean vector and covariance matrix. Numerical experiments with real market data indicate that our approach results in better portfolio performance.

  14. International key comparison of measurements of neutron source emission rate (1999-2005): CCRI(III)-K9.AmBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, N.J.; Jones, L.N. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, (United Kingdom); Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Rong, C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing (China); Kralik, M. [Czech Metrology Institute (CMI), Praha, (Czech Republic); Park, H.; Choi, K.O. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon, (Korea, Republic of); Pereira, W.W.; Da Fonseca, E.S. [National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI), Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Cassette, P. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Paris, (France); Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD, (United States); Moiseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A. [D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg, (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Section III (neutron measurements) of the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, CCRI, conducted a key comparison of primary measurements of the neutron emission rate of an {sup 241}Am-Be({alpha},n) radionuclide source. A single {sup 241}Am-Be({alpha},n) source was circulated to all the participants between 1999 and 2005. Eight laboratories participated - the CIAE (China), CMI (Czech Republic), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LNMRI (Brazil), LNE-LNHB (France), NIST (USA), NPL (UK) and the VNIIM (Russian Federation) - with the NPL making their measurements at the start and repeating them near the end of the exercise to verify the stability of the source. Each laboratory reported the emission rate into 4{pi} sr together with a detailed uncertainty budget. All participants used the manganese bath technique, with the VNIIM also making measurements using an associated particle technique. The CMI, KRISS, VNIIM, and later the NPL, also measured the anisotropy of the source although this was not a formal part of the comparison. The first draft report was released in May 2006 and having been discussed and modified by the participants and subsequently reviewed by the CCRI(III), the present paper is now the final report of the comparison. (authors)

  15. Sensitivities of Key Parameters in the Preparation of Silver/Silver Chloride Electrodes Used in Harned Cell Measurements of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. C. Brown

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was completed by fourteen world leading national metrology institutes to study the influence of several variables in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes on the accuracy of Harned cell measurements of pH. The performance of each institute in the last decade has been assessed based on their results in eight key comparisons, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance, involving the measurement of pH of phosphate, phthalate, carbonate, borate and tetroxalate buffer solutions. The performance of each laboratory has been correlated to the results of the questionnaire to determine the critical parameters in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes and their sensitivities with respect to the accuracy of pH measurement. This study reveals that the parameters most closely correlated to performance in comparisons are area of electrode wire exposed to the electrolyte, diameter and porosity of the Ag sphere prior to anodisation, amount of Ag converted to AgCl during anodisation, stability times employed for electrodes to reach equilibrium in solution prior to measurement, electrode rejection criteria employed and purity of reagents.

  16. Frequency Selection for Multi-frequency Acoustic Measurement of Suspended Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; HO, H.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-frequency acoustic measurement of suspended sediment has found successful applications in marine and fluvial environments. Difficult challenges remain in regard to improving its effectiveness and efficiency when applied to high concentrations and wide size distributions in rivers. We performed a multi-frequency acoustic scattering experiment in a cylindrical tank with a suspension of natural sands. The sands range from 50 to 600 μm in diameter with a lognormal size distribution. The bulk concentration of suspended sediment varied from 1.0 to 12.0 g/L. We found that the commonly used linear relationship between the intensity of acoustic backscatter and suspended sediment concentration holds only at sufficiently low concentrations, for instance below 3.0 g/L. It fails at a critical value of concentration that depends on measurement frequency and the distance between the transducer and the target point. Instead, an exponential relationship was found to work satisfactorily throughout the entire range of concentration. The coefficient and exponent of the exponential function changed, however, with the measuring frequency and distance. Considering the increased complexity of inverting the concentration values when an exponential relationship prevails, we further analyzed the relationship between measurement error and measuring frequency. It was also found that the inversion error may be effectively controlled within 5% if the frequency is properly set. Compared with concentration, grain size was found to heavily affect the selection of optimum frequency. A regression relationship for optimum frequency versus grain size was developed based on the experimental results.

  17. Measurement of the top-quark mass with dilepton events selected using neuroevolution at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shekhar, R; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Whiteson, S; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-04-17

    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass M_{t} in the dilepton decay channel tt[over ] --> bl;{'+} nu_{l};{'}b[over ]l;{-}nu[over ]_{l}. Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top-quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top-quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb;{-1} of pp[over ] collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M_{t} = 171.2 +/- 2.7(stat) +/- 2.9(syst) GeV / c;{2}.

  18. Measurement of the top quark mass with dilepton events selected using neuroevolution at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; Tsukuba U.; Albrow, M.G.; Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Cantabria U., Santander; Amerio, S.; Padua U.; Amidei, D.; Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; Frascati; Antos, J.; Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top quark mass M t in the dilepton decay channel t(bar t) to b(ell)(prime) + ν(prime) # ell# (bar b)(ell) - (bar ν) # ell#. Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb -1 of p(bar p) collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M t = 171.2 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 2.9(syst.) GeV/c 2

  19. Measurement of the Top-Quark Mass with Dilepton Events Selected Using Neuroevolution at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Maki, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Kim, Y. K.; Krop, D.; Kwang, S.; Paramonov, A. A.; Schmidt, M. A.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Wolfe, C.; Yang, U. K.

    2009-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass M t in the dilepton decay channel tt→bl '+ ν l ' bl - ν l . Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top-quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top-quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb -1 of pp collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M t =171.2±2.7(stat)±2.9(syst) GeV/c 2

  20. Savings from controlled measurement operations during the selection of the methods of intensifying inflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluden, I A

    1979-01-01

    Investigation was made of the effectiveness of the information preservation of problems on the selection of the methods of the intensification of the extraction of petroleum. On the basis of the methodology on the determination of the operational outlay for each well and the cost of the extraction of petroleum which was worked out by the All-Union Science Research Institute for Gas, the formulae concerning the dependence of the cost on the output of the wells is generalized for the case of flooded wells. Formulae are presented, which are suitable for the calculation of the savings on the application of the methods of intensifying extraction. The output of the wells is examined as a random value. Formulae are deduced for the density of the reliability and the function of the distribution of the cost of the extraction of petroleum per well, and a graph of this function of determination is given. The necessity of taking into consideration the error of the dimensions of measurements of the output of the wells in the calculations is pointed out. This error leads in practice to significant errors in the selection of intensification methods and the evaluation of its effectiveness, which in the last analysis has a significant economic disadvantage. Recommendations are made for showing the elimination of this disadvantage by rational organization of the measurement control operations. A graph is made for the dependence between the duration of the measurements of the outputs of the wells and their frequency per month (periodicity) with various outputs of wells for the case when the error of the measurements of the yields does not exceed /sub +//sub -/5%.

  1. Source selection for cluster weak lensing measurements in the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Speagle, Joshua S.; Miyatake, Hironao; Umetsu, Keiichi; Leauthaud, Alexie; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Strauss, Michael A.; Huang, Song; Simet, Melanie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2018-03-01

    We present optimized source galaxy selection schemes for measuring cluster weak lensing (WL) mass profiles unaffected by cluster member dilution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP). The ongoing HSC-SSP survey will uncover thousands of galaxy clusters to z ≲ 1.5. In deriving cluster masses via WL, a critical source of systematics is contamination and dilution of the lensing signal by cluster members, and by foreground galaxies whose photometric redshifts are biased. Using the first-year CAMIRA catalog of ˜900 clusters with richness larger than 20 found in ˜140 deg2 of HSC-SSP data, we devise and compare several source selection methods, including selection in color-color space (CC-cut), and selection of robust photometric redshifts by applying constraints on their cumulative probability distribution function (P-cut). We examine the dependence of the contamination on the chosen limits adopted for each method. Using the proper limits, these methods give mass profiles with minimal dilution in agreement with one another. We find that not adopting either the CC-cut or P-cut methods results in an underestimation of the total cluster mass (13% ± 4%) and the concentration of the profile (24% ± 11%). The level of cluster contamination can reach as high as ˜10% at R ≈ 0.24 Mpc/h for low-z clusters without cuts, while employing either the P-cut or CC-cut results in cluster contamination consistent with zero to within the 0.5% uncertainties. Our robust methods yield a ˜60 σ detection of the stacked CAMIRA surface mass density profile, with a mean mass of M200c = [1.67 ± 0.05(stat)] × 1014 M⊙/h.

  2. Uniformity index measurement technology using thermocouples to improve performance in urea-selective catalytic reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Oh, Jungmo

    2018-05-01

    The current commonly used nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction techniques employ hydrocarbons (HCs), urea solutions, and exhaust gas emissions as the reductants. Two of the primary denitrification NOx (DeNOx) catalyst systems are the HC-lean NOx trap (HC-LNT) catalyst and urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) catalyst. The secondary injection method depends on the type of injector, injection pressure, atomization, and spraying technique. In addition, the catalyst reaction efficiency is directly affected by the distribution of injectors; hence, the uniformity index (UI) of the reductant is very important and is the basis for system optimization. The UI of the reductant is an indicator of the NOx conversion efficiency (NCE), and good UI values can reduce the need for a catalyst. Therefore, improving the UI can reduce the cost of producing a catalytic converter, which are expensive due to the high prices of the precious metals contained therein. Accordingly, measurement of the UI is an important process in the development of catalytic systems. Two of the commonly used methods for measuring the reductant UI are (i) measuring the exhaust emissions at many points located upstream/downstream of the catalytic converter and (ii) acquisition of a reductant distribution image on a section of the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalytic converter. The purpose of this study is to develop a system and measurement algorithms to measure the exothermic response distribution in the exhaust gas as the reductant passes through the catalytic converter of the SCR catalyst system using a set of thermocouples downstream of the SCR catalyst. The system is used to measure the reductant UI, which is applied in real-time to the actual SCR system, and the results are compared for various types of mixtures for various engine operating conditions and mixer types in terms of NCE.

  3. Technical Note: Response measurement for select radiation detectors in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M., E-mail: michaelreynolds@ualberta.net [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rathee, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division,University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose response to applied magnetic fields for ion chambers and solid state detectors has been investigated previously for the anticipated use in linear accelerator–magnetic resonance devices. In this investigation, the authors present the measured response of selected radiation detectors when the magnetic field is applied in the same direction as the radiation beam, i.e., a longitudinal magnetic field, to verify previous simulation only data. Methods: The dose response of a PR06C ion chamber, PTW60003 diamond detector, and IBA PFD diode detector is measured in a longitudinal magnetic field. The detectors are irradiated with buildup caps and their long axes either parallel or perpendicular to the incident photon beam. In each case, the magnetic field dose response is reported as the ratio of detector signals with to that without an applied longitudinal magnetic field. The magnetic field dose response for each unique orientation as a function of magnetic field strength was then compared to the previous simulation only studies. Results: The measured dose response of each detector in longitudinal magnetic fields shows no discernable response up to near 0.21 T. This result was expected and matches the previously published simulation only results, showing no appreciable dose response with magnetic field. Conclusions: Low field longitudinal magnetic fields have been shown to have little or no effect on the dose response of the detectors investigated and further lend credibility to previous simulation only studies.

  4. Selective two-photon collagen crosslinking in situ measured by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Myunghwan; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon polymerization and crosslinking are commonly used methods for microfabrication of three-dimensional structures with applications spanning from photonic microdevices, drug delivery systems, to cellular scaffolds. However, the use of two-photon processes for precise, internal modification of biological tissues has not yet been reported. One of the major challenges has been a lack of appropriate tools to monitor and characterize crosslinked regions nondestructively. Here, we demonstrate spatially selective two-photon collagen crosslinking (2P-CXL) in intact tissue for the first time. Using riboflavin photosensitizer and femtosecond laser irradiation, we crosslinked a small volume of tissue within animal corneas. Collagen fiber orientations and photobleaching were characterized by second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence imaging, respectively. Using confocal Brillouin microscopy, we measured local changes in longitudinal mechanical moduli and visualized the cross-linked pattern without perturbing surrounding non-irradiated regions. 2P-CXL-induced tissue stiffening was comparable to that achieved with conventional one-photon CXL. Our results demonstrate the ability to selectively stiffen biological tissue in situ at high spatial resolution, with broad implications in ophthalmology, laser surgery, and tissue engineering.

  5. Criteria for selecting measures of plant information with application to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, T.; Sheridan, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Criteria for selecting from alternative measures of plant information have been derived by information theory and the expected-value model of decision theory. Two criteria derived by information theory are minimum ''uncertainty'' of judgement of plant states, and maximum ''surprise'' of human operators. Two criteria derived by decision theory are maximum expected reward to operators, and maximum ratio of the maximum and next-to-maximum expected rewards. These four criteria have been evaluated experimentally in application to human monitoring problems of three ''plants'': an abstract laboratory exercise, a small research reactor, and a conventional nuclear power plant (high-fidelity training simulator). The results show that the criteria derived by decision theory are superior to the others from the viewpoint of correct rate of human subjects' judgement

  6. Measuring Knowledge of Natural Selection: A Comparison of the CINS, an Open-Response Instrument, and an Oral Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2008-01-01

    Growing recognition of the central importance of fostering an in-depth understanding of natural selection has, surprisingly, failed to stimulate work on the development and rigorous evaluation of instruments that measure knowledge of it. We used three different methodological tools, the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS), a modified…

  7. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  8. Routine educational outcome measures in health studies: Key Stage 1 in the ORACLE Children Study follow-up of randomised trial cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David R; Pike, Katie; Kenyon, Sara; Pike, Laura; Henderson, Brian; Brocklehurst, Peter; Marlow, Neil; Salt, Alison; Taylor, David J

    2011-01-01

    Statutory educational attainment measures are rarely used as health study outcomes, but Key Stage 1 (KS1) data formed secondary outcomes in the long-term follow-up to age 7 years of the ORACLE II trial of antibiotic use in preterm babies. This paper describes the approach, compares different approaches to analysis of the KS1 data and compares use of summary KS1 (level) data with use of individual question scores. 3394 children born to women in the ORACLE Children Study and resident in England at age 7. Analysis of educational achievement measured by national end of KS1 data (KS1) using Poisson regression modelling and anchoring of the KS1 data using external standards. KS1 summary level data were obtained for 3239 (95%) eligible children; raw individual question scores were obtained for 1899 (54%). Use of individual question scores where available did not change the conclusion of no evidence of treatment effects based on summary KS1 outcome data. When accessible for medical research purposes, routinely collected educational outcome data may have advantages of low cost and standardised definition. Here, summary scores lead to similar conclusions to raw (individual question) scores and so are attractive and cost-effective alternatives.

  9. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  10. Selection of entropy-measure parameters for knowledge discovery in heart rate variability data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christopher C; Bachler, Martin; Hörtenhuber, Matthias; Stocker, Christof; Holzinger, Andreas; Wassertheurer, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability is the variation of the time interval between consecutive heartbeats. Entropy is a commonly used tool to describe the regularity of data sets. Entropy functions are defined using multiple parameters, the selection of which is controversial and depends on the intended purpose. This study describes the results of tests conducted to support parameter selection, towards the goal of enabling further biomarker discovery. This study deals with approximate, sample, fuzzy, and fuzzy measure entropies. All data were obtained from PhysioNet, a free-access, on-line archive of physiological signals, and represent various medical conditions. Five tests were defined and conducted to examine the influence of: varying the threshold value r (as multiples of the sample standard deviation σ, or the entropy-maximizing rChon), the data length N, the weighting factors n for fuzzy and fuzzy measure entropies, and the thresholds rF and rL for fuzzy measure entropy. The results were tested for normality using Lilliefors' composite goodness-of-fit test. Consequently, the p-value was calculated with either a two sample t-test or a Wilcoxon rank sum test. The first test shows a cross-over of entropy values with regard to a change of r. Thus, a clear statement that a higher entropy corresponds to a high irregularity is not possible, but is rather an indicator of differences in regularity. N should be at least 200 data points for r = 0.2 σ and should even exceed a length of 1000 for r = rChon. The results for the weighting parameters n for the fuzzy membership function show different behavior when coupled with different r values, therefore the weighting parameters have been chosen independently for the different threshold values. The tests concerning rF and rL showed that there is no optimal choice, but r = rF = rL is reasonable with r = rChon or r = 0.2σ. Some of the tests showed a dependency of the test significance on the data at hand. Nevertheless, as the medical

  11. High Precision Seawater Sr/Ca Measurements in the Florida Keys by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry: Analytical Method and Implications for Coral Paleothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, A.; Kilbourne, K. H.; Schijf, J.

    2017-12-01

    Standard methods of reconstructing past sea surface temperatures (SSTs) with coral skeletal Sr/Ca ratios assume the seawater Sr/Ca ratio is constant. However, there is little data to support this assumption, in part because analytical techniques capable of determining seawater Sr/Ca with sufficient accuracy and precision are expensive and time consuming. We demonstrate a method to measure seawater Sr/Ca using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry where we employ an intensity ratio calibration routine that reduces the self- matrix effects of calcium and cancels out the matrix effects that are common to both calcium and strontium. A seawater standard solution cross-calibrated with multiple instruments is used to correct for long-term instrument drift and any remnant matrix effects. The resulting method produces accurate seawater Sr/Ca determinations rapidly, inexpensively, and with a precision better than 0.2%. This method will make it easier for coral paleoclimatologists to quantify potentially problematic fluctuations in seawater Sr/Ca at their study locations. We apply our method to test for variability in surface seawater Sr/Ca along the Florida Keys Reef Tract. We are collecting winter and summer samples for two years in a grid with eleven nearshore to offshore transects across the reef, as well as continuous samples collected by osmotic pumps at four locations adjacent to our grid. Our initial analysis of the grid samples indicates a trend of decreasing Sr/Ca values offshore potentially due to a decreasing groundwater influence. The values differ by as much as 0.05 mmol/mol which could lead to an error of 1°C in mean SST reconstructions. Future work involves continued sampling in the Florida Keys to test for seasonal and interannual variability in seawater Sr/Ca, as well as collecting data from small reefs in the Virgin Islands to test the stability of seawater Sr/Ca under different geologic, hydrologic and hydrographic environments.

  12. Selection of fiber-optical components for temperature measurement for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.; Koch, A. W.; Hurni, A.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Lemke, N. M. K.

    2017-11-01

    The Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) is a modular system for housekeeping measurements for space applications. The focus here is the fiber-optical module and the used fiber-Bragg gratings (FBGs) for temperature measurements at up to 100 measuring points. The fiber-optial module uses a tunable diode laser to scan through the wavelength spectrum and a passive optical network for reading back the reflections from the FBG sensors. The sensors are based on FBGs which show a temperature dependent shift in wavelength, allowing a high accuracy of measurement. The temperature at each sensor is derivated from the sensors Bragg wavelength shift by evaluating the measured spectrum with an FBG peak detection algorithm and by computing the corresponding temperature difference with regard to the calibration value. It is crucial to eliminate unwanted influence on the measurement accuracy through FBG wavelength shifts caused by other reasons than the temperature change. The paper presents gamma radiation test results up to 25 Mrad for standard UV-written FBGs in a bare fiber and in a mechanically housed version. This high total ionizing dose (TID) load comes from a possible location of the fiber outside the satellite's housing, like e.g. on the panels or directly embedded into the satellites structure. Due to the high shift in wavelength of the standard written gratings also the femto-second infrared (fs- IR) writing technique is investigated in more detail. Special focus is given to the deployed fibers for the external sensor network. These fibers have to be mechanically robust and the radiation induced attenuation must be low in order not to influence the system's performance. For this reason different fiber types have been considered and tested to high dose gamma radiation. Dedicated tests proved the absence of enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS). Once the fiber has been finally selected, the fs-IR grating will be written to these fibers and the FBGs will be tested in order to

  13. SPECTRAN - a highly sensitive process photometer for selective measurements of gases and liquids in environment and process technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, H.; Krieg, G.

    1984-01-01

    The SPECTRAN process photometer uses the wavelength-dependent attenuation of optical radiation for the selective measurement of molecular compounds in gases and liquids. The system which originally has been designed for UF 6 measurements has been developed to serve various applications, as e.g. in chemical and thermal engineering, for monitoring measurements of emissions and MAC, explosion protection, purity measurements, in environmental and bioengineering, nuclear and energy technology, pharmaceutical and medical engineering, as well as in the food industries. (DG) [de

  14. Providing high-quality measurement data in analytical system of air pollution monitoring and their key importance for smart cities residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czechowski Piotr O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected, main elements of an air pollution automatic monitoring system with analytical subsystems concept in smart cities based on examples from Poland, implemented system in Pomerania, the concept of new system in Warsaw city and pilot research in Nowy Sącz city. All systems are the result of teamwork, ranging from design, development of new methodology and software to implementation in real-time air pollutants smart cities monitoring systems. Focused on the most neuralgic elements: data quality subsystems, new ideas of smart mobility measurement stations and their ability to use in future research and models. Special attention was paid to stochastic models and statistic methodology proposed and used in data diagnostics as analytical system engineering.

