WorldWideScience

Sample records for selected gamma stations

  1. Measuring stations for gamma radiation - measured results 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma radiation is recorded continuously at 25 stations in Sweden. The evaluation of the data from five of the stations is made in a most accurate way, and the results are presented in this report. (G.B.)

  2. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuardo B, E. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares)

    1983-11-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 ..mu..R/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found.

  3. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo B, E.

    1983-01-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 μR/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found. (Author)

  4. Problems of calibrating measuring instruments for selective gamma-gamma logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.; Smolarova, H.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative determination of copper content in the Novoveska Huta chalcopyrite deposit is described using selective gamma-gamma logging. Factors influencing the calibration quality are discussed. (author)

  5. Improved estimates of external gamma dose rates in the environs of Hinkley Point Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1988-07-01

    The dominant source of external gamma dose rates at centres of population within a few kilometres of Hinkley Point Power Station is the routine discharge of 41-Ar from the 'A' station magnox reactors. Earlier estimates of the 41-Ar radiation dose rates were based upon measured discharge rates, combined with calculations using standard plume dispersion and cloud-gamma integration models. This report presents improved dose estimates derived from environmental gamma dose rate measurements made at distances up to about 1 km from the site, thus minimising the degree of extrapolation introduced in estimating dose rates at locations up to a few kilometres from the site. In addition, results from associated chemical tracer measurements and wind tunnel simulations covering distances up to about 4 km from the station are outlined. These provide information on the spatial distribution of the 41-Ar plume during the initial stages of its dispersion, including effects due to plume buoyancy and momentum and behaviour under light wind conditions. In addition to supporting the methodology used for the 41-Ar dose calculations, this information is also of generic interest in the treatment of a range of operational and accidental releases from nuclear power station sites and will assist in the development and validation of existing environmental models. (author)

  6. Selective population rate coding: a possible computational role of gamma oscillations in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2009-12-01

    Selective attention is often accompanied by gamma oscillations in local field potentials and spike field coherence in brain areas related to visual, motor, and cognitive information processing. Gamma oscillations are implicated to play an important role in, for example, visual tasks including object search, shape perception, and speed detection. However, the mechanism by which gamma oscillations enhance cognitive and behavioral performance of attentive subjects is still elusive. Using feedforward fan-in networks composed of spiking neurons, we examine a possible role for gamma oscillations in selective attention and population rate coding of external stimuli. We implement the concept proposed by Fries ( 2005 ) that under dynamic stimuli, neural populations effectively communicate with each other only when there is a good phase relationship among associated gamma oscillations. We show that the downstream neural population selects a specific dynamic stimulus received by an upstream population and represents it by population rate coding. The encoded stimulus is the one for which gamma rhythm in the corresponding upstream population is resonant with the downstream gamma rhythm. The proposed role for gamma oscillations in stimulus selection is to enable top-down control, a neural version of time division multiple access used in communication engineering.

  7. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  8. Measurement of gamma ray flux within the containment building at the first unit of Kori nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. W.; Kim, K. D.; Yoon, C. H.; Han, J. M.; Hu, Y. H. [Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate gamma ray dose response of GM counter being used for monitoring of gamma ray field in nuclear power plants, gamma ray energy spectra and fluxes were obtained for three positions at the unit 1 of the Kori nuclear power station. By applying the response values of Eberline's E112B survey meter to the results, the doses represented on the survey meter were overestimated from 1.31 to 1.37 times when compared to the real doses for these three positions.

  9. Selection and evaluation of soybean lines derived from gamma irradiation for rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    In 1979, seeds of 11 soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with 15 and 30 krad. Treated and control seeds of each cultivar were planted in the rainy season. In the rainy season of 1980, M 3 populations were screened for rust resistance in Nong Hoi Valley and Mae Joe Experiment Station, both in Chiang Main province. The IWGSR rust rating system was used. Based upon the slow growth of rust on soybean plants, 6 and 115 plants were selected from 2,802 control plants and from 28,824 treated plants, respectively. Selected lines were evaluated in Nong Hoi Valley in the rainy season of 1981. Sixteen selections with average good seed yield per plant and low percentage of shrivelled seeds were obtained. Among them, two lines, namely G8586/Line number 81-1-072 and S.J. 4/Line number 81-1-037 gave the higher average seed yield per plant than other lines. They are at present in a preliminary yield trial in Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai. (author)

  10. Argentinian experience in selecting sites for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    One nuclear power station is in operation in the Republic of Argentina, a second is under construction, and the decision to build a third has been taken. According to existing plans, about ten nuclear power stations should go into operation during the next decade. The present paper analyses the experience acquired in selecting sites for the first units, commenting on the criteria and methods applied, the studies that were carried out, the specific problems encountered and the solutions adopted, as well as on the question of acceptance of the chosen sites by the public. It goes on to describe the current programme of selection and study of sites for future nuclear power stations

  11. Selection and evaluation of gamma decay standards for detector calibration using coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavac, S.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence method for calibration of gamma detectors using suitable calibration standards with two cascading gamma rays is analyzed. From the list of recommended gamma ray standards currently under reevaluation by the CRP, 14 radionuclides were selected as the potential source candidates for the coincidence method. The following sources were selected 24 Na, 46 Sc, 60 Co, 66 Ga, 75 Se, 88 Y, Nb 94 , 111 In, 123m Te, 133 Ba, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 154 Eu and 207 Bi. Reaction 11 B (p,γ) 12 C* was also selected as a source of high energy gamma rays. Experimental data on angular correlation coefficients for selected sources were collected from the literature and evaluated according to the recommended procedure. Theoretical angular correlation coefficients were calculated and compared to the evaluated data. (author)

  12. On-line gamma spectroscopy measuring station for cover gas monitoring at KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.; Letz, K.D.

    1980-02-01

    An automated Ge-γ-spectrometer was developed for cover gas monitoring at KNK II which, by the gamma spectra measured, is to allow the following statements to be made on fuel cladding failure: Type, size, variation with time and subsequent development of the failure. In this report the hardware and software will be explained. Besides, an instruction manual was written for the measuring station, which allows to operate it without detailed knowledge of the manuals for the individual hardware components. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  13. Development of Base Transceiver Station Selection Algorithm for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEMS) equipment was carried out on the existing BTSs, and a linear algorithm optimization program based on the spectral link efficiency of each BTS was developed, the output of this site optimization gives the selected number of base station sites ...

  14. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  15. Riel Converter Station, Winnipeg: Site selection and environmental assessment status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    As part of its expansion plans, Manitoba Hydro is planning to construct a converter station east of Winnipeg to receive power from a 850-km dc transmission line which will be constructed to bring power from a new generating station in the north of the province. Work performed to date on site selection and preliminary environmental assessment of the converter station is reviewed. The role of the converter station is described and the potential impacts are summarized in such areas as employment opportunities, pollution and noise during construction, electric and magnetic field effects, and land use impacts. Site selection criteria are outlined and potential sites are identified and evaluated. The Deacon site has been chosen as the preferred site since it has a number of inherent advantages including existing ownership by Manitoba Hydro, proximity to existing transmission rights-of-way, and low visual and land-use impact. 12 figs

  16. Site selection model for new metro stations based on land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    Since the construction of metro system generally lags behind the development of urban land use, sites of metro stations should adapt to their surrounding situations, which was rarely discussed by previous research on station layout. This paper proposes a new site selection model to find the best location for a metro station, establishing the indicator system based on land use and combining AHP with entropy weight method to obtain the schemes' ranking. The feasibility and efficiency of this model has been validated by evaluating Nanjing Shengtai Road station and other potential sites.

  17. Gamma prior distribution selection for Bayesian analysis of failure rate and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waler, R.A.; Johnson, M.M.; Waterman, M.S.; Martz, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    It is assumed that the phenomenon under study is such that the time-to-failure may be modeled by an exponential distribution with failure-rate parameter, lambda. For Bayesian analyses of the assumed model, the family of gamma distributions provides conjugate prior models for lambda. Thus, an experimenter needs to select a particular gamma model to conduct a Bayesian reliability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology which can be used to translate engineering information, experience, and judgment into a choice of a gamma prior distribution. The proposed methodology assumes that the practicing engineer can provide percentile data relating to either the failure rate or the reliability of the phenomenon being investigated. For example, the methodology will select the gamma prior distribution which conveys an engineer's belief that the failure rate, lambda, simultaneously satisfies the probability statements, P(lambda less than 1.0 x 10 -3 ) = 0.50 and P(lambda less than 1.0 x 10 -5 ) = 0.05. That is, two percentiles provided by an engineer are used to determine a gamma prior model which agrees with the specified percentiles. For those engineers who prefer to specify reliability percentiles rather than the failure-rate percentiles illustrated above, one can use the induced negative-log gamma prior distribution which satisfies the probability statements, P(R(t 0 ) less than 0.99) = 0.50 and P(R(t 0 ) less than 0.99999) = 0.95 for some operating time t 0 . Also, the paper includes graphs for selected percentiles which assist an engineer in applying the methodology

  18. Performance analysis of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for WDM-based systems for Gamma-Gamma distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-03-02

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme (TPMBS) for Free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred for practical consideration over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional heterodyne detection (HD) scheme for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherentnon-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability (CDF) of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB), and the average bit error rate (BER). Some selected results shows that we can obtain the higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential increasing of the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection based beam selection scheme without a considerable performance loss.

  19. Gamma prior distribution selection for Bayesian analysis of failure rate and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Johnson, M.M.; Waterman, M.S.; Martz, H.F. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    It is assumed that the phenomenon under study is such that the time-to-failure may be modeled by an exponential distribution with failure rate lambda. For Bayesian analyses of the assumed model, the family of gamma distributions provides conjugate prior models for lambda. Thus, an experimenter needs to select a particular gamma model to conduct a Bayesian reliability analysis. The purpose of this report is to present a methodology that can be used to translate engineering information, experience, and judgment into a choice of a gamma prior distribution. The proposed methodology assumes that the practicing engineer can provide percentile data relating to either the failure rate or the reliability of the phenomenon being investigated. For example, the methodology will select the gamma prior distribution which conveys an engineer's belief that the failure rate lambda simultaneously satisfies the probability statements, P(lambda less than 1.0 x 10 -3 ) equals 0.50 and P(lambda less than 1.0 x 10 -5 ) equals 0.05. That is, two percentiles provided by an engineer are used to determine a gamma prior model which agrees with the specified percentiles. For those engineers who prefer to specify reliability percentiles rather than the failure rate percentiles illustrated above, it is possible to use the induced negative-log gamma prior distribution which satisfies the probability statements, P(R(t 0 ) less than 0.99) equals 0.50 and P(R(t 0 ) less than 0.99999) equals 0.95, for some operating time t 0 . The report also includes graphs for selected percentiles which assist an engineer in applying the procedure. 28 figures, 16 tables

  20. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  1. IMRT QA: Selecting gamma criteria based on error detection sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steers, Jennifer M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Physics and Biology in Medicine IDP, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Fraass, Benedick A., E-mail: benedick.fraass@cshs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: The gamma comparison is widely used to evaluate the agreement between measurements and treatment planning system calculations in patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). However, recent publications have raised concerns about the lack of sensitivity when employing commonly used gamma criteria. Understanding the actual sensitivity of a wide range of different gamma criteria may allow the definition of more meaningful gamma criteria and tolerance limits in IMRT QA. We present a method that allows the quantitative determination of gamma criteria sensitivity to induced errors which can be applied to any unique combination of device, delivery technique, and software utilized in a specific clinic. Methods: A total of 21 DMLC IMRT QA measurements (ArcCHECK®, Sun Nuclear) were compared to QA plan calculations with induced errors. Three scenarios were studied: MU errors, multi-leaf collimator (MLC) errors, and the sensitivity of the gamma comparison to changes in penumbra width. Gamma comparisons were performed between measurements and error-induced calculations using a wide range of gamma criteria, resulting in a total of over 20 000 gamma comparisons. Gamma passing rates for each error class and case were graphed against error magnitude to create error curves in order to represent the range of missed errors in routine IMRT QA using 36 different gamma criteria. Results: This study demonstrates that systematic errors and case-specific errors can be detected by the error curve analysis. Depending on the location of the error curve peak (e.g., not centered about zero), 3%/3 mm threshold = 10% at 90% pixels passing may miss errors as large as 15% MU errors and ±1 cm random MLC errors for some cases. As the dose threshold parameter was increased for a given %Diff/distance-to-agreement (DTA) setting, error sensitivity was increased by up to a factor of two for select cases. This increased sensitivity with increasing dose

  2. Primary gamma ray selection in a hybrid timing/imaging Cherenkov array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postnikov E.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a methodical study on hybrid reconstruction techniques for hybrid imaging/timing Cherenkov observations. This type of hybrid array is to be realized at the gamma-observatory TAIGA intended for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (> 30 TeV. It aims at combining the cost-effective timing-array technique with imaging telescopes. Hybrid operation of both of these techniques can lead to a relatively cheap way of development of a large area array. The joint approach of gamma event selection was investigated on both types of simulated data: the image parameters from the telescopes, and the shower parameters reconstructed from the timing array. The optimal set of imaging parameters and shower parameters to be combined is revealed. The cosmic ray background suppression factor depending on distance and energy is calculated. The optimal selection technique leads to cosmic ray background suppression of about 2 orders of magnitude on distances up to 450 m for energies greater than 50 TeV.

  3. Assessment of natural radionuclide content in deposits from drinking water purification station and excess lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Tammam, M.; Elsaman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclide in deposits samples taken from Thirty-six drinking water purification stations have been measured and determined using gamma-ray spectrometry system using (sodium iodide NaI (Tl) detector). Knowledge of radioactivity present in deposits of drinking water purification station enables one to assess any possible radiological hazard to humankind by the use of such materials. The natural radionuclide ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) contents have been analyzed for the deposits samples with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard nature. The Absorbed dose rate, The annual effective dose equivalent, Radium equivalent activities, Hazard indices (H ex and H in ), Gamma index, Excess lifetime cancer risk and Annual gonadal dose equivalent were calculated for investigated area. Results of the study could serve as an important baseline radiometric data for future epidemiological studies and monitoring initiatives in the study area.

  4. Auto type-selection of constant supporting in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hu; Wang Fujun; Liu Wei; Li Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    To solve the type-selection of constant supporting in nuclear power stations, combining the characteristics of constant supporting which can adjust in the certain scope and the rules of load-displacement, the requirements and process for the type-selection of constant supporting is proposed, and the process of type-selection is optimized by Visual Basic. After inputting of the known parameters, the process can automatically select the most economical and reasonable constant supporting by array and function. (authors)

  5. Improved social force model based on exit selection for microscopic pedestrian simulation in subway station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勋; 李海鹰; 孟令云; 许心越; 陈旭

    2015-01-01

    An improved social force model based on exit selection is proposed to simulate pedestrians’ microscopic behaviors in subway station. The modification lies in considering three factors of spatial distance, occupant density and exit width. In addition, the problem of pedestrians selecting exit frequently is solved as follows: not changing to other exits in the affected area of one exit, using the probability of remaining preceding exit and invoking function of exit selection after several simulation steps. Pedestrians in subway station have some special characteristics, such as explicit destinations, different familiarities with subway station. Finally, Beijing Zoo Subway Station is taken as an example and the feasibility of the model results is verified through the comparison of the actual data and simulation data. The simulation results show that the improved model can depict the microscopic behaviors of pedestrians in subway station.

  6. Methods of selection and training of personnel for the Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, M.S.R.; Wagadarikar, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Personnel selected to work in a nuclear electric generating station rarely have the necessary knowledge and experience in all the related fields. A station can be operated and maintained and at the same time radiation doses absorbed by station personnel can be kept to a minimum only if the operating personnel are familiar with, and can be used for, all phases of station operation and the maintainers have more than one skill or trade. More technical knowledge and more diversified skills, in addition to those required in other industries, are needed because of the nature of the nuclear reactor and the associated radiation environment and high automation. A training programme has been developed at the Nuclear Training Centre (NTC) near the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Kota, India, to cater to the needs of the operation and maintenance personnel for nuclear power stations including the Madras Atomic Power Station. This programme has been in operation for the last five years. The paper describes the method of recruitment/selection of various categories of personnel and the method of training them to meet the job requirements. (author)

  7. Visit to the PMS-stations in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Andersen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Danish build automatic gamma-ray monitoring stations have been installed in the Baltic countries, Poland and Russia (Sct. Petersbourg region). The stations are designed for continously measure the gamma-radiation from the surroundings. The stations use the Windows NT 3.51 as operating system. Eac...

  8. The study of specific activity and effect of gamma ray from natural radionuclide to the environment outside Sultan Abdul Aziz Plant Station, Kapar, Klang, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Amar Fikri Wan Ali

    2012-01-01

    Waste resulting from coal combustion process can result in increasing the specific activity of natural radionuclide such as 238 U, 232 Th , 226 Ra and 40 K. Following combustion, radionuclide focused on fly ash, some escape the filtration system in the chimney that causes the gamma ray exposure dose increases. The objective of this study was to calculate the specific activity of natural radionuclide and identifying the gamma ray exposure dose outside the Stesen Janakuasa Elektric Station of Sultan Abdul Aziz further examine the risk of gamma ray exposure dose and specific activity of natural radionuclide to the ecosystem because the station is located close to residential areas and local residents migratory bird stopover. The samples studied are soil, water and sediment that are outside the station. Samples taken with the correct procedures then treated and stored about a month before counting. Gamma ray exposure dose for the seven stations studied are between 0.330 μSv/ h - 1.20 μSv/ h. While the range of specific activities obtained for the 40 K, 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra were 201 Bq/ kg - 468 Bq/ kg, 0.480 Bq/ kg - 2.57 Bq/ kg, 12.9 Bq/ kg - 74.5 Bq/ kg and 6.64 Bq/ kg - 11.7 Bq/ kg. While the sediment samples were 216 Bq/ kg - 465 Bq/ kg, 18.1 Bq/ kg - 4.43 Bq/ kg, 24.8 Bq/ kg - 65.3 Bq/ kg, 8.53 Bq/ kg - 11.2 Bq/ kg. For water samples, the specific range of their specific activities are 10.5 Bq/ L - 12.1 Bq/ L, 1.40 Bq/ L - 1.63 Bq/ L, 1.57 Bq/ L - 1.65 Bq/ L and 0 Bq/ L - 1.14 Bq/ L. (author)

  9. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  10. Gamma scanner conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will include several stations for the nondestructive examination of irradiated fuels. One of these stations will be the gamma scanner which will be employed to detect gamma radiation from the irradiated fuel pins. The conceptual design of the gamma scan station is described. The gamma scanner will use a Standard Exam Stage (SES) as a positioner and transport mechanism for the fuel pins which it will obtain from a magazine. A pin guide mechanism mounted on the face of the collimator will assure that the fuel pins remain in front of the collimator during scanning. The collimator has remotely adjustable tungsten slits and can be manually rotated to align the slit at various angles. A shielded detector cart located in the operating corridor holds an intrinsic germanium detector and associated sodium-iodide anticoincidence detector. The electronics associated with the counting system consist of standard NIM modules to process the detector signals and a stand-alone multichannel analyzer (MCA) for counting data accumulation. Data from the MCA are bussed to the station computer for analysis and storage on magnetic tape. The station computer controls the collimator, the MCA, a source positioner and the SES through CAMAC-based interface hardware. Most of the electronic hardware is commercially available but some interfaces will require development. Conceptual drawings are included for mechanical hardware that must be designed and fabricated

  11. Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B

    2015-05-01

    Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  13. Temporal dependence of the selectivity property of SES stations in western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dologlou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity property of the SES stations, IOA, PIR and PAT in western Greece, based on reported precursory SES signals and associated large earthquakes (Mw≥5.4 that occurred from 1983 to the end of 2008, has been examined. Interesting temporal dependence of the sensitive ability of these stations has been unveiled. Physical mechanisms for the observed changes in selectivity might be related with tectonic and geodynamic events. For instance, selectivity for IOA exhibits a time dependence, for PAT probably is related to the activation of Wadati-Benioff zone while for PIR seems to be related to the specific tectonics of two confined areas such as the Cephalonia Transform Faulting zone in Ionian Sea and the southwestern part of the Hellenic Trench.

  14. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  15. Selective Interareal Synchronization through Gamma Frequency Differences and Slower-Rhythm Gamma Phase Reset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwick, Thomas; Bouras, Alexandros

    2017-03-01

    The communication-through-coherence (CTC) hypothesis states that a sending group of neurons will have a particularly strong effect on a receiving group if both groups oscillate in a phase-locked ("coherent") manner (Fries, 2005 , 2015 ). Here, we consider a situation with two visual stimuli, one in the focus of attention and the other distracting, resulting in two sites of excitation at an early cortical area that project to a common site in a next area. Taking a modeler's perspective, we confirm the workings of a mechanism that was proposed by Bosman et al. ( 2012 ) in the context of providing experimental evidence for the CTC hypothesis: a slightly higher gamma frequency of the attended sending site compared to the distracting site may cause selective interareal synchronization with the receiving site if combined with a slow-rhythm gamma phase reset. We also demonstrate the relevance of a slightly lower intrinsic frequency of the receiving site for this scenario. Moreover, we discuss conditions for a transition from bottom-up to top-down driven phase locking.

  16. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  17. Development of the urban space surrounding selected railway stations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Weronika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, many railway stations, in spite of being architecturally valuable, are subject to de-capitalization and degradation, which increasingly leads to demolition including elements or even entire railway stations of historical importance. Therefore, there arises a need to transform these facilities – as well as their nearby surroundings – into service areas not only for railway passengers but also for the consumer or tourist. This article presents an overview of the types of development of functional and spatial areas around a railway station, as well as the building itself, on selected examples in cities of Poland. In past historical periods, the surroundings of railway stations often became the new core of the studied centres, creating new urban structures. Train station forecourts, as well as access roads leading to railway stations, became specific links of railway infrastructure, the main points of which were railway stations, with the original urban layout. Unfortunately, the decline in the importance of rail transport has contributed to the recession and degradation of these spaces, and often to changes in their functions. This article refers to the concept of redevelopment of the railway station area, which emphasizes the creation of hubs integrating various modes of transport on the one hand, and transforming the area around the stations into an area of development of new business activities, on the other. Some of the discussed train stations have undergone a thorough renovation (e.g. Kraków Główny, Katowice and Poznań Główny, frequently in an attempt to allude to global trends in the commercialization of space and transport integration within station squares. However, this poses a problem and a challenge for decision-makers attempting to redevelop such facilities and the spaces associated with them.

  18. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  19. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance

  20. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance.

  1. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  2. Analysis Methodology for Optimal Selection of Ground Station Site in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth

  3. Detectors for selective registration of charged particles and gamma-quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Katrunov, K

    2002-01-01

    A new design is proposed and described of a combined detector (CD) for simultaneous detection of charged particles and gamma-quanta. The CD comprises a single crystalline plate of ZnSe(Te) placed onto the output window of a scintillating transparent light transducer made of CsI(Ti) and Al sub 2 O sub 3 (Ti) in the shape of truncated pyramid. The CsI(Ti) light transducer is used to create an additional channel for detection of gamma-radiation,as well as for protecting the photodiode from the penetrating radiation.It is shown that introduction of such light transducer does not worsen the energy characteristics of ZnSe(Te). Separate detection of alpha- and gamma-radiation has been achieved under simultaneous excitation by sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu (ZnSe(Te), R sub a =6%) and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am (CsI(Tl), R subgamma = 20 %). The use of selective optical filters allows separation of the peaks of total absorption (p.t.a.) in the case of their superposition.