  15. Indoor radon in selected homes in Aburi Municipality: measurement uncertainty, decision analysis and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected homes in Aburi of the Akuapim North Municipal Assembly in Eastern Region, Ghana were estimated using time-intergrated passive radon detector; LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The primary objective of the study was to measure radon levels in 30 selected homes in the Aburi municipality and determine the uncertainties associated with the measured radon concentrations in order to take a decision on remedial actions to be adopted in case of any abnormality using simple qualitative decision analysis method. Measurements were carried out from December, 2013 to March, 2014. After each month of exposure for a period of three months, the detectors were subjected to chemical etching in a 2.5M analytical grade of sodium hydroxide solution at (60 ± I )OC, for 90mins in a constant temperature water bath to enlarge the latent tracks produced by alpha particles from the decay of radon. The etched tracks were magnified using the microfiche reader and counted with a tally counter. The results obtained from the study revealed that concentration of radon in most of the selected homes in the Aburi municipality is low and it is within the internationally accepted action level of 100Bqm-3 set by WHO (2009). The analysis of the results established that the average radon concentrations vary in the range 23.72- 92.24Bqm -3 , 19.07-124.36 Bqm -3 and 31.63-123.87 Bqm -3 for month I, month 2 and month 3 respectively. The corresponding mean values are 46.77, 45.92 and 56.66 Bqm -3 respectively with standard deviations of ±2.18. ±2.38 and ±2.76. These gave a mean of 49.78 ± 12.50 for the three months. Two (2) of the rooms investigated had values above 20 % of the remedial action level of 100Bqm -3 in two of the months but with their average values slightly lower than the remedial action level. From the

  16. Input variable selection for data-driven models of Coriolis flowmeters for two-phase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xue; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Input variable selection is an essential step in the development of data-driven models for environmental, biological and industrial applications. Through input variable selection to eliminate the irrelevant or redundant variables, a suitable subset of variables is identified as the input of a model. Meanwhile, through input variable selection the complexity of the model structure is simplified and the computational efficiency is improved. This paper describes the procedures of the input variable selection for the data-driven models for the measurement of liquid mass flowrate and gas volume fraction under two-phase flow conditions using Coriolis flowmeters. Three advanced input variable selection methods, including partial mutual information (PMI), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and tree-based iterative input selection (IIS) are applied in this study. Typical data-driven models incorporating support vector machine (SVM) are established individually based on the input candidates resulting from the selection methods. The validity of the selection outcomes is assessed through an output performance comparison of the SVM based data-driven models and sensitivity analysis. The validation and analysis results suggest that the input variables selected from the PMI algorithm provide more effective information for the models to measure liquid mass flowrate while the IIS algorithm provides a fewer but more effective variables for the models to predict gas volume fraction. (paper)

  17. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  18. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  19. An algorithm for selecting the most accurate protocol for contact angle measurement by drop shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z N

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an error analysis is performed to study real water drop images and the corresponding numerically generated water drop profiles for three widely used static contact angle algorithms: the circle- and ellipse-fitting algorithms and the axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ADSA-P) algorithm. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the numerically generated drop profiles based on the Laplace equation. A significant number of water drop profiles with different volumes, contact angles, and noise levels are generated, and the influences of the three factors on the accuracies of the three algorithms are systematically investigated. The results reveal that the above-mentioned three algorithms are complementary. In fact, the circle- and ellipse-fitting algorithms show low errors and are highly resistant to noise for water drops with small/medium volumes and contact angles, while for water drop with large volumes and contact angles just the ADSA-P algorithm can meet accuracy requirement. However, this algorithm introduces significant errors in the case of small volumes and contact angles because of its high sensitivity to noise. The critical water drop volumes of the circle- and ellipse-fitting algorithms corresponding to a certain contact angle error are obtained through a significant amount of computation. To improve the precision of the static contact angle measurement, a more accurate algorithm based on a combination of the three algorithms is proposed. Following a systematic investigation, the algorithm selection rule is described in detail, while maintaining the advantages of the three algorithms and overcoming their deficiencies. In general, static contact angles over the entire hydrophobicity range can be accurately evaluated using the proposed algorithm. The ease of erroneous judgment in static contact angle measurements is avoided. The proposed algorithm is validated by a static contact angle evaluation of real and numerically generated water drop

  20. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Buermann, L.; Burns, D.T.; Takeyeddin, M.; Shaha, V.V.; Srimanoroth, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J.; Kadni, T.B.; Takata, N.; Msimang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  1. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie (Australia); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Burns, D.T. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, 92 - Sevres (France); Takeyeddin, M. [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shaha, V.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srimanoroth, S. [Department of Medical Sciences, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Meghzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Yusong (Korea, Republic of); Kadni, T.B. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang (Malaysia); Takata, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Msimang, Z. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-10-15

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  2. Selective near-UV ablation of subgingival dental calculus: measurement of removal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, J. E.; Seka, W.; Rechmann, P.

    2010-02-01

    A noncontact profilometer (laser triangulation) was used to measure the removal rates of subgingival dental calculus irradiated with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser (60-ns pulse duration, 400-nm wavelength, 10-Hz repetition rate, 7-mJ pulse energy). Profilometer traces before and after irradiation were used to create a removal map with 4-μm axial and 15-μm transverse resolution. Twenty-three teeth (15 with calculus and 8 pristine) were irradiated at 90° and 45° under a cooling water spray with a super-Gaussian beam (~300-μm diameter). Subgingival calculus was selectively removed at 5.6 and 4.0 J/cm2 for 90° and 45°, respecetively, within a range of rates, between 2 to 9 μm/pulse. These ablation rates were constant during these exposures. For comparison, pristine cementum irradiated for 10 min at the same peak fluence and pulse repetition rate showed only craters, 15 to 50 μm deep, corresponding to an equivalent removal rate three orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained for calculus. Pristine enamel was not removed under the same irradiation conditions.

  3. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  4. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R.

    2011-01-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 232 Th series. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi. The 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the 40 K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg -1 to 222 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra and from 14 Bq.kg -1 to 1074 Bq.kg -' 1 for 232 Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For 40 K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg -1 to 179 Bq.kg -1 and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  5. Measurements of Ion Selective Containment on the RF Charge Breeder Device BRIC

    CERN Document Server

    Variale, Vincenzo; Batazova, Marina; Boggia, Antonio; Clauser, Tarcisio; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Rainò, Antonio; Shiyankov, Sergey; Skarbo, Boris A; Valentino, Vincenzo; Verrone, Grazia

    2005-01-01

    The "charge state breeder" BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge) is based on an EBIS source and it is designed to accept Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) with charge +1, in a slow injection mode, to increase their charge state up to +n. BRIC has been developed at the INFN section of Bari (Italy) during these last 3 years with very limited funds. Now, it has been assembled at the LNL (Italy) where are in progress the first tests as stand alone source. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion drift chamber, of a Radio Frequency (RF) Quadrupole aiming to filtering the unwanted elements and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this contribution, the measurements of the selective effect on the ion charge state containement of the RF quadrupole field, applied on the ion chamber, will be reported and discussed. The ion charge state analisys of the ions trapped in BRIC seem confirm, as foreseen by simulation results carried out previously, that the s...

  6. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  7. Problems of calibrating measuring instruments for selective gamma-gamma logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.; Smolarova, H.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative determination of copper content in the Novoveska Huta chalcopyrite deposit is described using selective gamma-gamma logging. Factors influencing the calibration quality are discussed. (author)

  8. Use of Personality Assessment Measures in the Selection of Air Traffic Control Specialists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    ... with neurotic, inefficient, and perhaps argumentative characteristics. The remaining two studies consider select-in strategies looking at the psychometric issues of reliability, specificity, and validity...

  9. Classic debates in selective attention: early vs late, perceptual load vs dilution, mean RT vs measures of capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael D; Crisostomo, Marisa; Khericha, Alifiya; Russo, Francis; Thorne, Gary L

    2012-01-01

    We briefly summarize two important debates regarding selective attention (early vs late selection; perceptual load vs distractor dilution). Also, we report the results of an attempt to replicate Lavie (1995, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21 451-468). We suggest that measures capable of characterizing the capacity of information processing systems (compared to reporting only mean reaction time) could add great clarity to this literature.

  10. The Impact of Selected Fluoridated Toothpastes on Dental Erosion in Profilometric Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Some fluoridated toothpastes, available commercially, are described to have a protective effect against dental erosion. To evaluate the influence of the selected marketed toothpastes on the human enamel exposed to acid beverages. Enamel specimens from extracted human teeth were prepared (n = 40). Specimens were randomly divided into 10 experimental groups, 4 specimens each, which were subjected to acid challenge for 10 min using orange juice (pH 3.79) or Pepsi Cola (pH 2.58) and then immersed for 2 min into a slurry of five marketed toothpastes with distilled water (1 : 3 w/w). The tested toothpastes contained 1450 or 5000 ppm fluoride, CPP-ACP with 900 ppm fluoride, 1450 ppm fluoride with potassium nitrate 5%, all of them as sodium fluoride, and 700 ppm fluoride as amine and sodium fluoride with 3500 ppm SnCl2. Enamel roughness (Ra parameter) by contact profilometer at baseline and after exposure onto soft drinks and slurry was measured. Exposure to both beverages caused a similar increase of enamel surface roughness. After the specimens immersion into slurries of toothpastes with 1450 or 5000 ppm fluoride, 1450 ppm fluoride with potassium nitrate 5% and CPP-ACP with 900 ppm fluoride the significant decrease of Ra values were found, reaching the baseline values. However, toothpaste with 700 ppm fluoride and 3500 ppm SnCl2 did not cause any fall in Ra value, probably due to other mechanism of action. Within the limitation of the study we can conclude that the sodium fluoride toothpastes are able to restore the surface profile of enamel exposed shortly to acidic soft drinks.

  11. How far are transmission measurements of pre-equilibrium stopping influenced by impact parameter selection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semrad, D.; Bergsmann, M.; Bauer, P.; Diez-Muino, R.; Arnau, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A slow ion that impinges on a target will need to travel a certain distance within the target - called pre-equilibrium length - in order to reach charge equilibrium. In this transient region, projectiles may suffer energy loss different from the mean value. For gas targets, most of the relevant cross-sections and energy transfers can be determined separately by experiment. This allows one to relate these data to the stopping cross-section and to simulate the passage of ions through gas by Monte-Carlo techniques. For solid targets matter is worse, but a universal formalism how pre-equilibrium processes may be determined from transmission data is well documented by Sigmund [14-15]. In transmission experiments usually only these projectiles are analyzed that have missed the central region of the target atoms. It is, however, a matter of fact that projectiles passing closer to the nucleus are more likely to lose energy. In the case of thin targets these projectiles are deflected out of the detector acceptance leading to a reduction of the measured average energy loss. Hence, stopping data may be influenced by so-called impact parameter selection (IPS) according to the layout of the experiment. This IPS clearly acts also in the regime of pre-equilibrium stopping. Using Monte-Carlo simulation we studied to which extent in a typical transmission experiment energy loss is influenced by pre-equilibrium stopping and by IPS, respectively. For feasibility, instead of a solid target, we follow the trajectories through a dense gas target. We find that in an actual experiment with small detector opening angle the formalism to describe pre-equilibrium stopping has to include IPS

  12. [The measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of Co-Cr alloy fabricated by selective laser melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-mei; Zeng, Li; Wei, Bin; Huang, Yi-feng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the thermal expansion coefficient of different processing parameters upon the Co-Cr alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) technique, in order to provide technical support for clinical application of SLM technology. The heating curve of self-made Co-Cr alloy was protracted from room temperature to 980°C centigrade with DIL402PC thermal analysis instrument, keeping temperature rise rate and cooling rate at 5 K/min, and then the thermal expansion coefficient of 9 groups of Co-Cr alloy was measured from 20°C centigrade to 500°C centigrade and 600°C centigrade. The 9 groups thermal expansion coefficient values of Co-Cr alloy heated from 20°C centigrade to 500°C centigrade were 13.9×10(-6)/K,13.6×10(-6)/K,13.9×10(-6)/K,13.7×10(-6)/K,13.5×10(-6)/K,13.8×10(-6)/K,13.7×10(-6)/K,13.7×10(-6)/K,and 13.9×10(-6)/K, respectively; when heated from 20°C centigrade to 600°C centigrade, they were 14.2×10(-6)/K,13.9×10(-6)/K,13.8×10(-6)/K,14.0×10(-6)/K,14.1×10(-6)/K,14.1×10(-6)/K,13.9×10(-6)/K,14.2×10(-6)/K, and 13.7×10(-6)/K, respectively. The results showed that the Co-Cr alloy has good matching with the VITA VMK 95 porcelain powder and can meet the requirement of clinic use.

  13. Lifetime Net Merit vs. annualized net present value as measures of profitability of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current USDA linear selection indexes such as Lifetime Net Merit (NM$) estimate lifetime profit given a combination of 13 traits. In these indexes, every animal gets credit for 2.78 lactations of the traits expressed per lactation, independent of its productive life (PL). Selection among animals wit...

  14. Effects of purified zearalenone on selected immunological measurements of blood in post-weaning gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA, an estrogenic mycotoxin, is produced mainly by Fusarium fungi. Previous studies have indicated that acute ZEA exposure induced various damages in different species; however, its transparent hematotoxicity in female piglets at dietary levels of 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg has not been shown. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ZEA (1.1–3.2 mg/kg on hematology, T lymphocyte subset, immunoglobulin, antibody titer, lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR, and interleukin-2 (IL-2 in peripheral blood of post-weaning gilts. A total of 20 female piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, weaned at 42 d with an average body weight of 10.36 ± 1.21 kg were used in the study. Female piglets were kept in a temperature controlled room, divided into four treatments, and fed a diet based on corn-soybean meal-fishmeal-whey, with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Feed intake and refusal were measured daily and individual pigs were weighed weekly. Blood and serum samples were collected for selected immunological measurements. Female piglets fed different levels of dietary ZEA grew similarly with no difference in feed intake. Hematological values including leukocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH decreased linearly (P < 0.05 as dietary ZEA increased. Female piglets fed diets containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or greater showed significantly decreased CD4+CD8+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ in comparison to the control (P < 0.05, whereas CD8+ was significantly increased (P = 0.026 in the gilts which were fed the diet containing 3.2 mg/kg ZEA. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG and the antibody titer on d 18 were reduced linearly as dietary ZEA levels increased (P < 0.001. Linear decrease in LPR was observed (P < 0.05. Female piglets fed diets containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more showed significantly decreased IL-2 in comparison to the control (P < 0

  15. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Looe Key Back Reef, 2004- 2006 (NODC Accession 0014270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ongoing project began in 1988. A total of 38 subsurface recording thermographs have been deployed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)and at...

  16. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Looe Key Back Reef, 2006- 2007 (NODC Accession 0039239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ongoing project began in 1988. A total of 38 subsurface recording thermographs have been deployed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)and at...

  17. Measuring Development of Selected Poverty Risk Indicators in V4 Countries with Specific Focus on Slovak Republic and its Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beňuš Ondrej

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of selected poverty indicators as measured by EU-Statistics on income and living conditions. Our orientation on these indicators underlines our focus on quantitative measurement. Spatial orientation was selected as the area of the Visegrad group countries serving as a research base for our investigation of poverty differences in the Central Europe. Further research is dedicated to Slovakia and its regions. In this article we aim to identify those quantitative poverty indicators that are responsible for poverty status of the most affected social group of people in the country.

  18. Key Frame Extraction in the Summary Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Xuelong Li; Bin Zhao; Xiaoqiang Lu; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Key frame extraction is an efficient way to create the video summary which helps users obtain a quick comprehension of the video content. Generally, the key frames should be representative of the video content, meanwhile, diverse to reduce the redundancy. Based on the assumption that the video data are near a subspace of a high-dimensional space, a new approach, named as key frame extraction in the summary space, is proposed for key frame extraction in this paper. The proposed approach aims to find the representative frames of the video and filter out similar frames from the representative frame set. First of all, the video data are mapped to a high-dimensional space, named as summary space. Then, a new representation is learned for each frame by analyzing the intrinsic structure of the summary space. Specifically, the learned representation can reflect the representativeness of the frame, and is utilized to select representative frames. Next, the perceptual hash algorithm is employed to measure the similarity of representative frames. As a result, the key frame set is obtained after filtering out similar frames from the representative frame set. Finally, the video summary is constructed by assigning the key frames in temporal order. Additionally, the ground truth, created by filtering out similar frames from human-created summaries, is utilized to evaluate the quality of the video summary. Compared with several traditional approaches, the experimental results on 80 videos from two datasets indicate the superior performance of our approach.

  19. Contribution of correlated noise and selective decoding to choice probability measurements in extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong; Angelaki, Dora E; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2014-07-01

    Trial by trial covariations between neural activity and perceptual decisions (quantified by choice Probability, CP) have been used to probe the contribution of sensory neurons to perceptual decisions. CPs are thought to be determined by both selective decoding of neural activity and by the structure of correlated noise among neurons, but the respective roles of these factors in creating CPs have been controversial. We used biologically-constrained simulations to explore this issue, taking advantage of a peculiar pattern of CPs exhibited by multisensory neurons in area MSTd that represent self-motion. Although models that relied on correlated noise or selective decoding could both account for the peculiar pattern of CPs, predictions of the selective decoding model were substantially more consistent with various features of the neural and behavioral data. While correlated noise is essential to observe CPs, our findings suggest that selective decoding of neuronal signals also plays important roles.

  20. Measurements in quantitative research: how to select and report on research instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Teresa L

    2014-07-01

    Measures exist to numerically represent degrees of attributes. Quantitative research is based on measurement and is conducted in a systematic, controlled manner. These measures enable researchers to perform statistical tests, analyze differences between groups, and determine the effectiveness of treatments. If something is not measurable, it cannot be tested.

  1. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  2. Measurement error correction in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator model when validation data are available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Monica M; Hu, Chengcheng; Roe, Denise J; Halonen, Marilyn; Guerra, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of serum biomarkers by multiplex assays may be more variable as compared to single biomarker assays. Measurement error in these data may bias parameter estimates in regression analysis, which could mask true associations of serum biomarkers with an outcome. The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) can be used for variable selection in these high-dimensional data. Furthermore, when the distribution of measurement error is assumed to be known or estimated with replication data, a simple measurement error correction method can be applied to the LASSO method. However, in practice the distribution of the measurement error is unknown and is expensive to estimate through replication both in monetary cost and need for greater amount of sample which is often limited in quantity. We adapt an existing bias correction approach by estimating the measurement error using validation data in which a subset of serum biomarkers are re-measured on a random subset of the study sample. We evaluate this method using simulated data and data from the Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Disease (TESAOD). We show that the bias in parameter estimation is reduced and variable selection is improved.

  3. Measuring Personality in Context: Improving Predictive Accuracy in Selection Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffner, Rebecca Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of a context-sensitive (i.e., goal dimensions) measure of personality compared to a traditional measure of personality (NEO-PI-R) and generalized self-efficacy (GSE) to predict variance in task performance. The goal dimensions measure takes a unique perspective in the conceptualization of personality. While traditional measures differentiate within person and collapse across context (e.g., Big Five), the goal dimensions measure employs a hierarchical structure...

  4. Selection of performance measure system as a base of airport operational control using multi criteria decision making approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović, Tatjana; Stanković, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary's business environment, successful company must be socially responsible and environmentally conscientious in addition to essential tendency for maximizing profits, because only in this way can it ensure competitiveness in the market. Performance measuring of the airport is a critical management activity, which must be consistent with the goals, strategies and key success factors. Since the decision making is based on facts about considered task and their detailed analysis, the...

  5. A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO 2 (110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

  6. Measuring selection for genes that promote long life in a historical human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Walling, Craig A

    2017-11-01

    The unusually long lifespans of humans and the persistence of post-reproductive lifespans in women represent evolutionary puzzles because natural selection cannot directly favour continued living in post-menopausal women or elderly men. Suggested sources of indirect selection require genetic correlations between fitness and survival or reproduction at younger ages, reproduction in the opposite sex, or late-life contributions to offspring or grandoffspring fitness. Here we apply quantitative genetic analyses to data from a historical human population to explicitly test these evolutionary genetic hypotheses. Total genetic selection increased the male post-50 lifespans by 0.138 years per generation; 94% of this arose from indirect selection acting to favour early-life fitness in both sexes. These results argue strongly against life-history models of ageing that depend on trade-offs between reproduction and late-life survival. No source of indirect selection for female post-50 lifespan was detected, deepening the mystery of why female post-reproductive survival persists. This result is probably due to recent changes in the genetic architecture of female lifespan, and it highlights the need for similar quantitative genetic analyses of human populations at other points along demographic transitions.

  7. extrap: Software to assist the selection of extrapolation methods for moving-boat ADCP streamflow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate extrapolation methods for computing the discharge in the unmeasured top and bottom parts of a moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) streamflow measurement is critical to the total discharge computation. The software tool, extrap, combines normalized velocity

  8. Threshold fluence measurement for laser liftoff of InP thin films by selective absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan, A.; Reeves, B.A.; Van De Burgt, Y.B.; Hayes, G.J.; Clemens, B.M.

    2018-01-01

    e explore conditions for achieving laser liftoff in epitaxially grown heterojunctions, in which single crystal thin films can be separated from their growth substrates using a selectively absorbing buried intermediate layer. Because this highly non-linear process is subject to a variety of process

  9. Flow measurements of the kidney after selective administration of radioactive xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of perfusion studies in the kidney through the renal artery in human subjects, after selective administration of the inert radioactive gas Xenon-133. The examinations have been carried out in conjunction with renal angiography. From October 1979 to May 1981, a total of 150 studies have been performed in 86 patients. (Auth.)

  10. Construct validity of selected measures of physical activity beliefs and motives in fifth and sixth grade boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; Saunders, Ruth P; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Scales used to measure selected social-cognitive beliefs and motives for physical activity were tested among boys and girls. Covariance modeling was applied to responses obtained from large multi-ethnic samples of students in the fifth and sixth grades. Theoretically and statistically sound models were developed, supporting the factorial validity of the scales in all groups. Multi-group longitudinal invariance was confirmed between boys and girls, overweight and normal weight students, and non-Hispanic black and white children. The construct validity of the scales was supported by hypothesized convergent and discriminant relationships within a measurement model that included correlations with physical activity (MET • min/day) measured by an accelerometer. Scores from the scales provide valid assessments of selected beliefs and motives that are putative mediators of change in physical activity among boys and girls, as they begin the understudied transition from the fifth grade into middle school, when physical activity naturally declines.

  11. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjae Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  12. Concurrent Validation of Experimental Army Enlisted Personnel Selection and Classification Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapp, Deirdre J; Tremble, Trueman R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report documents the method and results of the criterion-related validation. The predictor set includes measures of cognitive ability, temperament, psychomotor skills, values, expectations...

  13. Preliminary minimum detectable limit measurements in 208-L drums for selected actinide isotopes in mock-waste matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.C.; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Martz, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary minimum detectable levels (MDLS) of selected actinide isotopes have been determined in full-scale, 55-gallon drums filled with a range of mock-waste materials from combustibles (0.14 g/CM 3 ) to sand (1.7 g/CM 3 ). Measurements were recorded from 100 to 10,000 seconds with selected actinide sources located in these drums at an edge position, on the center axis of a drum and midway between these two positions. Measurements were also made with a 166 Ho source to evaluate the attenuation of these mock-matrix materials as a function of energy. By knowing where the source activity is located within a drum, our preliminary results show that a simply collimated 90% HPGE detector can differentiate between TRU (>100 nCi/g) and LLW amounts of 239 Pu in only 100s of measurement time and with sufficient accuracy in both low and medium density, low Z materials. Other actinides measured so far include 235 U, 241 Am, and 244 Cm. These measurements begin to establish the probable MDLs achievable in the nondestructive assays of real waste drums when using active and passive CT. How future measurements may differ from these preliminary measurements is also discussed

  14. THERMOPLASTIC MATRIX SELECTION FOR FIBRE METAL LAMINATE USING FUZZY VIKOR AND ENTROPY MEASURE FOR OBJECTIVE WEIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. ISHAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to define the suitable thermoplastic matrix for fibre metal laminate for automotive front hood utilisation. To achieve the accurate and reliable results, the decision making process involved subjective and objective weighting where the combination of Fuzzy VIKOR and entropy method have been applied. Fuzzy VIKOR is used for ranking purpose and entropy method is used to determine the objective weighting. The result shows that polypropylene is the best thermoplastic matrix for fibre metal laminate by satisfying two compromise solutions with validation using least VIKOR index value scored 0.00, compared to low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene and polystyrene. Through a combination of Fuzzy VIKOR and entropy, it is proved that this method gives a higher degree of confidence to the decision maker especially for fibre metal laminate thermoplastic matrix selection due to its systematic and scientific selection method involving MCDM.

  15. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  16. In-vitro accuracy and reproducibility evaluation of probing depth measurements of selected periodontal probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Al Shayeb

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Depth measurements with the Chapple UB-CF-15 probe were more accurate and reproducible compared to measurements with the Vivacare TPS and Williams 14 W probes. This in vitro model may be useful for intra-examiner calibration or clinician training prior to the clinical evaluation of patients or in longitudinal studies involving periodontal evaluation.

  17. Measurement parameter selection for quantitative isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, B.N.; Rosecrance, A.E.; Colby, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    By use of the two-isotope model of isotope dilution, selection criteria were developed for identifying optimum m/z's for quantitation of compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, it was possible to predict the optimum ratio of naturally abundant to labeled compound and to identify appropriate data reduction methods. The validity of these predictions was confirmed by using experimental GC/MS data for several organic compounds

  18. Associations between structural capabilities of primary care practices and performance on selected quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark W; Coltin, Kathryn L; Safran, Dana Gelb; Dresser, Marguerite; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Schneider, Eric C

    2009-10-06

    Recent proposals to reform primary care have encouraged physician practices to adopt such structural capabilities as performance feedback and electronic health records. Whether practices with these capabilities have higher performance on measures of primary care quality is unknown. To measure associations between structural capabilities of primary care practices and performance on commonly used quality measures. Cross-sectional analysis. Massachusetts. 412 primary care practices. During 2007, 1 physician from each participating primary care practice (median size, 4 physicians) was surveyed about structural capabilities of the practice (responses representing 308 practices were obtained). Data on practice structural capabilities were linked to multipayer performance data on 13 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) process measures in 4 clinical areas: screening, diabetes, depression, and overuse. Frequently used multifunctional electronic health records were associated with higher performance on 5 HEDIS measures (3 in screening and 2 in diabetes), with statistically significant differences in performance ranging from 3.1 to 7.6 percentage points. Frequent meetings to discuss quality were associated with higher performance on 3 measures of diabetes care (differences ranging from 2.3 to 3.1 percentage points). Physician awareness of patient experience ratings was associated with higher performance on screening for breast cancer and cervical cancer (1.9 and 2.2 percentage points, respectively). No other structural capabilities were associated with performance on more than 1 measure. No capabilities were associated with performance on depression care or overuse. Structural capabilities of primary care practices were assessed by physician survey. Among the investigated structural capabilities of primary care practices, electronic health records were associated with higher performance across multiple HEDIS measures. Overall, the modest magnitude and

  19. Measurement of conformational constraints in an elastin-mimetic protein by residue-pair selected solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Mei [Iowa State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: mhong@iastate.edu; McMillan, R. Andrew; Conticello, Vincent P. [Emory University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2002-02-15

    We introduce a solid-state NMR technique for selective detection of a residue pair in multiply labeled proteins to obtain site-specific structural constraints. The method exploits the frequency-offset dependence of cross polarization to achieve {sup 13}CO{sub i} {sup {yields}} {sup 15}N{sub i} {sup {yields}} {sup 13}C{alpha}{sub i} transfer between two residues. A {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-labeled elastin mimetic protein (VPGVG){sub n} is used to demonstrate the method. The technique selected the Gly3 C{alpha} signal while suppressing the Gly5 C{alpha} signal, and allowed the measurement of the Gly3 C{alpha} chemical shift anisotropy to derive information on the protein conformation. This residue-pair selection technique should simplify the study of protein structure at specific residues.

  20. Measurement of conformational constraints in an elastin-mimetic protein by residue-pair selected solid-state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Mei; McMillan, R. Andrew; Conticello, Vincent P.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a solid-state NMR technique for selective detection of a residue pair in multiply labeled proteins to obtain site-specific structural constraints. The method exploits the frequency-offset dependence of cross polarization to achieve 13 CO i → 15 N i → 13 Cα i transfer between two residues. A 13 C, 15 N-labeled elastin mimetic protein (VPGVG) n is used to demonstrate the method. The technique selected the Gly3 Cα signal while suppressing the Gly5 Cα signal, and allowed the measurement of the Gly3 Cα chemical shift anisotropy to derive information on the protein conformation. This residue-pair selection technique should simplify the study of protein structure at specific residues

  1. Relationships Among Peripheral and Central Electrophysiological Measures of Spatial and Spectral Selectivity and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheperle, Rachel A; Abbas, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perceive speech is related to the listener's ability to differentiate among frequencies (i.e., spectral resolution). Cochlear implant (CI) users exhibit variable speech-perception and spectral-resolution abilities, which can be attributed in part to the extent of electrode interactions at the periphery (i.e., spatial selectivity). However, electrophysiological measures of peripheral spatial selectivity have not been found to correlate with speech perception. The purpose of this study was to evaluate auditory processing at the periphery and cortex using both simple and spectrally complex stimuli to better understand the stages of neural processing underlying speech perception. The hypotheses were that (1) by more completely characterizing peripheral excitation patterns than in previous studies, significant correlations with measures of spectral selectivity and speech perception would be observed, (2) adding information about processing at a level central to the auditory nerve would account for additional variability in speech perception, and (3) responses elicited with spectrally complex stimuli would be more strongly correlated with speech perception than responses elicited with spectrally simple stimuli. Eleven adult CI users participated. Three experimental processor programs (MAPs) were created to vary the likelihood of electrode interactions within each participant. For each MAP, a subset of 7 of 22 intracochlear electrodes was activated: adjacent (MAP 1), every other (MAP 2), or every third (MAP 3). Peripheral spatial selectivity was assessed using the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) to obtain channel-interaction functions for all activated electrodes (13 functions total). Central processing was assessed by eliciting the auditory change complex with both spatial (electrode pairs) and spectral (rippled noise) stimulus changes. Speech-perception measures included vowel discrimination and the Bamford-Kowal-Bench Speech

  2. Best practices in selecting performance measures and standards for effective asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    "This report assesses and provides guidance on best practices in performance measurement, management and standards : setting for effective Transportation Asset Management (TAM). The study is conducted through a literature review, a : survey of the 50...

  3. Measurements of diameters of selectively etchable tracks produced in polymer by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel', P.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The process of pore formation in polyethyleneterephtalate films irradiated by the 136 Xe, 84 Kr, 40 Ar ions was investigated by measuring the conductivity of the samples during etching. The diameters of the damaged tracks within which the local etching rate was larger than etching rate for non-destroyed polymer were determined. In the case of the 136 Xe ions measurements have been carried out at different ion energies [ru

  4. Evaluation of recruitment and selection for specialty training in public health: interim results of a prospective cohort study to measure the predictive validity of the selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, Nora; Gray, Selena; Duff, Celia; Parkes, Julie; Williams, David; Patterson, Fiona; Koczwara, Anna; Fisher, Grant; Mason, Brendan W

    2016-06-01

    The recruitment process for public health specialty training includes an assessment centre (AC) with three components, Rust Advanced Numerical Reasoning Appraisal (RANRA), Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCT) and a Situation Judgement Test (SJT), which determines invitation to a selection centre (SC). The scores are combined into a total recruitment (TR) score that determines the offers of appointment. A prospective cohort study using anonymous record linkage to investigate the association between applicant's scores in the recruitment process and registrar's progress through training measured by results of Membership Faculty Public Health (MFPH) examinations and outcomes of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP). Higher scores in RANRA, WGCT, AC, SC and TR were all significantly associated with higher adjusted odds of passing Part A MFPH exam at the first attempt. Higher scores in AC, SC and TR were significantly associated with passing Part B exam at the first attempt. Higher scores in SJT, AC and SC were significantly associated with satisfactory ARCP outcomes. The current UK national recruitment and selection process for public health specialty training has good predictive validity. The individual components of the process are testing different skills and abilities and together they are providing additive value. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Wavelength selection for portable noninvasive blood component measurement system based on spectral difference coefficient and dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ximeng; Li, Gang; Yu, Haixia; Wang, Shaohui; Yi, Xiaoqing; Lin, Ling

    2018-03-01

    Noninvasive blood component analysis by spectroscopy has been a hotspot in biomedical engineering in recent years. Dynamic spectrum provides an excellent idea for noninvasive blood component measurement, but studies have been limited to the application of broadband light sources and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments. In order to remove redundant information, a more effective wavelength selection method has been presented in this paper. In contrast to many common wavelength selection methods, this method is based on sensing mechanism which has a clear mechanism and can effectively avoid the noise from acquisition system. The spectral difference coefficient was theoretically proved to have a guiding significance for wavelength selection. After theoretical analysis, the multi-band spectral difference coefficient-wavelength selection method combining with the dynamic spectrum was proposed. An experimental analysis based on clinical trial data from 200 volunteers has been conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. The extreme learning machine was used to develop the calibration models between the dynamic spectrum data and hemoglobin concentration. The experiment result shows that the prediction precision of hemoglobin concentration using multi-band spectral difference coefficient-wavelength selection method is higher compared with other methods.

  7. Measurement of intra-industry trade (ITT) of Iran with ten selective major trading partners using Grubel-Lloyd Index

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Emadi

    2016-01-01

    This paper was conducted to measure intra-industry trade of Iran with ten selective major trading partners including the United Arab Emirates, Germany, China, Republic of Korea, Italy, India, Japan, Turkey, Spain, and Singapore using Grubel-Lloyd index. Due to the development of cross-border economic relationships, these countries try to find and present an appropriate model for production, import, and export of goods and identification of business opportunities and comparative advantages. Th...

  8. The correlation between selected measurements from footprint and radiograph of flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Chen, Tien-Wen; Weng, Ming-Cheng; Lee, Chia-Ling; Wang, Gwo-Jaw

    2006-02-01

    To assess the subarch angle obtained from electronic footprints using a capacitive mat transducer system in children with flatfeet, to evaluate other foot arch indexes, and to compare the results with radiographic measurements. A cross-sectional study. Rehabilitation clinic in a municipal hospital. Thirty-two children (age range, 7-13y) diagnosed with flatfeet. Radiographic measurements and foot shape measurements obtained from feet. Talo-first metatarsal angle, talocalcaneal angle, talo-horizontal angle, and calcaneal angle were obtained from radiographs. Subarch angle, arch indexes, and long plantar angle were all captured and calculated via a capacitive transducer plate. Correlations between the subarch angle and the talo-first metatarsal angle, talo-horizontal angle, and arch height were significant, as was the correlation between midfoot arch index and talo-horizontal angle. The forefoot arch index had no significant relationship with radiographic parameters. The talo-horizontal angle and arch height had significant relationships with the long plantar angle. Measurement of the subarch angle had significant correlation with the radiographic parameters in children with flatfeet and it was accurately and easily obtained from a capacitive forceplate. Measurement of the subarch angle can be a useful tool in the assessment and diagnosis of flatfoot.

  9. Underwater in situ measurements of radionuclides in selected submarine groundwater springs, Mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsabaris, C.; Scholten, J.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Comanducci, J. F.; Georgopoulos, D.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.; Patiris, D. L.; Papathanassiou, E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of the in situ measurement system 'KATERINA' for monitoring of radon progenies in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was investigated at different locations in the Mediterranean Sea (Chalkida, Stoupa, Korfos and Cabbe). At Chalkida and Stoupa radon progenies concentration exhibited almost constant values of 1.2±0.1 and 2.5±0.2 Bq l -1 , respectively. At Korfos these activities ranged between 1.4±0.1 and 2.3±0.2 Bq l -1 exhibiting inverse relationship with salinity. At Cabbe the in situ measured data were compared with radon measurements obtained by liquid scintillation counter. The system also resolved radon progeny variations of SGD on time scales above 1 h. The radioactivity levels of radon progenies from all sites were found considerably lower (approximately 2 orders of magnitude) than the commonly accepted limits for radon in drinking water. (authors)

  10. Synergy of EMG patterns in gait as an objective measure of muscle selectivity in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Esther; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Selective motor control (SMC) is an important determinant of functioning in cerebral palsy (CP). Currently its assessment is based on subjective clinical tests with a low sensitivity. Electromyography (EMG) profiles during gait represent muscle coordination and might be used to assess SMC. EMG measurements during gait were processed into a measure of extensor synergy and thigh synergy. This was obtained in two groups of children with CP, and 30 typically developing children. Extensor synergy in CP was higher (0.95) than in healthy children (0.77), thigh synergy was almost equal in both groups. GMFM scores in the first group of 39 children with CP did not correlate to EMG based synergy measures. In a second group of 38 children with CP, a clear relation of clinical SMC score with extensor synergy was found, but only a weak relation with thigh synergy. Although an extensor synergy was validated at group level, our results present no convincing evidence for the use of EMG during gait to assess SMC in individual subjects with CP. Since gait involves both synergistic and selective contractions, the inherent motor control properties of this task will not allow for an assessment of selectivity comparable to the ability to perform isolated movements. Nevertheless, our results support the sensitive nature of EMG to represent an aberrant motor control in CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring concentrations of selected air pollutants inside California vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodes, C.; Sheldon, L.; Whitaker, D.; Clayton, A.; Fitzgerald, K.

    1999-01-01

    This project measured 2-hour integrated concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, metals and a number of organic chemicals including benzene and MTBE inside vehicles on California roadways. Using continuous samplers, particle counts, black carbon, and CO were also measured. In addition to measuring in-vehicle levels, the investigators measured pollutant levels just outside the vehicle, at roadside stations, and ambient air monitoring stations. Different driving scenarios were designed to assess the effects of a number of factors on in-vehicle pollutant levels. These factors included roadway type, carpool lanes, traffic conditions, geographical locations, vehicle type, and vehicle ventilation conditions. The statewide average in-vehicle concentrations of benzene, MTBE, and formaldehyde ranged from 3--22 microg/m 3 , 3--90 microg/m 3 , and 0---22 microg/m 3 , respectively. The ranges of mean PM10 and PM2.5 in-vehicle levels in Sacramento were 20--40 microg/m 3 and 6--22 microg/m 3 , respectively. In general, pollutant levels inside or just outside the vehicles were higher than those measured at the roadside stations or the ambient air stations. In-vehicle pollutant levels were consistently higher in Los Angeles than Sacramento. Pollutant levels measured inside vehicles traveling in a carpool lane were much lower than those in the right-hand, slower lanes. Under the study conditions, factors such as vehicle type and ventilation and little effect on in-vehicle pollutant levels. Other factors, such as roadway type, freeway congestion level, and time-of-day had some influence on in-vehicle pollution levels

  12. The effect of base image window level selection on the dimensional measurement accuracy of resultant three-dimensional image displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, A.P.; Hearn, T.C.; Reynolds, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of base image window level selection on direct linear measurement of knee structures displayed using new magnetic resonance (MR)-based three-dimensional reconstructed computer imaging techniques. Methods: A prospective comparative study was performed using a series of three-dimensional knee images, generated from conventional MR imaging (MRI) sections. Thirty distinct anatomical structural features were identified within the image series of which repeated measurements were compared at 10 different window grey scale levels. Results: Statistical analysis demonstrated an excellent raw correlation between measurements and suggested no significant difference between measurements made at each of the 10 window level settings (P>0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that unlike conventional MR or CT applications, grey scale window level selection at the time of imaging does not significantly affect the visual quality of resultant three-dimensional reconstructed images and hence the accuracy of subsequent direct linear measurement. The diagnostic potential of clinical progression from routine two-dimensional to advanced three-dimensional reconstructed imaging techniques may therefore be less likely to be degraded by inappropriate MR technician image windowing during the capturing of image series

  13. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Bialonski, Stephan [Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Geier, Christian [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Lehnertz, Klaus [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database. - Highlights: • Recurrence-based analysis of brain dynamics in human epilepsy. • Comparison of recurrence quantification and recurrence network measures. • Statistically significant precursory structures in three out of five patients. • High congruence among measures in characterizing brain dynamics.

  14. Evaluation of selected recurrence measures in discriminating pre-ictal and inter-ictal periods from epileptic EEG data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngamga, Eulalie Joelle; Bialonski, Stephan; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of selected measures of complexity based on recurrence quantification analysis and recurrence networks for an identification of pre-seizure states in multi-day, multi-channel, invasive electroencephalographic recordings from five epilepsy patients. We employ several statistical techniques to avoid spurious findings due to various influencing factors and due to multiple comparisons and observe precursory structures in three patients. Our findings indicate a high congruence among measures in identifying seizure precursors and emphasize the current notion of seizure generation in large-scale epileptic networks. A final judgment of the suitability for field studies, however, requires evaluation on a larger database. - Highlights: • Recurrence-based analysis of brain dynamics in human epilepsy. • Comparison of recurrence quantification and recurrence network measures. • Statistically significant precursory structures in three out of five patients. • High congruence among measures in characterizing brain dynamics.