  4. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity; Emissions gamma de quelques meteorites et roches terrestres. Evaluation de la radioactivite du sol lunaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordemann, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [French] Les emissions gamma des meteorites Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes et Dosso et de quelques roches terrestres ont ete etudiees par spectrometrie gamma quantitative a faible mouvement propre. Ces mesures et leur interpretation permettent d'evaluer les principales contributions des emissions gamma du sol lunaire pour des modeles de compositions possibles variees. (auteur)

  5. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity; Emissions gamma de quelques meteorites et roches terrestres. Evaluation de la radioactivite du sol lunaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordemann, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [French] Les emissions gamma des meteorites Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes et Dosso et de quelques roches terrestres ont ete etudiees par spectrometrie gamma quantitative a faible mouvement propre. Ces mesures et leur interpretation permettent d'evaluer les principales contributions des emissions gamma du sol lunaire pour des modeles de compositions possibles variees. (auteur)

  6. ROBOCAL: An automated NDA [nondestructive analysis] calorimetry and gamma isotopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.R.; Powell, W.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    ROBOCAL, which is presently being developed and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a full-scale, prototype robotic system for remote calorimetric and gamma-ray analysis of special nuclear materials. It integrates a fully automated, multidrawer, vertical stacker-retriever system for staging unmeasured nuclear materials, and a fully automated gantry robot for computer-based selection and transfer of nuclear materials to calorimetric and gamma-ray measurement stations. Since ROBOCAL is designed for minimal operator intervention, a completely programmed user interface is provided to interact with the automated mechanical and assay systems. The assay system is designed to completely integrate calorimetric and gamma-ray data acquisition and to perform state-of-the-art analyses on both homogeneous and heterogeneous distributions of nuclear materials in a wide variety of matrices

  7. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  8. Effect of selection and gamma-irradiation on fecundity in Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.P.; Raheja, K.L.; Verma, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the joint effect of selection and gamma irradiation on a polygenic trait like egg production in Tribolium castaneum, a 3 x 3 x 2 fractorial experiment with 3 levels of selection, viz. O, high (S 1 ), and low (S 2 ); 3 levels of irradiation, viz. 0,1 1500R (R 1 ) 2300R(R 2 ); and 2 replicates with 24 females in each cell, was set up. The data were collected on 721 females of parental generation subjected to selection and radiation and the subsequent progeny generation. A significant divergence of 11.6 eggs were observed due to high and low selection methods. There was no difference between control and R 1 radiation dose. The R 2 radiation dose depressed the egg production of the progeny significantly. There was a linear decrease in egg number in the progeny with an increase in dose level of radiation in parents; this is indicative of significant number of gene mutations effecting a quantitative trait like egg production. It is suggested that reduction in fecundity in the progeny of parents subjected to gamma-irradiation can possibly arise due to either (i) molecular rearrangement at a point on the chromosome leading to gene mutation or (ii) chromosome breakage with subsequent rearrangement of gene position or both. (author)

  9. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karashtin, A.N. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ryabov, V.A., E-mail: ryabov@x4u.lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shepetov, A.L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V. [Ionosphere Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ptitsyn, M.O., E-mail: ptitsyn@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shalamova, S.Ya. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shlyugaev, Yu.V. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vildanova, L.I. [Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Zybin, K.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gurevich, A.V., E-mail: alex@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-10

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  10. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, A.P.; Karashtin, A.N.; Ryabov, V.A.; Shepetov, A.L.; Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Shalamova, S.Ya.; Shlyugaev, Yu.V.; Vildanova, L.I.; Zybin, K.P.; Gurevich, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10 -3 -10 -2 J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  11. Requirements to a Norwegian national automatic gamma monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Jensen, Per Hedemann; Nielsen, F.

    2005-01-01

    increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gammamonitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over......An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of thesystem in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate...

  12. Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanne, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26 Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented

  13. BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION EXPERIENCE AT INDIAN POINT STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1963-09-15

    The environs monitoring program at Indian Point Station is presented. Thirty sampling stations within a circle of approximately 10 miles of the station are used for the collection of samples of air, water, vegetation, and soil that are then analyzed for gross beta-gamma activity. Data are tabulated. (P.C.H.)

  14. External gamma radiation monitoring in the environs of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), using thermoluminescent dosimeters, during the period 1989-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.S.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Puranik, V.D.; Reji, T.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-05-01

    This publication reports the results of external gamma radiation monitoring using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), in the environs of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS) during its preoperational survey between October 1989 and June 1998. The report also presents quarterly and annual values of air dose during the operational phase of the station between July 1998 and Dec. 2003 around the environmcnt of KGS. The results of TLD analysis, during the period October 1989-June 1998, indicate that the average annual air dose for the locations monitored, was 502± 91 μGy/a. The general background of the environs around Kaiga during the operational period, i.e. July 1998 and Dec. 2003, between 2.3 km. to 32km. has been found to be 509±74 μGy/a. The report discusses the methodology and different analyses carried out. (author)

  15. Utilization of gamma rays in the selection of Aspergillus niger for acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.C. da; Azevedo, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Selection of Aspergillus niger for acid production was studied by the method of Foster and Davis with the use of gamma rays. Three selection cycles were carried out, and the acid production character of each population was analyzed quantitatively by the unitage acid factor. Isolates with high unitage values in relation to the paternal strain were assayed in a liquid fermentation medium. No correlation was found that would indicate unlimited use of Foster and Davis' method in the selection of more productive strains. (Author) [pt

  16. Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 μR/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  17. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  18. Selection of male-sterile and dwarfism genetically modified zoysia japonica through gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Tae Woong; Song, In Ja; Kang, Hong Gyu; Jeong, Ok Cheol; Sun, Hyeon Jin; Ko, Suk Min; Lim, Pyung Ok; Song, Pill Soon; Song, Sung Jun; Lee, Hyo Yeon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study is selection of the male-sterile plant for inhibiting transgene flow through gamma-irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the pollination and fertilization cycle of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). High frequencies of plant mutations were obtained about 18% from M{sub 1} generation at the doses (10 to 50 Gy). We also found that some M{sub 1} plants showed male-sterile plants using de-husked seeds and comparison of stainable pollen using KI-I{sub 2} solution. Besides the effects of irradiation on pollination and fertilization cycle, various other mutation like dwarf, cold tolerance, increasing grains and mass were observed. Four of dwarfism plants were selected through comparison of morphological characteristic between control and mutants during 4 years. These results demonstrated that the gamma-irradiation on pollination and fertilization cycle is very effective to induce the various mutations, and the male-sterile mutants are useful for controlling transgene flow and developing of high quality turfgasses.

  19. Selection of male-sterile and dwarfism genetically modified zoysia japonica through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Tae Woong; Song, In Ja; Kang, Hong Gyu; Jeong, Ok Cheol; Sun, Hyeon Jin; Ko, Suk Min; Lim, Pyung Ok; Song, Pill Soon; Song, Sung Jun; Lee, Hyo Yeon

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is selection of the male-sterile plant for inhibiting transgene flow through gamma-irradiation ( 60 Co) at the pollination and fertilization cycle of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). High frequencies of plant mutations were obtained about 18% from M 1 generation at the doses (10 to 50 Gy). We also found that some M 1 plants showed male-sterile plants using de-husked seeds and comparison of stainable pollen using KI-I 2 solution. Besides the effects of irradiation on pollination and fertilization cycle, various other mutation like dwarf, cold tolerance, increasing grains and mass were observed. Four of dwarfism plants were selected through comparison of morphological characteristic between control and mutants during 4 years. These results demonstrated that the gamma-irradiation on pollination and fertilization cycle is very effective to induce the various mutations, and the male-sterile mutants are useful for controlling transgene flow and developing of high quality turfgasses

  20. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F.

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  1. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi Observations of X-ray and Gamma-ray Selected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gonzalez, Nuevo, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray bands, with additional 5 GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the gamma-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with (alpha) approx 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to (alpha) approx -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) = 10(exp 13.1 +/- 0.1) Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, (nu(sup IC)(sub peak)), ranges from 10(exp 21) to 10(exp 22) Hz. The distributions of nu(sup s)(sub peak) and nu(sup IC)(sub peak) of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars. defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends

  2. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  3. WIND SPEED AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY TRENDS FOR SELECTED UNITED STATES SURFACE STATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Allen H. Weber, A

    2006-11-01

    Recently it has been suggested that global warming and a decrease in mean wind speeds over most land masses are related. Decreases in near surface wind speeds have been reported by previous investigators looking at records with time spans of 15 to 30 years. This study focuses on United States (US) surface stations that have little or no location change since the late 1940s or the 1950s--a time range of up to 58 years. Data were selected from 62 stations (24 of which had not changed location) and separated into ten groups for analysis. The group's annual averages of temperature, wind speed, and percentage of Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability categories were fitted with linear least squares regression lines. The results showed that the temperatures have increased for eight of the ten groups as expected. Wind speeds have decreased for nine of the ten groups. The mean slope of the wind speed trend lines for stations within the coterminous US was -0.77 m s{sup -1} per century. The percentage frequency of occurrence for the neutral (D) PG stability category decreased, while that for the unstable (B) and the stable (F) categories increased in almost all cases except for the group of stations located in Alaska.

  4. Gonad, bone marrow and effective dose to the population of more than 90 towns and cities of Iran, arising from environmental gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M. T.; Bayani, Sh.; Yarahmadi, M.; Aghamir, A.; Jomehzadeh, A.; Hagh Parast, M.; Tamjidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1996 the assessment of environmental gamma radiation dose in residential areas of Iranian towns and cities has been accomplished for 10 counties. As a practical method and based on the results of a pilot study, in order to attribute the final results to the whole residential area of a town five stations were selected for every town. The location of individual station was studied closely to comply with recommended conditions in the literature. Materials and Methods: RDS-110 was employed to measure gamma dose rate for one hour. Average annual dose rates plus conversion coefficients were employed to estimate gonad, bone marrow, equivalent and effective dose. Result: Minimum and maximum annual bone marrow and gonad dose equivalent attributed to environmental gamma are 0.24 mSvy -1 (for both tissues) and 1.44 and 1.46 mSvy -l , respectively. Conclusion: Average gonad and bone marrow doses for North Khorasan, Boshehr and Hormozgan provinces were less than the corresponding values for normal area.

  5. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen‐Bonding Four‐Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendt, Timothy A.; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis‐iodo triazolium‐bis‐naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo‐triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion–rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the 1H NMR anion binding results. PMID:27436297

  6. Selection of variants with high levels of biotin from cultured green Lavandula vera cells irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Yamada, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Cultured green Lavandula vera cells were irradiated with various dosages of gamma rays which increased the variation in the amount of free biotin produced by the cell clones. Variant sublines containing much more free biotin than the original line were obtained by repeated selection. The effectiveness of gamma rays for the induction of the variant sublines is described

  7. Radioactivity in coal, ashes and selected wastewaters from Canadian coal-fired steam electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    Coal is known to contain naturally occurring radioactive elements and there has been speculation that as a results, coal-fuelled power generation stations may be significant emitters of these substances. In this report, the subject of radioactivity is introduced. The kinds of radioactive substances which occur naturally in coal formations, the nature of their emissions and the existing information on their behaviour and their effects on environmental organisms are also reviewed. The results of an examination of levels of alpha, beta and gamma radiaton levels, and the substances which produce them in coals, fly ashes, bottom ashes and related wastewaters at six Canadian coal-fuelled power stations are presented. Difficulties in studies of this nature and the potential effects of these releases on organisms in the adjacent aquatic environment are discussed. Existing and potential technologies for the removal of these substances from wastewaters are examined. In general the releases in wastewaters from the six stations were found to be lower than those known to cause short-term or acute biological effects. The potential for long-term effects from such low-level releases could not be accurately assessed because of the paucity of information. A number of recommendations for: improvements in further studies of this nature; the further examination of the fate of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment; and the determination of the long-term effects of low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances on aquatic organisms, are made

  8. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen-Bonding Four-Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendt, Timothy A; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2016-09-05

    The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis-iodo triazolium-bis-naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo-triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion-rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the (1) H NMR anion binding results. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Clostridia and sterilization of sludges from processing stations with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselme, P.; Brakel, J.; Paul, R.; Lacroix, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Considering the economical aspect of sludge irradiation, the dosis of 300 Krad of gamma radiation seems quite satisfactory, at least for unsporulated bacteria. But, at this level, sporulating bacteria such as Clostridia do not disappear: more than 60 percent of the spores escaped treatment. In order to improve the results, the synergistic effect of gamma rays and calcium peroxide was tested. In definite conditions, the results were promising. (Auth.)

  10. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pbus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  11. Material screening with HPGe counting station for PandaX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Fu, C.; Ji, X.; Liu, X.; Xie, P.; Zhang, T.; Mao, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, H.

    2016-01-01

    A gamma counting station based on high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was set up for the material screening of the PandaX dark matter experiments in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. Low background gamma rate of 2.6 counts/min within the energy range of 20 to 2700 keV is achieved due to the well-designed passive shield. The sentivities of the HPGe detetector reach mBq/kg level for isotopes like K, U, Th, and even better for Co and Cs, resulted from the low-background rate and the high relative detection efficiency of 175%. The structure and performance of the counting station are described in this article. Detailed counting results for the radioactivity in materials used by the PandaX dark-matter experiment are presented. The upgrading plan of the counting station is also discussed.

  12. Optimal selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares - A Space Station system availability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical programing model is presented to optimize the selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares for the Space Station. The model maximizes system availability under the constraints of logistics resupply-cargo weight and volume allocations.

  13. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.

    1966-01-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [fr

  14. Gamma-ray spectrometry applied to down-hole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, P.; Umiastowsky, K.

    1983-11-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry permits to improve the accuracy of natural gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron-gamma geophysical measurements. The probe developed at Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay allows down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Among others, this probe can be applied to the uranium content determination by selective natural gamma method, down-hole determination of the ash content in the coal by gamma-gamma selective method and elemental analysis by neutron-gamma method. For the calibration and an exact interpretation of the measurements it is important to know the gamma-ray and neutron characteristics of the different kinds of rocks considered as probabilistic variables

  15. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  16. Jagiellonian University Selected Results on the CKM Angle $\\gamma $ Measurement at the LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Krupa, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb is a single arm forward spectrometer designed to study heavy-flavour physics at the LHC. Its very precise tracking and excellent particle identification play currently a major role in providing the world-best measurements of the Unitary Triangle parameters. In this paper, selected results of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) angle $\\gamma$ measurements, with special attention for $B \\rightarrow DK$ decays family, obtained at the LHCb, are presented.

  17. Mutation selection and induction in pera sweet orange using gamma - rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, Augusto; Menten, Jose O.M.; Ando, Akihiko; Ceravolo, Leonardo; Namakata, Takao; Rossi, Antonio C.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present research was the evaluate the methodology to select mutants of interest in the pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), using bud gamma irradiation with 4.0 kR. The cutting back method was applied to the V1M1 branches originated after irradiation, and the six first buds from these branches were used to obtain V2M1 generation. Buds from these V2M1 branches were grafted to get the V3M1 generation. Selection was made in the quadrants (North, South, East and West) of the surviving plants, and 127 were selected. these plants differed from the controls in addition to the agronomic characteristics such as canopy height, seed number in the fruits, yield, fruit shape, leave morphology, etc. The higher frequency of morphological changes observed in the leaves and fruits, leads to conclude that the fifth and sixth buds along the V1M1 branch should be used when the present methodology is applied. The system of dividing the selecting plants into quadrants proved to be efficient because, despite the cutting back method used, the plants still showed chimerism. The selected clones are under evaluation in field condition in order to confirm the nature and the genetic stability of changes. (author)

  18. Radio-sensitivity analysis and selection of useful mutants of rape (Brassica napus L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Eun Jeong; Kim, Wook Jin; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) plants are one of the major oilseed crops. The main components of rapeseed are oil (35 to 47%) and protein (15 to 32%). For the biodiesel production, the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and/or oleic acid contents is required. In order to determine the optimum dose of gamma-ray irradiation, the rape seeds of cvs. Hanra (Hr), Youngsan (Ys), Tammi (Tm), and Tamra (Tr) were irradiated with a 100 ∼ 4,000 Gy dose range of gamma-rays. Considering the growth factors, the optimum doses were determined to be within the range of 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy for the selection of useful mutant lines. Six-hundred and eighty eight (688) M 2 mutant lines were obtained from 600 ∼ 1,000 Gy gamma-ray-irradiated M 1 plants through selfing. The growth characteristics, leaf shape, early flowering, and flower color were all investigated. The selected mutant numbers of early flowering, leaf shape, and flower color were 34, 52, and 3 from the four cultivars, respectively. These mutant lines will be used for the development of a new variety of rape plant with high biomass and oleic acid contents

  19. Rush-hour aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in selected subway stations of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Li, Chunlei; Wang, Xinming; Guo, Hai; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Air samples were collected simultaneously at platform, mezzanine and outdoor in five typical stations of subway system in Shanghai, China using stainless steel canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD) after cryogenic preconcentration. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) at the platforms and mezzanines inside the stations averaged (10.3 +/- 2.1), (38.7 +/- 9.0), (19.4 +/- 10.1) and (30.0 +/- 11.1) microg/m3, respectively; while trichloroethylene (TrCE), tetrachloroethylene (TeCE) and para-dichlorobenzene (pDCB), vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride were the most abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons inside the stations with average levels of (3.6 +/- 1.3), (1.3 +/- 0.5), (4.1 +/- 1.1), (2.2 +/- 1.1) and (1.2 +/- 0.3) microg/m3, respectively. Mean levels of major aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons were higher indoor (platforms and mezzanines) than outdoor with average indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of 1.1-9.5, whereas no significant indoor/outdoor differences were found except for benzene and TrCE. The highly significant mutual correlations (p subway stations from indoor/outdoor air exchange and traffic emission should be their dominant source. TrCE and pDCB were mainly from indoor emission and TeCE might have both indoor emission sources and contribution from outdoor air, especially in the mezzanines.

  20. Development of high yielding mutants of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection through gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.A.; Siddiqui, M.A.; Khan, M.K.R.; Khatri, A.; Khan, I.A.; Dahar, N.A.; Khanzada, M.H.; Khan, R.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection were treated with different doses of gamma rays (750, 1000 and 1250 Gy) to induce genetic variability for the selection of new genotypes with improved agronomic traits. After passing through different stages of selection, two promising mutants were selected for further studies. Two selected mutants along with 5 other entries including parent variety were evaluated for yield and yield components in yield trials for two consecutive years. The mutant TS96-752 was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) superior to all other entries in grain yield but at par with FSD 86028-3

  1. Aerial radiological survey of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Clay Station, California, 18 January 1980 to 1 February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    An airborne radiological survey of 260 km 2 area centered over the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station was made 18 January through 1 February 1980. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the station. Count rates observed at 90 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map

  2. The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States)]. E-mail: tonchev@tunl.duke.edu; Boswell, M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Karwowski, H.J. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [North Carolina State University and TUNL, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke University and Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0319 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) utilizes intra-cavity backscattering of free electron laser photons from the Duke electron storage ring to produce a unique monoenergetic beam of high-flux {gamma}-rays with high polarization and selectable energy resolution. At present, {gamma}-ray beams with energies from 2 to 58 MeV are available with intensities as high as 10{sup 5}-5 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}/s, energy spreads of 3% or better, and nearly 100% linear polarization. The quality and intensity of the {gamma}-ray beams at HI{gamma}S are responsible for the unprecedented performance of this facility in a broad range of research programs in nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear applications. Recent results from excitation of isomeric states in ({gamma}, n) reactions and parity assignments of dipole states determined via the ({gamma}, {gamma}') reaction are presented.

  3. Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Correlations: Selection and Instrumental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Amati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) even after several decades remains a mystery. However, it is believed that correlations between observable GRB properties, given their huge luminosity/radiated energy and redshift distribution extending up to at least z ≈ 9, are promising possible cosmological tools. They also may help to discriminate among the most plausible theoretical models. Nowadays, the objective is to make GRBs standard candles, similar to supernovae (SNe) Ia, through well-established and robust correlations. However, differently from SNe Ia, GRBs span over several order of magnitude in their energetics, hence they cannot yet be considered standard candles. Additionally, being observed at very large distances, their physical properties are affected by selection biases, the so-called Malmquist bias or Eddington effect. We describe the state of the art on how GRB prompt correlations are corrected for these selection biases to employ them as redshift estimators and cosmological tools. We stress that only after an appropriate evaluation and correction for these effects, GRB correlations can be used to discriminate among the theoretical models of prompt emission, to estimate the cosmological parameters and to serve as distance indicators via redshift estimation.

  4. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140 Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx TM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident

  5. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  6. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  7. Contribution to the theory of interpretation of gamma natural selective logging and global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha, Aboubacrine.

    1982-10-01

    The gamma natural selective method allows the ''in situ'' measurement of the uranium content of ores independently of the value of the U/Ra equilibrium. The use of this methode meets two sorts of difficulties: - first, the gamma spectrum is distorted by some factors connected with the conditions of measurement: drilling mud, tubing, position of the probe in the borehole; - secondy, the interpretation of the anomaly I1 (low energy) requires the knowledge of μ1 (absorption coefficient for gamma ray) which is a function of the uranium content which is to be determined. The present work develops two original calculation methods which allow to overcome these difficulties. The principles used are mentionned hereafter. 1) It is shown that it is possible to calculate the numerical values of coefficients μ1 et μ2, without previous determination of the uranium grade, which eventually allows their calculation afterwards. 2) From the general formula of J.A. CZUBEK applying to infinite medium, a new formula applying to finite medium has been established. The formula thus obtained takes into account the measurement conditions. The last part contains an estimation of the errors allowing to specify the limits of validity of the method [fr

  8. Determination of Fallout Beryllium-7 Concentration in Senawang and Bangi Stations, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Dainee Nor Fardzilla Ahmad Tugi; Noor Fadzillah Yusof; Mohd Tarmizi Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The main objective for this paper is to determine the Beryllium-7, "7Be concentration during dry and wet fallout at two different sampling stations. Two selected sampling stations are located in Bangi, Selangor and Senawang, Negeri Sembilan which that based on the different fallout amount received annually. Meanwhile, the dry and wet fallout were collected from end of May until end of July 2015 using rain collector. The rainfall samples were brought to Radiochemistry and Environment Group (RAS) for further treatment by using chemical precipitation procedure. The filtered samples consist of "7Be concentration needs to be transferred into a Petri dish and dried in the oven for two (2) hour. The filtered samples from both locations were counting using Gamma Spectrometry for 24-hour with 20 % of the detector efficiency.The uncertainty of each "7Be concentration or activity, calculated as a γ-detector counting error at 95 % confidence level, is in the order of ±10 %. From the result showed "7Be concentration from Senawang station was lower than Bangi station in terms of concentration, which is 0.21 to 2.86 Bq l"-"1 and 0.54 to 3.55 Bq l"-"1 with an average 1.09 Bq l"-"1 and 1.53 Bq l"-"1, respectively. However, these two mean values at two sampling stations are not significant from other reports in the literature for example 0.02 to 5.90 Bq l"-"1 (Wallbrink and Murray, 1994), 0.50 to 1.59 Bq l"-"1 (Brown et al., 1988) and 0.59 to 2.74 Bq l"-"1(Peirson, 1963). Moreover, these two mean values are not to be used as reference data in Peninsula of Malaysia due to a minimal number of sampling stations been located. Therefore, a study should be carried out with more sampling stations would be selected to establish fallout "7Be data in Peninsula of Malaysia for future reference. (author)

  9. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc [AREVA NC, La Hague plant - Nuclear Measurement Team, F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); Grassi, Gabriele [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a {sup 137}Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional {sup 3}He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  10. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas; Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the 137 Cs and 134 Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a 137 Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional 3 He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  11. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Khalifa, Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments and then large scale application of irradiated cotton seeds (C.V. Aleppo-40) were carried out during three seasons (1986, 1987 and 1988) for field experiment at ACSAD Station in Dier-Ezzor and 1988, 1989 and 1990 for large scale application at Euphrate's Basin, Al-Ghab and Salamia, farmers farms. The above areas were selected as they represent major cotton production areas in Syria. The aims of the experiments were to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy on cotton yield and to look for the optimum dose of gamma irradiation to obtain best results. The results show that, there were positive effect (P<0.95) for doses 5-30 Gy in increasing cotton yield. The highest increase was at dose of 10 Gy. which as 19.5% higher than control. For the large scale application using 10 Gy the increase in cotton yield varied from 10-39% compared to control. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  12. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dominants in the selected events are events from Meditterranian, East Kazakhstan, India/Burma/China, South and Central America and North Ascension island regions. The limited number of events reporting at the station was due to low operational gain at the station which permitted only events whose magnitudes are ...

  13. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  14. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  15. Natural Gamma Emitters after a Selective Chemical Separation of a TENORM residue: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves de Freitas, Antonio; Abrao, Alcidio; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure was established in order to obtain selective fractions containing radium isotopes ( 228 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th), and rare earths from RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras), a solid residue rich in rare earth elements, thorium isotopes and small amount of natural uranium generated from the operation of a thorium pilot plant for purification and production of pure thorium nitrate at IPEN -CNEN/SP. The paper presents preliminary results of 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 238 U, 210 Pb, and 40 K concentrations in the selective fractions and total residue determined by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, considering radioactive equilibrium of the samples

  16. Enviromental gamma rate in outdoor and indoor of Kermanshah provience in different seasons, (2010-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Chopani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background radiation exists naturally in the environment and affects all living organisms. Assessment of these radiations is important because they cause somatic & genetic damages. This survey was carried out to determine the environmental gamma rate was measured in different seasons in Kermanshah towns, and the effective dose for the residents of these regions was calculated. Methods: gamma dose rate was determined by Geiger Muller detector (RADOS CO, RDS-120.To this end, six and seven stations were selected in outdoor and indoor areas, respectively. In other towns‚ however, the measurements were performed at one station in outdoor center of each town. Results: The mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates in Kermanshah were 99.96 and 118.6 nSv/h, respectively and the mean values of environmental gamma in outdoor areas of Islamabad-e-Gharb‚ Songhor‚ Sahneh‚ Gilan-e-Gharb, Sarpol-e-Zahab‚ Ghasr-e-Shirin‚ Harsin‚ Paveh‚ Ravansar and Javanrood towns were 99.96 ‚ 120.5 ‚ 143 ‚ 115.7 ‚ 71.7 ‚ 76.2 ‚ 82 ‚ 108.5 ‚ 95.7‚ 95.7 and 106 nSv/h, respectively. Also, the highest and the lowest annual effective dose were reported for Songhor (0.88 mSv/y and Gilan-e-Gharb (0.44mSv/y, respectively. Conclusion: The outdoor annual effective doses for the residents of Kermanshah‚ Islamabad-e-Gharb‚ Sahneh‚ Gilan-e-Gharb‚ Sarpol-e-Zahab‚ Ghasr-e-Shirin‚ Harsin‚ Paveh‚ Ravansar and Javanrood were lower than the global value (0.76 mSv/y except for Songhor with 16% higher dose.