  15. Using dynamic Brownian bridge movement modelling to measure temporal patterns of habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Clint McCoy, J; Hinton, Joseph W; Chamberlain, Michael J; Collier, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Accurately describing animal space use is vital to understanding how wildlife use habitat. Improvements in GPS technology continue to facilitate collection of telemetry data at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Application of the recently introduced dynamic Brownian bridge movement model (dBBMM) to such data is promising as the method explicitly incorporates the behavioural heterogeneity of a movement path into the estimated utilization distribution (UD). Utilization distributions defining space use are normally estimated for time-scales ranging from weeks to months, obscuring much of the fine-scale information available from high-volume GPS data sets. By accounting for movement heterogeneity, the dBBMM provides a rigorous, behaviourally based estimate of space use between each set of relocations. Focusing on UDs generated between individual sets of locations allows us to quantify fine-scale circadian variation in habitat use. We used the dBBMM to estimate UDs bounding individual time steps for three terrestrial species with different life histories to illustrate how the method can be used to identify fine-scale variations in habitat use. We also demonstrate how dBBMMs can be used to characterize circadian patterns of habitat selection and link fine-scale patterns of habitat use to behaviour. We observed circadian patterns of habitat use that varied seasonally for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and coyote (Canis latrans). We found seasonal patterns in selection by the white-tailed deer and were able to link use of conifer forests and agricultural fields to behavioural state of the coyote. Additionally, we were able to quantify the date in which a Rio Grande wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) initiated laying as well as when during the day, she was most likely to visit the nest site to deposit eggs. The ability to quantify circadian patterns of habitat use may have important implications for research and management of wildlife

  16. What does anisotropy measure? Insights from increased and decreased anisotropy in selective fiber tracts in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A De Erausquin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a common, severe and chronically disabling mental illness of unknown cause. Recent MRI studies have focused attention on white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Indices commonly derived from DTI include (a mean diffusivity, independent of direction, (b fractional anisotropy (FA or relative anisotropy (RA, (c axial diffusivity, and (d radial diffusivity. In cerebral white matter, contributions to these indices come from fiber arrangements, degree of myelination, and axonal integrity. Relatively pure deficits in myelin result in a modest increase in radial diffusivity, without affecting axial diffusivity and with preservation of anisotropy. Although schizophrenia is not characterized by gross abnormalities of white matter, it does involve a profound dysregulation of myelin-associated gene expression, reductions in oligodendrocyte numbers, and marked abnormalities in the ultrastructure of myelin sheaths. Since each oligodendrocyte myelinates as many as 40 axon segments, changes in the number of oligodendrocytes, and/or in the integrity of myelin sheaths, and/or axoglial contacts can have a profound impact on signal propagation and the integrity of neuronal circuits. Whereas a number of studies have revealed inconsistent decreases in anisotropy in schizophrenia, we and others have found increased fractional anisotropy in key subcortical tracts associated with the circuits underlying symptom generation in schizophrenia. We review data revealing increased anisotropy in dopaminergic tracts in the mesencephalon of schizophrenics and their unaffected relatives, and discuss the possible biological underpinnings and physiological significance of this finding.

  17. What does anisotropy measure? Insights from increased and decreased anisotropy in selective fiber tracts in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Ferrara, L M; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common, severe, and chronically disabling mental illness of unknown cause. Recent MRI studies have focused attention on white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Indices commonly derived from DTI include (1) mean diffusivity, independent of direction, (2) fractional anisotropy (FA) or relative anisotropy (RA), (3) axial diffusivity, and (4) radial diffusivity. In cerebral white matter, contributions to these indices come from fiber arrangements, degree of myelination, and axonal integrity. Relatively pure deficits in myelin result in a modest increase in radial diffusivity, without affecting axial diffusivity and with preservation of anisotropy. Although schizophrenia is not characterized by gross abnormalities of white matter, it does involve a profound dysregulation of myelin-associated gene expression, reductions in oligodendrocyte numbers, and marked abnormalities in the ultrastructure of myelin sheaths. Since each oligodendrocyte myelinates as many as 40 axon segments, changes in the number of oligodendrocytes (OLG), and/or in the integrity of myelin sheaths, and/or axoglial contacts can have a profound impact on signal propagation and the integrity of neuronal circuits. Whereas a number of studies have revealed inconsistent decreases in anisotropy in schizophrenia, we and others have found increased FA in key subcortical tracts associated with the circuits underlying symptom generation in schizophrenia. We review data revealing increased anisotropy in dopaminergic tracts in the mesencephalon of schizophrenics and their unaffected relatives, and discuss the possible biological underpinnings and physiological significance of this finding.

  18. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) and Department of Intelligent Image Information, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu (Japan); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Labs, Duke University, 2424 Erwin Road, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The presentation of images with lesions of known pathology that are similar to an unknown lesion may be helpful to radiologists in the diagnosis of challenging cases for improving the diagnostic accuracy and also for reducing variation among different radiologists. The authors have been developing a computerized scheme for automatically selecting similar images with clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from a large database. For similar images to be useful, they must be similar from the point of view of the diagnosing radiologists. In order to select such images, subjective similarity ratings were obtained for a number of pairs of clustered microcalcifications by breast radiologists for establishment of a ''gold standard'' of image similarity, and the gold standard was employed for determination and evaluation of the selection of similar images. The images used in this study were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. The subjective similarity ratings for 300 pairs of images with clustered microcalcifications were determined by ten breast radiologists. The authors determined a number of image features which represent the characteristics of clustered microcalcifications that radiologists would use in their diagnosis. For determination of objective similarity measures, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed. The ANN was trained with the average subjective similarity ratings as teacher and selected image features as input data. The ANN was trained to learn the relationship between the image features and the radiologists' similarity ratings; therefore, once the training was completed, the ANN was able to determine the similarity, called a psychophysical similarity measure, which was expected to be close to radiologists' impressions, for an unknown pair of clustered microcalcifications. By use of a leave-one-out test method, the best combination of features

  19. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of images with lesions of known pathology that are similar to an unknown lesion may be helpful to radiologists in the diagnosis of challenging cases for improving the diagnostic accuracy and also for reducing variation among different radiologists. The authors have been developing a computerized scheme for automatically selecting similar images with clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from a large database. For similar images to be useful, they must be similar from the point of view of the diagnosing radiologists. In order to select such images, subjective similarity ratings were obtained for a number of pairs of clustered microcalcifications by breast radiologists for establishment of a ''gold standard'' of image similarity, and the gold standard was employed for determination and evaluation of the selection of similar images. The images used in this study were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. The subjective similarity ratings for 300 pairs of images with clustered microcalcifications were determined by ten breast radiologists. The authors determined a number of image features which represent the characteristics of clustered microcalcifications that radiologists would use in their diagnosis. For determination of objective similarity measures, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed. The ANN was trained with the average subjective similarity ratings as teacher and selected image features as input data. The ANN was trained to learn the relationship between the image features and the radiologists' similarity ratings; therefore, once the training was completed, the ANN was able to determine the similarity, called a psychophysical similarity measure, which was expected to be close to radiologists' impressions, for an unknown pair of clustered microcalcifications. By use of a leave-one-out test method, the best combination of features was selected. The correlation

  20. RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTS AND STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTIVE LASER MELTED TI-6AL-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM of Ti-6Al-4V has significant potential in the aerospace and biotechnology industries. SLM employs a focused laser beam to melt successive layers of metallic powder into complex components. This process can result in the generation of high thermally-induced residual stresses. These residual stresses, together with micro-flaws/ pores from the inherent fabrication process, may lead to premature fatigue crack initiation and propagation at relatively low cyclic stresses. The hole-drilling strain gauge method was used to evaluate residual stresses within SLM Ti-6Al-4V specimens, with the intention of understanding the associated mechanisms for the successful application of SLM Ti-6Al-4V in industry.

  1. A Statistical Approach for Selecting Buildings for Experimental Measurement of HVAC Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a statistical methodology for selecting representative buildings for experimentally evaluating the performance of HVAC systems, especially in terms of energy consumption. The proposed approach is based on the k-means method. The algorithm for this method is conceptually simple, allowing it to be easily implemented. The method can be applied to large quantities of data with unknown distributions. The method was tested using numerical experiments to determine the hourly, daily, and yearly heat values and the domestic hot water demands of residential buildings in Poland. Due to its simplicity, the proposed approach is very promising for use in engineering applications and is applicable to testing the performance of many HVAC systems.

  2. Performance of Antenna Selection in MIMO System Using Channel Reciprocity with Measured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerapong Uthansakul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The channel capacity of MIMO system increases as a function of antenna pairs between transmitter and receiver but it suffers from multiple expensive RF chains. To reduce cost of RF chains, antenna selection (AS method can offer a good tradeoff between expense and performance. For a transmitting AS system, channel state information (CSI feedback is required to choose the best subset of available antennas. However, the delay and error in feedback channel are the most dominant factors to degrade performances. In this paper, the concept of AS method using reciprocal CSI instead of feedback channel is proposed. The capacity performance of proposed system is investigated by own developing Testbed. The obtained results indicate that the reciprocity technique offers a capacity close to a system with perfect CSI and gains a higher capacity than a system without AS method. This benefit is from 0.9 to 2.2 bps/Hz at SNR 10 dB.

  3. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Pollard, T M; Wardle, J

    1995-12-01

    A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion. This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of 358 adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. The questionnaire structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 358), and test-retest reliability over a 2- to 3-week period was satisfactory. Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed.

  4. Application of porous foams for size-selective measurements of airborne wheat allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, J.; Pater, A.J. de; Doekes, G.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Exposure to airborne wheat allergen is a well-known cause of bakers' allergy and asthma. Airborne wheat allergen can be measured by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in extracts of inhalable dust samples, but only limited knowledge is available on the size distribution of wheat

  5. On the Importance of Reliable Covariate Measurement in Selection Bias Adjustments Using Propensity Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.; Shadish, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of unreliability of measurement on propensity score (PS) adjusted treatment effects has not been previously studied. The authors report on a study simulating different degrees of unreliability in the multiple covariates that were used to estimate the PS. The simulation uses the same data as two prior studies. Shadish, Clark, and Steiner…

  6. Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis in severe mental illness : Outcome measures selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stant, A. Dennis; Buskens, Erik; Jenner, Jack A.; Wiersma, Durk; TenVergert, Elisabeth M.

    Background: Most economic evaluations conducted in mental healthcare did not include widely recommended preference-based health outcomes like the QALY (Quality-Adjusted Life Years). Instead, studies have mainly been designed as cost-effectiveness analyses that include single outcome measures aimed

  8. Determination of fluoride ions by measuring ionic activities and using selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, J.M.G.; Castro Miquelino, F.L. de

    1984-01-01

    Fluorides interfere adversely in electroplating baths of printed circuits and in other environments where it promotes corrosion. A calibration curve for its determination was drawn with standards of known concentrations. As the concentration of the fluorite ions in the sample did not follow the linearity of the curve, it was measured by means of the standard addition method. (C.L.B.) [pt

  9. Muon Identification performance: hadron mis-Id measurements and RPC Muon selections

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Pion, kaon, proton mis-identification probabilities as muons have been measured for different Muon ID algorithms. Results from two independent analyses are presented. The performance of a new muon ID algorithm based on matching of inner tracks with hits in muon RPC chambers is also presented.

  10. MR pulse sequences for selective relaxation time measurements: a phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Jensen, M

    1990-01-01

    a Siemens Magnetom wholebody magnetic resonance scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla was used. For comparison six imaging pulse sequences for relaxation time measurements were tested on the same phantom. The spectroscopic pulse sequences all had an accuracy better than 10% of the reference values....

  11. Selecting the right statistical model for analysis of insect count data by using information theoretic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileshi, G

    2006-10-01

    Researchers and regulatory agencies often make statistical inferences from insect count data using modelling approaches that assume homogeneous variance. Such models do not allow for formal appraisal of variability which in its different forms is the subject of interest in ecology. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were to (i) compare models suitable for handling variance heterogeneity and (ii) select optimal models to ensure valid statistical inferences from insect count data. The log-normal, standard Poisson, Poisson corrected for overdispersion, zero-inflated Poisson, the negative binomial distribution and zero-inflated negative binomial models were compared using six count datasets on foliage-dwelling insects and five families of soil-dwelling insects. Akaike's and Schwarz Bayesian information criteria were used for comparing the various models. Over 50% of the counts were zeros even in locally abundant species such as Ootheca bennigseni Weise, Mesoplatys ochroptera Stål and Diaecoderus spp. The Poisson model after correction for overdispersion and the standard negative binomial distribution model provided better description of the probability distribution of seven out of the 11 insects than the log-normal, standard Poisson, zero-inflated Poisson or zero-inflated negative binomial models. It is concluded that excess zeros and variance heterogeneity are common data phenomena in insect counts. If not properly modelled, these properties can invalidate the normal distribution assumptions resulting in biased estimation of ecological effects and jeopardizing the integrity of the scientific inferences. Therefore, it is recommended that statistical models appropriate for handling these data properties be selected using objective criteria to ensure efficient statistical inference.

  12. MRI measurements of water diffusion: impact of region of interest selection on ischemic quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsunar, Yelda; Koseoglu, Kutsi; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Koroshetz, Walter; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ADC heterogeneity on region of interest (ROI) measurement of isotropic and anisotropic water diffusion in acute (<12 h) cerebral infarctions. Methods and materials: Full diffusion tensor images were retrospectively analyzed in 32 patients with acute cerebral infarction. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in ischemic lesions and in the corresponding contralateral, normal appearing brain by using four ROIs for each patient. The 2x2 pixel square ROIs were placed in the center, the lateral rim and the medial rim of the infarction. In addition, the whole volume of the infarction was measured using a free hand method. Each ROI value obtained from the ischemic lesion was normalized using contralateral normal ROI values. Results: The localization of the ROIs in relation to the ischemic lesion significantly affected ADC measurement (P<0.01, using Friedman test), but not FA measurement (P=0.25). Significant differences were found between ADC values of the center of the infarction versus whole volume (P<0.01), and medial rim versus whole volume of infarction (P<0.001) with variation of relative ADC values up to 11%. The differences of absolute ADC for these groups were 22 and 23%, respectively. The lowest ADC was found in the center, followed by medial rim, lateral rim and whole volume of infarction. Conclusion: ADC quantification may provide variable results depending on ROI method. The ADC and FA values, obtained from the center of infarction tend to be lower compared to the periphery. The researchers who try to compare studies or work on ischemic quantification should be aware of these differences and effects

  13. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  14. Robust depth selectivity in mesoscopic scattering regimes using angle-resolved measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, P; Kim, A D; Moscoso, M

    2013-03-01

    We study optical imaging of tissues in the mesoscopic scattering regime in which light multiply scatters in tissues but is not fully diffusive. We use the radiative transport equation to model light propagation and an ℓ1-optimization method to solve the inverse source problem. We show that recovering the location and strength of several point-like sources that are close to each other is not possible when using angle-averaged measurements. The image reliability is limited by a spatial scale that is on the order of the transport mean-free path, even under the most ideal conditions. However, by using just a few angle-resolved measurements, the proposed method is able to overcome this limitation.

  15. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    for breast reduction surgery, thus establishing a standard decision basis that can be shared by surgeons and departments to secure patients fair and equal treatment opportunities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who were referred to three Danish public hospitals with breast hypertrophy...... in the period from January 2007 to March 2011 were included prospectively in the study. The patients' subjective complaints, height, weight and standard breast measurements were registered as well as the decision for or against surgery. Breast volume was measured using transparent plastic cups. RESULTS: Cut......-off values for breast volume were calculated based on whether or not the patients were offered reduction surgery. Most patients (93%) with a breast volume below 800 cc were not offered surgery, while most with a volume exceeding 900 cc were offered surgery (94%). In the grey zone between 800 and 900 cc...

  16. Optoacoustic measurements of water vapor absorption at selected CO laser wavelengths in the 5-micron region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption were taken with a resonant optoacoustical detector (cylindrical pyrex detector, two BaF2 windows fitted into end plates at slight tilt to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances), for lack of confidence in existing spectral tabular data for the 5-7 micron region, as line shapes in the wing regions of water vapor lines are difficult to characterize. The measurements are required for air pollution studies using a CO laser, to find the differential absorption at the wavelengths in question due to atmospheric constituents other than water vapor. The design and performance of the optoacoustical detector are presented. Effects of absorption by ambient NO are considered, and the fixed-frequency discretely tunable CO laser is found suitable for monitoring urban NO concentrations in a fairly dry climate, using the water vapor absorption data obtained in the study.

  17. Experimental Design for Evaluating Selected Nondestructive Measurement Technologies - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M3AT-16PN2301043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, Stan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Good, Morris S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walker, Cody M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-16

    The harsh environments in advanced reactors (AdvRx) increase the possibility of degradation of safety-critical passive components, and therefore pose a particular challenge for deployment and extended operation of these concepts. Nondestructive evaluation technologies are an essential element for obtaining information on passive component condition in AdvRx, with the development of sensor technologies for nondestructively inspecting AdvRx passive components identified as a key need. Given the challenges posed by AdvRx environments and the potential needs for reducing the burden posed by periodic in-service inspection of hard-to-access and hard-to-replace components, a viable solution may be provided by online condition monitoring of components. This report identifies the key challenges that will need to be overcome for sensor development in this context, and documents an experimental plan for sensor development, test, and evaluation. The focus of initial research and development is on sodium fast reactors, with the eventual goal of the research being developing the necessary sensor technology, quantifying sensor survivability and long-term measurement reliability for nondestructively inspecting critical components. Materials for sensor development that are likely to withstand the harsh environments are described, along with a status on the fabrication of reference specimens, and the planned approach for design and evaluation of the sensor and measurement technology.

  18. Focusing on a Probability Element: Parameter Selection of Message Importance Measure in Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    She, Rui; Liu, Shanyun; Dong, Yunquan; Fan, Pingyi

    2017-01-01

    Message importance measure (MIM) is applicable to characterize the importance of information in the scenario of big data, similar to entropy in information theory. In fact, MIM with a variable parameter can make an effect on the characterization of distribution. Furthermore, by choosing an appropriate parameter of MIM,it is possible to emphasize the message importance of a certain probability element in a distribution. Therefore, parametric MIM can play a vital role in anomaly detection of bi...

  19. Concurrent Validation of Experimental Army Enlisted Personnel Selection and Classification Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Megan Shay, Mary Warthen, Gordon Waugh, and Shelly West. 3 The samples sizes in Table 2.1 represent the number of participants who completed Soldier...scores. This finding casts serious doubt on a fundamental assumption underlying the construction and validation of interest-based P-E fit measures... cast on dominant arm, using other arm to respond). The final sample size was 755. Psychometric Properties Table 12.1 reports the means, standard

  20. Selected Static Anatomic Measures Predict Overuse Injuries in Female Military Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    nearest I degree. 15 1 Ober’s Test I I To measure iliotibial band ( ITB ) tightness, the subject was placed at the right edge of the exam table in...pelvis a~ a right angle to the table. If the leg settled above horizontal (intermediate) it was recorded as a positive I (tight ITB ) test. 16 Data...injuries: iliotibial band syndrome ( ITBS ), patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), shin splints (SS), and plantar fasciitis (PF) during basic training

  1. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  2. Development of MCESC software for selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd [Civil Engineering Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajan, Selangor (Malaysia); Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited into the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper aims to develop and apply Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) software called Multi Criteria Erosion and Sediment Control (MCESC) software in which it can be applied in selecting the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. Visual Basic 6 was adopted as a development tool. This software can help the engineers, contractors on site and decision makers to find the best stormwater control measure in any construction site in Malaysia. Users of the MCESC software are given the opportunity to select the best stormwater control measure via expert's judgments that are built in the system or via their own expertise. MCESC software has many benefits since the experts are not always available and the consultancy is a costly issue which add further financial allocations to the project.

  3. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  4. Through measurement to knowledge the selected papers of Heike Kamerlingh onnes 1853–1926

    CERN Document Server

    Goudaroulis, Yorgos

    1991-01-01

    "Tile; D'apC:Tile; l. DpWTa ()coi 7rpo7rapod)w £ D'T}K,mi'. "between us and Goodness the gods have placed the sweat of our brows". This quote from Isiodos, the first lyrical poet, is jotted on a sheet of paper found among the papers of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes at the Boerhaave Museum, Leiden. On this same sheet, one can also read quotes from Schiller, Goethe, Shakespeare, Homer, Pindar and Dante. Each quote is for somebody or something. It appears to have been a game played at least by Ehrenfest and Crommelin -an unmistakable sign of these two physicists's deep culture. This particular quote was for the "Werkplaats", the Physical Laboratory of the University of Leiden. Our purpose in putting together the Selected Papers of its first Director, Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926), is to try and articulate the dominant trends of a different type of culture at Leiden: its physics culture during the years that established low temperature physics as a distinct branch of physics. Our aims in choosing the particular papers a...