  17. On the maximum and minimum of two modified Gamma-Gamma variates with applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    on these new results to present the performance analysis of (i) a dual-branch free-space optical selection combining diversity undergoing independent but not necessarily identically distributed Gamma-Gamma fading under the impact of pointing errors and of (ii

  18. Adaptive selection of diurnal minimum variation: a statistical strategy to obtain representative atmospheric CO2 data and its application to European elevated mountain stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical data selection is essential for determining representative baseline levels of atmospheric trace gases even at remote measurement sites. Different data selection techniques have been used around the world, which could potentially lead to reduced compatibility when comparing data from different stations. This paper presents a novel statistical data selection method named adaptive diurnal minimum variation selection (ADVS based on CO2 diurnal patterns typically occurring at elevated mountain stations. Its capability and applicability were studied on records of atmospheric CO2 observations at six Global Atmosphere Watch stations in Europe, namely, Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (Germany, Sonnblick (Austria, Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, Izaña (Spain, Schauinsland (Germany, and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany. Three other frequently applied statistical data selection methods were included for comparison. Among the studied methods, our ADVS method resulted in a lower fraction of data selected as a baseline with lower maxima during winter and higher minima during summer in the selected data. The measured time series were analyzed for long-term trends and seasonality by a seasonal-trend decomposition technique. In contrast to unselected data, mean annual growth rates of all selected datasets were not significantly different among the sites, except for the data recorded at Schauinsland. However, clear differences were found in the annual amplitudes as well as the seasonal time structure. Based on a pairwise analysis of correlations between stations on the seasonal-trend decomposed components by statistical data selection, we conclude that the baseline identified by the ADVS method is a better representation of lower free tropospheric (LFT conditions than baselines identified by the other methods.

  19. Adaptive selection of diurnal minimum variation: a statistical strategy to obtain representative atmospheric CO2 data and its application to European elevated mountain stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Ries, Ludwig; Petermeier, Hannes; Steinbacher, Martin; Gómez-Peláez, Angel J.; Leuenberger, Markus C.; Schumacher, Marcus; Trickl, Thomas; Couret, Cedric; Meinhardt, Frank; Menzel, Annette

    2018-03-01

    Critical data selection is essential for determining representative baseline levels of atmospheric trace gases even at remote measurement sites. Different data selection techniques have been used around the world, which could potentially lead to reduced compatibility when comparing data from different stations. This paper presents a novel statistical data selection method named adaptive diurnal minimum variation selection (ADVS) based on CO2 diurnal patterns typically occurring at elevated mountain stations. Its capability and applicability were studied on records of atmospheric CO2 observations at six Global Atmosphere Watch stations in Europe, namely, Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (Germany), Sonnblick (Austria), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Izaña (Spain), Schauinsland (Germany), and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany). Three other frequently applied statistical data selection methods were included for comparison. Among the studied methods, our ADVS method resulted in a lower fraction of data selected as a baseline with lower maxima during winter and higher minima during summer in the selected data. The measured time series were analyzed for long-term trends and seasonality by a seasonal-trend decomposition technique. In contrast to unselected data, mean annual growth rates of all selected datasets were not significantly different among the sites, except for the data recorded at Schauinsland. However, clear differences were found in the annual amplitudes as well as the seasonal time structure. Based on a pairwise analysis of correlations between stations on the seasonal-trend decomposed components by statistical data selection, we conclude that the baseline identified by the ADVS method is a better representation of lower free tropospheric (LFT) conditions than baselines identified by the other methods.

  20. A gamma-spectrometer determining equilibrium factor in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiheng

    1992-01-01

    The author expounds main function, scientific value and practical significance of Model SY500 gamma-spectrometer, which can determine radioactive factor equilibrium (k p ) in-situ. Accuracy, steadiness and differential of the technology has been proved on the models of Radiometric Measurement Station of China Nuclear Industry Corporation. The author enumerates several examples such as k p survey at gold-bearing glebe, at uranium-bearing glebe, at the ground above ground water and 21 stations of Beijing subway

  1. Development of a Gamma-Ray Detector for Z-Selective Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, Michal

    2013-11-01

    Dual-Discrete Energy Gamma-Radiography (DDEGR) is a method for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) detection. DDEGR utilizes 15.11 and 4.43 MeV gamma-rays produced in the 11B(d,n)12C reaction, in contrast to the conventional use of continuous Bremsstrahlung radiation. The clean and well separated gamma-rays result in high contrast sensitivity, enabling detection of small quantities of SNM. The most important aspects of a DDEGR system were discussed, simulated, measured and demonstrated. An experimental measurement of gamma-ray yields from the 11B(d,n)12C reaction showed that the yields from deuterons with 3{12 MeV energy are 2{201010 N/sr/mC 4.4 MeV gamma- rays and 2{5109 N/sr/mC 15.1 MeV gamma-rays. The measured neutron yields show that the neutron energies extend to 15-23 MeV for the same deuteron energy range. A simplied inspection system was simulated with GEANT4, showing that the ect of scattering on the signal measured in the detector is acceptable. Considering the reaction gamma yields, 1.8 mA deuteron current is required for separation of high-Z materials from medium- and low-Z materials and a 4.5 mA current is required for the additional capability of separating benign high-Z materials from SNM. The main part of the work was development of a detector suitable for a DDEGR system | Time Resolved Event Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector. TRECOR detector is a novel spectroscopic imaging detector for gamma-rays within the MeV energy range that uses an event counting image intensier with gamma-rays for the rst time. Neutrons that accompany the gamma radiation enable to implement, in parallel, Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a method for explosives detection. A second generation detector, TRECOR-II, is capable of detecting gamma-rays and neutrons in parallel, separating them to create particle-specic images and energy-specic images for each particle, thus enabling simultaneous implementation of the two detection methods. A full DDEGR laboratory

  2. Measurement of K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Morales, Cristina

    2009-07-21

    The goal of this thesis was an experimental test of an effective theory of strong interactions at low energy, called Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). Weak decays of kaon mesons provide such a test. In particular, K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays are interesting because there is no tree-level O(p{sup 2}) contribution in ChPT, and the leading contributions start at O(p{sup 4}). At this order, these decays include one undetermined coupling constant, c. Both the branching ratio and the spectrum shape of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays are sensitive to this parameter. O(p{sup 6}) contributions to K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} ChPT predict a 30-40% increase in the branching ratio. From the measurement of the branching ratio and spectrum shape of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays, it is possible to determine a model dependent value of c and also to examine whether the O(p{sup 6}) corrections are necessary and enough to explain the rate. About 40% of the data collected in the year 2003 by the NA48/2 experiment have been analyzed and 908 K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} candidates with about 8% background contamination have been selected in the region with z=m{sup 2}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}/m{sub K}{sup 2}{>=}0.2. Using 5,750,121 selected K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} decays as normalization channel, a model independent differential branching ratio of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} has been measured to be: BR(K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma}, z{>=}0.2)=(1.018{+-}0.038{sub stat}{+-}0.039{sub syst}{+-}0.004{sub ext}).10{sup -6}. From the fit to the O(p{sup 6}) ChPT prediction of the measured branching ratio and the shape of the z-spectrum, a value of c=1.54{+-}0.15{sub stat}{+-}0.18{sub syst} has been extracted. Using the measured c value and the O(p{sup 6}) ChPT prediction, the branching ratio for z=m{sup 2}{sub

  3. On the maximum and minimum of two modified Gamma-Gamma variates with applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we derive the statistical characteristics of the maximum and the minimum of two modified1 Gamma-Gamma variates in closed-form in terms of Meijer\\'s G-function and the extended generalized bivariate Meijer\\'s G-function. Then, we rely on these new results to present the performance analysis of (i) a dual-branch free-space optical selection combining diversity undergoing independent but not necessarily identically distributed Gamma-Gamma fading under the impact of pointing errors and of (ii) a dual-hop free-space optical relay transmission system. Computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations verify our new analytical results.

  4. Well logging with natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    An invention is described for use in natural gamma radiation well logging in which measurements taken in a borehole are used in the search for valuable underground resources such as oil or gas. The invention comprises deriving a log of natural gamma radiation detected in selected energy windows for a selected borehole depth interval and converting it into a log of the selected subsurface materials, e.g. Th, U, K. This log is corrected for the effects of 1) either a gamma ray emitter in the borehole fluid, e.g. potassium salts and/or 2) a gamma ray attenuator in the borehole fluid, e.g. a strong attenuator such as barite and/or hematite. The Th, U, K log is particularly useful in the exploration of oil and gas resources since the Th, U, K concentrations are a good indication as to the presence, type and volume of shale and clay in the formations surrounding the borehole. (U.K.)

  5. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Vernon, Vermont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, R.; Bluitt, C.M.

    1993-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Vernon, Vermont, during the period August 7 through August 17, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 65-square-mile (168-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Vermont Yankee Power Station and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based open-quotes benchmarkclose quotes exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Rowe, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.; Bluitt, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, during the period August 17--24, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 300 feet (91 meters) over an 87-square-mile (225-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Yankee Rowe Power Station and the surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  8. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  9. Thermohydraulic status and component behavior in the PWR during the selected meltdown scenario station blackout (SBO); Thermohydraulisches Verhalten und Komponentenverhalten eines DWR bei ausgewaehltem Kernschmelzszenarium infolge Station Blackout (SBO). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, Sebastian; Blaesius, Christoph; Scheuerer, Martina; Steinroetter, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    The report on the thermohydraulic status and component behavior in the PWR during the selected meltdown scenario station blackout (SBO) includes the following issues: status of science and technology on this topic, analysis of a high-pressure meltdown scenario using ATHLET-CD for a German PWR starting from the initiating event station blackout, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the pressurizer coolant loop in a generic German PWR, evaluation of the thermohydraulic steam generator behavior and its effect on the involved primary circuit components.

  10. INFLUENCE OF INCUBATION TIME, GAMMA RAYS AND ELECTRON BEAM ON RADIATION RESISTANCE OF SOME SELECTED PATHOGENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-HIFNAWI, H.N.; EL-TABLAWY, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different growth phases on the radiation resistance, antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of certain selected pathogens (Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus) was studied in mice. The obtained results showed that Escherichia coli was slightly more resistant to gamma radiation in 18 h than 24 h or 48 h but it was relatively more resistant to electron beam in 24 h and 48 h than 18 h. Candida albicans showed radiation resistance nearly the same in all incubation times in the case of gamma radiation while for electron beam, its radiation resistance was slightly more in 24 h and 48 h than in 18 h. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus recorded much more resistance to gamma radiation in the 48 h than in 24 h or 18 h whereas in the case of electron beam, it was slightly more resistant in 18 h than in 24 h and 48 h.The antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli reported that the exposure to gamma radiation at 3 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy increase the susceptibility to the nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. When Candida albicans was exposed to 3 kGy gamma radiation and 6 kGy electron beam, the same sensitivity to nystatin was observed in comparison with the unexposed one while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to some antibiotics (amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin and tetracycline) was decreased after exposure to gamma radiation at 0.75 and 2 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy, but for other antibiotics (trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole), the sensitivity was increased at 6 kGy electron beam.The lethality percent recorded after the oral ingestion of the mice with the unexposed Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were 25% and 100%, respectively, and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 0% . The cotaneous disease and abscesses caused by the intradermal injection of the mice with unexposed Staphylococcus aureus was 75% and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 25%.

  11. Natural gamma ray spectrum analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, P.; Seeman, B.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining the presence of a selected number of naturally radioactive materials in an earth formation from the spectrum of natural gamma radiation emitted by the materials in the formation by deriving representations of portions of the detected gamma radiation spectrum and combining the representations to determine therefrom the presence of the selected materials

  12. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  13. Alarm criteria for the fixed gamma radiation monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    For the type of measurement considered here, an alarm based on the dose excess has been shown to be a more certain method of indicating that a true alarm situation exists than an alarm based on the dose-rate exceeding a given dose-rate level. The method offers a number of advantages: Dose-rate levels can be recorded over long periods without any necessity of making manual changes in the alarm level due to seasonal variations in the background level. A relatively low level can be specified without an unnecessary number of false alarms being triggered by gamma-emitting radon daughters. (orig./HP)

  14. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Phillips, G.W.; Aakenes, U.R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radio-activity during dynamic seasonal and episodic chances is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. We have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m 3 increase in the 137 Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station will be discussed

  15. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. E.; Aakenes, U. R.; McCoy, K.; Phillips, G. W.

    1997-06-01

    The world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radioactivity during dynamic seasonal and episodic changes is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. The authors have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m/sup 3/ increase in the /sup 137/Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station are discussed.

  16. Cosmic ray and gamma astrophysics with the AMS-02 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to operate on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum period of three years. The aim of AMS is the direct detection of charged particles in the rigidity range from 0.5 GV to few TV to perform high statistics studies of cosmic rays in space and a search for antimatter and dark matter. AMS will provide precise gamma measurements in the GeV range. In addition, the good angular resolution and identification capabilities of the detector will allow clean studies of galactic and extra-galactic sources, the diffuse gamma background and gamma ray bursts

  17. Low-flow analysis and selected flow statistics representative of 1930-2002 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Five time periods between 1930 and 2002 are identified as having distinct patterns of annual minimum daily mean flows (minimum flows). Average minimum flows increased around 1970 at many streamflow-gaging stations in West Virginia. Before 1930, however, there might have been a period of minimum flows greater than any period identified between 1930 and 2002. The effects of climate variability are probably the principal causes of the differences among the five time periods. Comparisons of selected streamflow statistics are made between values computed for the five identified time periods and values computed for the 1930-2002 interval for 15 streamflow-gaging stations. The average difference between statistics computed for the five time periods and the 1930-2002 interval decreases with increasing magnitude of the low-flow statistic. The greatest individual-station absolute difference was 582.5 percent greater for the 7-day 10-year low flow computed for 1970-1979 compared to the value computed for 1930-2002. The hydrologically based low flows indicate approximately equal or smaller absolute differences than biologically based low flows. The average 1-day 3-year biologically based low flow (1B3) and 4-day 3-year biologically based low flow (4B3) are less than the average 1-day 10-year hydrologically based low flow (1Q10) and 7-day 10-year hydrologic-based low flow (7Q10) respectively, and range between 28.5 percent less and 13.6 percent greater. Seasonally, the average difference between low-flow statistics computed for the five time periods and 1930-2002 is not consistent between magnitudes of low-flow statistics, and the greatest difference is for the summer (July 1-September 30) and fall (October 1-December 31) for the same time period as the greatest difference determined in the annual analysis. The greatest average difference between 1B3 and 4B3 compared to 1Q10 and 7Q10, respectively, is in the spring (April 1-June 30), ranging between 11.6 and 102.3 percent

  18. Multi-criteria decision making on selection of solar–wind hybrid power station location: A case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunna, Wu; Geng, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We summarize the evaluation attributes from the perspective of project management. • The duties of roles are defined in the decision process. • The decision framework can provide various rankings of alternatives. • A China’s solar–wind hybrid power station location selection case is study. - Abstract: Site selection plays an important role in the entire life cycle of solar–wind hybrid power station (SWHPS) project and is worthy to further study. There are problems in the present researches: first, the SWHPS site evaluation results are difficult to be understood by the project managers due to the evaluations of SWHPS site are few from the perspective of project management. Second, the independence of experts is difficult to be protected since the undefined duties of roles in the evaluation process Third, the project managers cannot consider the alternatives thoroughly because that the evaluation result is single. Hence the innovativeness of this paper is as follows: first, the evaluation attributes of SWHPS site selection are summarized from the perspective of project management; second, the duties of roles in the decision process are defined; third, according to the principle of practicality, a decision framework of SWHPS site selection is built based on the analytic hierarchy process method, the merits of this decision framework are that it can provide various rankings of alternatives and is easy to be used. Finally, a case study of China demonstrates the effectiveness of decision framework

  19. Comparison of long-term SLR and GNSS solutions from selected stations in the frame of GGOS realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranek, K.; Schillak, S.; Araszkiewicz, A.; Figurski, M.; Lehmann, M.; Lejba, P.

    2012-04-01

    Up-to-date investigations concerning space geodesy are mostly aimed at data of various techniques joint processing. The poster presents solutions (North, East, Up components) of selected stations (McDonald, Yarragadee, Greenbelt, Monument Peak, Zimmerwald, Borowiec, Mt.Stromlo-Orroral, Potsdam, Graz, Herstmonceux and Wettzell), which adopted Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques and which were gathering the data in the same time (from 1994 to 2010). Processing of both types of data was made according to Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) recommendations, the same models and parameters from IERS Conventions 2010 were used in both processing strategies (if it was possible). The main goal was to obtain coordinates and their changes in time (velocities) basing on both techniques and to compare the results. The station coordinates were determined for the common reference epoch of both techniques - for first day of each month. Monthly orbital arcs for laser observations were created basing on solutions from several SLR sites (observations to LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites) with the best solutions quality and the highest amount of observations. For GNSS coordinates determination about 130 sites belonging to International GNSS Service (IGS) were selected: 30 with local ties to SLR sites and others basing on their geolocalization (length of the baselines) and solutions time series analysis. Mainly, core IGS stations were used. Solutions of both techniques were analyzed in order to verify agreement of both techniques and for independent control of local ties.

  20. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Microbiological Quality and Protein Patterns of 4 Selected Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chookaew, S.; Eamsir, J.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma ray and electron beam on microbiological quality and protein pattern of four selected beans: mung beans, soy beans, peanuts and black beans. All beans samples were exposed to irradiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 kGy before evaluated for their microbiological quality using AOAC method and protein analysis by gel electrophoresis. Results showed that the amount of bacteria, yeast and mold of irradiated mung beans and peanuts were reduced, whereas these microbiological quality values remained relatively the same for irradiated soy beans and black beans compared to non-irradiated samples. In terms of protein analysis, the protein patterns of the irradiated beans were of the same quality as the non-irradiated samples. To further tested the effect of irradiation on the bean's protein at higher doses, all four selected beans were exposed to gamma ray at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy. We found that the protein patterns of mung beans, peanuts and black beans were altered at doses above 50 kGy.

  1. Development of non-lodging mutants through gamma irradiation in little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmalakumari, A.; Muthiah, A.R.; Senthil, N.; Souframanien, J.

    2009-01-01

    The little millet is widely cultivated as a millet crop across India, China, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Western Burma. Being the first crop to be harvested in the season, it produces the much needed food grain among the tribals and is the staple food for millions in many parts of the world. It is resilient and can adjust to diverse growing environments differing in soil, rainfall and weather. The grain is a good source of nutrients. Variability in a population decides the scope for selection particularly when it is controlled more by genetic factors rather than by environment. The grain yield of millet and macromutants for high productive tillering, ear head length, compactness, bold grain and non lodging of little millet can be improved through gamma rays. The experimental materials consisted of M6 mutants of CO 3 and CO (samai) 4 varieties irradiated with 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 Gray of gamma rays from 60 Co, source at BARC, Mumbai and conducted at Millet Breeding Station, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India. From M6 generation finally six best non- lodging mutants were selected and subjected to multilocation trials for studying their stability. (author)

  2. Study of the contribution of the radon in the measurement with an automatic gamma probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveda Ramos, C.A.; Dominguez Levy, O.; Alonso Abad, D.; Montalvan Estrada, A.; Fabelo Bonet, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, study about the influence of the radon in the daily measurements of the dose rate absorbed in air due to the environmental gamma radiation is achieved. This magnitude is measured each ten minutes for the Gamma Tracer probe, which is located in the western station of the National Network of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the Republic of Cuba, this station belongs to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR). For achieving such study approximately 157 680 measurements of the gamma dose rate corresponding the period 2004-2006 were analyzed. The gamma probe used has two independent counter channels which are both complemented with a Geiger-Muller detector; also it can only detect gamma radiation and perform measurements of the gamma dose rate between 8.7 n Gy/h and 8.7 mGy/h. This probe is located at the height of 3.5 m and is exposed to the sun rays directly. For improving the interpretation of the data, the average of all the values of gamma dose rate was calculated, for each hour of the 365 days of the year. The values were also monthly averaged out. The data were processed by employing the software Gamma Red which was improved by adding some options. A comparison between the results obtained and the annual radon variation internationally published was made. With the present study, it was proved that the main contribution to the daily measurements of the dose rate absorbed in the air due to environmental gamma radiation, on stable weather conditions, is associated with the radon daughters which emit gamma radiation. (author)

  3. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera

  4. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera 1 tab., 1 fig

  5. Evaluating the radiation environment around a nuclear power station with unmonitored radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, A.A.; Dibobes, I.K.; Pyuskyulan, K.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the radiation monitoring system at (RMS) at the Armenian nuclear power station; the environmental monitoring program includes measuring the gamma radiation around the station, determining radionuclide contents in air and fallout, and also in surface water and ground water, in water plants and bottom sediments, in soil and plants and also in local agricultural products. The RMS monitors gas-aerosol releases and effluents from the station. The radius of the monitored zone is 25 km. The gamma radiation is measured by IKS dosemeters and SRP-68-01 portable instruments. The air is monitored by six stationary aspriation systems at distances of 1, 5, 6, 11, 14, 15 and 50 km and 28 planchette cells. The RMS records virtually all the mean monthly and mean annual fluctuations in the global background. In seven years of operation at the Armenian station, only Ca 137 and Sr 90 from global fallout together with Be 7 of cosmogenic origin have been observed in air apart from two cases. In 1981, air samples taken with the aspirators and combined over a quarter showed Ce 141, Ce 144, Ru 106, Ru 103, Nb 95 and Zr 95. The concentrations of these are presented

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Seabrook Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Seabrook, New Hampshire, July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Seabrook Nuclear Station, Seabrook, New Hampshire, during the period 6 July through 14 July 1988. The purpose of the 247-square-kilometer (96-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the station and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged form 9 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). In areas where water shielded the earth, lower exposure rates were measured. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the station were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Investigation of epigenetic gene regulation in Arabidopsis modulated by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Myung Jin; Lee, Dong Joon; Kim, Young Min; Jung, Joon Yong; Han, Wan Keun; Kang, Soo Jin

    2011-12-01

    To investigate epigenetic gene regulation in Arabidopsis modulated by gamma radiation, we examined the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification after gamma radiation and investigated the effects of gamma radiation on epigenetic information and gene expression. We have selected 14 genes with changes in DNA methylation by gamma radiation, analyzed the changes of histone modification in the selected genes to reveal the relationship between DNA methylation and histone modification by gamma radiation. We have also analyzed the effects of gamma radiation on gene expression to investigate the relationship between epigenetic information and gene expression by gamma radiation. The results will be useful to reveal the effects of gamma radiation on DNA methylation, histone modification and gene expression. We anticipate that the information generated in this proposal will help to find out the mechanism underlying the changes in epigenetic information by gamma radiation

  8. Selection of combined water electrolysis and resistojet propulsion for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical rationale is presented for the configuration of the NASA Space Station's two-element propulsion system, and attention is given to the cost benefits accruing to this system over the Space Station's service life. The principal system element uses gaseous oxygen and hydrogen obtained through water electrolysis to furnish attitude control, backup attitude control, and contingency maneuvering. The secondary element uses resistojets to augment Space Station reboost through the acceleration of waste gases in the direction opposite the Station's flight path.

  9. Influence of the anthropogenic changes of gamma dose radiation connected connected with uranium mining upon selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solecki, A. T.; Wislocka, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The situation of flora in the regions with expressive anthropogenic changes in the background of gamma radiation and concentration of the radon in atmospheric air was observed. The content of heavy metals in the depth of the anomaly terrain was analyzed. The analyses of the selected radionuclides in plant ash by method in thin layer were performed. The concentration of radionuclides and situation of flora was correlated. (authors)

  10. Gamma irradiators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radiation technology is one of the most important fields which the IAEA supports and promotes, and has several programmes that facilitate its use in the developing Member States. In view of this mandate, this Booklet on 'Gamma Irradiators for Radiation Processing' is prepared which describes variety of gamma irradiators that can be used for radiation processing applications. It is intended to present description of general principles of design and operation of the gamma irradiators available currently for industrial use. It aims at providing information to industrial end users to familiarise them with the technology, with the hope that the information contained here would assist them in selecting the most optimum irradiator for their needs. Correct selection affects not only the ease of operation but also yields higher efficiency, and thus improved economy. The Booklet is also intended for promoting radiation processing in general to governments and general public

  11. Evaluation of the generalized gamma as a tool for treatment planning optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil I Petrou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of that work is to study the theoretical behavior and merits of the Generalized Gamma (generalized dose response gradient as well as to investigate the usefulness of this concept in practical radiobiological treatment planning.Methods: In this study, the treatment planning system RayStation 1.9 (Raysearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm, Sweden was used. Furthermore, radiobiological models that provide the tumor control probability (TCP, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP, complication-free tumor control probability (P+ and the Generalized Gamma were employed. The Generalized Gammas of TCP and NTCP, respectively were calculated for given heterogeneous dose distributions to different organs in order to verify the TCP and NTCP computations of the treatment planning system. In this process, a treatment plan was created, where the target and the organs at risk were included in the same ROI in order to check the validity of the system regarding the objective function P+ and the Generalized Gamma. Subsequently, six additional treatment plans were created with the target organ and the organs at risk placed in the same or different ROIs. In these plans, the mean dose was increased in order to investigate the behavior of dose change on tissue response and on Generalized Gamma before and after the change in dose. By theoretically calculating these quantities, the agreement of different theoretical expressions compared to the values that the treatment planning system provides could be evaluated. Finally, the relative error between the real and approximate response values using the Poisson and the Probit models, for the case of having a target organ consisting of two compartments in a parallel architecture and with the same number of clonogens could be investigated and quantified. Results: The computations of the RayStation regarding the values of the Generalized Gamma and the objective function (P+ were verified by using an

  12. Modelling rainfall amounts using mixed-gamma model for Kuantan district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Moslim, Nor Hafizah

    2017-05-01

    An efficient design of flood mitigation and construction of crop growth models depend upon good understanding of the rainfall process and characteristics. Gamma distribution is usually used to model nonzero rainfall amounts. In this study, the mixed-gamma model is applied to accommodate both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts. The mixed-gamma model presented is for the independent case. The formulae of mean and variance are derived for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables, respectively. Firstly, the gamma distribution is used to model the nonzero rainfall amounts and the parameters of the distribution (shape and scale) are estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. Then, the mixed-gamma model is defined for both zero and nonzero rainfall amounts simultaneously. The formulae of mean and variance for the sum of two and three independent mixed-gamma variables derived are tested using the monthly rainfall amounts from rainfall stations within Kuantan district in Pahang Malaysia. Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, the results demonstrate that the descriptive statistics of the observed sum of rainfall amounts is not significantly different at 5% significance level from the generated sum of independent mixed-gamma variables. The methodology and formulae demonstrated can be applied to find the sum of more than three independent mixed-gamma variables.

  13. A Study of $W^{+}W^{-}\\gamma$ Events at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Caron, B; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Hensel, C; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klein, K; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kormos, L L; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Leins, A; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; MacPherson, A; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, R J; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01

    A study of W+W- events accomanied by hard photon radiation produced in e+e- collisions at LEP is presented. Events consistent with being two on-shell W bosons and an isolated photon are selected from 681 pb^-1 of data recorded at 180 GeV < sqrt(s) < 209 GeV. For these data , 187 W+W- candidates are selected with photon energies greater than 2.5 GeV. The selected events are used to determine the W+ W- gamma cross section at five values of sqrt(s). The results are consistent with the Standard Model expectation. These data provide constraints on the related O(alpha) systematic uncertainties on the measurement of the W boson mass at LEP. Finally, the data are used to derive 95% C.L. upper limits on possible anomalous contributions to the W+ W- gamma gamma and W+ W- Z0 gamma vertices.

  14. Radioactive aerosol detection station for near real-time atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A radionuclide aerosol detection station has been developed to measure radioactivity in the environment. The objective is to monitor the atmosphere for anthropogenic radioactivity that could be indicative of nuclear weapons tests to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Eighty stations will form the backbone of the International Monitoring System in which stations are linked to a central analysis facility called the International Data Centre. Data are transmitted to this centre in near real-time to facilitate rapid detection. Principal process of the field measurement are collection, separation, and assay. Collection of airborne radioactivity is achieved through high-volume air sampling. Aerosols separation is accomplished by high-efficiency particulate filtration. Radionuclides assay is achieved by in-situ high resolution gamma spectrometry. These modules are integrated into a unit that provides power, control, and communication support subsystems. Station operation is semi-automatic requiring only minimal human interaction. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants at gamma greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Activities on chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants have started since April 2010. Among plants which have been irradiated were landscaping plants such as hibiscus, canna, turnera, plumeria, amaryllis, and ornamental plants such as orchid, heliconia, cucurma and sanseviera, as well as vanilla. The main objectives at the initial stage were to develop database for optimum chronic irradiation dose and suitable experimental design for each species. The ultimate aim is to obtain new varieties of ornamental plants with flower and horticultural traits of commercial values and landscaping plants suitable for Malaysian landscape such as large and colourful flower, longer bloom period and frequent flowering. This paper discusses irradiation activities for ornamental plants in Gamma Greenhouse including preparation of samples, growing medium and screening plots, selection/determination of optimum dose and dose rate, collection of data and selection of mutants. (author)

  16. Activity and selectivity of manganese oxides in alcohols Conversion as influenced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doheim, M.M.; Ahmed, A.S.; El-Shobaky, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Manganese oxide samples obtained from thermal decomposition of manganese carbonate at 400 and 600 deg C were subjected to different doses of g-irradiation within the range 0.2 to 1.6 MGy. The surface and catalytic properties of the above samples were studied using nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at -196 deg C and catalytic conversion of ethanol and isopropanol at 300-400 deg C using micropulse technique. The results obtained revealed that manganese oxides obtained at 400 deg C consisted of a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and MnO 2 while the samples calcined at 600 deg C composed entirely of Mn 2 O 3 . Gamma-irradiation resulted in a decrease in the particle size of manganese oxide phases with subsequent increase in their specific surface areas. Gamma-irradiation with 0.2 and 0.8 MGy effected a measurable progressive decrease in the catalytic activity in dehydration and dehydrogenation of both alcohols. However, the treated catalyst retained their initial activity upon exposure to a dose of 1.6 MGy. Also, g-irradiation increased the selectivities of the investigated solids towards dehydrogenation of both alcohols. The catalyst samples precalcined at 600 deg C exhibited higher catalytic activities than those precalcined at 400 deg C. (author)

  17. Gamma, radon, natural radioactivity measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1997-01-01

    Different natural radiation measurements, performed since 1983, are analysed and discussed regarding the average effective population dose. A decade of absorbed gamma dose measurements in air (1983-93), were carried out using compensated TLD detectors, during long periods of integration time and with a network of 11 stations, along the country, from Arica to the Antarctic territory. An indoor Rn -222 and gamma survey dwellings, in high background zones, underground mines and drinking water was started in 1988 using different kind of detectors, including electret radon chambers. The methods, dose assessments and results are presented and discussed in the frame of worldwide average effective population doses. None of the average effective doses found over the evaluated areas, exceed the comparison levels. (author)

  18. Selective Beta and Gamma-ray Discrimination by CdWO{sub 4} and PlasticScintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Radiation monitoring technique has been used for monitoring of decommissioning site of nuclear facility, radioactive waste disposal site, or in case of radioactivity accident. For rapid measurement of gamma-ray and beta-ray, many portable radiation detectors were developed but they are sensitive to specific radiation type. For example, portable detectors using NaI(Tl) or high purity germanium (HPGe) are suitable to detect gamma-ray. Otherwise, Geiger-müller (GM) tube or ionization chamber are suitable to detect all-types of radiation but it is hard to determine which particle is detected in the detector. In this reason, phoswich detectors for discrimination of beta-ray and gamma-ray were developed by using pulse shape discrimination. In this study, another approach to discriminate the beta-ray and gamma-ray is carried out. Two scintillators are used, cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}) and plastic scintillator. They have huge difference in their effective atomic number and mass density, thus they have huge difference in their gamma-ray sensitivity while the sensitivity of beta-ray is similar. The characterization of beta-ray and gamma-ray discrimination by using this characteristics is include. A technique of discrimination between beta-ray and gamma-ray was suggested. The method was verified by Monte Carlo simulation and experiment. This work showed feasibility on in field measurement of radiation with discrimination of beta-ray and gamma-ray.

  19. A low-energy set-up for gamma-ray spectrometry of NORM tailored to the needs of a secondary smelting facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, G; Schreurs, I Vandael; Croymans, T; Schroeyers, W; Schreurs, S; Hult, M; Marissens, G; Stroh, H; Tzika, F

    2017-08-01

    A measurement station dedicated for quantitative radiological characterisation of naturally occurring radionuclides in a metallurgical company and based on gamma-ray spectrometry was developed. The station is intended for performing quality control of final non-ferrous metal products and for radiological checks of incoming materials. A low-background point-contact HPGe-detector was used and the signal was split in two branches to enable collecting simultaneously spectra with high amplification (for gamma-ray energies below 250keV) and low amplification. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Space Station Freedom food management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  1. Moment magnitude determination of local seismic events recorded at selected Polish seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents the method of local magnitude determination used at Polish seismic stations to report events originating in one of the four regions of induced seismicity in Poland or its immediate vicinity. The method is based on recalculation of the seismic moment into magnitude, whereas the seismic moment is obtained from spectral analysis. The method has been introduced at Polish seismic stations in the late 1990s but as of yet had not been described in full because magnitude discrepancies have been found between the results of the individual stations. The authors have performed statistics of these differences, provide their explanation and calculate station corrections for each station and each event source region. The limitations of the method are also discussed. The method is found to be a good and reliable method of local magnitude determination provided the limitations are observed and station correction applied.

  2. A gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na/(7)Be activity ratio measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Stukel, Matthew; Mekarski, Pawel

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a digital gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer was developed and examined for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na and (7)Be in air-filter sample monitoring. The spectrometer consists of two bismuth germanate scintillators (BGO) and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The spectrometer design allows a more selective measurement of (22)Na with a significant background reduction by gamma-gamma coincidence events processing. Hence, the system provides a more sensitive way to quantify trace amounts of (22)Na than normal high resolution gamma spectrometry providing a critical limit of 3 mBq within a 20 h count. The use of a list-mode data acquisition technique enabled simultaneous determination of (22)Na and (7)Be activity concentrations using a single measurement by coincidence and anticoincidence mode respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey. I. Sample Selection and Redshift Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, D. A.; Kruhler, T.; Schulze, S.; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Hjorth, J.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chary, R.; Cucchiara, A.; Ellis, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a multi-observatory high redshift galaxy survey targeting the largest unbiased sample of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts yet assembled (119 in total). We describe the motivations of the survey and the development of our selection criteria, including an assessment of the impact of various observability metrics on the success rate of afterglow-based redshift measurement. We briefly outline our host galaxy observational program, consisting of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging of every field supplemented by similarly deep, multicolor optical/near-IR photometry, plus spectroscopy of events without preexisting redshifts. Our optimized selection cuts combined with host galaxy follow-up have so far enabled redshift measurements for 110 targets (92%) and placed upper limits on all but one of the remainder. About 20% of GRBs in the sample are heavily dust obscured, and at most 2% originate from z > 5.5. Using this sample, we estimate the redshift-dependent GRB rate density, showing it to peak at z approx. 2.5 and fall by at least an order of magnitude toward low (z = 0) redshift, while declining more gradually toward high (z approx. 7) redshift. This behavior is consistent with a progenitor whose formation efficiency varies modestly over cosmic history. Our survey will permit the most detailed examination to date of the connection between the GRB host population and general star-forming galaxies, directly measure evolution in the host population over cosmic time and discern its causes, and provide new constraints on the fraction of cosmic star formation occurring in undetectable galaxies at all redshifts.

  4. Study on cosmic gamma bursts in the ''KONUS'' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazets, E.P.; Golenetskij, S.V.; Il'inskij, V.N.; Panov, V.N.; Aptekar', R.L.; Gur'yan, Yu.A.; Sokolov, I.A.; Sokolova, Z.Ya.; Kharitonova, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    Made are the investigations of cosmic gamma bursts with the help of the ''Konus'' apparatus, positioned on the ''Venera 11'' and ''Venera 12'' automatic interplanetary stations. 37 gamma bursts have been recorded in the energy range from 50 to 150 keV during the observation period from September to December 1978. Time profiles of bursts on 4, 9 and 24.11.1978 are presented. For the most events the time of burst increase and decrease constitute parts and units of seconds. Differential energy spectra are measured for all recorded bursts. In many cases the spectrum shape is similar to the grade one with the 1.5-2.3 index. In a graphical form built up are the integral distributions of gamma bursts appearence frequency in dependence on their intensity and maximum capacity in the burst peak. Galaxy coordinates of the 17-teen bursts, for which a simple localization is possible, are put on the celestial sphere map. The type of the integral distributions and the source distribution about the celestial sphere show that the gamma burst sources are whithin the Galaxy

  5. Return on experience on control gates in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valendru, N.

    2009-01-01

    In application of an EDF internal directive, control gates are used at the exit of the Controlled Areas of each nuclear power station site for the radiological control of materials or wastes on pedestrians and vehicles. The author first presents the radiological control chain for people and its principles. This chain comprises the different controls performed within the controlled area, either at the exit of a works area or at the exit of the reactor building, the different controls performed at the exit of the controlled area (depending on the site classification), the control of pedestrians at the site exit, and the 'whole body' anthropo-gamma-metric control. For each of these controls, the authors indicate the detection objectives, the different contamination threshold values, and the type of gate used. In a second part, the authors more precisely present the new C2 gates which include gamma and beta sensors, indicate how control thresholds are adjusted on different power station sites, and discuss the lessons learned after the first years of use of these new gates (difficulties and problems faced as far as detection and detection thresholds are concerned, changes in organization)

  6. Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): a new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.; Cline, T.L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A.F.; Maccallum, C.J.; Stang, P.D.; Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload, a balloon program was initiated to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments

  7. Gamma radiation at ground level in Sweden in 1975-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1978-03-01

    Measurement of the gamma radiation 2 1/2 m above the ground, carried out continuously in Sweden since 1960, has been continued during 1975 - 1977 at 24 places in Sweden. The net of gamma stations is intended for the rapid detection of large quantities of fallout. The standard deviation of an exposure reading (incl. natural exposure) has been estimated to be +- 5 percent. Figures show the variation of the exposure in μR/h from 1960 for three of the stations. After a peak of about 24 mR/y in 1963 (17 mR/y the actual value including absorption in the snow), the average additional exposure due to fallout decreased to about 10 mR/y (the actual value 7 mR/y) and since 1965 there have been no significant variations in the annual exposure due to fallout. The contribution from fallout to the irradiation level above the ground depends mostly on cesium-137 from the atmospheric nuclear explosions in 1961 and 1962 with some contribution from fresh fallout originating from later nuclear explosions

  8. Cluster analysis for validated climatology stations using precipitation in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Cabrera, J. L.; Azpra-Romero, E.; Zarraluqui-Such, V.; Gay-García, C.; Estrada Porrúa, F.

    2012-01-01

    Annual average of daily precipitation was used to group climatological stations into clusters using the k-means procedure and principal component analysis with varimax rotation. After a careful selection of the stations deployed in Mexico since 1950, we selected 349 characterized by having 35 to 40

  9. A comprehensive analysis of physiologically equivalent temperature changes of Iranian selected stations for the last half century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Kovács, Attila; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a preliminary and major step for land use planning of the coming years, the study of variability of the past decades' climatic conditions with comprehensive indicators is of high importance. Given the fact that one of the affected areas by climatic change includes variability of thermal comfort, this study uses the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) to identify and evaluate bioclimatic conditions of 40 meteorological stations in Iran. In this study, PET changes for the period of 1960 to 2010 are analyzed, with the use of Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and Pearson parametric method. The study focuses particularly on the diversity in spatio-temporal distribution of Iran's bioclimatic conditions. The findings show that the mean frequency percentage of days with comfort is 12.9 % according to the total number of selected stations. The maximum and minimum frequency percentage with values of 17.4 and 10.3 belong to Kerman and Chabahar stations, respectively. The findings of long-term trend analysis for the period of 1960-2010 show that 55 % of the stations have significant increasing trend in terms of thermal comfort class based on the Pearson method, while it is 40 % based on Mann-Kendall test. The results indicate that the highest frequency of days with thermal comfort in the southern coasts of Iran relates to the end of autumn and winter, nevertheless, such ideal conditions for the coastal cities of Caspian Sea and even central stations of Iran relate to mid-spring and mid-autumn. Late summer and early autumn along with late spring can be identified as the most ideal times in the west and northwest part of Iran. In addition, the most important inhibiting factors of thermal comfort prove to be different across the regions of Iran. For instance, in the southern coasts, warm to very hot bioclimatic events and in the west and northwest regions, cold to very cold conditions turn out to be the most important inhibiting factors. When considering the variations

  10. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  11. Equipment for the continuous measurement and identification of gamma radioactivity on aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Riego, Albert; Garcia, Roger; Dies, Javier; Diaz, Pedro [Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Departament of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Toral, Juan [Raditel Serveis. Tarragona (Spain); Batalla, Enric [Radiological Activities Corrdination Service - SCAR, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    Presentation the Equipment for the Continuous Measurement and Identification of Gamma Radioactivity on Aerosols developed by the Nuclear Engineering Research Group (NERG) from the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and the Raditel Company. The device is based on a fixed filter of glass fiber (100% borosilicate), this allows determine the concentration of activity of gamma emitters on aerosols in air. A specifically developed Spectrometry Analysis System has been developed. The analysis of the spectra allows the identification of the emitters and determine the concentration of activity. Nowadays four Stations with this equipment are operating on the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network of the Catalonian Generalitat (Spain): two near the Asco and Vandellos Nuclear Power Plants in the province of Tarragona and one in the city of Barcelona. Soon a fourth monitor will be incorporated at Roses (province of Girona) and a fifth in Puigcerda (province of Barcelona). We present measurements and analysis of the evolution of the emitters identified on different stations of the Network. (authors)

  12. Estimation of outdoor and indoor effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from Gamma dose rates in Gonabad, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafaria, R.; Zarghania, H.; Mohammadia, A., E-mail: rvzreza@gmail.com [Paramedical faculty, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Background gamma irradiation in the indoor and outdoor environments is a major concern in the world. The study area was Gonabad city. Three stations and buildings for background radiation measurement of outdoor and indoor were randomly selected and the Geiger-Muller detector (X5C plus) was used. All dose rates on display of survey meter were recorded and mean of all data in each station and buildings was computed and taken as measured dose rate of that particular station. The average dose rates of background radiation were 84.2 nSv/h for outdoor and 108.6 nSv/h for indoor, maximum and minimum dose rates were 88.9 nSv/h and 77.7 nSv/h for outdoor measurements and 125.4 nSv/h and 94.1 nSv/h for indoor measurements, respectively. Results show that the annual effective dose is 0.64 mSv, which compare to global level of the annual effective dose 0.48 mSv is high. Estimated excess lifetime cancer risk was 2.24×10{sup -3} , indicated that it is large compared to the world average value of 0.25×10{sup -3}. (author)

  13. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S; Osores, J; Jara, R [Direccion General de Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    1998-07-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40.

  14. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Osores, J.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  15. On-line real time gamma analysis of primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.; Kupca, S.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1985-10-01

    The evolution of failed fuel monitoring at CANDU power stations is briefly summarized and the design of the latest system for failed fuel detection at a multi-unit power station is described. At each reactor, the system employs a germanium spectrometer combined with a novel spectrum analyzer that simultaneously accumulates the gamma-ray spectrum of the coolant and provides the control room with the concentration of radioisotope activity in the coolant for the gaseous fission products Xe-133, Xe-135, Kr-88 and I-131 in real time and with statistical precision independent of count rate. A gross gamma monitor is included to provide independent information on the level of radioactivity in the coolant and extend the measurement range at very high count rates. A central computer system archives spectra received from all four spectrum analyzers and provides both the activity concentrations and the release rates of specified isotopes. Compared with previous systems the current design offers improvements in that the activity concentrations are updated much more frequently, improved tools are provided for long term surveillance of the heat transport system and the monitor is more reliable and less costly

  16. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations

  17. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  18. 47 CFR 2.303 - Other forms of identification of stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information. Ship telegraph When an official call sign is not yet assigned: Complete name of the ship and name of licensee. On 156.65 MHz: Name of ship. Digital selective call. Ship telegraph Digital selective...). Retransmission of the call sign of the primary station. Disaster station By radiotelephony: Name, location, or...

  19. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  20. Gonad, bone marrow and effective dose to the population of more than 90 towns and cities of Iran, arising from environmental gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Bayani, S.H.; Abdolrahimi, A.; Yarahmadi, M.; Aghamir, A.; Jomehzadeh, A.; Hagh Parast, M.; Tamjidi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Natural radiation environment and it's biological impacts on human life has not received appreciable attention in Iran. Before 1996 only a few sporadic studies had been carried out, but no systematic study of normal back ground had been conducted. Since 1996 assessment of environmental gamma radiation dose in residential areas of Iranian towns and cities was defined as a long term goal in our center. Till now measurements of annual dose rates have been accomplished for 10 counties. As a practical method and based on the results of a pilot study, in order to attribute the final results to the whole residential area of a town five stations were selected for every town. The location of individual station was studied closely to comply with recommended conditions in the literature. RDS-110 was employed to measure gamma dose rate for one hour. Practically huge numbers of dose rate figures were recorded, they were substantially summarized to estimate average dose rate. Average annual dose rates plus conversion coefficients were employed to estimate gonad, bone marrow, equivalent and effective dose. In the vast studied area average out-door gamma dose rate is varying from 35 nSvh -1 to 205 nSvh -1 . Minimum and maximum annual bone marrow and gonad dose equivalent attributed to environmental gamma are 0.24 mSvy -1 (for both tissues) and 1.44 and 1.46 mSvy -1 respectively. Effective dose of inhabitants arising from out-door gamma is varying by 6 folds from 0.21 to 1.26 mSvy -1 . The largest and smallest population weighted dose are equal to 0.35 and 1.00 mSvy -1 . Average gonad and bone marrow doses for north Khorasan, Boshehr and Hormozgan are less than the corresponding values for normal area. On the other hand inhabitants of the studied area receive a dose higher than the world average, except those who live in Hormozgan and Boshehr. (author)

  1. Assessment of environmental gamma radiation levels in the environs of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.G.; Takale, R.A.; Swarnkar, M.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the assessment of the environmental impact of the Indian nuclear power programme, radiation surveys are being carried out on continuous basis in the environs of all the nuclear facilities in India using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters. This paper discusses the environmental gamma radiation levels based on the analysis of data generated for year 1989-2009 at twenty-eight locations currently being monitored in and around the environs of NAPS using passive dosimeter. Of these, six are within the exclusion zone (1.6 km) while the remaining twenty two locations are spread over an aerial distance of twenty six km from reactor stack. The annual background gamma levels for NAPS site beyond 1.6 km exclusion zone based on twenty-two monitoring locations are evaluated and seen to be 1.20 ± 0.15 mGy/a. This is comparable with earlier reported pre-operational value 1.24 ± 0.26 mGy/a. From this it can be said that the reactor operations have not contributed to any increase in the gamma radiation levels in the environs of the NAPS region. (author)

  2. The future of high energy gamma ray astronomy and its potential astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.

  3. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhec, M.; Zorko, B.; Mitic, D.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Mueller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminescence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation. (authors)

  4. POLAR on board of the Tiangong 2 Chinese space station: measuring the polarization of hard X-rays photons, in particular the polarization of prompt photons from gamma ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produit, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    POLAR is an homogeneous wide field Compton polarimeter using plastic scintillators and multichannel photomultipliers. The goal of this polarimeter is to measure with controlled systematics the polarization of hard X-ray emitted by unpredictable transient sources The instrument energy range sensitivity is optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB). Monte-Carlo studies and calibration data collected in polarized photon beams predict that POLAR will be able to measure the polarization degree of 10 GRB per year with a combined systematics and statistical accuracy of better then 10%. POLAR will be mounted outside of the Tiangong 2 Chinese space station that will be launched in space in 2014.

  5. The development of a pilot industrial irradiation facility; Realisation d'une station d'irradiation {gamma} a caractere 'semi-industriel'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, F; Leveque, P; Prevost, C; Comte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The fuel element cooling chamber of EL3 pile at Saclay has been especially arranged to permit the irradiation of chemical and food products on a semi-industrial scale. Computations have shown that the large quantities of radioactivity stored in this chamber will permit the attaining of a high flux density over a large volume by a special storage arrangement of fuel elements. The installation is divided into two compartments with differing arrangements of fuel element which allow several irradiation geometries and specimen sizes. The first chamber is constructed of barytes concrete and maintained at a constant temperature. Alternate rows of uranium bars and specimen channels, with a minimum spacing, are used to obtain a compact assembly. The diameters of the channels are 10 and 20 cm and the effective loading height is 70 cm, the latter corresponding to the zone of uniform flux. The second chamber is fitted with a conveyor moving containers 35 cm diameter and 70 cm deep around a single row of twenty fuel elements. The temperature is maintained at -7 deg. C in this latter chamber. The distribution of gamma flux within the chambers was calculated and verified with fuel elements from the EL2 pile at Saclay. The radiation field varies with time following unloading the elements from the pile and depends on the geometric arrangement of elements selected. The predicted theoretical dose rate will range between ten thousand and several million r/hour. These dose rates will be verified with chemical dosimeters of the ferrous ste and oxalic acid types. In addition, glass dosimeters calibrated with a cobalt-60 source will be placed in the conveyor container to determine quickly the total integrated dose. The utilization of the fuel element cooling chamber for industrial irradiations represents the first such operation in France. Its development has been cooperative effort between the C.E.A. and private industry. (author) [French] La casemate de desactivation de la pile EL3 a

  6. Development and radiation evaluation of mobile station for personnel monitoring system based on indigenous plastic scintillator sensor rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, H.S.; Parihar, A.; Senwar, K.R.; Prakash, V.; Rathore, A.S.