  5. Reliability and Validity of Selected PROMIS Measures in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Bartlett

    Full Text Available To evaluate the reliability and validity of 11 PROMIS measures to assess symptoms and impacts identified as important by people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Consecutive patients (N = 177 in an observational study completed PROMIS computer adapted tests (CATs and a short form (SF assessing pain, fatigue, physical function, mood, sleep, and participation. We assessed test-test reliability and internal consistency using correlation and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed convergent validity by examining Pearson correlations between PROMIS measures and existing measures of similar domains and known groups validity by comparing scores across disease activity levels using ANOVA.Participants were mostly female (82% and white (83% with mean (SD age of 56 (13 years; 24% had ≤ high school, 29% had RA ≤ 5 years with 13% ≤ 2 years, and 22% were disabled. PROMIS Physical Function, Pain Interference and Fatigue instruments correlated moderately to strongly (rho's ≥ 0.68 with corresponding PROs. Test-retest reliability ranged from .725-.883, and Cronbach's alpha from .906-.991. A dose-response relationship with disease activity was evident in Physical Function with similar trends in other scales except Anger.These data provide preliminary evidence of reliability and construct validity of PROMIS CATs to assess RA symptoms and impacts, and feasibility of use in clinical care. PROMIS instruments captured the experiences of RA patients across the broad continuum of RA symptoms and function, especially at low disease activity levels. Future research is needed to evaluate performance in relevant subgroups, assess responsiveness and identify clinically meaningful changes.

  6. Determination of low tritium activities, selection of suitable scintillator and measuring vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, M.

    1996-01-01

    The scintillator cocktails tested were limited to scintillators highly miscible with water and included alkylnaphthalene-based scintillators exhibiting low toxicity and easy biodegradability. The following vials were tested: a vial of glass with reduced potassium content, a conventional polyethylene vial, and a teflon-coated polyethylene vial. Each combination was measured in triplicate: two samples of tritium-free water as the background and one sample with the standard tritium content. The best results were obtained when using a combination of the Ultima Gold LLT scintillator and the polyethylene vial. (M.D.) 2 tabs., 2 figs., 6 refs

  7. Educational "Goodwill": Measuring the Intangible Assets at Highly Selective Private Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nurnberg; Morton Schapiro; David Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we utilize data on the head-to-head loss rate for students accepted at Williams College, but who opt to enroll elsewhere. For example, we employ data that measure the fraction of students admitted to Williams and to Amherst (or Harvard or Yale, etc.) but who opt to attend Amherst (or Harvard or Yale, etc.) instead of Williams. We then model this head-to-head loss rate using data from a variety of sources. A better understanding of the head-to-head loss rate can assist an institu...

  8. Multi criteria analysis in environmental management: Selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malyasia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited in the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper presents the application of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool in choosing the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. The results obtained from the application of MCA in stormwater pollution control have many benefits to the contractors, consultants and decision makers by making them able to select the best control measure for every stage of construction.

  9. Critical evaluation of the Laboratory of Radionuclide Metrology results of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD in the international key comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Silva, C.J. da

    2014-01-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (LMR) of LNMRI/IRD has been participating since 1984, in international key-comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive sources organized by BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations as EURAMET and APMP. The measured quantity is the activity of a radioactive solution, in becquerel (Bq), containing the radionuclide involved and the of measurement methods used are 4αβ-γ coincidence/anticoincidence, coincidence sum-peak and liquid scintillation. In this paper a summary of the methods used and a performance analysis of the results obtained are presented. (author)

  10. Selective processing of smoking-related cues in smokers: manipulation of deprivation level and comparison of three measures of processing bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2002-12-01

    Recent theories of addiction suggest that an attentional bias for drug-related cues plays an important role in maintaining drug-taking behaviours. A key feature of the present study is that it used three different measures of processing bias for linguistic and pictorial smoking-related cues: masked and unmasked conditions of the modified Stroop task, and a pictorial version of the visual probe task. Participants were smokers (n = 27), who were tested twice, with deprivation level manipulated as a within-subjects variable. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 h before one session, and to smoke normally before the other. Results were consistent with an attentional bias for smoking-related pictures on the visual probe task, and for smoking-related words in the unmasked condition of the modified Stroop task. The latter bias was most strongly predicted by self-reported urge to smoke, rather than by the deprivation manipulation. There was no evidence of a preconscious bias for smoking cues. The three measures of cognitive bias (from masked and unmasked Stroop and visual probe tasks) were not significantly correlated with each other, which suggests they may tap different underlying mechanisms. We discuss the results with respect to conceptualizations of selective attention, addiction and motivational states in general.

  11. DOCUMENTATION OF HISTORICAL UNDERGROUND OBJECT IN SKORKOV VILLAGE WITH SELECTED MEASURING METHODS, DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dlesk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes current methods of 3D documentation of historical tunnels in Skorkov village, which lies at the Jizera river, approximately 30 km away from Prague. The area is known as a former military camp from Thirty Years’ War in 17th Century. There is an extensive underground compound with one entrance corridor and two transverse, situated approximately 2 to 5 m under the local development. The object has been partly documented by geodetic polar method, intersection photogrammetry, image-based modelling and laser scanning. Data have been analyzed and methods have been compared. Then the 3D model of object has been created and compound with cadastral data, orthophoto, historical maps and digital surface model which was made by photogrammetric method using remotely piloted aircraft system. Then the measuring has been realized with ground penetrating radar. Data have been analyzed and the result compared with real status. All the data have been combined and visualized into one 3D model. Finally, the discussion about advantages and disadvantages of used measuring methods has been livened up. The tested methodology has been also used for other documentation of historical objects in this area. This project has been created as a part of research at EuroGV. s.r.o. Company lead by Ing. Karel Vach CSc. in cooperation with prof. Dr. Ing. Karel Pavelka from Czech Technical University in Prague and Miloš Gavenda, the renovator.

  12. Documentation of Historical Underground Object in Skorkov Village with Selected Measuring Methods, Data Analysis and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlesk, A.

    2016-06-01

    The author analyzes current methods of 3D documentation of historical tunnels in Skorkov village, which lies at the Jizera river, approximately 30 km away from Prague. The area is known as a former military camp from Thirty Years' War in 17th Century. There is an extensive underground compound with one entrance corridor and two transverse, situated approximately 2 to 5 m under the local development. The object has been partly documented by geodetic polar method, intersection photogrammetry, image-based modelling and laser scanning. Data have been analyzed and methods have been compared. Then the 3D model of object has been created and compound with cadastral data, orthophoto, historical maps and digital surface model which was made by photogrammetric method using remotely piloted aircraft system. Then the measuring has been realized with ground penetrating radar. Data have been analyzed and the result compared with real status. All the data have been combined and visualized into one 3D model. Finally, the discussion about advantages and disadvantages of used measuring methods has been livened up. The tested methodology has been also used for other documentation of historical objects in this area. This project has been created as a part of research at EuroGV. s.r.o. Company lead by Ing. Karel Vach CSc. in cooperation with prof. Dr. Ing. Karel Pavelka from Czech Technical University in Prague and Miloš Gavenda, the renovator.

  13. μ-reactor measurements of catalytic activity of mass selected nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Jakob Nordheim

    The work of this thesis revolves around catalytic activity measurements of nano-particles tested using a μ-reactor platform, developed and produced at DTU, in a collaboration between CINF and Nanotech. The thesis contains the results from two separate research projects; both utilising μ-reactors ......The work of this thesis revolves around catalytic activity measurements of nano-particles tested using a μ-reactor platform, developed and produced at DTU, in a collaboration between CINF and Nanotech. The thesis contains the results from two separate research projects; both utilising μ......-reactors in combination with surface science techniques and computer simulations. The first project described is a study of hydrogen dissociation on mono-disperse platinum clusters. The second project studies methanation from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on nano-particles of nickel-iron alloys. The second study is a work...... in progress, and the corresponding chapter aims to summarise the results so far. Other projects are not included in the thesis because they are inconclusive or dead ends. Hydrogen dissociation was studied by the H2/D2 exchange reaction on SiO2-supported mono-disperse platinum clusters in a -reactor...

  14. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  15. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, A. I.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM 1 0, PM 2 .5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM 1 0/PM 2 .5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  16. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  17. Diffusion-assisted selective dynamical recoupling: A new approach to measure background gradients in magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-02-01

    Dynamical decoupling, a generalization of the original NMR spin-echo sequence, is becoming increasingly relevant as a tool for reducing decoherence in quantum systems. Such sequences apply non-equidistant refocusing pulses for optimizing the coupling between systems, and environmental fluctuations characterized by a given noise spectrum. One such sequence, dubbed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR) [P. E. S. Smith, G. Bensky, G. A. Álvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 5958 (2012)], allows one to coherently reintroduce diffusion decoherence effects driven by fluctuations arising from restricted molecular diffusion [G. A. Álvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 080404 (2013)]. The fully-refocused, constant-time, and constant-number-of-pulses nature of SDR also allows one to filter out "intrinsic" T1 and T2 weightings, as well as pulse errors acting as additional sources of decoherence. This article explores such features when the fluctuations are now driven by unrestricted molecular diffusion. In particular, we show that diffusion-driven SDR can be exploited to investigate the decoherence arising from the frequency fluctuations imposed by internal gradients. As a result, SDR presents a unique way of probing and characterizing these internal magnetic fields, given an a priori known free diffusion coefficient. This has important implications in studies of structured systems, including porous media and live tissues, where the internal gradients may serve as fingerprints for the system's composition or structure. The principles of this method, along with full analytical solutions for the unrestricted diffusion-driven modulation of the SDR signal, are presented. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with the generation of a novel source of MRI contrast, based on the background gradients active in an ex vivo mouse brain. Additional features and limitations of this new method are discussed.

  18. Diffusion-assisted selective dynamical recoupling: A new approach to measure background gradients in magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical decoupling, a generalization of the original NMR spin-echo sequence, is becoming increasingly relevant as a tool for reducing decoherence in quantum systems. Such sequences apply non-equidistant refocusing pulses for optimizing the coupling between systems, and environmental fluctuations characterized by a given noise spectrum. One such sequence, dubbed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR) [P. E. S. Smith, G. Bensky, G. A. Álvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 5958 (2012)], allows one to coherently reintroduce diffusion decoherence effects driven by fluctuations arising from restricted molecular diffusion [G. A. Álvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 080404 (2013)]. The fully-refocused, constant-time, and constant-number-of-pulses nature of SDR also allows one to filter out “intrinsic” T 1 and T 2 weightings, as well as pulse errors acting as additional sources of decoherence. This article explores such features when the fluctuations are now driven by unrestricted molecular diffusion. In particular, we show that diffusion-driven SDR can be exploited to investigate the decoherence arising from the frequency fluctuations imposed by internal gradients. As a result, SDR presents a unique way of probing and characterizing these internal magnetic fields, given an a priori known free diffusion coefficient. This has important implications in studies of structured systems, including porous media and live tissues, where the internal gradients may serve as fingerprints for the system's composition or structure. The principles of this method, along with full analytical solutions for the unrestricted diffusion-driven modulation of the SDR signal, are presented. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with the generation of a novel source of MRI contrast, based on the background gradients active in an ex vivo mouse brain. Additional features and limitations of this new method are discussed

  19. Protection measures for selected ITER magnet system off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Iida, F.; Gallix, R.; Britousov, N.; Mitchell, N.; Thome, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) magnet systems provide the magnetic field intensity and field geometry to contain and control plasma during the various phases of pulsed operation. During these pulses, the toroidal field (TF) coils operate with a constant current. The central solenoid (CS) and poloidal field (PF) coils, on the other hand, are each independently powered. The maximum terminal voltages during plasma operation and protective discharges are 15 kV for CS and 10 kV for TF and PF. The energy stored in the 20 TF coil system is 103 GJ; in each of the other coils it is approximately 10 GJ or less. This paper describes the protection requirements and selected design concepts being considered for the large superconducting coils for the ITER. Ground faults, short circuits and helium leaks are the major serious accidents to be prevented in the coils. All coils use a solid insulation system to avoid ground faults. The electrical circuits including coil and power supply are grounded through resistors that limit current in the event of a ground fault. In the case of a short circuit within the coil winding, a large energy would be dissipated close to the small shorted volume. The impact of the short circuit can be reduced by using a potential screen. Inside the cryostat, helium leakage is most likely at the electrical insulating breaks in the cryogenic cooling lines between the coils and helium manifolds. A double containment (metallic shield and glass-epoxy) is therefore provided for the insulation breaks to allow for the detection of small leaks and to limit the spread of helium to other locations. (orig.)

  20. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in

  1. Product-selective blot: a technique for measuring enzyme activities in large numbers of samples and in native electrophoresis gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.A.; Davies, H.M.; McDonald, N.

    1985-01-01

    A method termed product-selective blotting has been developed for screening large numbers of samples for enzyme activity. The technique is particularly well suited to detection of enzymes in native electrophoresis gels. The principle of the method was demonstrated by blotting samples from glutaminase or glutamate synthase reactions into an agarose gel embedded with ion-exchange resin under conditions favoring binding of product (glutamate) over substrates and other substances in the reaction mixture. After washes to remove these unbound substances, the product was measured using either fluorometric staining or radiometric techniques. Glutaminase activity in native electrophoresis gels was visualized by a related procedure in which substrates and products from reactions run in the electrophoresis gel were blotted directly into a resin-containing image gel. Considering the selective-binding materials available for use in the image gel, along with the possible detection systems, this method has potentially broad application

  2. Inhibitor selection for internal corrosion control of pipelines: experience with field monitoring and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoz, A.; Michaelian, K.H.; Donini, J. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Western Research Centre, Devon, AB (Canada); Papavinasam, S.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A loop of pipe consisting of pipe segments of 3 inches, 6 inches and 10 inches that could take the full flow of a production well was designed, constructed and put in-line close to a wellhead. The loop was able to simulate multiphase pipelines and had ports for coupons, some of which were used for electrochemical monitoring. Various techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrochemical noise (ECN), and linear polarization resistance (LPR) were employed, all of which gave corrosion rates that depended on the position of the coupons inside the loop (increasing from top to bottom, reflecting the media and flow to which coupons were exposed in a multiphase producing well). Results indicated that the general corrosion rates obtained were dependent on the method used for measurement, but following the relative trend of LPR>weight loss>EIS>ECN. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Analysis of selected structures for model-based measuring methods using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, R.; Kaestner, W.; Fenske, A.; Vandreier, B.; Schefter, S. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (DE). Inst. fuer Prozesstechnik, Prozessautomatisierung und Messtechnik e.V. (IPM)

    2000-07-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of safety-related technical processes in nuclear enginering can be improved with the help of intelligent methods of signal processing such as analytical redundancies. This chapter gives an overview about combined methods in form of hybrid models using model based measuring methods (observer) and knowledge-based methods (fuzzy logic). Three variants of hybrid observers (fuzzy-supported observer, hybrid observer with variable gain and hybrid non-linear operating point observer) are explained. As a result of the combination of analytical and fuzzy-based algorithms a new quality of monitoring and diagnosis is achieved. The results will be demonstrated in summary for the example water level estimation within pressure vessels (pressurizer, steam generator, and Boiling Water Reactor) with water-steam mixture during the accidental depressurization. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of selected structures for model-based measuring methods using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, R.; Kaestner, W.; Fenske, A.; Vandreier, B.; Schefter, S.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of safety-related technical processes in nuclear engineering can be improved with the help of intelligent methods of signal processing such as analytical redundancies. This chapter gives an overview about combined methods in form of hybrid models using model based measuring methods (observer) and knowledge-based methods (fuzzy logic). Three variants of hybrid observers (fuzzy-supported observer, hybrid observer with variable gain and hybrid non-linear operating point observer) are explained. As a result of the combination of analytical and fuzzy-based algorithms a new quality of monitoring and diagnosis is achieved. The results will be demonstrated in summary for the example water level estimation within pressure vessels (pressurizer, steam generator, and Boiling Water Reactor) with water-steam mixture during the accidental depressurization. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of sorption ratios for selected radionuclides on various geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.; Coles, D.G.; Weed, H.C.

    1978-09-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine the sorptive characteristics of a variety of rocks and minerals with respect to several radionuclides of interest. This information will be used in the determination of the rates of radionuclide migration from nuclear waste repositories. The R/sub d/ values can be arranged according to the following inequalities: Pu greater than Cs, except for biotite; Cs greater than Sr, except for limestone; Sr greater than Tc. The exceptions are considered significant for Pu vs Cs on biotite, but not for Cs vs Sr on limestone. The low R/sub d/ values for Tc indicate that within the limits of measurement it is not sorbed under the experimental conditions studied

  6. A comparison of rapists and sexual murderers on demographic and selected psychometric measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Caroline J; Beech, Anthony R; Fisher, Dawn; Beckett, Richard

    2007-06-01

    This study compared 58 sexual murderers and 112 rapists who were about to undergo treatment in prison for their sexual offending behavior. The two groups were compared on background, personality, offense, and victim characteristics. The sexual murderer group were less likely to have been involved in a relationship at the time of their index offense, generally attacked older victims, and had higher self-esteem. The rapist sample were found to have more violent previous convictions and scored higher on measures of historical deviance (nonsexual), paranoid suspicion, and resentment. No differences were found on the personality or clinical syndrome scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. However, the rapist sample had significantly higher mean scores on the Paranoid Suspicion, Resentment, and Self-Esteem subscales of the Antisocial Personality Questionnaire. Future research should compare the two groups on dynamic or changeable factors to determine differential treatment needs.

  7. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit(®) benchmark performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Scotty J; Neyedly, Tyler J; Horvey, Karla J; Benko, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit(®) is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit "Workouts of the Day" (WODs). Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs "Grace" (30 clean and jerks for time), "Fran" (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions), and "Cindy" (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats), as well as the "CrossFit Total" (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing. Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total) (r=-0.88 and -0.65, respectively) and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.61 and -0.53, respectively); however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R (2)=0.77 and 0.42, respectively). There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy. CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training, CrossFit athletes should likely ensure an adequate level of strength and aerobic endurance to optimize performance on at least some benchmark WODs.

  8. The Position of the CR Among the EU States Based on Selected Measures of the Lisbon Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vostrá Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Strategy is a key document of the EU, which deals with the priorities and measures for the stimulation of economic, social and ecological renewal of member states in the period 2000-2010. There are more than 130 structural measures from the fields of national development, employment, research and innovations, economic reforms, social coherence and living environment, which can be used for the evaluation and quantification as well as the modernization of European economics and the improvement of its global competitiveness. The structural measures for international comparisons have been developed by Eurostat and they are used by the European Council as the basic data for the evaluation of the level of attainments of the goals of the Lisbon Strategy. In the last few years, a list of 15 key indicators has been developed. They are: GDP per head in parity of purchasing capacity, labour productivity in parity of purchasing capacity, employment rate, employment rate of women, employment rate of elderly people, number of persons with secondary school certificate from the ages between 20 and 24, science and research expenditures as a share of GDP, investments as a share of GDP, price level, exposure to poverty, level of long term unemployment, emission of glasshouse effect, energy consumption as a share of GDP, goods traffic as a share of GDP and regional dispersion of the unemployment rate. The goal of this paper is to propose some methodological approaches that are suitable for analyzing these indicators. The proposal for a correct methodology is highly complicated due to the miscellanea of the variables involved. The multiple dimensional statistical methods seem to be useful especially because of its ability to evaluate complex sets of variables.