    2018-01-01

    The Mobile Station for Personnel Monitoring (MSPM) system has been designed and developed for rapid screening of personnel with respect to radiation contamination during nuclear or radiological emergency; it can also be used for prevention of illicit movement of radioactive sources. The objective was to develop a modular, transportable and easily deployable gamma portal monitoring system based on indigenous DLJ developed plastic scintillator sensors. The Gamma radiation response of the system is presented here

  7. Cosmic very high-energy {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article gives a brief overview, aimed at nonspecialists, about the goals and selected recent results of the detection of very-high energy {gamma}-rays (energies above 100 GeV) with ground based detectors. The stress is on the physics questions, specially the origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays and the emission of TeV {gamma}-radiation from active galaxies. Moreover some particle-physics questions which are addressed in this area are discussed.

  8. Search for a Higgs boson decaying into $\\gamma^*\\gamma\\to\\ell\\ell\\gamma$ with low dilepton mass in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dobur, Didar; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Aly, Reham; Aly, Shereen; El-khateeb, Esraa; Lotfy, Ahmad; Mohamed, Amr; Radi, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Ali, Ahmed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sudhakar, Katta; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Dughera, Giovanni; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Myagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Du Pree, Tristan; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Taroni, Silvia; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chang, Chiu-ping; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Ferro, Cristina; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Thomas, Laurent; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Hu, Zhen; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Yin, Hang; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mareskas-palcek, Darren; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Demortier, Luc; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Christian, Allison; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Gomber, Bhawna; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-02-10

    A search is described for a Higgs boson decaying into two photons, one of which has an internal conversion to a muon or an electron pair ($\\ell\\ell\\gamma$). The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The events selected have an opposite-sign muon or electron pair and a high transverse momentum photon. No excess above background has been found in the three-body invariant mass range $ 120 < m_{\\ell\\ell\\gamma} < 150$ GeV, and limits have been derived for the Higgs boson production cross section times branching fraction for the decay $\\mathrm{H} \\to \\gamma^* \\gamma \\to \\ell \\ell \\gamma$, where the dilepton invariant mass is less than 20 GeV. For a Higgs boson with $m_{\\mathrm{H}} =$ 125 GeV, a 95% confidence level (CL) exclusion observed (expected) limit is 7.7 (6.4$^{+3.1}_{-2.0}$) times the standard model prediction. Additionally, an upper limit at 9...

  9. Assessment of background gamma radiation and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background gamma radiation levels vary in different locations and depended on many factors such as radiation properties of soil, building materials as well as construction types which human lives on it. People are always exposed to ionizing radiation, which could badly influence their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the background gamma-ray dose rate and the estimated annual effective dose equivalent and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran. Methods: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the dose rate of background gamma radiation in outdoor an indoor areas, 26 stations were selected using the map of the Sabzevar City. The amount of gamma radiation was measured at 4 months (September to January in 2014 year. The dosimeter used in this study was a survey meter, that is designed for monitoring radiation of x, gamma and beta rays. Results: The obtained results show that there are significant differences between the indoor and outdoor exposures (P> 0.05. We did not observe significant differences between the time of sampling and sampling locations, (P<0.05. The minimum and maximum values of dose rate were found 66±20 nSvh-1 and 198±28 nSvh-1. The annual effective dose for Sabzevar residents was estimated to be 0.85 mSv and also the amount of excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated 3.39×10-3. Conclusion: According to the results, the excess lifetime cancer risk and the annual effective dose for the Sabzavar City residents due to the background gamma radiation was higher than the global average (0.5 mSv. The epidemiological studies have been proposed to evaluate the risk of chronic diseases associated with natural radiation exposure among residents.

  10. AGILE: A gamma-ray mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, M.; Caraveo, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Perotti, F.; Vercellone, S.; Barbiellini, G.; Budini, G.; Longo, F.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Cocco, V.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Pittori, C.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Lapshov, I.; Morelli, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.

    2000-01-01

    AGILE is an innovative, cost-effective gamma-ray mission selected by the Italian Space Agency for a Program of Small Scientific Missions. The AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID, made of a Silicon tracker and CsI Mini-Calorimeter) is designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band with good sensitivity and very large field of view (FOV ∼3 sr). The X-ray detector, Super-AGILE, sensitive in the 10-40 keV band and integrated on top of the GRID gamma-ray tracker will provide imaging (1-3 arcmin) and moderate spectroscopy. For selected sky areas, AGILE might achieve a flux sensitivity (above 100 MeV) better than 5x10 -8 ph cm 2 s -1 at the completion of its scientific program. AGILE will operate as an Observatory open to the international community and is planned to be operational during the year 2002 for a nominal 2-year mission. It will be an ideal 'bridge' between EGRET and GLAST, and the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during that period

  11. Natural radiation external exposures levels in Chilean Sub-Antarctic and country stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983 gamma exposures levels, at 1,5 m above the soil are being investigated using TLD detectors. A network of 12 stations have been established from ARICA (18 deg 20' S latitude) in Northern Chile to YELCHO (64 deg 52' S latitude) in Antartic territory. One year monitoring period was used at Antartic stations and a four months period in the country. The main subject of this study is to assess the average background radiation levels along the territory which is relevant to get a reference level and specially an estimate of the average natural radiation contribution to the population dose in Southern Chile

  12. Fault diagnosis method for area gamma monitors in Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas Reddy, P.; Amudhu Ramesh Kumar, R.; Geo Mathews, M.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-01-01

    Area Gamma Monitors (AGM) using Geiger-Muller (GM) counter are deployed in nuclear facilities for detection of gamma radiation. The AGMs display the dose rate locally and in Data Acquisition System (DAS) at central monitoring station. It also provides local visual and audio alarms in case of dose rate exceeding alarm set point. Regular surveillance checking, testing and calibration of AGMs are mandatory as per safety guidelines. This paper describes quick testing the AGMs without using radioactive source. The four point High Voltages (HV) and Discriminator Bias (DB) voltage characteristics are used to diagnose the state of health of GM counter. The profiles of HV and DB voltage are applied during testing of the AGMs

  13. On the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates with application to the fast outage probability evaluation over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2017-04-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of independent and identically distributed Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  14. On the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates with application to the fast outage probability evaluation over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Rached, Nadhir B.; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2017-01-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of independent and identically distributed Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  15. Impact of Gautrain stations on property prices and sales activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KArnold

    Gautrain stations had a notable impact on property sales prices and property sales activity in the vicinity of. Sandton, Rosebank and Midrand stations between 2006 and 2015. Of the five Gautrain stations in the City of. Johannesburg, Rosebank, Sandton and Midrand stations were selected for the study since they are the ...

  16. Radiation breeding researches in gamma field. Results of researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Abstract of radiation breeding researches and outline of gamma field in IRB (Institute of Radiation Breeding) are described. The gamma field is a circular field of 100 m radius with 88.8TBqCo-60 source at the center. The field is surrounded by a shielding dike of 8 m in height. The effects of gamma irradiation on the growing plants, mutant by gamma radiation and plant molecular biological researches using mutant varieties obtained by the gamma field are explained. For examples, Japanese pear, chrysanthemum, Cytisus, Eustoma grandiflorum, Manila grass, tea and rose are reported. The mutant varieties in the gamma field, nine mutant varieties of flower colors in chrysanthemum, evergreen mutant lines in Manila grass, selection of self-compatible mutants in tea plant, and the plants of the gamma field recently are shown. (S.Y.)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation upon the mutation of skin color of the 'Fuji' apple cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshio

    1984-01-01

    The new apple cultivar ''Fuji'' was bred at the Morioka Branch, Fruit Tree Research Station, in 1958. Although the quality of the Fuji fruits is high, the skin color is not very attractive. In 1963 and 1964, the Fuji cultivar was irradiated with gamma ray in the growing tree stage and the state of dormant scions. Some promising mutants of the color sport were selected. In 1963, two year old Fuji saplings grafted to Marubakaido were planted in a gamma field of the Institute of Radiation Breeding, and exposed to the dose from a Co-60 source from 200 to 12.5 R per day for 223 days, thereafter they were transplanted in the Morioka Branch in 1964. The dormant scions of the Fuji cultivar were sealed in polyethylene bags, and placed at different distances from a Co-60 source. The treatment in 1963 was at 6,000 or 3,000 R for one day, and in 1964, at 6,000, 3,000, 1,200 and 600 R for one day, two, five and ten days, respectively, thus the total dose was 6,000 R in all cases. Thereafter, they were grafted to Marubakaido. All trees which received over 20,000 R in total died, and those which received less than 5,000 R produced no mutant. The scions except 600 R/day x 10 days group produced mutants. 15 color sports and 3 spur type mutants were selected in this experiment. (J.P.N.)

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation upon the mutation of skin color of the Fuji apple cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Yoshio

    1984-03-01

    The new apple cultivar Fuji was bred at the Morioka Branch, Fruit Tree Research Station, in 1958. Although the quality of the Fuji fruits is high, the skin color is not very attractive. In 1963 and 1964, the Fuji cultivar was irradiated with gamma ray in the growing tree stage and the state of dormant scions. Some promising mutants of the color sport were selected. In 1963, two year old Fuji saplings grafted to Marubakaido were planted in a gamma field of the Institute of Radiation Breeding, and exposed to the dose from a Co-60 source from 200 to 12.5 R per day for 223 days, thereafter they were transplanted in the Morioka Branch in 1964. The dormant scions of the Fuji cultivar were sealed in polyethylene bags, and placed at different distances from a Co-60 source. The treatment in 1963 was at 6000 or 3000 R for one day, and in 1964, at 6000, 3000, 1200 and 600 R for one day, two, five and ten days, respectively, thus the total dose was 6000 R in all cases. Thereafter, they were grafted to Marubakaido. All trees which received over 20,000 R in total died, and those which received less than 5000 R produced no mutant. The scions except 600 R/day x 10 days group produced mutants. 15 color sports and 3 spur type mutants were selected in this experiment. (J.P.N.).

  19. Radiosurgery by Leksell gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The learning objectives of the lecture were as follows: to learn basic principles of Leksell gamma knife (LGK) radiosurgery; to discuss imaging, treatment planning and optimization procedures; to discuss quality assurance for LGK treatments; and to present examples of diagnoses treated by LGK. The following topics were discussed: Radiosurgery - definition, components of selectivity, fundamentals; Leksell gamma knife - principles; Stereotactic target localization; Radiosurgery - imaging; Treatment planning; LGK treatment; Quality control - process tree, LGK, distortion of scanners, 3D phantom measurements; Physical and technical parameters; and Clinical applications. (P.A.)

  20. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  1. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R.

    2011-01-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 232 Th series. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi. The 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the 40 K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg -1 to 222 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra and from 14 Bq.kg -1 to 1074 Bq.kg -' 1 for 232 Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For 40 K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg -1 to 179 Bq.kg -1 and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  2. Top-Down Beta Enhances Bottom-Up Gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Craig G; Thompson, William H; Bosman, Conrado A; Fries, Pascal

    2017-07-12

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the bottom-up signaling of a visual stimulus is subserved by interareal gamma-band synchronization, whereas top-down influences are mediated by alpha-beta band synchronization. These processes may implement top-down control of stimulus processing if top-down and bottom-up mediating rhythms are coupled via cross-frequency interaction. To test this possibility, we investigated Granger-causal influences among awake macaque primary visual area V1, higher visual area V4, and parietal control area 7a during attentional task performance. Top-down 7a-to-V1 beta-band influences enhanced visually driven V1-to-V4 gamma-band influences. This enhancement was spatially specific and largest when beta-band activity preceded gamma-band activity by ∼0.1 s, suggesting a causal effect of top-down processes on bottom-up processes. We propose that this cross-frequency interaction mechanistically subserves the attentional control of stimulus selection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contemporary research indicates that the alpha-beta frequency band underlies top-down control, whereas the gamma-band mediates bottom-up stimulus processing. This arrangement inspires an attractive hypothesis, which posits that top-down beta-band influences directly modulate bottom-up gamma band influences via cross-frequency interaction. We evaluate this hypothesis determining that beta-band top-down influences from parietal area 7a to visual area V1 are correlated with bottom-up gamma frequency influences from V1 to area V4, in a spatially specific manner, and that this correlation is maximal when top-down activity precedes bottom-up activity. These results show that for top-down processes such as spatial attention, elevated top-down beta-band influences directly enhance feedforward stimulus-induced gamma-band processing, leading to enhancement of the selected stimulus. Copyright © 2017 Richter, Thompson et al.

  3. $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$-p events at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, Gerhard A.; Gerhard A Schuler; Torbjorn Sjostrand

    1994-01-01

    A real photon has a complicated nature, whereby it may remain unresolved or fluctuate into a vector meson or a perturbative q-qbar pair. Based on this picture, we previously presented a model for gamma-p events that is based on the presence of three main event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. In gamma-gamma events, a natural generalization gives three-by-three combinations of the nature of the two incoming photons, and thus six distinct event classes. The properties of these classes are constrained by the choices already made, in the gamma-p model, of cut-off procedures and other aspects. It is therefore possible to predict the energy-dependence of the cross section for each of the six components separately. The total cross section thus obtained is in good agreement with data, and also gives support to the idea that a simple factorized ansatz with a pomeron and a reggeon term can be a good approximation. Event properties undergo a logical evolution from p-p to gamma-p to gamma-gamma events, with larger cha...

  4. Astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering: Dust scattered gamma radiation from gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, B.; Bhadra, A.; Gupta, S.K. Sen

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary, and perhaps the first, study of astrophysical applications of Delbrück scattering in a gamma-ray emitting celestial object like a gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been made. At energies≥100 MeV the elastic scattering of gamma-ray photons off the molecular dust surrounding the GRB site is dominated by Delbrück scattering. Expressions for Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray flux as a function of time has been obtained for a few selected energies by assuming a simple model of GRB. These are compared with Compton-scattered flux. At certain situations, interestingly, the former is found to exceed the latter for the first few milliseconds of the burst. The issue of detectability of Delbrück-scattered gamma-ray echo from the cloud of a GRB is discussed. Although it is observed that the detection of such an echo is not within the capability of the presently operating gamma-ray missions such as Fermi LAT, a rough estimate shows that one can be optimistic that future generation gamma-ray telescopes might be able to see such photons' contribution to the total flux. - Highlights: ► Astrophysical application of Delbrück scattering in a GRB has been made. ► Initially, the Delbrück scattering may dominate the scattering of GeV γ-rays. ► The issue of detectability of such radiations is discussed

  5. Automation of the monitoring in real time of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in Cuba; Automatizacion del monitoreo en tiempo real de la tasa de dosis absorbida en aire debido a la radiacion gamma ambiental en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O; Capote F, E; Carrazana G, J A; Manzano de Armas, J F; Alonso A, D; Prendes A, M; Zerquera, J T; Caveda R, C A [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300, A.P. 6195 C.P. 10600 (Cuba); Kalberg, O [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) (Sweden); Fabelo B, O; Montalvan E, A [CIAC, Camaguey (Cuba); Cartas A, H [CEAC, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Leyva F, J C [CISAT (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) like center rector of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), it has strengthened their detection capacity and of answer before a situation of radiological emergency. The measurements of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in the main stations of the Net are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from these posts at one time relatively short. To improve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the facilities of existent monitoring using 4 automatic measurement stations with probes of gamma detection, implementing in this way a measurement system on real time. On the other hand the software were developed: GenironProbeFech, to obtain the data of the probes, DataMail for the shipment of the same ones by electronic mail and GammaRed that receives and processes the data in the rector center. (Author)

  6. 77 FR 50533 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ....; Millstone Power Station, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and... search, select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems... Optimized ZIRLO\\TM\\ fuel rod cladding in future core reload applications for Millstone Power Station, Unit 3...

  7. Selection of methanogenic microbial by gamma irradiation on improvement of unaerobic digestion efficiency on biogas formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Yazid; Aris Bastianudin

    2011-01-01

    Selection of methanogenic microbial by gamma irradiation as an effort on improvement of efficiency process on biogas formation has been done. The objectives of this research is to obtain the methanogenic microbial isolate with high specific growth constant (μ), there for will be applicable for increasing the efficiency of biogas formation process. The microbial content sludge sample was taken from the digester tank conventional biogas installation located in Marangan village, Bokoharjo, Prambanan, Sleman and the sludge was irradiated using Co-60 gamma irradiator with varied dosage dose of 0-25 KGy. Microbial culture formation is conducted in growing media with 30% liquid rumen content in un-aerobe condition by addition of 80% H2 and 20% CO_2 gas mixture. Analysis of colony growth was performed by observation using long-wave ultraviolet rays (UV rays), while the microbial growth was by spectro-photometric analysis. Determination of gas methane product was done using gas chromatographic method. The result shown that 4 isolated methanogenic microbial (RB10, RB15, RB20 and RB25) that grown on 10-25 kGy gamma irradiation. The identification result shows that isolate RB10 and RB25 are belong to Methanobacterium genus, while isolate RB15 and RB20 are belong to Methanosarcina and Methanospirillum genus respectively. The specific growth constant (μ) values of the 4 bacterial isolates are in the range between 0.022 - 0.031. On the other hand, the efficiency of methane gas production for each isolates is in the range of 53.4%. - 67.6%. It can be concluded that isolate RB25 was the isolate with the highest specific growth constant (μ) value 0.031 and its efficiency of methane gas production was 67.6%. (author)

  8. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources

  9. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  10. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  11. 1012 - 1015 eV interaction deduced from energy spectra of gamma-ray and hadrons at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    The present paper deals with the latest results of the spectral measurements of high energy cosmic ray performed on an airplane with an emulsion chamber. The hadronic component together with the gamma-ray component were observed in the region of gamma energy not smaller than 30 GeV and gamma energy sum not larger than 40 TeV. It was observed that the integral spectra of hadronic showers showed less steep power than those obtained at mountain stations. On the other hand, the integral spectra of gamma-ray in the energy region from 40 GeV to 40 TeV showed steeper power than those of hadronic component. The zenith angle distributions of hadrons and gamma-ray were inspected, and it was confirmed that the observed distributions were well reproduced by the theoretical curves with the appropriate attenuation length. (Yoshimori, M.)

  12. NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bregeon, J.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Tinivella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Chekhtman, A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Cohen-Tanugi, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Drlica-Wagner, A.; Omodei, N.; Rochester, L. S.; Usher, T. L. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Longo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Razzaque, S. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Zimmer, S., E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it, E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: granot@openu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy ({approx}147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

  13. The occurrence of selected hydrocarbons in food on sale at petrol station shops and comparison with food from other shops: a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.M. de; Beld, C.M.B. van den; Gennart, J.-Ph.; Riley, A.J.; Urbanus, J.

    2000-01-01

    A review of reports on the occurrence of some hydrocarbons in food in relation to the sales location, with emphasis on petrol station shops, covers the principal selected hydrocarbons, i.e., volatile components of gasoline, e.g., benzene, pentane, hexane, toluene, MTBE, and xylene; relevance of

  14. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  15. Gamma-ray production cross sections for 0.9 to 20 MeV neutron interactions with 10B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bywater, R.L. Jr.

    1986-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectral data previously obtained at the 20-meter station of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator flight-path 8 were studied to determine cross sections for 0.9- to 20-MeV neutron interactions with 10 B. Data reduction techniques, including those for determination of incident neutron fluences as well as those to compensate for Doppler-broadened gamma-ray-detection responses, are given in some detail in this report. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Use of self-powered detectors of near containment gamma monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, J.; LaFontaine, M.; Sharma, H.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted during the period April to May 1988, to select a self-powered detector (SPD) with an appropriate emitter for measuring the gamma radiation dose rate in near-containment. The selected SPD would be used in the containment monitoring systems for the Ringhals and Forsmark reactors in Sweden. In-containment gamma radiation (81 keV to ∼3 MeV energy range) could result from the release of gaseous fission-product nuclides of bromine, krypton, iodine and xenon. Associated dose rates can range from 10 to 10 6 Gy/h. Tests were performed on platinum and vanadium emitter SPDs 1 using 60 Co, 192 Ir and X-ray gamma/photon sources. A gamma energy dependent polarity change in the signal from the Pt SPD (signal goes from positive to negative as energy drops below 100 keV), coupled with a non-linear response, eliminated that design from further study in this application. The vanadium SPDs produced a linear, negative signal irrespective of the impingent gamma energy level. The gamma sensitivity of the 18 V SPDs tested in the program, ranged from -1.07 x 10 -14 A/Gy/h to -1.87 x 10 -14 A/Gy/h per metre emitter length. (author)

  17. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  18. Radiative decay of the eta-, eta'-mesons in the nonlocal quark model. [eta(eta'). --> gamma gamma. ; eta. -->. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/. gamma. ; eta. -->. pi. /sup 0/2. gamma. ; eta'. -->. rho/sup 0/. gamma. ; eta'. -->. omega gamma. ;. pi. /sup 0/. -->. gamma. e/sup +/e/sup -/; eta(eta'). -->. gamma mu. /sup +/. mu. /sup -/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimov, G V; Ivanov, M A; Nogovitsyn, E A [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1981-07-01

    P..--> gamma gamma.. (P=..pi../sup 0/, eta, eta'), eta..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.., eta/sup 1/..-->..V..gamma.. (V=rho/sup 0/, ..omega..), p..--> gamma..l/sup +/l/sup -/ (p=..pi../sup 0/, eta, eta') radiation decays are studied for testing the applicability of the non-local quark model for description of the experimental data. The Feynman diagrams of these decays are presented, values of the widths of the Veta..--> gamma gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..gamma.., eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.., eta'..--> gamma gamma.., eta'..-->..rho/sup 0/..gamma.., eta'..--> omega gamma.. decays are calculated and given in the form of a table. Calculations are carried out for two values of the eta eta'-crossing angle: THETA=-11 deg and -18 deg. Values of invariant amplitudes of these decays are determined for ..pi../sup 0/..--> gamma..e/sup +/e/sup -/, eta..--> gamma mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, eta'..--> gamma mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ decays at THETA=-11 deg and -18 deg. The best agreement with the experimental data is noted to take place at THETA=-11 deg, the determined width of the eta..--> pi../sup 0/..gamma gamma.. decays is underestimated as compared with the experimental one.

  19. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  20. Induced Mutation in Strawberry by Using Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadvibulya, Valailak; Puripanyavanich, Vichai; Pipattanawongse, Narongchai; Yeesawasdi, Voravit; Teja, Waich

    2003-12-01

    The culture of strawberry plants variety Tio ga were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,120 and 140 Gy. They were transferred to the MS medium supplemented with BA 0.1 mg/l. It was found that radiation dose which caused 50% lethality (LD 50 ) was 80 Gy. The survival plants were transferred to rooting medium (MS medium) and then transplanted to field for stolon production and yield investigation. Two lines with good fruit quality were obtained after selection till M 1 V 5 . They were planted for further testing. In experiment II, The culture of strawberry plants varieties Royal 20, Royal 70, SM and Dover were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 40 and 60 Gy. They were transplanted to field for stolon and yield production. Three lines from Royal 70 were obtained after selection till M 1 V 4 . In experiment III, the culture of strawberry plants varieties Royal 20, Royal 50, Royal 70, Nyoho and Selva were irradiated with gamma rays at the same doses as experiment II. Nine lines from Royal 70 and four lines from Nyoho with good characters were selected for further testing

  1. Effect of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microflora of vacuum-packaged ground pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehioba, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microbiology of refrigerated, vacuum-packaged ground pork were studied. Low-dose gamma radiation reduced the numbers of naturally occurring mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and anaerobes. The effect of low-dose radiation on the populations of lactic acid bacteria was minimal. On storage of the irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork at 5 0 C, there was a partial bacterial recovery, suggesting sublethal bacterial injury due to irradiation. When 10 7 CFU/g of meat is taken to be the level beyond which the meat would be considered spoiled, uninoculated, vacuum-packaged ground pork treated with 1 kGy (100 krad) of gamma radiation had 3.5 more days of shelf-life in terms of psychrotrophic total counts. In relation to anaerobic bacterial numbers, meat shelf-life was extended 2.5 days, while the shelf-life of meat was extended 1 day in terms of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Irradiation prolonged shelf-life in inoculated (10 5 CFU/g) meat for 1.0-1.5 days. Addition of 0.4% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) contributed 2 additional days to inoculated, irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork shelf-life. However, SAPP had no added effect on naturally occurring microflora. Irradiation greatly decreased the numbers of gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in predominance of the gram-positive, nonsporeforming Lactobacillus and coryneform bacteria

  2. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    The systems benefits of the selection of the Sizewell site for a PWR power station are dealt with. The transmission modifications which would be needed to provide effective connection of this station to the system are considered. (U.K.)

  3. H2FIRST Reference Station Design Task: Project Deliverable 2-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Terlip, Danny [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-20

    This report presents near-term station cost results and discusses cost trends of different station types. It compares various vehicle rollout scenarios and projects realistic near-term station utilization values using the station infrastructure rollout in California as an example. It describes near-term market demands and matches those to cost-effective station concepts. Finally, the report contains detailed designs for five selected stations, which include piping and instrumentation diagrams, bills of materials, and several site-specific layout studies that incorporate the setbacks required by NFPA 2, the National Fire Protection Association Hydrogen Technologies Code. This work identified those setbacks as a significant factor affecting the ability to site a hydrogen station, particularly liquid stations at existing gasoline stations. For all station types, utilization has a large influence on the financial viability of the station.

  4. Plasma driven neutron/gamma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Antolak, Arlyn

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for the generation of neutron/gamma rays is described including a chamber which defines an ion source, said apparatus including an RF antenna positioned outside of or within the chamber. Positioned within the chamber is a target material. One or more sets of confining magnets are also provided to create a cross B magnetic field directly above the target. To generate neutrons/gamma rays, the appropriate source gas is first introduced into the chamber, the RF antenna energized and a plasma formed. A series of high voltage pulses are then applied to the target. A plasma sheath, which serves as an accelerating gap, is formed upon application of the high voltage pulse to the target. Depending upon the selected combination of source gas and target material, either neutrons or gamma rays are generated, which may be used for cargo inspection, and the like.

  5. A study of the terrestrial and cosmic gamma-rays in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Natural terrestrial gamma and cosmic radiations dose rates in Jordan were measured during a period of three years in thirty four stations distributed over all Jordanian territories using the thermoluminescence dosimeter(TLD) Coso 4 :Tm. The average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial gamma and cosmic radiations were found to vary from(57 ±3;9) n Gy/hr in Assafi to (350 ± 14; 42) n Gy/hr in Manjam Alhisa. The mean dose rate due to terrestrial gamma radiations was found to be equal to (55 ± 2; 13) nGy/hr, and that due to cosmic radiations was calculated to be(35 ± 1;4) n Gy/hr. The annual effective dose equivalent from terrestrial and cosmic gamma radiations was found to be equal to(0.65±0.02; 0.12)mSv/year. It was found that the absorbed dose rate due to cosmic radiations in Jordan can be fitted by the formula, D c osmic=27+5.2 h+1.86 h 2 where h is the altitude reference to the Dead Sea measured in km. 19 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.(Author)

  6. Gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer (GEMS): An energy-resolved {gamma}-ray diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Barlow, D. B.; Schillig, J. B.; Sims, J. R. Jr.; Lopez, F. E.; Mares, D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wu, W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Moy, K. [National Security Technologies, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Stoeffl, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer, having better than 5% energy resolution, is proposed to resolve {gamma}-rays in the range of E{sub o}{+-} 20% in single shot, where E{sub o} is the central energy and is tunable from 2 to 25 MeV. Gamma-rays from inertial confinement fusion implosions interact with a thin Compton converter (e.g., beryllium) located at approximately 300 cm from the target chamber center (TCC). Scattered electrons out of the Compton converter enter an electromagnet placed outside the NIF chamber (approximately 600 cm from TCC) where energy selection takes place. The electromagnet provides tunable E{sub o} over a broad range in a compact manner. Energy resolved electrons are measured by an array of quartz Cherenkov converters coupled to photomultipliers. Given 100 detectable electrons in the energy bins of interest, 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} minimum deuterium/tritium (DT) neutrons will be required to measure the 4.44 MeV {sup 12}C {gamma}-rays assuming 200 mg/cm{sup 2} plastic ablator areal density and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} minimum DT neutrons to measure the 16.75 MeV DT {gamma}-ray line.

  7. Determination of activity by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides present in drums of residues generated in nuclear centrals; Determinacion de actividad por espectrometria gamma de radionucleidos presentes en tambores de residuos generados en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Fernandez, J. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: jaguiar@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The generation of radioactive residuals in nuclear centrals as CNA I (Atucha I Nuclear Central) and CNE (Embalse Nuclear Central) makes that the measurement of those radionuclides has been a previous stage to the waste management. A method used in those nuclear centrals it is the gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors, previous to the immobilization of the residual in a cemented matrix, with this the contact with the external agents and its possible dispersion to the atmosphere in the short term is avoided. The ARN (Nuclear Regulatory Authority) of Argentina it carries out periodically intercomparisons and evaluations of the measurement and procedures systems used in the nuclear power stations for the correct measurement and determination of activity of radioactive residuals by gamma spectrometry. In this work an independent method of measurement is exposed to the nuclear power stations. To determine the activity of the residuals by gamma spectrometry deposited in drums, it is required of the precise knowledge of the efficiency curve for such geometry and matrix. Due to the RNA doesn't have a pattern of these characteristics, a mathematical model has been used to obtain this efficiency curve. For it, it is necessary to determine previously: 1) the geometric efficiency or solid angle sustained by the source-detector system (drum-detector) applying a mathematical model described in this work. 2) To estimate the auto-attenuation factor that present the photons in the cemented matrix, these calculations are carried out with a simple equation and its are verified with the Micro Shield 6.10 program. The container commonly used by these nuclear power stations its are drums for 220 liters constructed with SAE 1010 steel and with a thickness of 0.127 cm, with an approximate weight 7.73 Kg., internal diameter of 57.1 cm, and height: 87 cm. The results obtained until the moment register a discrepancy from 5 to 10% with relationship to the measurements carried out by the

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H. S.; Lee, J. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    At Pusan Regional Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan, vegetables, fishes, shellfish, drinking water (total 23ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KlNS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A.

    2003-12-01

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants

  11. Automation of the monitoring in real time of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Manzano de Armas, J.F.; Alonso A, D.; Prendes A, M.; Zerquera, J.T.; Caveda R, C.A.; Kalberg, O.; Fabelo B, O.; Montalvan E, A.; Cartas A, H.; Leyva F, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) like center rector of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), it has strengthened their detection capacity and of answer before a situation of radiological emergency. The measurements of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in the main stations of the Net are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from these posts at one time relatively short. To improve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the facilities of existent monitoring using 4 automatic measurement stations with probes of gamma detection, implementing in this way a measurement system on real time. On the other hand the software were developed: GenironProbeFech, to obtain the data of the probes, DataMail for the shipment of the same ones by electronic mail and GammaRed that receives and processes the data in the rector center. (Author)

  12. Gamma-ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS): a new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.; Cline, T.L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A.F.; MacCallum, C.J.; Stang, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. Preliminary results such as the annihilation radiation from the galactic center, the 26 Al line from the galactic plane and cyclotron lines from neutron stars may well be just the initial discoveries of a rich and as yet undeveloped field. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload NASA decided to initiate a balloon program to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments. 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. Alpha-Gamma Hot-Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neimark, L.A.; Jackson, W.D.; Donahue, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Alpha-Gamma Hot-Cell Facility has been in operation at Argonne National Laboratory East (ANL-E) for 15 years. The facility was designed for plutonium research in support of ANL's LMFBR program. The facility consists of a kilocurie, nitrogen-atmosphere alpha-gamma hot cell and supporting laboratories. Modifications to the facility and its equipment have been made over the years as the workload and nature of the work changed. These modifications included inerting the entire hot cell, adding four work stations, modifying in-loading procedures and examination equipment to handle longer test articles, and changing to a new sodium-vapor lighting system. Future upgrading includes the addition of a decontamination and repair facility, use of radio-controlled transfer carts, refurbishment of the zinc bromide windows, and the installation of an Auger microprobe

  14. The Slow:Fast substitution ratio reveals changing patterns of natural selection in gamma-proteobacterial genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Shapiro, B. Jesse

    2009-04-15

    Different microbial species are thought to occupy distinct ecological niches, subjecting each species to unique selective constraints, which may leave a recognizable signal in their genomes. Thus, it may be possible to extract insight into the genetic basis of ecological differences among lineages by identifying unusual patterns of substitutions in orthologous gene or protein sequences. We use the ratio of substitutions in slow versus fast-evolving sites (nucleotides in DNA, or amino acids in protein sequence) to quantify deviations from the typical pattern of selective constraint observed across bacterial lineages. We propose that elevated S:F in one branch (an excess of slow-site substitutions) can indicate a functionally-relevant change, due to either positive selection or relaxed evolutionary constraint. In a genome-wide comparative study of gamma-proteobacterial proteins, we find that cell-surface proteins involved with motility and secretion functions often have high S:F ratios, while information-processing genes do not. Change in evolutionary constraints in some species is evidenced by increased S:F ratios within functionally-related sets of genes (e.g., energy production in Pseudomonas fluorescens), while other species apparently evolve mostly by drift (e.g., uniformly elevated S:F across most genes in Buchnera spp.). Overall, S:F reveals several species-specific, protein-level changes with potential functional/ecological importance. As microbial genome projects yield more species-rich gene-trees, the S:F ratio will become an increasingly powerful tool for uncovering functional genetic differences among species.

  15. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs

  16. Ion-induced gammas for photofission interrogation of HEU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Provencio, Paula Polyak (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-01

    High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded special nuclear material (SNM), such as HEU (highly enriched uranium), by detecting prompt and/or delayed induced fission signatures. In this work, we explore the underlying physics for a new type of photon source that generates high fluxes of mono-energetic gamma-rays from low-energy (<500 keV) proton-induced nuclear reactions. The characteristic energies (4- to 18-MeV) of the gamma-rays coincide with the peak of the photonuclear cross section. The source could be designed to produce gamma-rays of certain selected energies, thereby improving the probability of detecting shielded HEU or providing a capability to determine enrichment inside sealed containers. The fundamental physics of such an interrogation source were studied in this LDRD through scaled ion accelerator experiments and radiation transport modeling. The data were used to assess gamma and neutron yields, background, and photofission-induced signal levels from several (p,{gamma}) target materials under consideration.

  17. Gamma-ray pulsars: Emission zones and viewing geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.

    1995-01-01

    There are now a half-dozen young pulsars detected in high-energy photons by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), showing a variety of emission efficiencies and pulse profiles. We present here a calculation of the pattern of high-energy emission on the sky in a model which posits gamma-ray production by charge-depleted gaps in the outer magnetosphere. This model accounts for the radio to gamma-ray pulse offsets of the known pulsars, as well as the shape of the high-energy pulse profiles. We also show that about one-third of emitting young radio pulsars will not be detected due to beaming effects, while approximately 2.5 times the number of radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars will be viewed only high energies. Finally we compute the polarization angle variation and find that the previously misunderstood optical polarization sweep of the Crab pulsar arises naturally in this picture. These results strongly support an outer magnetosphere location for the gamma-ray emission.

  18. Optimal Site Selection of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on a Cloud Model and the PROMETHEE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of site selection for electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS is hugely important from the perspective of harmonious and sustainable development. However, flaws and inadequacies in the currently used multi-criteria decision making methods could result in inaccurate and irrational decision results. First of all, the uncertainty of the information cannot be described integrally in the evaluation of the EVCS site selection. Secondly, rigorous consideration of the mutual influence between the various criteria is lacking, which is mainly evidenced in two aspects: one is ignoring the correlation, and the other is the unconscionable measurements. Last but not least, the ranking method adopted in previous studies is not very appropriate for evaluating the EVCS site selection problem. As a result of the above analysis, a Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE method-based decision system combined with the cloud model is proposed in this paper for EVCS site selection. Firstly, the use of the PROMETHEE method can bolster the confidence and visibility for decision makers. Secondly, the cloud model is recommended to describe the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms integrally and accurately. Finally, the Analytical Network Process (ANP method is adopted to measure the correlation of the indicators with a greatly simplified calculation of the parameters and the steps required.

  19. Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Mubashir, N.; Hussain, Y.; Abbas, S.Q.; Ashraf, I.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

  20. A low-energy set-up for gamma-ray spectrometry of NORM tailored to the needs of a secondary smelting facility

    OpenAIRE

    Lutter, Guilome; Vandael Schreurs, Indy; Croymans, Tom; Schroeyers, Wouter; Schreurs, Sonja; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gert; Stroh, Heiko; Tzikaa, Faidra

    2017-01-01

    A measurement station dedicated for quantitative radiological characterisation of naturally occurring radio-nuclides in a metallurgical company and based on gamma-ray spectrometry was developed. The station is intended for performing quality control of final non-ferrous metal products and for radiological checks of incoming materials. A low-background point-contact HPGe-detector was used and the signal was split in two branches to enable collecting simultaneously spectra with high amplificati...

  1. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  2. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H.; Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author)

  3. HadISD: a quality-controlled global synoptic report database for selected variables at long-term stations from 1973–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Parker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the creation of HadISD: an automatically quality-controlled synoptic resolution dataset of temperature, dewpoint temperature, sea-level pressure, wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover from global weather stations for 1973–2011. The full dataset consists of over 6000 stations, with 3427 long-term stations deemed to have sufficient sampling and quality for climate applications requiring sub-daily resolution. As with other surface datasets, coverage is heavily skewed towards Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. The dataset is constructed from a large pre-existing ASCII flatfile data bank that represents over a decade of substantial effort at data retrieval, reformatting and provision. These raw data have had varying levels of quality control applied to them by individual data providers. The work proceeded in several steps: merging stations with multiple reporting identifiers; reformatting to netCDF; quality control; and then filtering to form a final dataset. Particular attention has been paid to maintaining true extreme values where possible within an automated, objective process. Detailed validation has been performed on a subset of global stations and also on UK data using known extreme events to help finalise the QC tests. Further validation was performed on a selection of extreme events world-wide (Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the cold snap in Alaska in 1989 and heat waves in SE Australia in 2009. Some very initial analyses are performed to illustrate some of the types of problems to which the final data could be applied. Although the filtering has removed the poorest station records, no attempt has been made to homogenise the data thus far, due to the complexity of retaining the true distribution of high-resolution data when applying adjustments. Hence non-climatic, time-varying errors may still exist in many of the individual station records and care is needed in inferring long-term trends from these data. This

  4. Gamma scanning of mixed carbide and oxide fuel pins irradiated in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, V.V.; Padalakshmi, M.; Ulaganathan, T.; Venkiteswaran, C.N.; Divakar, R.; Joseph, Jojo; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Fission in nuclear fuels results in a number of fission products that are gamma emitters in the energy range of 100 keV to 3 MeV. The gamma emitting fission products are therefore amenable for detection by gamma detectors. Assessment of the fission product distribution and their migration behavior through gamma scanning is important for characterizing the in reactor behavior of the fuel. Gamma scanning is an important non destructive technique used to evaluate the behavior of irradiated fuels. As a part of Post Irradiation Examinations (PIE), axial gamma scanning has been carried out on selected fuel pins of the FBTR Mark I mixed carbide fuel sub-assemblies and PFBR MOX test fuel sub-assembly irradiated in FBTR. This paper covers the results of gamma scanning and correlation of gamma scanning results with other PIE techniques

  5. Gamma radiation measurement in select sand samples from Camburi beach - Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Aquino, Reginaldo R., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The variation of natural radioactivity along the surface of the beach sands of Camburi, located in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil, was determined from the contents of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. Eleven collecting points was selected along all the 6 km extension of the Camburi beach. Sand samples collected from all established points on January 2011 were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi. The {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the {sup 40}K from its single gamma transition. Preliminary results show activity concentrations varying from 5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 222} Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 1074 Bq.kg{sup -'}1 for {sup 232}Th, both with the highest values for Camburi South and Central. For {sup 40}K, the activity concentrations ranged from 14 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 179 Bq.kg{sup -1} and the highest values were obtained for Camburi South. (author)

  6. Determination of gamma ray doses suitable for mutation induction in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, Bassam; Ayyoubi, Zouhair

    1993-04-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (Control, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 rads). The cloves were planted in 4 replicates at Deer Alhajar station of the Dept. of Radiation Agriculture. Number of surviving plants was recorded at 2 months after planting and at harvest. Length of foliage was measured at harvest time and weight of cloves was taken two weeks after harvest. Visual readings in the field on plant shape and leaf color were also taken. The results indicated a negative effect of gamma radiation on plant survival especially at doses of 750 and 1000 rads where no plants survived until harvest. Plant length and clove weight were reduced even at 500 rad dose. Percentage of yellow and necrotic plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. No stimulation of plant growth was noticed as a result of irradiation with low doses of gamma rays. Treatment with 500 rads of gamma radiation was considered the best among tested doses for garlic mutagenesis (Using cloves) since it gave acceptable rate of survival and morphologic variation. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  7. Beta/gamma test problems for ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Tiger Series of Coupled Electron/Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes (ITS 3.0, PC Version) was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to compare with and extend the experimental findings of the beta/gamma response of selected health physics instruments. In order to assure that ITS gives correct results, several beta/gamma problems have been tested. ITS was used to simulate these problems numerically, and results for each were compared to the problem's experimental or analytical results. ITS successfully predicted the experimental or analytical results of all tested problems within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method

  8. Nonstandard usage of ASS-500 station filters for determination of ground-level air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, K.; Jasinska, M.; Kwiatek, W.; Mietelski, J.W.; Dutkiewicz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The work describes nonstandard application of filters from ASS-500 station for the determination of the element content in the samples collected by PIXE method. Determination of gamma radioactive isotopes and alpha radioactive plutonium is also reviewed. Authors conclude that ASS-500 workstation allows collection of representative samples from the ground level air. These samples are suitable for the complex analysis of industrial pollution

  9. Some issues on radiological consequences analysis in site selection for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu; Yue Huiguo

    2006-01-01

    The three considerations, Site safety and environmental protection and emergency preparedness, are the focus of attention in the evaluation of the suitability of a site for nuclear power station. This paper summarized the basic regulatory requirements for the siting of nuclear power station, described the existing problems on radiological consequences analyses during the siting stage and discussed the is- sues that need to concern in the reviewing of the radiological consequences analyses in the siting appraisal stage. (authors)

  10. Application of the similitude principle to gamma-gamma density measurements; Application du principe de similitude a la mesure gamma-gamma de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czubek, J A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement d' Electronique Generale, Service d' Electronique Industrielle; Institut de Recherches Nucleaires, Dep. VI, Cracow (Poland)

    1966-07-01

    The work presented here deals with the problem of the application of the similitude principle to rock density measurements by the gamma-gamma method. A formula is presented which makes it possible to transform results of gamma-gamma measurements carried out on models in order to make them suitable for comparison with results obtained under actual field conditions. Both the space coordinates and the densities are transformed. This transformation makes it possible to obtain a calibration curve as a function of the density for a gamma-gamma probe using only a single model of given density. The influence has also been studied of the chemical composition on the results obtained from gamma-gamma measurements. A method has been developed for estimating the equivalent Z parameter of the medium; the possibility of completely eliminating the influence of the chemical composition of the medium on the measurement results has been studied. (author) [French] L'etude presentee ci-dessous traite le probleme de l'application du principe de similitude aux mesures de densite des roches par la methode gamma-gamma. Nous indiquons une formule qui permet de transformer les resultats des mesures gamma-gamma effectuees sur les modeles pour les comparer aux resultats obtenus dans les conditions reelles sur le terrain. On transforme les coordonnees spatiales ainsi que les densites. Cette transformation donne la possibilite d'obtenir une courbe d'etalonnage (en fonction de la densite) pour une sonde gamma-gamma en utilisant un seul modele de densite donnee. On a etudie aussi l'influence de la composition chimique sur les resultats obtenus des mesures gamma-gamma. On a etabli une methode d'estimation du parametre Z equivalent du milieu, ainsi que la possibilite d'eliminer completement l'influence de la composition chimique du milieu sur les resultats des mesures de densite. (auteur)

  11. Selection of mutants resistant to black spot disease by chronic irradiation of gamma-rays in Japanese pear 'Osanijisseiki'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tetsuo; Yoshioka, Toji; Kotobuki, Kazuo; Sanada, Tetsuro; Inoue, Kosuke; Murata, Kenji; Kitagawa, Kenichi; Tabira, Hiroki; Yoshida, Akira

    1997-01-01

    'Osanijisseiki', a self-compatible, spontaneous bud sport of the Japanese pear 'Nijisseiki' is an excellent cultivar with a smooth skin. However, this cultivar is susceptible to Japanese pear black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype. To obtain resistant mutants from 'Osanijisseiki', nursery plants of 'Osanijisseiki' have been irradiated chronically with gamma-rays in the Gamma Field of the Institute of Radiation Breeding, NAR, MAFF, since 1986. Screening tests using AK toxin, a host-specific toxin produced by A. alternata Japanese pear pathotype, were performed form 1988 to 1993. Four branches of young trees planted at a distance of 40 m from the 60 Co source were selected as being resistant mutants in 1991 (IRB 502-13T and IRB 502-14T) and 1993 (IRB 502-17T and IRB 502-18T). Sensitivity of the four resistant mutants to AK-toxin and susceptibility to the pathogen were compared with other of susceptible and resistant cultivars. The results showed that these four mutants possessed intermediate resistance. Furthermore, a mutant, IRB 502-13T, had the same characteristics as the original 'Osanijisseiki', except for the difference in toxin sensitivity. The characteristics of the other mutants, IRB 502 14-T, IRB 502-17T, and IRB 502-18T, care being examined. (author)

  12. Space Station power system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  13. Airborne and Maritime/Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System (AMF JTRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-421 Airborne & Maritime/Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System (AMF JTRS) As of FY 2017...Information Program Name Airborne & Maritime/Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System (AMF JTRS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office References SAR...UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description Airborne & Maritime/Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System (AMF JTRS) products are software programmable

  14. Regional Relations in Bankfull Channel Characteristics determined from flow measurements at selected stream-gaging stations in West Virginia, 1911-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Three bankfull channel characteristics?cross-sectional area, width, and depth?were significantly correlated with drainage area in regression equations developed for two regions in West Virginia. Channel characteristics were determined from analysis of flow measurements made at 74 U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times bankfull flow between 1911 and 2002. Graphical and regression analysis were used to delineate an 'Eastern Region' and a 'Western Region,' which were separated by the boundary between the Appalachian Plateaus and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces. Streams that drained parts of both provinces had channel characteristics typical of the Eastern Region, and were grouped with it. Standard error for the six regression equations, three for each region, ranged between 8.7 and 16 percent. Cross-sectional area and depth were greater relative to drainage area for the Western Region than they were for the Eastern Region. Regression equations were defined for streams draining between 46.5 and 1,619 square miles for the Eastern Region, and between 2.78 and 1,354 square miles for the Western Region. Stream-gaging stations with two or more cross sections where flow had been measured at flows between 0.5 and 5.0 times the 1.5-year flow showed poor replication of channel characteristics compared to the 95-percent confidence intervals of the regression, suggesting that within-reach variability for the stream-gaging stations may be substantial. A disproportionate number of the selected stream-gaging stations were on large (drainage area greater than 100 square miles) streams in the central highlands of West Virginia, and only one stream-gaging station that met data-quality criteria was available to represent the region within about 50 miles of the Ohio River north of Parkersburg, West Virginia. Many of the cross sections were at bridges, which can change channel shape. Although the data discussed in this report may not be

  15. The HiSCORE experiment and its potential for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tluczykont, M; Hampf, D; Einhaus, U; Horns, D; Büker, M; Epimakhov, S; Kunnas, M; Maurer, A; Brückner, M; Budnev, N; Chvalaev, O; Dyachok, A; Gress, O; Ivanova, A; Konstantinov, E; Mirgazov, R; Korosteleva, E; Kuzmichev, L; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lubsandorzhiev, N B

    2013-01-01

    The HiSCORE (Hundred*i Square-km Cosmic ORigin Explorer) detector aims at the exploration of the accelerator sky, using indirect air-shower observations of cosmic rays from 100 TeV to 1 EeV and gamma rays in the last remaining observation window of gamma-ray astronomy from 10 TeV to several PeV. The main questions addressed by HiSCORE are cosmic ray composition and spectral measurements in the Galactic/extragalactic transition range, and the origin of cosmic rays via the search for gamma rays from Galactic PeV accelerators, the pevatrons. HiSCORE is based on non-imaging Cherenkov light-front sampling with sensitive large-area detector modules of the order of 0.5 m 2 . A prototype station was deployed on the Tunka cosmic ray experiment site in Siberia, where an engineering array of up to 1km 2 is planned for deployment in 2012/2013. Here, we address the expected physics potential of HiSCORE, the status of the project, and further plans.

  16. Space station operations task force. Panel 3 report: User development and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The User Development and Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to develop concepts relating to the operations of the Space Station manned base and the platforms, user accommodation and integration activities. The needs of the user community are addressed in the context with the mature operations phase of the Space Station. Issues addressed include space station pricing options, marketing strategies, payload selection and resource allocation options, and manifesting techniques.

  17. DELIN and DELOG codes for graphic representation of gamma ray spectra; Programas DELIN y DELOG para la representacion grafica de espectros gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L; Travesi, A

    1983-07-01

    Two Fortran IV Codes has been developed for graphic representation of the gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge Li detectors and multichannel analyzers. The grafic plotting es carried out with the H.P. Graphic Plotter Mod HP-7221 A, using the graphic package software GRAPHICS-1000 from Hewlett-Packard. The codes have a great versatility and the representation of gamma spectra can ba done in a lineal, semi log, or log-log scale, as desired. The gamma ray spectra data are feed into the computer through magnetic tape or perfored paper tape. The different out-put options and complementary data are given in a conversational way through a terminal with T.V. displays. Among the options that can be selected by the user are the following: - smoothing the spectra - drawing the spectra point by point or continuous - out-put drawing an 1, 2, or 4 sheet with automatic division of the energy scale. - overlapping of selected spectra regions in Y scale ampliation with automatic print-out of the region limits and ampliation factor. - Printing spectra data and identifications of selected photo peaks. The codes can be employed with any computer using printing devices, HP-Graphics 1000 software compatible, but are easily modified for another printing software since their modular structure with Fortran IV written.