  9. Analytical techniques and method validation for the measurement of selected semivolatile and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagen, William K; Lindstrom, Kent R; Thompson, Kathy L; Flaherty, John M

    2004-09-01

    The widespread use of semi- and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in industrial facilities, concern about their persistence, and relatively recent advancements in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technology have led to the development of new analytical methods to assess potential worker exposure to airborne organofluorochemicals. Techniques were evaluated for the determination of 19 organofluorochemicals and for total fluorine in ambient air samples. Due to the potential biphasic nature of most of these fluorochemicals when airborne, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were used to simultaneously trap fluorochemical particulates and vapors from workplace air. Analytical methods were developed for OVS air samples to quantitatively analyze for total fluorine using oxygen bomb combustion/ion selective electrode and for 17 organofluorochemicals using LC/MS and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental design for this validation was based on the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and Evaluation, with some revisions of the experimental design. The study design incorporated experiments to determine analytical recovery and stability, sampler capacity, the effect of some environmental parameters on recoveries, storage stability, limits of detection, precision, and accuracy. Fluorochemical mixtures were spiked onto each OVS tube over a range of 0.06-6 microg for each of 12 compounds analyzed by LC/MS and 0.3-30 microg for 5 compounds analyzed by GC/MS. These ranges allowed reliable quantitation at 0.001-0.1 mg/m3 in general for LC/MS analytes and 0.005-0.5 mg/m3 for GC/MS analytes when 60 L of air are sampled. The organofluorochemical exposure guideline (EG) is currently 0.1 mg/m3 for many analytes, with one exception being ammonium perfluorooctanoate (EG is 0.01 mg/m3). Total fluorine results may be used

  10. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  11. Measuring patient-provider communication skills in Rwanda: Selection, adaptation and assessment of psychometric properties of the Communication Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaka, Vincent Kalumire; Schriver, Michael; Vedsted, Peter; Makoul, Gregory; Kallestrup, Per

    2018-04-23

    To identify, adapt and validate a measure for providers' communication and interpersonal skills in Rwanda. After selection, translation and piloting of the measure, structural validity, test-retest reliability, and differential item functioning were assessed. Identification and adaptation: The 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) was selected and adapted. Content validation found all items highly relevant in the local context except two, which were retained upon understanding the reasoning applied by patients. Eleven providers and 291 patients were involved in the field-testing. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit for the original one factor model. Test-retest reliability assessment revealed a mean quadratic weighted Kappa = 0.81 (range: 0.69-0.89, N = 57). The average proportion of excellent scores was 15.7% (SD: 24.7, range: 9.9-21.8%, N = 180). Differential item functioning was not observed except for item 1, which focuses on greetings, for age groups (p = 0.02, N = 180). The Kinyarwanda version of CAT (K-CAT) is a reliable and valid patient-reported measure of providers' communication and interpersonal skills. K-CAT was validated on nurses and its use on other types of providers may require further validation. K-CAT is expected to be a valuable feedback tool for providers in practice and in training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Scotty J; Neyedly, Tyler J; Horvey, Karla J; Benko, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit “Workouts of the Day” (WODs). Materials and methods Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs “Grace” (30 clean and jerks for time), “Fran” (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions), and “Cindy” (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats), as well as the “CrossFit Total” (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing. Results Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total) (r=−0.88 and −0.65, respectively) and anaerobic threshold (r=−0.61 and −0.53, respectively); however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively). There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy. Conclusion CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training, CrossFit athletes should likely ensure an adequate level of strength and aerobic endurance to optimize performance on at least some benchmark WODs. PMID:26261428

  13. Do physiological measures predict selected CrossFit® benchmark performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher SJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotty J Butcher,1,2 Tyler J Neyedly,3 Karla J Horvey,1 Chad R Benko2,41Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, 2BOSS Strength Institute, 3Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, 4Synergy Strength and Conditioning, Saskatoon, SK, CanadaPurpose: CrossFit® is a new but extremely popular method of exercise training and competition that involves constantly varied functional movements performed at high intensity. Despite the popularity of this training method, the physiological determinants of CrossFit performance have not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physiological and/or muscle strength measures could predict performance on three common CrossFit "Workouts of the Day" (WODs.Materials and methods: Fourteen CrossFit Open or Regional athletes completed, on separate days, the WODs "Grace" (30 clean and jerks for time, "Fran" (three rounds of thrusters and pull-ups for 21, 15, and nine repetitions, and "Cindy" (20 minutes of rounds of five pull-ups, ten push-ups, and 15 bodyweight squats, as well as the "CrossFit Total" (1 repetition max [1RM] back squat, overhead press, and deadlift, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, and Wingate anaerobic power/capacity testing.Results: Performance of Grace and Fran was related to whole-body strength (CrossFit Total (r=-0.88 and -0.65, respectively and anaerobic threshold (r=-0.61 and -0.53, respectively; however, whole-body strength was the only variable to survive the prediction regression for both of these WODs (R2=0.77 and 0.42, respectively. There were no significant associations or predictors for Cindy.Conclusion: CrossFit benchmark WOD performance cannot be predicted by VO2max, Wingate power/capacity, or either respiratory compensation or anaerobic thresholds. Of the data measured, only whole-body strength can partially explain performance on Grace and Fran, although anaerobic threshold also exhibited association with performance. Along with their typical training

  14. Selecting the "Best" Factor Structure and Moving Measurement Validation Forward: An Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas A; Sass, Daniel A; Chappelle, Wayne; Thompson, William

    2018-04-09

    Despite the broad literature base on factor analysis best practices, research seeking to evaluate a measure's psychometric properties frequently fails to consider or follow these recommendations. This leads to incorrect factor structures, numerous and often overly complex competing factor models and, perhaps most harmful, biased model results. Our goal is to demonstrate a practical and actionable process for factor analysis through (a) an overview of six statistical and psychometric issues and approaches to be aware of, investigate, and report when engaging in factor structure validation, along with a flowchart for recommended procedures to understand latent factor structures; (b) demonstrating these issues to provide a summary of the updated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5) factor models and a rationale for validation; and (c) conducting a comprehensive statistical and psychometric validation of the PCL-5 factor structure to demonstrate all the issues we described earlier. Considering previous research, the PCL-5 was evaluated using a sample of 1,403 U.S. Air Force remotely piloted aircraft operators with high levels of battlefield exposure. Previously proposed PCL-5 factor structures were not supported by the data, but instead a bifactor model is arguably more statistically appropriate.

  15. SELECTING THE WAY OF MEASURING THE PRICE EVOLUTION USING THE METHOD OF INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai GHEORGHE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The price indices have a long history and a large variety of uses, from the adjustment of the wages, pensions and payments included in a long-term contract, the deflation of aggregates in National Accounts, to the elaboration of economic policies.Having identified the purpose of the index, we`ll have to choose the target index and the calculation formula, this operation being carried out based on the observed prices and on the quantity and quality weights.In the statistical practice, the price index is often calculated by aggregating the elementary indices using the weighted arithmetic mean, using annual weights from a period that is previous to the reference period.In this situation, the question about the possible impact of the weights update (by prices on the interpretation of price indices becomes legitimate, also the question about the influence of using this approach on measuring the price change. We can get a possible answer to this question using the Lowe and Young indices introduced by the Consumer Price Index international manual.

  16. Selected Issues of the Indicating Measurements in a Spark Ignition Engine with an Additional Expansion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Noga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the turbocharged spark ignition engine with additional exhaust expansion in a separate cylinder, which is commonly known as the five-stroke engine. The research engine has been constructed based on the four cylinder engine in which two outer cylinders work as the fired cylinders, while two internally connected inner cylinders constitute the volume of the additional expansion process. The engine represents a powertrain realizing an ultra-expansion cycle. The purpose of the study was to find an effective additional expansion process in the five-stroke engine. Cylinder-pressure indicating measurements were carried out for one of the fired cylinders and the additional expansion cylinder. The study was performed for over 20 different points on the engine operation map. This allowed us to determine a dependence between the pressure indicated in the fired cylinders and in the additional expansion cylinders. A function of the mean pressure indicated in the additional expansion cylinder versus a brake mean effective pressure was also presented. This showed a load threshold from which the work of the cylinders of additional expansion produced benefits for the output of the experimental engine. The issues of mechanical efficiency and effective efficiency of this engine were also discussed.

  17. Testing the Benefits of Neurofeedback on Selective Attention Measured Through Dichotic Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Marien; Aliño, Marta; Garijo, Evelio; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-06-01

    The electrophysiological changes after a single session of neurofeedback training (↑SMR/↓Theta) and its effects on executive attention during a dichotic listening test with forced attentional procedures were measured in a sample of 20 healthy women. A pre-post moment test double blind design, with the inclusion of a group receiving sham neurofeedback, allowed for minimization of alien influences. The interaction of Moment × Group was significant, indicating an enhancement of SMR band after the real neurofeedback. The dichotic listening scores were correlated with the amplitude of Beta band in baseline conditions. The performance on the forced left attentional condition in dichotic listening was significantly improved and correlated positively with the post-training enhancement of the SMR band. The sham neurofeedback group also improved DL scores, so a clear affirmation about the benefits of neurofeedback training over cognitive performance could not be unambiguously established. It is concluded that the protocol showed a good independence and acceptable trainability in modifying the EEG results, but there was limited interpretability regarding cognitive outcomes.

  18. Influence of selected test parameters on measured values during the MSCR test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benešová, Lucie; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    One of today’s most commonly used test on a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) is the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test. The test is described in the standard EN 16659, which is valid in the Czech Republic since October 2016. The principle of the test is based on repeated loading and recovering of a bitumen sample, according to which it is possible to determine the percentage of elastic recovery (R) and non-recoverable creep compliance (Jnr) of the bituminous binder. This method has been recently promoted as the most suitable test for assessing the resistance of bituminous binders to permanent deformation. The test is performed at higher temperatures and is particularly suitable for modified bituminous binders. The paper deals with the comparison of the different input parameters set on the DSR device - different levels of stress, temperature of test, the geometry of the measuring device and also a comparison of the results for a different number of loading cycles. The research study was focused mainly on modified bituminous binders, but to compare the MSCR test it is performed even with conventional paving grade binders.

  19. The Selected Method and Tools for Performance Measurement in the Green Supply Chain—Survey Analysis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Tundys

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods and tools for the performance measurement and evaluation of the green supply chain management are very important elements for the construction and function of this type of supply chain. The result is a presentation of the considerations underlying a very general model, which presents some selected tools, but no breakdown of individual industries. The considerations undertaken are important and have scientific added value as usually in practice, a very large number of tools are used to assess the supply chain, which are not always correlated or adapted to the specificity of the chain. It is worth pointing out which of the already used or completely new tools and methods will be most useful for assessing the green supply chain. The structure of the paper covers the theoretical and empirical. It includes an introduction, our goals and hypotheses, state of the art, methodology, empirical findings, and discussion. We present the definitional differences between green and sustainable supply chains and focus on the selection and identification of methods for the framework model for evaluating the green supply chain. In the next step, the theoretical and selected method and tools were compared to a survey of Poland. On the basis of the survey, we present the findings and discussions found in this area. The main methodology used includes a literature review, a survey analysis using a questionnaire and statistical tools. The survey was carried out in 2015 in sample organizations in Poland. The research results showed that organizations were aware of the environmental elements of measuring and assessing the supply chain from an environmental point of view, but their use depended on many factors: the area, size of the organization, or the industry. If certain boundary conditions are met and the organizations are aware of the essence of environmental aspects in the chain, then they are applying green measures to the supply chain. These findings

  20. A Closed-Form Solution for Robust Portfolio Selection with Worst-Case CVaR Risk Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the uncertainty probability distribution, we establish the worst-case CVaR (WCCVaR risk measure and discuss a robust portfolio selection problem with WCCVaR constraint. The explicit solution, instead of numerical solution, is found and two-fund separation is proved. The comparison of efficient frontier with mean-variance model is discussed and finally we give numerical comparison with VaR model and equally weighted strategy. The numerical findings indicate that the proposed WCCVaR model has relatively smaller risk and greater return and relatively higher accumulative wealth than VaR model and equally weighted strategy.

  1. Teleportation of N-qubit W State without Bell-State Measurement via Selective Resonant Interaction in Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Wenxue; Geng Jun; Cheng Guangling; Chen Aixi

    2010-01-01

    We present a scheme in which the N-atom W state is teleported by employing the selective interaction of a cavity field with a driven three-level atom in the A configuration and detecting a single atom in one of the ground states. The long-lived W state is teleported from atom A to atom B when the atoms B and A are sent through a cavity successively and atom A is then detected. The advantage is that the present one does not involve the Bell-state measurement and is robust against the atomic spontaneous emission. (general)

  2. Selected CPV Results from LHCb Run 1 and Prospects for CKM $\\gamma $ Angle Measurements in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oblakowska-Mucha, Agniezka

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a single-arm forward spectrometer that collects data at the LHC, designed for studies of flavour physics with high precision. In this review, a few selected results regarding CP violation are discussed with particular emphasis on the CKM angle measurements. This sum- mary covers results based on the data collected by the LHCb detector during 2011 and 2012 proton–proton LHC runs at the centre-of-mass ener- gies of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Some remarks on prospects for analyses foreseen in the ongoing LHC Run 2 are also presented

  3. Diurnal thermal behavior of selected urban objects using remote sensing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Ben-Dor, E. [The Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Saaroni, H. [Unit for Applied Climatology and Environmental Aspects, Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2004-07-01

    This research analyzes and summarizes some thermal behavior of various urban surfaces in time and space using high-resolution video thermal radiometer situated at a height of 103 m, in the city of Tel-Aviv. The physical properties of the various urban elements, their color, the sky view factor, street geometry, traffic loads, and anthropogenic activity are important among the factors that determine the radiant surface temperature in the urban environment. During daytime, asphalt paved roads and rooftops were found to be the warmest urban elements in our study area. In contrast, exterior walls and trees hold the highest surface temperatures at night. Open spaced surfaces that are exposed to direct solar radiation during daytime and to heat loss at night were characterized by the highest diurnal temperature range. The radiometric stationary experiment revealed the temperature differences between diverse urban coverage to be at most 10 {sup o}C; such maximum temperature differences were measured in the early noon hours. The minimal temperatures were observed just before sunrise, when the temperature contrasts (4-5 {sup o}C) were smaller than in the early noon hours. The daytime hours between 9-10 a.m. and 5-8 p.m. turned out to be problematic for remote sensing of the urban environment, because the thermal differences between different objects were found to be insignificant. A remote survey aiming to study the urban environment should be conducted twice: in the early morning hours before sunrise (5 a.m.) and in the early noon hours (12-1 p.m.). The knowledge of thermal behavior of various urban components is an important tool for designers and decision-makers. If utilized properly, it can lead to climatic rehabilitation in urban areas and a reduction of the UHI. (author)

  4. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  5. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  6. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  7. Body condition score of Nellore beef cows: a heritable measure to improve the selection of reproductive and maternal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A F A; Neves, H H R; Carvalheiro, R; Oliveira, J A; Queiroz, S A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the economic importance of beef cattle production in Brazil, female reproductive performance, which is strongly associated with production efficiency, is not included in the selection index of most breeding programmes due to low heritability and difficulty in measure. The body condition score (BCS) could be used as an indicator of these traits. However, so far little is known about the feasibility of using BCS as a selection tool for reproductive performance in beef cattle. In this study, we investigated the sources of variation in the BCS of Nellore beef cows, quantified its association with reproductive and maternal traits and estimated its heritability. BCS was analysed using a logistic model that included the following effects: contemporary group at weaning, cow weight and hip height, calving order, reconception together with the weight and scores of conformation and early finishing assigned to calves at weaning. In the genetic analysis, variance components of BCS were estimated through Bayesian inference by fitting an animal model that also included the aforementioned effects. The results showed that BCS was significantly associated with all of the reproductive and maternal variables analysed. The estimated posterior mean of heritability of BCS was 0.24 (highest posterior density interval at 95%: 0.093 to 0.385), indicating an involvement of additive gene action in its determination. The present findings show that BCS can be used as a selection criterion for Nellore females.

  8. [Application of wavelength selection algorithm to measure the effective component of Chinese medicine based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ke-Xin; Wang, Yan

    2006-09-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has raised a lot of interest in the pharmaceutical industry because it is a rapid and cost-effective analytical type of spectroscopy with no need for extensive sample preparation, and with the easy-realizable ability of on-line application. The NIR technology can increase the quality control standard of the Chinese medicine and accelerate the entry into the international market. In the present paper, two methods for wavelength selection are applied to the measurement of borneol, one of which is the multiple-chain stepwise, which tends to select many variables in the same area containing valuable information, and the other is the mixture genetic algorithm, which incorporates simulated annealing so as to improve the local searching ability while maintaining the global searching ability. The results present that the number of wavelength is reduced to 16% compared with the original number of wavelength, and the prediction accuracy has increased 47.6%. Therefore, the method of wavelength selection is a good way to enhance the prediction accuracy and simplify the model in NIR region.

  9. [Formula: see text]Selecting measures for the neurodevelopmental assessment of children in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Romero, Regilda Anne A; Prado, Elizabeth L; Shapiro, Elsa G; Bangirana, Paul; John, Chandy C

    2017-10-01

    Diseases affecting millions of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as malnutrition, micronutrient deficiency, malaria, and HIV, can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Thus, a key health outcome in children is neurodevelopmental status. In this paper, the neurodevelopmental screening and testing measures most commonly utilized in LMICs are reviewed, and a matrix is presented to help researchers and clinicians determine which measures may be most useful for various LMIC inquiries. The matrix is based on an Internet literature review of 114 publications for the period January 1998 to February 2016, reporting the psychometric properties of instruments tested in LMIC children. The measures are classified as screening tests or more detailed tests that include both comprehensive batteries of general development and tests of specific domains. For completeness, two experts have reviewed this paper, as well as the authors. An overview of the tests used to date is presented, including the benefits and drawbacks of each test, in order to provide researchers and developmental clinicians with a way to decide which tests may be best suited to their developmental assessment goals. Remarkable progress has been made in neurodevelopmental testing in children in LMICs over the past two decades but there remains a need for additional research in this area to develop new tests, better evaluate and adapt current tests, and assess test validity and reliability across cultures.

  10. Comparative study on flow rate measurement by nuclear and conventional methods in selected rivers at Ulu Langat district, Selangor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Mohamad Tahir, Wan Zakaria; Mohamad, Daud; Hamzah, Abdul Razak; Yusuf, Johari Mohamad; Aziz Wan Mohamad, Wan Abdul

    1986-06-01

    A radiotracer technique using Tc-99 to measure flows of small rivers was introduced in Malaysia. Three rivers in the Ulu Langat District were selected for a comparative study on flow rate determination by conventional and radioisotope methods. Radioisotopic approach, comprising injection procedures, calibration, mixing length and safety aspects are discussed. The results measured by radioisotope method are compared to the Drainage and Irrigation Department's (DID's) discharge curves data collected from 1980 to 1982 which is calibrated using a current meter. The results are comparable and fall within the range obtained by conventional method. Related to this study, a comprehensive work on stream gauging of moderate and high flow rates using both methods is proposed to be carried out directly.

  11. ECFA 2016: Prospects for selected standard model measurements with the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prospects for selected standard model measurements at the High-Luminosity LHC presented at ECFA 2016 workshop are summarized. The extrapolations assume proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 14$\\,$TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to $3\\,\\text{ab}^{-1}$. The achievable precision for top quark mass measurements based on different analysis strategies is estimated. Searches for flavour-changing neutral currents in top quark decays are studied and expected limits are set, based on different scenarios for the extrapolation of systematic uncertainties to the High-Luminosity LHC run conditions. The feasibility of a dedicated track trigger for the $B_s \\rightarrow \\phi \\phi$ decay studies is discussed.

  12. A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty from maximum temperature metric selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, Jefferson T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30‐day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species’ distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold‐water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid‐century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation

  14. Probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty from maximum temperature metric selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, Jefferson T; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-06-01

    Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30-day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species' distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold-water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid-century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation actions. Our

  15. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  16. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  17. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  18. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  19. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  20. Note related to the elaboration of a coding by key sentences for the programming of a document automatic selection system; Notice relative a l'elaboration d'un codage par phrases cles pour la programmation d'un systeme De selection automatique des documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, A. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de Documentation (France); Braffort, P. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Departement d' Electronique (France)

    1959-07-01

    This note deals with the providing of CEA documentalists with a tool for coding studies. The authors first discuss issues related to code selection criteria (author classification, topic classification, and so on), and propose an overview and a discussion of linguistic models. They also comment how diagrams illustrating relationships between words are built up, and propose a diagram representation example which includes different concepts such as conditions, properties, object, tools or processes (for example hardness for a steel, batch processing for a condition, or sintering for a process), and also the introduction of negation. Then, the authors address how basic concepts can be highlighted, describe how key sentences can be built up, and propose an example analysis in the case of a published article dealing with nuclear reactors (in this case, the study of a liquid-metal neutron absorber for the control of a gas-cooled power reactor). Perspectives of evolution are finally discussed.