  18. X-ray and the Gamma spectrometer GRIS on the Russian segment of the International space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, Yu.D.; Yurov, V.N.; Glyanenko, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Planned experiment on research X-ray and gamma radiation and neutrons of solar flares is described in the paper. Descriptions of scientific equipment of GRIS, a condition of carrying out experiment and results of calculation of characteristics of its detector are provided [ru

  19. Multiple Charging Station Location-Routing Problem with Time Window of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-ying

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the electric vehicle (EV multiple charging station location-routing problem with time window to optimize the routing plan of capacitated EVs and the strategy of charging stations. In particular, the strategy of charging stations includes both infrastructure-type selection and station location decisions. The problem accounts for two critical constraints in logistic practice: the vehicle loading capacity and the customer time windows. A hybrid heuristic that incorporates an adaptive variable neighborhood search (AVNS with the tabu search algorithm for intensification was developed to address the problem. The specialized neighborhood structures and the selection methods of charging station used in the shaking step of AVNS were proposed. In contrast to the commercial solver CPLEX, experimental results on small-scale test instances demonstrate that the algorithm can find nearly optimal solutions on small-scale instances. The results on large-scale instances also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  20. PC-AT to gamma camera interface ANUGAMI-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    PC-AT to gamma camera interface is an image acquisition system used in nuclear medicine centres and hospitals. The interface hardware and acquisition software have been designed and developed to meet most of the routine clinical applications using gamma camera. The state of the art design of the interface provides quality improvement in addition to image acquisition, by applying on-line uniformity correction which is very essential for gamma camera applications in nuclear medicine. The improvement in the quality of the image has been achieved by image acquisition in positionally varying and sliding energy window. It supports all acquisition modes viz. static, dynamic and gated acquisition modes with and without uniformity correction. The user interface provides the acquisition in various user selectable frame sizes, orientation and colour palettes. A complete emulation of camera console has been provided along with persistence scope and acquisition parameter display. It is a universal system which provides a modern, cost effective and easily maintainable solution for interfacing any gamma camera to PC or upgradation of analog gamma camera. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. Measurement of exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow \\ell^+\\ell^-$ production in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; 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Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; 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Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; 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Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; 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Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-07-31

    This Letter reports a measurement of the exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow \\ell^+\\ell^- (\\ell=e, \\mu)$ cross-section in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, based on an integrated luminosity of $4.6$ fb$^{-1}$. For the electron or muon pairs satisfying exclusive selection criteria, a fit to the dilepton acoplanarity distribution is used to extract the fiducial cross-sections. The cross-section in the electron channel is determined to be $\\sigma_{\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow e^+e^-}^{\\mathrm{excl.}} = 0.428 \\pm 0.035 (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.018 (\\mathrm{syst.})$ pb for a phase-space region with invariant mass of the electron pairs greater than 24 GeV, in which both electrons have transverse momentum $p_\\mathrm{T}>12$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\\eta|10$ GeV and pseudorapidity $|\\eta|<2.4$, the cross-section is determined to be $\\sigma_{\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow \\mu^+\\mu^- }^{\\mathrm{excl.}} = 0.628 \\pm 0.032 (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.021 (\\mathrm{syst.})$ pb. ...

  2. Characterization of site conditions for selected seismic stations in eastern part of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, B.; Zaharia, B.; Diaconescu, M.; Bala, A.; Nastase, E.; Constantinescu, E.; Tataru, D.

    2018-02-01

    Strong motion data are essential for seismic hazard assessment. To correctly understand and use this kind of data is necessary to have a good knowledge of local site conditions. Romania has one of the largest strong motion networks in Europe with 134 real-time stations. In this work, we aim to do a comprehensive site characterization for eight of these stations located in the eastern part of Romania. We make use of a various seismological dataset and we perform ambient noise and earthquake-based investigations to estimate the background noise level, the resonance frequencies and amplification of each site. We also derive the Vs30 parameter from the surface shear-wave velocity profiles obtained through the inversion of the Rayleigh waves recorded in active seismic measurements. Our analyses indicate similar results for seven stations: high noise levels for frequencies larger than 1 Hz, well defined fundamental resonance at low frequencies (0.15-0.29 Hz), moderate amplification levels (up to 4 units) for frequencies between 0.15 and 5-7 Hz and same soil class (type C) according to the estimated Vs30 and Eurocode 8. In contrast, the eighth station for which the soil class is evaluated of type B exhibits a very good noise level for a wide range of frequencies (0.01-20 Hz), a broader fundamental resonance at high frequencies ( 8 Hz) and a flat amplification curve between 0.1 and 3-4 Hz.

  3. Water use/reuse and wastewater management practices at selected Canadian coal fired generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, R.

    1984-08-01

    Recommended Codes of Practice are currently being developed by Environment Canada aimed at ensuring that the aquatic environment is not significantly impacted upon by wastewater discharges from steam electric generating stations. A study was carried out to: develop a reliable data base of the physical and chemical characteristics of water and wastewater streams at representative generating stations; study advanced water reuse/recirculation and wastewater management to evaluate their potential future use in power generating stations; and to examine and evaluate the relevant aspects of best practical technology as proposed by Environment Canada in the Recommended Codes of Practice. Studies were carried out at Dalhousie Generating Station (GS), New Brunswick, Poplar River GS, Saskatchewan, Battle River GS, Alberta, and Milner GS, Alberta. The studies included on-site flow monitoring and sampling, chemical analyses, treatability studies and engineering analyses of water and wastewater systems. Extensive chemical characterizations of the water and wastewater streams were completed. Some problems were identified with the recirculating bottom ash system at Dalhousie which was a significant wastewater producer, coal pile runoff which caused significant wastewater, and iron which was the principal discharge criteria metal. 14 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Besse Nuclear power Station and surrounding area, Oak Harbor, Ohio. Date of survey: 26-29 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    An airborne radiological survey of a 130 km 2 area centered on the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station was made 26-29 May 1980. Count rates observed at 90 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the station

  5. A study on correlation between 2D and 3D gamma evaluation metrics in patient-specific quality assurance for VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, Dhanabalan, E-mail: dhanabalanraj@gmail.com; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Sukumar, Prabakar; Ranganathan, Arulpandiyan; Johnjothi, Samdevakumar; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D gamma analysis using the new PTW OCTAVIUS 4D system for various parameters. For this study, we selected 150 clinically approved volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans of head and neck (50), thoracic (esophagus) (50), and pelvic (cervix) (50) sites. Individual verification plans were created and delivered to the OCTAVIUS 4D phantom. Measured and calculated dose distributions were compared using the 2D and 3D gamma analysis by global (maximum), local and selected (isocenter) dose methods. The average gamma passing rate for 2D global gamma analysis in coronal and sagittal plane was 94.81% ± 2.12% and 95.19% ± 1.76%, respectively, for commonly used 3-mm/3% criteria with 10% low-dose threshold. Correspondingly, for the same criteria, the average gamma passing rate for 3D planar global gamma analysis was 95.90% ± 1.57% and 95.61% ± 1.65%. The volumetric 3D gamma passing rate for 3-mm/3% (10% low-dose threshold) global gamma was 96.49% ± 1.49%. Applying stringent gamma criteria resulted in higher differences between 2D planar and 3D planar gamma analysis across all the global, local, and selected dose gamma evaluation methods. The average gamma passing rate for volumetric 3D gamma analysis was 1.49%, 1.36%, and 2.16% higher when compared with 2D planar analyses (coronal and sagittal combined average) for 3 mm/3% global, local, and selected dose gamma analysis, respectively. On the basis of the wide range of analysis and correlation study, we conclude that there is no assured correlation or notable pattern that could provide relation between planar 2D and volumetric 3D gamma analysis. Owing to higher passing rates, higher action limits can be set while performing 3D quality assurance. Site-wise action limits may be considered for patient-specific QA in VMAT.

  6. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. III. GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR-LIKE COUNTERPARTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Nori, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    About one-third of the {gamma}-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of {gamma}-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey. We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the {gamma}-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new {gamma}-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for {gamma}-ray pulsar candidates.

  7. Determination of activity by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides present in drums of residues generated in nuclear centrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Fernandez, J.

    2006-01-01

    The generation of radioactive residuals in nuclear centrals as CNA I (Atucha I Nuclear Central) and CNE (Embalse Nuclear Central) makes that the measurement of those radionuclides has been a previous stage to the waste management. A method used in those nuclear centrals it is the gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors, previous to the immobilization of the residual in a cemented matrix, with this the contact with the external agents and its possible dispersion to the atmosphere in the short term is avoided. The ARN (Nuclear Regulatory Authority) of Argentina it carries out periodically intercomparisons and evaluations of the measurement and procedures systems used in the nuclear power stations for the correct measurement and determination of activity of radioactive residuals by gamma spectrometry. In this work an independent method of measurement is exposed to the nuclear power stations. To determine the activity of the residuals by gamma spectrometry deposited in drums, it is required of the precise knowledge of the efficiency curve for such geometry and matrix. Due to the RNA doesn't have a pattern of these characteristics, a mathematical model has been used to obtain this efficiency curve. For it, it is necessary to determine previously: 1) the geometric efficiency or solid angle sustained by the source-detector system (drum-detector) applying a mathematical model described in this work. 2) To estimate the auto-attenuation factor that present the photons in the cemented matrix, these calculations are carried out with a simple equation and its are verified with the Micro Shield 6.10 program. The container commonly used by these nuclear power stations its are drums for 220 liters constructed with SAE 1010 steel and with a thickness of 0.127 cm, with an approximate weight 7.73 Kg., internal diameter of 57.1 cm, and height: 87 cm. The results obtained until the moment register a discrepancy from 5 to 10% with relationship to the measurements carried out by the

  8. Gamma counter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the calibration of a gamma radiation measurement instrument to be used over any of a number of different absolute energy ranges. The method includes the steps of adjusting the overall signal gain associated with pulses which are derived from detected gamma rays, until the instrument is calibrated for a particular absolute energy range; then storing parameter settings corresponding to the adjusted overall signal gain, and repeating the process for other desired absolute energy ranges. The stored settings can be subsequently retrieved and reapplied so that test measurements can be made using a selected one of the absolute energy ranges. Means are provided for adjusting the overall signal gain and a specific technique is disclosed for making coarse, then fine adjustments to the signal gain, for rapid convergence of the required calibration settings. (C.F.)

  9. Emissions from coal-fired electric stations : environmental health effects and reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.; Lourie, B.; Pengelly, D.; Labatt, S.; Ogilvie, K.; Kelly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Findings of a study on the environmental effects of current emissions from coal-fired electric stations were summarized. Current and projected emissions from coal-fired electric stations for five emission reduction scenarios were estimated for Ontario, Eastern Canada, Ohio Valley/Great Lakes, and the U.S. northeast regions. Coal-fired electric stations generate a wide range of environmentally significant air emissions. The five pollutants selected - sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (less than 10 micrometres in size), mercury, and carbon dioxide - are considered to impact most on environmental health. This report focused on 312 coal-fired electric stations in the regions named above. They were selected based on the likelihood that long-range transport of the emissions from these coal-fired utilities would have an impact on human health and the environment. 55 refs., 10 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Role of regression model selection and station distribution on the estimation of oceanic anthropogenic carbon change by eMLR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Plancherel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying oceanic anthropogenic carbon uptake by monitoring interior dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations is complicated by the influence of natural variability. The "eMLR method" aims to address this issue by using empirical regression fits of the data instead of the data themselves, inferring the change in anthropogenic carbon in time by difference between predictions generated by the regressions at each time. The advantages of the method are that it provides in principle a means to filter out natural variability, which theoretically becomes the regression residuals, and a way to deal with sparsely and unevenly distributed data. The degree to which these advantages are realized in practice is unclear, however. The ability of the eMLR method to recover the anthropogenic carbon signal is tested here using a global circulation and biogeochemistry model in which the true signal is known. Results show that regression model selection is particularly important when the observational network changes in time. When the observational network is fixed, the likelihood that co-located systematic misfits between the empirical model and the underlying, yet unknown, true model cancel is greater, improving eMLR results. Changing the observational network modifies how the spatio-temporal variance pattern is captured by the respective datasets, resulting in empirical models that are dynamically or regionally inconsistent, leading to systematic errors. In consequence, the use of regression formulae that change in time to represent systematically best-fit models at all times does not guarantee the best estimates of anthropogenic carbon change if the spatial distributions of the stations emphasize hydrographic features differently in time. Other factors, such as a balanced and representative station coverage, vertical continuity of the regression formulae consistent with the hydrographic context and resiliency of the spatial distribution of the residual

  11. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2017-01-26

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverberation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma- Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose robust importance sampling schemes that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimators satisfy the well-known bounded relative error criterion for both maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  12. Evaluation of yield in Gamma Radiated Lines Selected from Mutated Generations of Mungbean (Vigna radiata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Thandar; Phyu Hnin Htike; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The induced mutation through different gamma radiation frequencies 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500Gy in mungbean was studied for yield components in M3 generation. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was employed with three replications in this experiment. The data collected from M3 generation were subjected to statistical analysis with the help of Excel (Microsoft office 2007) and for pairs wise comparison of groups was by SPSS program.In primary yield components, there were no significant difference in M3 generation of pods per plant, pod length and seeds per pod except 100 seeds weight. The plant treated with 250 Gy and 400Gy exploited the maximum value of one hundred seeds weight and yield per plant , respectively. Although there was no significant difference in secondary yield components; 50% flowering days, 50% maturity days and plant height in this generation, highest plant height at 200Gy and early flowering and maturity at 300Gy were obserded. The selection of individual plants in the M3 generation was carried out for high yield. In mutant selection, 250Gy and 400Gy revealed relatively more number of plants having good characters such as more number of pods per plant and longer pod length but not in other treatments and control.

  13. Observation of an ionospheric disturbance caused by a gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, G.J.; Inan, U.S.

    1988-01-01

    We report a first observation of an ionospheric disturbance from a gamma-ray burst. The burst, GB830801, occurred at 22:14:18 UT on 1 August 1983 and was one of the strongest ever observed. The total fluence was 2 x 10 -3 erg cm -2 , most of which occurred in the first 4 s of the burst. Simultaneously, a change was observed in the amplitude of a very-low-frequency (VLF) radio signal from a transmitter in Rugby, England, monitored at Palmer Station, Antarctica, indicative of an ionospheric disturbance. Weaker disturbances were also recorded at the same receiving site on signals from VLF stations in Annapolis, Maryland and Lualualei, Hawaii. The times of the burst and the disturbances are coincident within the 10-s resolution of the VLF recording system. (author)

  14. Plutonium isotopic measurements by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lemming, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nondestructive technique is described for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 from measured peak areas in the high resolution gamma-ray spectra of solid plutonium samples. Gamma-ray attenuation effects were minimized by selecting sets of neighboring peaks in the spectrum whose components are due to the different isotopes. Since the detector efficiencies are approximately the same for adjacent peaks, the accuracy of the isotopic ratios is dependent on the half-lives, branching intensities, and measured peak areas. The data presented describe the results obtained by analyzing gamma-ray spectra in the energy region from 120 to 700 keV. Most of the data analyzed were obtained from plutonium material containing 6 percent plutonium-240. Sample weights varied from 0.25 g to approximately 1.2 kg. The methods were also applied to plutonium samples containing up to 23 percent plutonium-240 with weights of 0.25 to 200 g. Results obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared to chemical analyses of aliquots taken from the bulk samples

  15. Research on comprehensive decision-making of PV power station connecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Erxiong; Xin, Chaoshan; Ma, Botao; Cheng, Kai

    2018-04-01

    In allusion to the incomplete indexes system and not making decision on the subjectivity and objectivity of PV power station connecting system, based on the combination of improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) as well as grey correlation degree analysis (GCDA) is comprehensively proposed to select the appropriate system connecting scheme of PV power station. Firstly, indexes of PV power station connecting system are divided the recursion order hierarchy and calculated subjective weight by the improved AHP. Then, CRITIC is adopted to determine the objective weight of each index through the comparison intensity and conflict between indexes. The last the improved GCDA is applied to screen the optimal scheme, so as to, from the subjective and objective angle, select the connecting system. Comprehensive decision of Xinjiang PV power station is conducted and reasonable analysis results are attained. The research results might provide scientific basis for investment decision.

  16. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma camera system having control components operating in conjunction with a solid state detector is described. The detector is formed of a plurality of discrete components which are associated in geometrical or coordinate arrangement defining a detector matrix to derive coordinate signal outputs. These outputs are selectively filtered and summed to form coordinate channel signals and corresponding energy channel signals. A control feature of the invention regulates the noted summing and filtering performance to derive data acceptance signals which are addressed to further treating components. The latter components include coordinate and enery channel multiplexers as well as energy-responsive selective networks. A sequential control is provided for regulating the signal processing functions of the system to derive an overall imaging cycle

  17. PC-AT to gamma camera interface Anugami-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Sonalkar, S.Y.; Kataria, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma camera interface ANUGAMI-S is an image acquisition system used in nuclear medicine centres and hospitals. The state of the art design of the interface provides quality improvement in addition to image acquisition, by applying on-line uniformity correction which is very essential for gamma camera applications in nuclear medicine. The improvement in the quality of the image has been achieved by image acquisition in positionally varying and sliding energy window. It supports all acquisition modes viz. static, dynamic and gated acquisition modes with and without uniformity correction. The user interface provides the acquisition in various user selectable parameters with image display and related acquisition parameter display. It is a universal system which provides a modern, cost effective and easily maintainable solution for interfacing any gamma camera to PC or upgradation of analog gamma camera. The paper describes the system details and gated acquisition achieved on the present system. (author)

  18. Miniature gamma-ray camera for tumor localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J.C.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Cross, E.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop technology for a miniature gamma-ray camera for use in nuclear medicine. The camera will meet a need of the medical community for an improved means to image radio-pharmaceuticals in the body. In addition, this technology-with only slight modifications-should prove useful in applications requiring the monitoring and verification of special nuclear materials (SNMs). Utilization of the good energy resolution of mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detectors provides a means for rejecting scattered gamma-rays and improving the isotopic selectivity in gamma-ray images. The first year of this project involved fabrication and testing of a monolithic mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detector arrays and appropriate collimators/apertures. The second year of the program involved integration of the front-end detector module, pulse processing electronics, computer, software, and display

  19. Development of radiation safety monitoring system at gamma greenhouse gamma facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris; Azimawati Ahmad, Ahmad Zaki Hussain; Ahmad Fairuz Mohd Nasir

    2009-01-01

    This paper is discussing about installation of radiation safety monitoring system at Gamma Greenhouse Gamma facility, Agrotechnology and Bioscience Division (BAB). This facility actually is an outdoor type irradiation facility, which first in Nuclear Malaysia and the only one in Malaysia. Source Cs-137 (801 Curie) was use as radiation source and it located at the centre of 30 metres diameter size of open irradiation area. The radiation measurement and monitoring system to be equipped in this facility were required the proper equipment and devices, specially purpose for application at outside of building. Research review, literature study and discussion with the equipment manufacturers was being carried out, in effort to identify the best system should be developed. Factors such as tropical climate, environment surrounding and security were considered during selecting the proper system. Since this facility involving with panoramic radiation type, several critical and strategic locations have been fixed with radiation detectors, up to the distance at 200 meter from the radiation source. Apart from that, this developed system also was built for capable to provide the online real-time reading (using internet). In general, it can be summarized that the radiation safety monitoring system for outdoor type irradiation facility was found much different and complex compared to the system for indoor type facility. Keyword: radiation monitoring, radiation safety, Gamma Greenhouse, outdoor irradiation facility, panoramic radiation. (Author)

  20. Eutectic gamma (Nickel)/gamma vprime(Nickel Aluminide) delta (Nickel Niobium) polycrystalline nickel-base superalloys: Chemistry, processing, microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mengtao

    Directionally solidified (D.S.) gamma(Ni)/gamma'(Ni 3A1)-delta(Ni3Nb) eutectic alloys were considered as candidate turbine blade materials. Currently, the properties of polycrystalline gamma/gamma'-delta alloys are of interest as they inherit many advantageous attributes from the D.S. gamma/gamma'-delta alloys. This thesis is therefore dedicated towards the development of a fundamental understanding of these novel eutectic alloys from several important perspectives. This thesis will first be focused on quantifying the effect of several elements. A set of Ni-Cr-Al-Nb alloy compositions with increasing levels of Cr was designed to investigate the influence of Cr on the primary phase formation, solidus and liquidus temperatures and g-d eutectic morphology. A matrix of complex gamma/gamma'-delta alloy compositions with the same (Ta+Nb) content but varying Ta/Nb ratios was designed to study the influence of Ta on elemental segregation and solid state partitioning behaviors. Thermodynamic predicaitons using the Computherm Pandat database (PanNi7) were compared to experimental results in these investigations. The second part of this thesis will provide a more general understanding of the effects of common elements. A large number of experimental alloys covering a broad range of compositions were selected for the analysis. Important alloy attributes were characterized as a function of element concentration. Linear regression analysis was performed to reveal the relative effectiveness of different elements. An extensive comparison between the experimental observations and Pandat predictions was provided to critically evaluate the strength and weakness of existing thermodynamic database model in this novel alloy system. The last part of this thesis emphasizes the development of cast and wrought processes for cast gamma/gamma'-delta alloys as a cost effective alternative to the powder metallurgy route. Hot rolling of workpieces encapsulated within a steel can was performed on

  1. A study of $W^{+}W^{-}\\gamma$ events at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, A; Axen, D; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bock, P; Boeriu, O; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Caron, B; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F L; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Hensel, C; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klein, K; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kormos, L; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Leins, A; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; MacPherson, A; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Okpara, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, R J; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Vollmer, C F; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L; Von Krogh, J

    2004-01-01

    A study of W/sup +/W/sup -/ events accompanied by hard photon radiation, E/sub gamma />2.5 GeV, produced in e^{+}e^{-} collisions at LEP is presented. Events consistent with being two on- shell W-bosons and an isolated photon are selected from 681 pb/sup -1 / of data recorded at 180 GeV< square root s<209 GeV. From the sample of 187 selected W/sup +/W/sup -/ gamma candidates with photon energies greater than 2.5 GeV, the W/sup +/W/sup -/ gamma cross- section is determined at five values of square root s. The results are consistent with the standard model expectation. Averaging over all energies, the ratio of the observed cross-section to the standard model expectation is R(data/SM)=0.99+or-0.09+or-0.04, where the errors represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties respectively. These data provide constraints on the related O( alpha ) systematic uncertainties on the measurement of the W-boson mass at LEP. Finally, the data are used to derive 95% confidence level upper limits on possible anomalo...

  2. Planning of cascade stations on the Maotiao He detailed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, W

    1984-09-20

    Details of the hydroelectric power stations on the Maotiao He cascades and examples of how some problems were resolved begin with a description of the river basin survey for topographical features, hydrometeorological conditions, and geological conditions. The river characteristics survey was the basis for planning the cascade power stations and the selection of installed capacity at each station. The review also covers discharge and flood control planning based on rainfall data and the composition of flood areas. The overall development program emphasizes power generation, but also includes irrigation, industrial water supply, and tourism. 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Study of the $e^+ e^- \\to Z\\gamma\\gamma \\to q\\overline{q}\\gamma\\gamma$ Process at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2001-01-01

    The process e^+e^- -> Z gamma gamma -> q q~ gamma gamma$ is studied in 0.5\\,fb-1$ of data collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies between 130.1 GeV and 201.7 GeV. Cross sections are measured and found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations. The study of the least energetic photon constrains the quartic gauge boson couplings to -0.008 GeV-2 < a_0/\\Lambda^2 < 0.005 GeV-2 and -0.007 GeV-2 < a_c/\\Lambda^2 < 0.011 GeV-2, at 95% confidence level.

  4. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2018-04-09

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred under independent identically distributed Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. To simplify the mathematical analysis, we additionally consider Gamma turbulence conditions, which are a good approximation of Gamma-Gamma distribution. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional detection schemes (i.e., heterodyne detection (HD) and intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) techniques) for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherent/non-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB) and the average bit error rate (BER). Selected results show that we can obtain higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential for increasing the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection-based beam selection scheme without considerable performance loss. Especially for the AM case, the ASE can be increased further compared to the non- AM cases. Our derived results based on the Gamma distribution as an approximation of the Gamma-Gamma distribution can be used as approximated performance measure bounds, especially, they may lead to lower bounds on the approximated considered performance measures.

  5. Spatial distribution of reflected gamma rays by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehouani, A.; Merzouki, A.; Boutadghart, F.; Ghassoun, J.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, the reflection of gamma rays of the walls and metals constitutes an unknown origin of radiation. These reflected gamma rays must be estimated and determined. This study concerns reflected gamma rays on metal slabs. We evaluated the spatial distribution of the reflected gamma rays spectra by using the Monte Carlo method. An appropriate estimator for the double differential albedo is used to determine the energy spectra and the angular distribution of reflected gamma rays by slabs of iron and aluminium. We took into the account the principal interactions of gamma rays with matter: photoelectric, coherent scattering (Rayleigh), incoherent scattering (Compton) and pair creation. The Klein-Nishina differential cross section was used to select direction and energy of scattered photons after each Compton scattering. The obtained spectra show peaks at 0.511 * MeV for higher source energy. The Results are in good agreement with those obtained by the TRIPOLI code [J.C. Nimal et al., TRIPOLI02: Programme de Monte Carlo Polycinsetique a Trois dimensions, CEA Rapport, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique.