  1. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  2. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  3. Broadband non-selective excitation of plutonium isotopes for isotope ratio measurements in resonance ionization mass spectrometry: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankari, M

    2012-10-15

    Making isotope ratio measurements with minimum isotope bias has always been a challenging task to mass spectrometrists, especially for the specific case of plutonium, owing to the strategic importance of the element. In order to use resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) as a tool for isotope ratio measurements, optimization of the various laser parameters and other atomic and system parameters is critical to minimize isotopic biases. Broadband simultaneous non-selective excitation of the isotopes of plutonium in the triple resonance excitation scheme with λ(1) = 420.77 nm, λ(2) = 847.28 nm, and λ(3) = 767.53 nm based on density matrix formalism has been theoretically computed for the determination of isotope ratios. The effects of the various laser parameters and other factors such as the atomization temperature and the dimensions of the atomic beam on the estimation of isotope ratios were studied. The effects of Doppler broadening, and time-dependent excitation parameters such as Rabi frequencies, ionization rate and the effect of non-Lorenztian lineshape have all been incorporated. The average laser powers and bandwidths for the three-excitation steps were evaluated for non-selective excitation. The laser intensity required to saturate the three-excitation steps were studied. The two-dimensional lineshape contour and its features were investigated, while the reversal of peak asymmetry of two-step and two-photon excitation peaks under these conditions is discussed. Optimized powers for the non-selective ionization of the three transitions were calculated as 545 mW, 150 mW and 545 mW and the laser bandwidth for all the three steps was ~20 GHz. The isotopic bias between the resonant and off-resonant isotope under the optimized conditions was no more than 9%, which is better than an earlier reported value. These optimized laser power and bandwidth conditions are better than in the earlier experimental work since these comprehensive calculations yield

  4. Hemodynamic Measurements for the Selection of Patients With Renal Artery Stenosis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brussel, Peter M; van de Hoef, Tim P; de Winter, Robbert J; Vogt, Liffert; van den Born, Bert-Jan

    2017-05-22

    Interventions targeting renal artery stenoses have been shown to lower blood pressure and preserve renal function. In recent studies, the efficacy of catheter-based percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent placement has been called into question. In the identification of functional coronary lesions, hyperemic measurements have earned a place in daily practice for clinical decision making, allowing discrimination between solitary coronary lesions and diffuse microvascular disease. Next to differences in clinical characteristics, the selection of renal arteries suitable for intervention is currently on the basis of anatomic grading of the stenosis by angiography rather than functional assessment under hyperemia. It is conceivable that, like the coronary circulation, functional measurements may better predict therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent placement. In this systematic review, the authors evaluate the available clinical evidence on the optimal hyperemic agents to induce intrarenal hyperemia, their association with anatomic grading, and their predictive value for treatment effects. In addition, the potential value of combined pressure and flow measurements to discriminate macrovascular from microvascular disease is discussed. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation study of an ion selective field effect transistor electrode for measuring quality parameters of fuel ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano B.; Sobral, Sidney P.; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Goncalves, Mary A., E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia(INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Metrologia Quimica

    2013-01-15

    An ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) electrode was evaluated for measuring pH and acid number (AN) of fuel ethanol and compared to two glass electrodes with different reference filling solutions: KCl aqueous solution (glass-KCl electrode)and LiCl ethanolic solution (glass-LiCl electrode). pH was determined at different measurement times and AN was determined using automatic potentiometric titration. For pH, the glass-KCl electrode showed the best precision and stability, with an average repeatability about four times better when compared to the ISFET electrode for the measurement time of 30 s (as indicated in the ASTM D6423 standard). For AN, the glass-KCl and glass-LiCl electrodes showed similar repeatabilities, which were about three times better than that of the ISFET electrode. In addition, the results from a recovery study demonstrated better accuracy of the glass-LiCl electrode, with a recovery value of 100.1% (author)

  6. [A measure of the motives underlying snack selection among Japanese junior high school students: the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2007-02-01

    To develop a measure of the motives underlying snack selection by Japanese junior high school students and to examine the characteristics of each motivating factor. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed in a cross-sectional study of 1,936 students in public junior high schools in Tokyo, Japan. The respondents answered the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which assess overeating, snacking behavior, the food environment, lifestyle, and demographics. Twenty-two items of the SCQ were factor-analyzed using varimax rotation. Three factors were extracted and labeled "fashion and sales promotion," "convenience and taste," "health and weight control." All factors demonstrated a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha coefficient of over 0.80, and scores for both "fashion and sales promotion" (r= 0.349, Pfoods frequently had high scores for "fashion and sales promotion" and "convenience and taste" but not for "health and weight control." The factor "fashion and sales promotion" was related to more TV viewing (beta = 0.060, Pmotives underlying snack food selection in junior high-schools in Japan suggest a need for comprehensive nutrition education, along with a focus on media literacy and consumer education.

  7. Food Safety and Sanitary Practices of Selected Hotels in Batangas Province, Philippines: Basis of Proposed Enhancement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent of food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province as basis of proposed enhancement measures. The study utilized descriptive method to describe food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province with a total of 8 hotels (256 respondents. Purposive sampling was used in the study. The questionnaires were designed using the provision of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines, validated and finalized to come up with legitimate results. The study showed that there were eight (8 hotel respondents classified as two, three, four star with considerable years of experience and adequate number of employees. The hotels demonstrated the food safety and sanitary practices always in the areas of restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service. The significant pair-wise comparison for restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service shows that 2 star hotels greatly differs. The researcher recommends that the management should maintain high standard of food safety and sanitary practices among its staff, upgrade the food safety and sanitary practices for food safety accreditation, continuous training of the hotel managers/employees on food safety and sanitary practices.

  8. Benchmarking Organisational Capability using The 20 Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Petrarolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisations have over the years implemented many improvement initiatives, many of which were applied individually with no real, lasting improvement. Approaches such as quality control, team activities, setup reduction and many more seldom changed the fundamental constitution or capability of an organisation. Leading companies in the world have come to realise that an integrated approach is required which focuses on improving more than one factor at the same time - by recognising the importance of synergy between different improvement efforts and the need for commitment at all levels of the company to achieve total system-wide improvement.

    The 20 Keys approach offers a way to look at the strenqth of organisations and to systemically improve it, one step at a time by focusing on 20 different but interrelated aspects. One feature of the approach is the benchmarking system which forms the main focus of this paper. The benchmarking system is introduced as an important part of the 20 Keys philosophy in measuring organisational strength. Benchmarking results from selected South African companies are provided, as well as one company's results achieved through the adoption of the 20 Keys philosophy.

  9. Study of decision framework of wind farm project plan selection under intuitionistic fuzzy set and fuzzy measure environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunna; Geng, Shuai; Xu, Hu; Zhang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experts’ opinions are expressed by using the intuitionistic fuzzy values. • Fuzzy measure is used to solve the dependence problem of criteria. • The compensatory problem of performance scores is reasonably processed. - Abstract: Project selection plays an important role in the entire life cycle of wind farm project and the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods are very important in the whole wind farm project plan selection process. There are problems in the present MCDM methods decrease evaluation quality of the wind farm project plans: first, the information loss exists in the wind farm project plan evaluation process. Second, it is difficult to satisfy the independent assumption of the multi-criteria decision making methods used in the wind farm project plan evaluation in fact. Third, the compensatory problem of performance scores of the wind farm project plans is processed unreasonably. Hence the innovation points of this paper are as follows: first, the intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used instead of fuzzy numbers or numerical values to reflect the experts’ intuitive preferences to decrease the probability of information loss; second, the fuzzy measure is used to rate the important degrees of criteria in order to avoid the independent assumption and to increase the reasonability; third, the partial compensatory problem of performance scores is well processed by using intuitionistic fuzzy Choquet (IFC) operator and generalized intuitionistic fuzzy ordered geometric averaging (GIFOGA) operator. These operators can deal with the compensatory performance scores and non-compensatory performance scores respectively. Finally, a case study demonstrates the effectiveness of decision framework

  10. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  12. The University of Canberra quantum key distribution testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshkumar, G.; Edwards, P.J.; Cheung, W.N.; Barbopoulos, L.O.; Pham, H.; Hazel, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We describe the design, operation and preliminary results obtained from a quantum key distribution (QKD) testbed constructed at the University of Canberra. Quantum cryptographic systems use shared secret keys exchanged in the form of sequences of polarisation coded or phase encoded single photons transmitted over an optical communications channel. Secrecy of this quantum key rests upon fundamental laws of quantum physics: measurements of linear or circular photon polarisation states introduce noise into the conjugate variable and so reveal eavesdropping. In its initial realisation reported here, pulsed light from a 650nm laser diode is attenuated by a factor of 10 6 , plane-polarised and then transmitted through a birefringent liquid crystal modulator (LCM) to a polarisation sensitive single photon receiver. This transmitted key sequence consists of a 1 kHz train of weak coherent 100ns wide light pulses, polarisation coded according to the BB84 protocol. Each pulse is randomly assigned one of four polarisation states (two orthogonal linear and two orthogonal circular) by computer PCA operated by the sender ('Alice'). This quaternary polarisation shift keyed photon stream is detected by the receiver ('Bob') whose computer (PCB) randomly chooses either a linear or a circular polarisation basis. Computer PCB is also used for final key selection, authentication, privacy amplification and eavesdropping. We briefly discuss the realisation of a mesoscopic single photon QKD source and the use of the testbed to simulate a global quantum key distribution system using earth satellites. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  13. Contribution to development of SPNDs for instantaneous and selective measurement of different radiation fields in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandin, Christophe

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work was conceiving and experimentally optimizing the SPNDs (Self-Powdered Neutron Detector) able to control fast power transients in test reactors and also to cope with requirements of surveillance and protection of EDF reactors. Thus, different SPND emitters of platinum, gadolinium, hafnium and cobalt were provided according to their nature with sheathing and stainless steel plugs as well as with zirconium over-sheathing in order to render them faster, more selective and adapted for wear checking. Special experimental devices were designed for measuring inside the Siloe reactor the promptness of the signals from SPND, on one hand, and their sensitivity to thermal and epithermal neutrons as well as to gamma rays, on the other hand. The follow-up of power transients in test reactors is ensured by the instantaneous measurement of thermal and epithermal neutron flux as well as of gamma field by means of three special SPND with gadolinium, hafnium and platinum. Also, we have defined the characteristics of a new SPND with cobalt, that delivers a current of unique neutronic origin, able to ensure the surveillance and protection of a power reactor over a period of at least six years

  14. Highly selective water channel activity measured by voltage clamp: analysis of planar lipid bilayers reconstituted with purified AqpZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, P; Saparov, S M; Borgnia, M J; Agre, P

    2001-08-14

    Aquaporins are membrane channels selectively permeated by water or water plus glycerol. Conflicting reports have described ion conductance associated with some water channels, raising the question of whether ion conductance is a general property of the aquaporin family. To clarify this question, a defined system was developed to simultaneously measure water permeability and ion conductance. The Escherichia coli water channel aquaporin-Z (AqpZ) was studied, because it is a highly stable tetramer. Planar lipid bilayers were formed from unilamellar vesicles containing purified AqpZ. The hydraulic conductivity of bilayers made from the total extract of E. coli lipids increased 3-fold if reconstituted with AqpZ, but electric conductance was unchanged. No channel activity was detected under voltage-clamp conditions, indicating that less than one in 10(9) transport events is electrogenic. Microelectrode measurements were simultaneously undertaken adjacent to the membrane. Changes in sodium concentration profiles accompanying transmembrane water flow permitted calculation of the activation energies: 14 kcal/mol for protein-free lipid bilayers and 4 kcal/mol for lipid bilayers containing AqpZ. Neither the water permeability nor the electric conductivity exhibited voltage dependence. This sensitive system demonstrated that AqpZ is permeated by water but not charged ions and should permit direct analyses of putative electrogenic properties of other aquaporins.

  15. 13C spin relaxation measurements in RNA: Sensitivity and resolution improvement using spin-state selective correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisbouvier, Jerome; Brutscher, Bernhard; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Marion, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    A set of new NMR pulse sequences has been designed for the measurement of 13 C relaxation rate constants in RNA and DNA bases: the spin-lattice relaxation rate constant R(C z ), the spin-spin relaxation rate constant R(C + ), and the CSA-dipolar cross-correlated relaxation rate constant Γ C,CH xy . The use of spin-state selective correlation techniques provides increased sensitivity and spectral resolution. Sensitivity optimised C-C filters are included in the pulse schemes for the suppression of signals originating from undesired carbon isotopomers. The experiments are applied to a 15% 13 C-labelled 33-mer RNA-theophylline complex. The measured R(C + )/Γ C,CH xy ratios indicate that 13 C CSA tensors do not vary significantly for the same type of carbon (C 2 , C 6 , C 8 ), but that they differ from one type to another. In addition, conformational exchange effects in the RNA bases are detected as a change in the relaxation decay of the narrow 13 C doublet component when varying the spacing of a CPMG pulse train. This new approach allows the detection of small exchange effects with a higher precision compared to conventional techniques

  16. A pilot study to measure levels of selected elements in Thai foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, S.; Busamongkol, A.; Permnamtip, V.; Judprasong, K.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the scope of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for measuring the levels of selected elements in a few commonly consumed food items in Thailand. Several varieties of rice, beans, aquatic food items, vegetables and soybean products were bought from major distribution centers in Bangkok, Thailand. Samples were prepared according to the protocols prescribed by the nutritionist for food compositional analysis. Levels of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Zn were measured by INAA using the irradiation and counting facilities available at the Thai Research Reactor with the maximum in-core thermal neutron flux of 3 x 10 13 cm -2 s -1 of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology in Bangkok. Selenium was determined by cyclic INAA using the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor facilities in Halifax, Canada at a thermal neutron flux of 2.5 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 . Both cooked and uncooked foods were analyzed. The elemental composition of food products was found to depend significantly on the raw material as well as the preparation technique. (author)

  17. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  18. Consumers' price awareness at the point-of-selection: What constitutes the most appropriate measure of consumers' price awareness and what determines the differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    This paper focuses on consumers' price information processing at the point-of-selection. Specifically, it updates past results of consumers' price awareness at the point-of-selection - applying both a price-recall and a price-recognition test - and tests hypotheses on potential determinants...... of consumers' price awareness at the point-of-selection. Both price-memory tests resulted in higher measured price awareness than in any of the past studies. Results also indicate that price recognition is not the most appropiate measure. Finally, a discriminant analysis shows that consumers who are aware...

  19. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  20. The co-feature ratio, a novel method for the measurement of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsjö, Albert; Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K.R.; Nestor, Marika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of analytical procedures, especially in regards to measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity, is highly challenging in untargeted metabolomics. The aim of this study was to suggest a new straightforward approach for a systematic examination of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics. By calculating the ratio between each feature and its co-eluting features (the co-features), a measurement of the chromatographic selectivity (i.e. extent of co-elution) as well as the signal selectivity (e.g. amount of adduct formation) of each feature could be acquired, the co-feature ratio. This approach was used to examine possible differences in chromatographic and signal selectivity present in samples exposed to three different sample preparation procedures. The capability of the co-feature ratio was evaluated both in a classical targeted setting using isotope labelled standards as well as without standards in an untargeted setting. For the targeted analysis, several metabolites showed a skewed quantitative signal due to poor chromatographic selectivity and/or poor signal selectivity. Moreover, evaluation of the untargeted approach through multivariate analysis of the co-feature ratios demonstrated the possibility to screen for metabolites displaying poor chromatographic and/or signal selectivity characteristics. We conclude that the co-feature ratio can be a useful tool in the development and evaluation of analytical procedures in LC-MS-based metabolomics investigations. Increased selectivity through proper choice of analytical procedures may decrease the false positive and false negative discovery rate and thereby increase the validity of any metabolomic investigation. - Highlights: • The co-feature ratio (CFR) is introduced. • CFR measures chromatographic and signal selectivity of a feature. • CFR can be used for evaluating experimental procedures in metabolomics. • CFR can aid in locating features with poor selectivity.

  1. The co-feature ratio, a novel method for the measurement of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmsjö, Albert, E-mail: Albert.Elmsjo@farmkemi.uu.se [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Haglöf, Jakob; Engskog, Mikael K.R. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Nestor, Marika [Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University (Sweden); Arvidsson, Torbjörn [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden); Medical Product Agency, Uppsala (Sweden); Pettersson, Curt [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of analytical procedures, especially in regards to measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity, is highly challenging in untargeted metabolomics. The aim of this study was to suggest a new straightforward approach for a systematic examination of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics. By calculating the ratio between each feature and its co-eluting features (the co-features), a measurement of the chromatographic selectivity (i.e. extent of co-elution) as well as the signal selectivity (e.g. amount of adduct formation) of each feature could be acquired, the co-feature ratio. This approach was used to examine possible differences in chromatographic and signal selectivity present in samples exposed to three different sample preparation procedures. The capability of the co-feature ratio was evaluated both in a classical targeted setting using isotope labelled standards as well as without standards in an untargeted setting. For the targeted analysis, several metabolites showed a skewed quantitative signal due to poor chromatographic selectivity and/or poor signal selectivity. Moreover, evaluation of the untargeted approach through multivariate analysis of the co-feature ratios demonstrated the possibility to screen for metabolites displaying poor chromatographic and/or signal selectivity characteristics. We conclude that the co-feature ratio can be a useful tool in the development and evaluation of analytical procedures in LC-MS-based metabolomics investigations. Increased selectivity through proper choice of analytical procedures may decrease the false positive and false negative discovery rate and thereby increase the validity of any metabolomic investigation. - Highlights: • The co-feature ratio (CFR) is introduced. • CFR measures chromatographic and signal selectivity of a feature. • CFR can be used for evaluating experimental procedures in metabolomics. • CFR can aid in locating features with poor selectivity.

  2. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  3. A measurement of the top pair production cross-section in the dilepton channel using lepton plus track selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Corrinne Elaine [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Using 1.1 fb-1 of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron, they measure the t$\\bar{t}$ production cross section in events with two leptons, significant missing transverse energy, and ≥ 2 jets. As the Run II dataset grows, more stringent tests of Standard Model predictions for the top quark sector are becoming possible. The dilepton channel, where both top quarks decay t → Wb → ℓvb, is of particular interest due to its high purity even in the absence of a b jet 'tagging' requirement. Use of an isolated track as the second lepton significant increases the dilepton acceptance, at the price of some increase in background, particular from W + jets events where one of the jets is identified as a lepton. With the amount of data available, it has been possible to improve the estimate of the contribution from that background, reflected in a reduced systematic uncertainty. Assuming a branching ratio of BR(W → ℓv) = 10.8% and a top mass of mt = 175 GeV/c2, the measured cross-section is σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$) = 8.3 ± 1.3(stat.) ± 0.7(syst.) ± 0.5(lumi.) pb. The result is consistent with the Standard Model prediction of 6.7$+0.7\\atop{-0.9}$ pb and represents a significant improvement in precision over previous results using this selection.

  4. Evaluation of long-range transport potential of selected brominated flame retardants with measured 1-octanol-air partition coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwon, Jung Hwan [Div. of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various alternative flame retardants are used in many countries since polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, difficulties in the evaluation of the long-range transport potential (LRTP) of the alternatives are related to the lack of information on their physicochemical properties, which govern their environmental fates and transport. Based on the simulation of LRTP using OECD P{sub OV} and LRTP Screening Tool, five alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (hexabromobenzene [HBB], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene [PBT], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene [PBEB], 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate [TBB], and 1,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-dimethylbenzene [TBX]), and 3 PBDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99) were chosen to perform a refined assessment. This was done using an experimentally measured 1-octanol–air partition coefficient (K{sub OA}) for the calculation of the air–water partition coefficient (K{sub AW}) required for the model. The four selected alternative BFRs (HBB, PBT, PBEB, TBX) have K{sub OA} values close to the in silico estimation used in the screening evaluation. On the other hand, the measured K{sub OA} value for TBB was two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated value used in the screening simulation. The refined simulation showed that characteristic travel distance (CTD) and transfer efficiency (TE) for HBB, PBT, PBEB, and TBX were greater than those for BDE-28, whereas CTD and TE for TBB were lower than those for BDE-28. This suggested that TBB has a lower LRTP than BDE-28, considering the refined partition coefficients.

  5. Better Measurement for Performance Improvement in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) Experience of Conceptual Framework Development and Indicator Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Jeremy; Cowling, Krycia; Bitton, Asaf; Ratcliffe, Hannah; Kimball, Meredith; Barkley, Shannon; Mercereau, Laure; Wong, Ethan; Taylor, Chelsea; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Wang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Policy Points: Strengthening accountability through better measurement and reporting is vital to ensure progress in improving quality primary health care (PHC) systems and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) provides national decision makers and global stakeholders with opportunities to benchmark and accelerate performance improvement through better performance measurement. Results from the initial PHC performance assessments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are helping guide PHC reforms and investments and improve the PHCPI's instruments and indicators. Findings from future assessment activities will further amplify cross-country comparisons and peer learning to improve PHC. New indicators and sources of data are needed to better understand PHC system performance in LMICs. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), a collaboration between the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization, in partnership with Ariadne Labs and Results for Development, was launched in 2015 with the aim of catalyzing improvements in primary health care (PHC) systems in 135 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), in order to accelerate progress toward universal health coverage. Through more comprehensive and actionable measurement of quality PHC, the PHCPI stimulates peer learning among LMICs and informs decision makers to guide PHC investments and reforms. Instruments for performance assessment and improvement are in development; to date, a conceptual framework and 2 sets of performance indicators have been released. The PHCPI team developed the conceptual framework through literature reviews and consultations with an advisory committee of international experts. We generated 2 sets of performance indicators selected from a literature review of relevant indicators, cross-referenced against indicators available from international sources, and evaluated through

  6. Accurate and precise measurement of oxygen isotopic fractions and diffusion profiles by selective attenuation of secondary ions (SASI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Hong, Jong-Eun; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John A

    2015-03-03

    The accuracy and precision of isotopic analysis in Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) relies on the appropriate reduction of the dead-time and detector saturation effects, especially when analyzing species with high ion yields or present in high concentrations. Conventional approaches to avoid these problems are based on Poisson dead-time correction and/or an overall decrease of the total secondary ion intensity by reducing the target current. This ultimately leads to poor detection limits for the minor isotopes and high uncertainties of the measured isotopic ratios. An alternative strategy consists of the attenuation of those specific secondary ions that saturate the detector, providing an effective extension of the linear dynamic range. In this work, the selective attenuation of secondary ion signals (SASI) approach is applied to the study of oxygen transport properties in electroceramic materials by isotopic labeling with stable (18)O tracer and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. The better analytical performance in terms of accuracy and precision allowed a more reliable determination of the oxygen surface exchange and diffusion coefficients while maintaining good mass resolution and limits of detection for other minor secondary ion species. This improvement is especially relevant to understand the ionic transport mechanisms and properties of solid materials, such as the parallel diffusion pathways (e.g., oxygen diffusion through bulk, grain boundary, or dislocations) in electroceramic materials with relevant applications in energy storage and conversion devices.

  7. Beamspace dual signal space projection (bDSSP): a method for selective detection of deep sources in MEG measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekihara, Kensuke; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi K.; Cai, Chang; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has a well-recognized weakness at detecting deeper brain activities. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for selective detection of deep sources by suppressing interference signals from superficial sources in MEG measurements. Approach. The proposed algorithm combines the beamspace preprocessing method with the dual signal space projection (DSSP) interference suppression method. A prerequisite of the proposed algorithm is prior knowledge of the location of the deep sources. The proposed algorithm first derives the basis vectors that span a local region just covering the locations of the deep sources. It then estimates the time-domain signal subspace of the superficial sources by using the projector composed of these basis vectors. Signals from the deep sources are extracted by projecting the row space of the data matrix onto the direction orthogonal to the signal subspace of the superficial sources. Main results. Compared with the previously proposed beamspace signal space separation (SSS) method, the proposed algorithm is capable of suppressing much stronger interference from superficial sources. This capability is demonstrated in our computer simulation as well as experiments using phantom data. Significance. The proposed bDSSP algorithm can be a powerful tool in studies of physiological functions of midbrain and deep brain structures.

  8. S3 HMBC: Spin-State-Selective HMBC for accurate measurement of homonuclear coupling constants. Application to strychnine yielding thirteen hitherto unreported JHH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Louise; Benie, Andrew J.; Hoeck, Casper

    2016-01-01

    A novel method, Spin-State-Selective (S3) HMBC, for accurate measurement of homonuclear coupling constants is introduced. As characteristic for S3 techniques, S3 HMBC yields independent subspectra corresponding to particular passive spin states and thus allows determination of coupling constants ...... are demonstrated by an application to strychnine where thirteen JHH coupling constants not previously reported could be measured....

  9. S3 HMBC hetero: Spin-State-Selective HMBC for accurate measurement of long-range heteronuclear coupling constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Casper; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Sørensen, Ole W.

    2017-01-01

    A novel method, Spin-State-Selective (S3) HMBC hetero, for accurate measurement of heteronuclear coupling constants is introduced. The method extends the S3 HMBC technique for measurement of homonuclear coupling constants by appending a pulse sequence element that interchanges the polarization...

  10. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  11. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  12. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  13. Predicting Key Agronomic Soil Properties with UV-Vis Fluorescence Measurements Combined with Vis-NIR-SWIR Reflectance Spectroscopy: A Farm-Scale Study in a Mediterranean Viticultural Agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Cerovic, Zoran G; Ebengo, Dav M; Latouche, Gwendal

    2018-04-10

    For adequate crop and soil management, rapid and accurate techniques for monitoring soil properties are particularly important when a farmer starts up his activities and needs a diagnosis of his cultivated fields. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of fluorescence measured directly on 146 whole soil solid samples, for predicting key soil properties at the scale of a 6 ha Mediterranean wine estate with contrasting soils. UV-Vis fluorescence measurements were carried out in conjunction with reflectance measurements in the Vis-NIR-SWIR range. Combining PLSR predictions from Vis-NIR-SWIR reflectance spectra and from a set of fluorescence signals enabled us to improve the power of prediction of a number of key agronomic soil properties including SOC, N tot , CaCO₃, iron, fine particle-sizes (clay, fine silt, fine sand), CEC, pH and exchangeable Ca 2+ with cross-validation RPD ≥ 2 and R² ≥ 0.75, while exchangeable K⁺, Na⁺, Mg 2+ , coarse silt and coarse sand contents were fairly predicted (1.42 ≤ RPD < 2 and 0.54 ≤ R² < 0.75). Predictions of SOC, N tot , CaCO₃, iron contents, and pH were still good (RPD ≥ 1.8, R² ≥ 0.68) when using a single fluorescence signal or index such as SFR_R or FERARI, highlighting the unexpected importance of red excitations and indices derived from plant studies. The predictive ability of single fluorescence indices or original signals was very significant for topsoil: this is very important for a farmer who wishes to update information on soil nutrient for the purpose of fertility diagnosis and particularly nitrogen fertilization. These results open encouraging perspectives for using miniaturized fluorescence devices enabling red excitation coupled with red or far-red fluorescence emissions directly in the field.

  14. Predicting Key Agronomic Soil Properties with UV-Vis Fluorescence Measurements Combined with Vis-NIR-SWIR Reflectance Spectroscopy: A Farm-Scale Study in a Mediterranean Viticultural Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Vaudour

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For adequate crop and soil management, rapid and accurate techniques for monitoring soil properties are particularly important when a farmer starts up his activities and needs a diagnosis of his cultivated fields. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of fluorescence measured directly on 146 whole soil solid samples, for predicting key soil properties at the scale of a 6 ha Mediterranean wine estate with contrasting soils. UV-Vis fluorescence measurements were carried out in conjunction with reflectance measurements in the Vis-NIR-SWIR range. Combining PLSR predictions from Vis-NIR-SWIR reflectance spectra and from a set of fluorescence signals enabled us to improve the power of prediction of a number of key agronomic soil properties including SOC, Ntot, CaCO3, iron, fine particle-sizes (clay, fine silt, fine sand, CEC, pH and exchangeable Ca2+ with cross-validation RPD ≥ 2 and R² ≥ 0.75, while exchangeable K+, Na+, Mg2+, coarse silt and coarse sand contents were fairly predicted (1.42 ≤ RPD < 2 and 0.54 ≤ R² < 0.75. Predictions of SOC, Ntot, CaCO3, iron contents, and pH were still good (RPD ≥ 1.8, R² ≥ 0.68 when using a single fluorescence signal or index such as SFR_R or FERARI, highlighting the unexpected importance of red excitations and indices derived from plant studies. The predictive ability of single fluorescence indices or original signals was very significant for topsoil: this is very important for a farmer who wishes to update information on soil nutrient for the purpose of fertility diagnosis and particularly nitrogen fertilization. These results open encouraging perspectives for using miniaturized fluorescence devices enabling red excitation coupled with red or far-red fluorescence emissions directly in the field.

  15. Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Cheman

    A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

  16. Selective measurements of isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol based on NO+ ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic VOC emissions are often dominated by 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (232 MBO. Here we explore the possibility to selectively distinguish these species using NO+ as a primary ion in a conventional PTR-MS equipped with an SRI unit. High purity of NO+ (>90% as a primary ion was utilized in laboratory and field experiments using a conventional PTR-TOF-MS. Isoprene is ionized via charge transfer leading to the major product ion C5H8+ (>99% (e.g. Spanel and Smith, 1998. 232 MBO undergoes a hydroxide ion transfer reaction resulting in the major product ion channel C5H9+ (>95% (e.g. Amelynck et al., 2005. We show that both compounds are ionized with little fragmentation (>5% under standard operating conditions. Typical sensitivities of 11.1 ± 0.1 (isoprene and 12.9 ± 0.1 (232 MBO ncps ppbv−1 were achieved, which correspond to limit of detections of 18 and 15 pptv respectively for a 10 s integration time. Sensitivities decreased at higher collisional energies. Calibration experiments showed little humidity dependence. We tested the setup at a field site in Colorado dominated by ponderosa pine, a 232 MBO emitting plant species. Our measurements confirm 232 MBO as the dominant biogenic VOC at this site, exhibiting typical average daytime concentrations between 0.2–1.4 ppbv. The method is able to detect the presence of trace levels of isoprene at this field site (90–250 ppt without any interference from 232 MBO, which would not be feasible using H3O+ ionization chemistry, and which currently also remains a challenge for other analytical techniques (e.g. gas chromatographic methods.

  17. Can the Effects of Religion and Spirituality on Both Physical and Mental Health be Scientifically Measured? An Overview of the Key Sources, with Particular Reference to the Teachings of Said Nursi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mahshid

    2015-12-01

    Within Western secular societies, everything has to be substantiated by empirical evidence; this means it has to be quantifiable and measurable. Research, particularly quantitative research, then, is the criterion by which everything, including religion, is either accepted or rejected. The separation of religion from science began with the Renaissance, the Reformation and the advent of the Enlightenment. It was perceived that religion did not match the language of science and that there was no logical proof or empirical evidence for the existence of God. Religion therefore, due to its inability to be measured and quantified, has since been largely marginalised. In recent times, in order to integrate 'religion' into everyday life, attempts have been made to argue and bring in scientific proof for the effectiveness of religion for improved health and well-being. The psychiatrist Harold Koenig has been one of the key people whose collation of research evidence has shown that religion has a positive effect on both physical and mental health. By looking firstly at the definitions of religion and spirituality and then discussing various opinions from both secular and religious perspectives, including those of Said Nursi, this paper aimed to determine whether religion and spirituality can indeed be measured.

  18. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  19. ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy. VI. Kinetic temperature and spatial density measured with formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Wyrowski, F.; Giannetti, A.; Menten, K. M.; Csengeri, T.; Leurini, S.; Urquhart, J. S.; König, C.; Güsten, R.; Lin, Y. X.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is a reliable tracer to accurately measure the physical parameters of dense gas in star-forming regions. Aim. We aim to determine directly the kinetic temperature and spatial density with formaldehyde for the 100 brightest ATLASGAL-selected clumps (the TOP100 sample) at 870 μm representing various evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation. Methods: Ten transitions (J = 3-2 and 4-3) of ortho- and para-H2CO near 211, 218, 225, and 291 GHz were observed with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) 12 m telescope. Results: Using non-LTE models with RADEX, we derived the gas kinetic temperature and spatial density with the measured para-H2CO 321-220/303-202, 422-321/404-303, and 404-303/303-202 ratios. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO 321-220/303-202 and 422-321/404-303 line ratios are high, ranging from 43 to >300 K with an unweighted average of 91 ± 4 K. Deduced Tkin values from the J = 3-2 and 4-3 transitions are similar. Spatial densities of the gas derived from the para-H2CO 404-303/303-202 line ratios yield 0.6-8.3 × 106 cm-3 with an unweighted average of 1.5 (±0.1) × 106 cm-3. A comparison of kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO, NH3, and dust emission indicates that para-H2CO traces a distinctly higher temperature than the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) transitions and the dust, tracing heated gas more directly associated with the star formation process. The H2CO line widths are found to be correlated with bolometric luminosity and increase with the evolutionary stage of the clumps, which suggests that higher luminosities tend to be associated with a more turbulent molecular medium. It seems that the spatial densities measured with H2CO do not vary significantly with the evolutionary stage of the clumps. However, averaged gas kinetic temperatures derived from H2CO increase with time through the evolution of the clumps. The high temperature of the gas traced by H2CO may be mainly caused by radiation from

  20. A refined atomic scale model of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae K+-translocation protein Trk1p combined with experimental evidence confirms the role of selectivity filter glycines and other key residues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zayats, Vasilina; Stockner, T.; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar; Woerz, K.; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Ludwig, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1848, č. 5 (2015), s. 1183-1195 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21053S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : molecular-dynamics simulations * potassium-transport * vibrio-alginolyticus * high-affinity * ion-channel * system * ktrab * prediction * symporters * currents * K+-translocation * Eukaryotic Trk * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * Homology modeling * Molecular dynamics * Selectivity filter Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.687, year: 2015

  1. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  2. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  3. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  4. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  5. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  6. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  7. Key personality traits of sales managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W; Foster, Nancy A; Levy, Jacob J; Gibson, Lucy W

    2014-01-01

    Sales managers are crucial for producing positive sales outcomes for companies. However, there has been a relative dearth of scholarly investigations into the personal attributes of sales managers. Such information could prove important in the recruitment, selection, training needs identification, career planning, counseling, and development of sales managers. Drawing on Holland's vocational theory, we sought to identify key personality traits that distinguish sales managers from other occupations and are related to their career satisfaction. The main sample was comprised of a total of 978 sales managers employed in a large number of companies across the United States (along with a comparison sample drawn from 79,512 individuals from other professional occupations). Participants completed an online version of Resource Associates' Personal Style Inventory as well a measure of career satisfaction. Our sample of 978 sales managers had higher levels of Assertiveness, Customer Service Orientation, Extraversion, Image Management, Optimism, and Visionary Style; and lower levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Intrinsic Motivation, Openness, and Tough-Mindedness than a sample of 79,512 individuals in a variety of other occupations. Nine of these traits were significantly correlated with sales managers' career satisfaction. Based on the results, a psychological profile of sales managers was presented as were implications for their recruitment, selection, training, development, and mentoring.

  8. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  9. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  10. Measurement of 2J(H,C)- and 3J(H,C)-coupling constants by α/β selective HC(C)H-TOCSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchardt, Elke; Richter, Christian; Reif, Bernd; Glaser, Steffen J.; Engels, Joachim W.; Griesinger, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald

    2001-01-01

    A new heteronuclear NMR pulse sequence for the measurement of n J(C,H) coupling constants, the α/βselective HC(C)H-TOCSY, is described. It is shown that the S 3 E element (Meissner et al., 1997a,b) can be used to obtain spin state selective coherence transfer in molecules, in which adjacent CH moieties are labeled with 13 C. Application of the α/β selective HC(C)H-TOCSY to a 10nt RNA tetraloop 5'-CGCUUUUGCG-3', in which the four uridine residues are 13 C labeled in the sugar moiety, allowed measurement of two bond and three bond J(C,H) coupling constants, which provide additional restraints to characterize the sugar ring conformation of RNA in cases of conformational averaging

  11. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  12. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäntysaari Esa A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32. This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10, indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

  13. Phenotype and genetic parameters for body measurements, reproductive traits and gut lenght of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in low-input earthen ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for body size measurements, reproductive traits, and gut length for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in fertilized earthen ponds for two generations. Throughout the experiment, ponds were fertilized daily

  14. Is Black Hole Growth a Universal Process? Exploring Selection Effects in Measurements of AGN Accretion Rates and Host Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mackenzie

    2018-01-01

    At the center of essentially every massive galaxy is a monstrous black hole producing luminous radiation driven by the accretion of gas. By observing these active galactic nuclei (AGN) we may trace the growth of black holes across cosmic time. However, our knowledge of the full underlying AGN population is hindered by complex observational biases. My research aims to untangle these biases by using a novel approach to simulate the impact of selection effects on multiwavelength observations.The most statistically powerful studies of AGN to date come from optical spectroscopic surveys, with some reporting a complex relationship between AGN accretion rates and host galaxy characteristics. However, the optical waveband can be strongly influenced by selection effects and dilution from host galaxy star formation. I have shown that accounting for selection effects, the Eddington ratio distribution for optically-selected AGN is consistent with a broad power-law, as seen in the X-rays (Jones et al. 2016). This suggests that a universal Eddington ratio distribution may be enough to describe the full multiwavelength AGN population.Building on these results, I have expanded a semi-numerical galaxy formation simulation to include this straightforward prescription for AGN accretion and explicitly model selection effects. I have found that a simple model for AGN accretion can broadly reproduce the host galaxies and halos of X-ray AGN, and that different AGN selection techniques yield samples with very different host galaxy properties (Jones et al. 2017). Finally, I will discuss the capabilities of this simulation to build synthetic multiwavelength SEDs in order to explore what AGN populations would be detected with the next generation of observatories. This research is supported by a NASA Jenkins Graduate Fellowship under grant no. NNX15AU32H.

  15. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  16. Simulation free measurement of the B+ → $\\bar{D}$0π+ lifetime using decays selected using displaced tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malde, Sneha [St. Anne' s College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-01

    The lifetime of the B± meson is measured using the decay channel B+ → $\\bar{D}$0π+. The measurement is made using approximately 1.0 fb-1 of Tevatron proton-anti-proton collision data at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF detector. The data were collected using impact parameter based triggers that were designed to select events with a secondary vertex. The trigger selection criteria result in data rich in a variety of B hadron decays, but intrinsically bias the lifetime distribution of the collected signal events. The traditional way to compensate for the bias is to use information from simulation. Presented here is a new method for correction of the lifetime bias using an analytical technique that uses information from the data only. This eliminates measurement uncertainty due to data and simulation agreement, ultimately resulting in a smaller systematic measurement uncertainty. The B± lifetime measurement is the first measurement using this new technique and demonstrates its potential for use in future measurements. The B± lifetime is measured to be τ(B±) = 1.662 ± 0.023(stat) ± 0.015(syst)ps.

  17. FPGA BASED HARDWARE KEY FOR TEMPORAL ENCRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lakshmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel encryption scheme with time based key technique on an FPGA is presented. Time based key technique ensures right key to be entered at right time and hence, vulnerability of encryption through brute force attack is eliminated. Presently available encryption systems, suffer from Brute force attack and in such a case, the time taken for breaking a code depends on the system used for cryptanalysis. The proposed scheme provides an effective method in which the time is taken as the second dimension of the key so that the same system can defend against brute force attack more vigorously. In the proposed scheme, the key is rotated continuously and four bits are drawn from the key with their concatenated value representing the delay the system has to wait. This forms the time based key concept. Also the key based function selection from a pool of functions enhances the confusion and diffusion to defend against linear and differential attacks while the time factor inclusion makes the brute force attack nearly impossible. In the proposed scheme, the key scheduler is implemented on FPGA that generates the right key at right time intervals which is then connected to a NIOS – II processor (a virtual microcontroller which is brought out from Altera FPGA that communicates with the keys to the personal computer through JTAG (Joint Test Action Group communication and the computer is used to perform encryption (or decryption. In this case the FPGA serves as hardware key (dongle for data encryption (or decryption.

  18. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, Nicoline; Veerbeek, Janne; Schiemanck, Sven; van der Wees, Philip; Nollet, Frans; Kwakkel, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. Methods: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  19. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, N.; Veerbeek, J.; Schiemanck, S.; Wees, P.J. van der; Nollet, F.; Kwakkel, G.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. METHODS: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  20. Effect of nutrient and selective inhibitor amendments on methane oxidation, nitrous oxide production, and key gene presence and expression in landfill cover soils: characterization of the role of methanotrophs, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Im, Jeongdae; Dispirito, Alan A; Bodrossy, Levente; Barcelona, Michael J; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2009-11-01

    Methane and nitrous oxide are both potent greenhouse gasses, with global warming potentials approximately 25 and 298 times that of carbon dioxide. A matrix of soil microcosms was constructed with landfill cover soils collected from the King Highway Landfill in Kalamazoo, Michigan and exposed to geochemical parameters known to affect methane consumption by methanotrophs while also examining their impact on biogenic nitrous oxide production. It was found that relatively dry soils (5% moisture content) along with 15 mg NH (4) (+) (kg soil)(-1) and 0.1 mg phenylacetylene(kg soil)(-1) provided the greatest stimulation of methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Microarray analyses of pmoA showed that the methanotrophic community structure was dominated by Type II organisms, but Type I genera were more evident with the addition of ammonia. When phenylacetylene was added in conjunction with ammonia, the methanotrophic community structure was more similar to that observed in the presence of no amendments. PCR analyses showed the presence of amoA from both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, and that the presence of key genes associated with these cells was reduced with the addition of phenylacetylene. Messenger RNA analyses found transcripts of pmoA, but not of mmoX, nirK, norB, or amoA from either ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea. Pure culture analyses showed that methanotrophs could produce significant amounts of nitrous oxide, particularly when expressing the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Collectively, these data suggest that methanotrophs expressing pMMO played a role in nitrous oxide production in these microcosms.