  6. System for gamma-gamma formation density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paske, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The patent relates to a system for logging subterranean formations for the determination of formation density by using gamma radiation. Gamma ray source and detection means are disposed within a housing adapted for positioning within a borehole for the emission and detection of gamma rays propagating through earth formations and borehole drilling fluid. The gamma ray detection means comprises first and second gamma radiation sensors geometrically disposed within the housing, the same longitudinal distance from the gamma ray source and diametrically opposed in a common plane. A formation matrix density output signal is produced in proportion to the output signal from each of the gamma ray sensors and in conjunction with certain constants established by the geometrical configuration of the sensors relative to the gamma ray source and the borehole diameter. Formation density is determined without regard to the radial position of the logging probe within the borehole in a measuring while drilling mode. 6 figs

  7. Impaired theta-gamma coupling during working memory performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Rajji, Tarek K; Zomorrodi, Reza; Radhu, Natasha; George, Tony P; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2017-11-01

    Working memory deficits represent a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits have been associated with dysfunctional dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) cortical oscillations. Theta-gamma coupling describes the modulation of gamma oscillations by theta phasic activity that has been directly associated with the ordering of information during working memory performance. Evaluating theta-gamma coupling may provide greater insight into the neural mechanisms mediating working memory deficits in this disorder. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 38 healthy controls performed the verbal N-Back task administered at 4 levels, while EEG was recorded. Theta (4-7Hz)-gamma (30-50Hz) coupling was calculated for target and non-target correct trials for each working memory load. The relationship between theta-gamma coupling and accuracy was determined. Theta-gamma coupling was significantly and selectively impaired during correct responses to target letters among schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. A significant and positive relationship was found between theta-gamma coupling and 3-Back accuracy in controls, while this relationship was not observed in patients. These findings suggest that impaired theta-gamma coupling contribute to working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Future work is needed to evaluate the predictive utility of theta-gamma coupling as a neurophysiological marker for functional outcomes in this disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. High-Resolution and -Efficiency Gamma-Ray Detection for the FRIB Decay Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hannah; Leach, Kyle; Natzke, Connor; FRIB Decay Station Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    As we push our knowledge of nuclear structure to the frontier of the unknown with FRIB, a new high-efficiency, -resolution, and -sensitivity photon-detection device is critical. The FRIB Decay Station Collaboration is working to create a new detector array that meets the needs of the exploratory nature of FRIB by minimizing cost and maximizing efficiency. GEANT4 simulations are being utilized to combine detectors in various configurations to test their feasibility. I will discuss these simulations and how they compare to existing simulations of past-generation decay-spectroscopy equipment. This work has been funded by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

  11. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  12. Sample analysis using gamma ray induced fluorescent X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, B S; Allawadhi, K L; Gandhi, R; Batra, O P; Singh, N [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1983-01-01

    A non-destructive method for the analysis of materials using gamma ray-induced fluorescent x-ray emission has been developed. In this method, special preparation of very thin samples in which the absorption of the incident gamma rays and the emitted fluorescent x-rays is negligible, is not needed, and the absorption correction is determined experimentally. A suitable choice of the incident gamma ray energies is made to minimise enhancement effects through selective photoionization of the elements in the sample. The method is applied to the analysis of a typical sample of the soldering material using 279 keV and 59.5 keV gamma rays from /sup 203/Hg and /sup 241/Am radioactive sources respectively. The results of the analysis are found to agree well with those obtained from the chemical analysis.

  13. Some considerations on the use of gamma spectrometry for Kr-85 determination at gaseous effluents in the nuclear industry and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities of using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with GeLi semiconductor detector for measured the 0.514 KeV gamma radiation of Kr-B5 la explored, The detection limit of Kr-85 for a measuring time is 4.10 - 4 μCi with a counting time of 1000 minutes in a GeLi detector with a 20% efficiency relative to the INa (Tl). It is concluded that the use of gamma ray spectrometry for measuring the Kr-85 is not useful for environmental samples, but it can be used for the Kr-85 effluents control in Nuclear Stations. (Author) 26 refs

  14. Endogenously generated gamma-band oscillations in early visual cortex: A neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Nina; Wibral, Michael; Bland, Gareth; Singer, Wolf

    2018-04-26

    Human subjects were trained with neurofeedback (NFB) to enhance the power of narrow-band gamma oscillations in circumscribed regions of early visual cortex. To select the region and the oscillation frequency for NFB training, gamma oscillations were induced with locally presented drifting gratings. The source and frequency of these induced oscillations were determined using beamforming methods. During NFB training the power of narrow band gamma oscillations was continuously extracted from this source with online beamforming and converted into the pitch of a tone signal. We found that seven out of ten subjects were able to selectively increase the amplitude of gamma oscillations in the absence of visual stimulation. One subject however failed completely and two subjects succeeded to manipulate the feedback signal by contraction of muscles. In all subjects the attempts to enhance visual gamma oscillations were associated with an increase of beta oscillations over precentral/frontal regions. Only successful subjects exhibited an additional marked increase of theta oscillations over precentral/prefrontal and temporal regions whereas unsuccessful subjects showed an increase of alpha band oscillations over occipital regions. We argue that spatially confined networks in early visual cortex can be entrained to engage in narrow band gamma oscillations not only by visual stimuli but also by top down signals. We interpret the concomitant increase in beta oscillations as indication for an engagement of the fronto-parietal attention network and the increase of theta oscillations as a correlate of imagery. Our finding support the application of NFB in disease conditions associated with impaired gamma synchronization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gamma-ray tracking: Characterisation of the AGATA symmetric prototype detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dimmock, M.R.; Nelson, L.; Nolan, P.J.; Rigby, S.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4pi ball of Germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented Germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383. ] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the AGATA (Advanced Gamma Tracking Array) symmetric prototype detectors that have been tested at University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector

  16. Gamma-ray tracking: Characterisation of the AGATA symmetric prototype detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajboston@liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Rigby, S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)

    2007-08-15

    Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4pi ball of Germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented Germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383. ] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the AGATA (Advanced Gamma Tracking Array) symmetric prototype detectors that have been tested at University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  17. Feasibility study of passive gamma spectrometry of molten core material from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 1, 2, and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy - low-volatile FP and special nuclear material inventory analysis and fundamental characteristics of gamma-rays from fuel debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Hiroshi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    The technologies applied to the analysis of the Three Mile Island accident were examined in a feasibility study of gamma spectrometry of molten core material from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 1, 2, and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy. The focus is on low-volatile fission products and heavy metal inventory analysis, and the fundamental characteristics of gamma-rays from fuel debris with respect to passive measurements. The inventory ratios of the low-volatile lanthanides, "1"5"4Eu and "1"4"4Ce, to special nuclear materials were evaluated by the entire core inventories in units 1, 2, and 3 with an estimated uncertainty of 9%-13% at the 1σ level for homogenized molten fuel material. The uncertainty is expected to be larger locally owing to the use of the irradiation cycle averaging approach. The ratios were also evaluated as a function of burnup for specific fuel debris with an estimated uncertainty of 13%-25% at the 1σ level for units 1 and 2, and most of the fuels in unit 3, although the uncertainty regarding the separated mixed oxide fuel in unit 3 would be significantly higher owing to the burnup dependence approach. Source photon spectra were also examined and cooling-time-dependent data sets were prepared. The fundamental characteristics of high-energy gamma-rays from fuel debris were investigated by a bare-sphere model transport calculation. Mass attenuation coefficients of fuel debris were evaluated to be insensitive to its possible composition in a high-energy region. The leakage photon ratio was evaluated using a variety of parameters, and a significant impact was confirmed for a certain size of fuel debris. Its correlation was summarized with respect to the leakage photopeak ratio of source "1"5"4Eu. Finally, a preliminary study using a hypothetical canister model of fuel debris based on the experience at Three Mile Island was presented, and future plans were introduced. (author)

  18. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion, a well-desired property characterizing the robustness of importance sampling schemes, for both identically and non-identically independent distributed cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  19. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Ben Rached, Nadhir; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion, a well-desired property characterizing the robustness of importance sampling schemes, for both identically and non-identically independent distributed cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  20. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  1. TEPCO plans to construct Higashidori Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, TEPCO submitted to the government plans for the construction of Higashidori Nuclear Power Station. The application was filed 41 years after the project approved by the Higashidori Village Assembly. This nuclear power station will be the first new nuclear power plant constructed by TEPCO since the construction of Units No.6 and 7 at the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station 18 years ago. Higashidori Nuclear Power Station is to be constructed at a completely new site, which will become the fourth TEPCO nuclear power station. Higashidori Nuclear Power Station Unit No.1 will be TEPCO's 18th nuclear reactor. Unit No.1 will be an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), a reactor-type with a proven track record. It will be TEPCO's third ABWR. Alongside incorporating the latest technology, in Higashidori Nuclear Power Station Unit No.1, the most important requirement is for TEPCO to reflect in the new unit information and experience acquired from the operation of other reactors (information and experience acquired through the experience of operating TEPCO's 17 units at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station and Kashiwazaki Kashiwa Nuclear Power Station in addition to information on non-conformities at nuclear power stations in Japan and around the world). Higashidori Nuclear Power Station is located in Higashidori-Village (Aomori Prefecture) and the selected site includes a rich natural environment. From an environmental perspective, we will implement the construction with due consideration for the land and sea environment, aiming to ensure that the plant can co-exist with its natural surroundings. The construction plans are currently being reviewed by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. We are committed to making progress in the project for the start of construction and subsequent commercial operation. (author)

  2. Swift: A gamma ray burst MIDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Swift is a first of its kind multiwavelength transient observatory for gamma-ray burst astronomy. It has the optimum capabilities for the next breakthroughs in determining the origin of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows as well as using bursts to probe the early Universe. Swift will also perform the first sensitive hard X-ray survey of the sky. The mission is being developed by an international collaboration and consists of three instruments, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the X-ray Telescope (XRT), and the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). The BAT, a wide-field gamma-ray detector, will detect ∼1 gamma-ray burst per day with a sensitivity 5 times that of BATSE. The sensitive narrow-field XRT and UVOT will be autonomously slewed to the burst location in 20 to 70 seconds to determine 0.3-5.0 arcsec positions and perform optical, UV, and X-ray spectrophotometry. On-board measurements of redshift will also be done for hundreds of bursts. Swift will incorporate superb, low-cost instruments using existing flight-spare hardware and designs. Strong education/public outreach and follow-up programs will help to engage the public and astronomical community. Swift has been selected by NASA for development and launch in late 2003

  3. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Station design alternatives report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report provides the results of investigating the basis for including Station Design Alternatives (SDAs) in the regulatory guidance given for nuclear plant environmental reports (ERs), explains approaches or processes for evaluating SDAs at the early site permit (ESP) stage, and applies one of the processes to each of the ten systems or subsystems considered as SDAS. The key objective o this report s to demonstrate an adequate examination of alternatives can be performed without the extensive development f design data. The report discusses the Composite Suitability Approach and the Established Cutoff Approach in evaluating station design alternatives and selects one of these approaches to evaluate alternatives for each of the plant or station that were considered. Four types of ALWRs have been considered due to the availability of extensive plant data: System 80+, AP600, Advanced Boiling Reactor (ABWR), and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). This report demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating station design alternatives when reactor design detail has not been determined, quantitatively compares the potential ental impacts of alternatives, and focuses the ultimate selection of a alternative on cost and applicant-specific factors. The range of alternatives system is deliberately limited to a reasonable number to demonstrate the or to the three most commonly used at operating plants

  4. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  5. A new code for spectrometric analysis for environmental radiological surveillance on monitors focused on gamma radioactivity on aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Riego, Albert; Garcia, Roger; Dies, Javier; Diaz, Pedro [Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Departament of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Toral, Juan [Raditel Serveis, Tarragona (Spain); Batalla, Enric [Radiological Activities Corrdination Service - SCAR, Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    pGamma is a code developed by the NERG group of the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech for the analysis of gamma spectra generated by the Equipment for the Continuous Measurement and Identification of Gamma Radioactivity on Aerosols with Paper Filter developed for our group and Raditel Servies company. Nowadays the code is in the process of adaptation for the monitors of the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network of the Local Government of Catalonia (Generalitat of Catalonia), Spain. The code is a Spectrum Analysis System, it identifies the gamma emitters on the spectrum, determines its Concentration of Activity, generates alarms depending on the Activity of the emitters and generates a report. The Spectrum Analysis System includes a library with emitters of interest, NORM and artificial. The code is being used on the three stations with the aerosol monitor of the Network (Asco and Vandellos, near both Nuclear Power Plants and Barcelona). (authors)

  6. Selective Breeding under Saline Stressed Conditions of Canola Mutations Induced by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.; Mansour, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding program has been initiated for inducing canola mutations tolerance to saline stressed conditions for growing at harsh land in Egypt. Therefore, seed lots of three cultivars and exotic variety (Bactol, Serow 4, Serow 6 and Evita) were subjected to 100,400 and 600 Gy of gamma rays. Mass selection with 20 % intensity for high number of pods per plant has been done in each treatment in M2 generation. However, individually plants with high number of pods / plant were selected from each variety in M3 generation for test under saline stressed conditions at Ras Sudr region in M4 (8600 and 8300 ppm salinity for soil and irrigation, respectively). The obtained results revealed that eight mutated families from 12- test families in M4 generation surpassed their parents in seed yield / plant and related characters ( plant height ,fruiting zone length , No. of branches , No. of pods / plant ). In addition, the mutant F93 characterized by fast growing and non shuttering pods reflecting 50.4% over Evita control in seed yield/ plant. Twelve mutant lines in M5 represented the mutant families were grown in sandy-loam soil at Inshas region. The three mutant lines (L 22, L 38 and L 45) continuously surpassed their parents in seed yield and related characters, but the increases were less than the previous generation. The increase was 22.3 %, 38.7 % and 36.7 % over seed yield of respective parents. Moreover, mutant L66 exhibited an increase in its yield components in M5 at Inshas only, suggesting that gene expression and genomic structure extremely influenced by environmental factors. Genetic stability for the obtained mutations could be done at different environmental conditions in further studies

  7. Gamma dose effects valuation on micro computing components; Evaluation des effets de la dose gamma sur les composants micro-informatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, F

    1996-12-31

    Robotics in hostile environment raises the problem of micro computing components resistance with gamma radiation cumulated dose. The current aim is to reach a dose of 3000 grays with industrial components. A methodology and an instrumentation adapted to test this type of components have been developed. The aim of this work is to present the advantages and disadvantages bound to the use of industrial components in the presence of gamma radiation. After an analysis of the criteria allowing to justify the technological choices, the different steps which characterize the selection and the assessment methodology used are explained. The irradiation and measures means now operational are mentioned. Moreover, the supply aspects of the chosen components for the design of an industrialized system is taken into account. These selection and assessment components contribute to the development and design of computers for civil nuclear robotics. (O.M.). 7 refs.

  8. Cross-Section of Hadron Production in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    The reaction $\\mathrm{e}^{+} \\mathrm{e}^{-} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{e}^{+} \\mathrm{e}^{-} \\gamma ^{*} \\gamma ^{*} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{e}^{+} \\mathrm{e}^{-} $ {\\sl hadrons} is analysed using data collected by the L3 detector during the LEP runs at $\\sqrt {s}$ = 130-140 GeV and $\\sqrt {s}$ = 161 GeV. The cross sections $\\sigma(\\mathrm{e}^{+} \\mathrm{e}^{-} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{e}^{+} \\mathrm{e}^{-} $ {\\sl hadrons}) and $\\sigma (\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow $ {\\sl hadrons}) are measured in the interval 5 $\\leq W_{\\gamma\\gamma} \\leq$ 75 GeV. The energy dependence of the $\\sigma (\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow $ {\\sl hadrons}) cross section is consistent with the universal Regge behaviour of total hadronic cross sections. %\\end{abstract}

  9. Category-specific visual responses: an intracranial study comparing gamma, beta, alpha and ERP response selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R Vidal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of neural responses to visual objects is a major topic in visual neuroscience. In humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have identified several regions of the occipital and temporal lobe that appear specific to faces, letter-strings, scenes, or tools. Direct electrophysiological recordings in the visual cortical areas of epileptic patients have largely confirmed this modular organization, using either single-neuron peri-stimulus time-histogram or intracerebral event-related potentials (iERP. In parallel, a new research stream has emerged using high-frequency gamma-band activity (50-150 Hz (GBR and low-frequency alpha/beta activity (8-24 Hz (ABR to map functional networks in humans. An obvious question is now whether the functional organization of the visual cortex revealed by fMRI, ERP, GBR, and ABR coincide. We used direct intracerebral recordings in 18 epileptic patients to directly compare GBR, ABR, and ERP elicited by the presentation of seven major visual object categories (faces, scenes, houses, consonants, pseudowords, tools, and animals, in relation to previous fMRI studies. Remarkably both GBR and iERP showed strong category-specificity that was in many cases sufficient to infer stimulus object category from the neural response at single-trial level. However, we also found a strong discrepancy between the selectivity of GBR, ABR, and ERP with less than 10% of spatial overlap between sites eliciting the same category-specificity. Overall, we found that selective neural responses to visual objects were broadly distributed in the brain with a prominent spatial cluster located in the posterior temporal cortex. Moreover, the different neural markers (GBR, ABR, and iERP that elicit selectivity towards specific visual object categories present little spatial overlap suggesting that the information content of each marker can uniquely characterize high-level visual information in the brain.

  10. Improving bambara groundnut productivity using gamma irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times efforts are being made to improve the productivity of bambara groundnut. Studies were initiated (i) to characterise and evaluate landraces and to select superior ones for irradiation, (ii) to induce genetic variation through gamma irradiation and (iii) to use biotechnological approaches to shorten the generation ...

  11. Multidimensional Gamma-Ray Spectrometry and its Use in Biology; La Spectrometry Gamma Multidimensionnelle et son Application en Biologie; Mnogomernaya spektrometriya gamma-luchej i ee ispol'zovanie v biologii; La Espectrometria Gamma Multidimensional y su Empleo en Biologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J. M.; Kornberg, H. A. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    Multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometry is a new technique for the measurement of radionuclides which has special application in biology. This instrumental technique allows direct identification and measurement of individual gamma-ray emitters in complex mixtures of radionuclides in diverse sample matrices without prior chemical treatment. The detector system is designed to provide: high sensitivity through use of two large (6-in diam., 4-in thick) Nal(Tl) detectors; high selectivity by using coincidence counting techniques which separate gamma ray spectra by taking advantage of the gamma-ray decay characteristics of each radionuclide ; and ultra-low background and reduced Compton interference through a surrounding anticoincidence annulus detector (a NaI(Tl) crystal 11 Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half -in thick with a 6 Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half - in - diam. hole). A 4096-channel multidimensional analyser analyses the two gamma-rays in coincidence according to their energies and stores them in the plane of the 64 X 64-channel memory while non-coincident events are stored only on the axes of the memory. This effectively decreases the background and Compton interference by orders of magnitude while greatly improving the selectivity. Direct gamma-ray spectrometric measurement of trace levels of radionuclides in biological samples has been inhibited by the presence of relatively large amounts of natural 4 Degree-Sign K whose 1.47 MeV gamma-radiation has interfered with their measurement. Since most radionuclides decay through emission of two or more gamma-rays in cascade the new technique does provide a direct selective measurement and permits wider application. For example, {sup 22}Na (a naturally occurring cosmic-ray produced radionuclide), {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs (fission products) can be readily measured at existing levels (in some cases at less than 1 dpmAg) in meat, fish, foodstuffs, as well as in urine, so that uptake-excretion studies are possible. This technique

  12. 太阳能光伏电站场址选择问题的探讨%Discussion on Site Selection of Solar Photovoitaic Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛思禹; 许文年; 侯燕梅; 祝立群; 张成

    2011-01-01

    太阳能是环保、安全的可再生能源,伴随能源危机和环境污染问题的出现受到了越来越广泛的关注.基于太阳能发电的需求,全面认识太阳能光伏发电的原理和光伏发电系统的组成,把握影响光伏电站发电量的因素具有现实意义.结合云南省某光伏电站工程实例,探讨了太阳能光伏电站场址选择的相关技术问题,并对其进行了总结,为太阳能光伏发电场址选择提供借鉴.%As an environmental and safe renewable energy, solar energy attracts extensive attention along with the emergence of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Basing on the demand of solar power generation, it is practically significant to comprehensively understand the principle and system composition of solar photovoltaic power generation, and to grasp the factors affecting output of photovoltaic power station. Combining with an engineering example of photovoltaic power station in Yunnan province, the paper summarizes and probes into the related technical problems of the solar photovoltaic power station's site selection, so as to provide reference for the site selection of solar photovoltaic power generation.

  13. Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriashin, A.V.; Devkin, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, J.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Sztaricskai, T.; Petoe, G.; Vasvary, L.

    1986-01-01

    A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra from (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (Auth.)

  14. An X-ray perspective on a gamma-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The most recent astrophysics mission of ESA is INTEGRAL, a mission dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy (Winkler et al. 2003). INTEGRAL carries two gamma-ray instruments: the imager, IBIS, and the spectrometer, SPI, and in addition an optical monitor, OMC, and an X-ray monitor, JEM-X. INTEGRAL is an ...... is an observatory mission with 70% of the observation time available to the general astronomical community through a peer-reviewed selection process. This paper describes the INTEGRAL mission primarily as seen from the JEM-X perspective....

  15. Similarity indices of meteo-climatic gauging stations: definition and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Emanuele; Bruno, Delia Evelina; Passarella, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Space-time dependencies among monitoring network stations have been investigated to detect and quantify similarity relationships among gauging stations. In this work, besides the well-known rank correlation index, two new similarity indices have been defined and applied to compute the similarity matrix related to the Apulian meteo-climatic monitoring network. The similarity matrices can be applied to address reliably the issue of missing data in space-time series. In order to establish the effectiveness of the similarity indices, a simulation test was then designed and performed with the aim of estimating missing monthly rainfall rates in a suitably selected gauging station. The results of the simulation allowed us to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed similarity indices. Finally, the multiple imputation by chained equations method was used as a benchmark to have an absolute yardstick for comparing the outcomes of the test. In conclusion, the new proposed multiplicative similarity index resulted at least as reliable as the selected benchmark.

  16. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized ... If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation ...

  17. Formulation of the relationship between indices of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma method and the percentrage of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J.

    1973-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the possibility of a complex utilization of radiometric logging methods, neutron-gamma profiling and gamma-gamma density logging for determining percentage of iron and establishing geophysical possibilities of identifying zones of economically profitable ores in borehole profiles. Figures present the correlations between indices of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging methods and the percentage of iron, as well as the correlation of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma indices for zones minerallized with iron ores. The article presents the correlational analyses of the results: the correlational coefficients are given as well as total error in determining iron content on the basis of each of the methods described. Next, a multidimensional statistical analysis is carried out on the results obtained. On the basis of the two-dimensional correlational coefficients calculated and the average standard deviation, an equation of linear regression was formulated, simultaneously involving three parameters - the indices of neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging and the percentage of iron. The multiple correlational coefficient obtained markedly exceeds the two-dimentional correlation coefficient (r=0.974>rsub(xz)>rsub(yz)>rsub(xy)). The given method of utilizing multidimensional statistics in borehole geophysics for identifying iron ores is an efficient one. On the basis of several relationships among independent variables which are less obvious (smaller values of correlational coefficient), it is possible to obtain a single distinct relationship involving all variables simultaneously. (author)

  18. GammaCam trademark radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    GammaCam trademark, a gamma-ray imaging system manufactured by AIL System, Inc., would benefit a site that needs to locate radiation sources. It is capable of producing a two-dimensional image of a radiation field superimposed on a black and white visual image. Because the system can be positioned outside the radiologically controlled area, the radiation exposure to personnel is significantly reduced and extensive shielding is not required. This report covers the following topics: technology description; performance; technology applicability and alternatives; cost; regulatory and policy issues; and lessons learned. The demonstration of GammaCam trademark in December 1996 was part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) whose objective is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  19. The strategy of the treatment for arteriovenous malformations by gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Seiji; Seo, Yoshinobu; Hyougo, Toshio; Sasaki, Takehiko; Toshima, Masahiko; Takeda, Rihei; Nakamura, Junichi; Suematu, Katsumi.

    1992-01-01

    Successful gamma knife radiosurgery depends on the volume of nidus of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Because of lower possibility of obliteration of large AVMs treated by gamma knife radiosurgery, embolization therapies were carried out in 10 cases out of 50 AVMs to reduce the volume of nidus before gamma knife radiosurgery. The strategy is as follows: 1) when the volume of nidus is less than 5 ml, gamma knife radiosurgery is selected as the first treatment; 2) when the procedure seems to be safely performed; 3) when the volume of nidus is over 10 ml, embolization should be tried in all cases. In this strategy, it is essential to evaluate the accurate volume of nidus before gamma knife radiosurgery to decide whether embolization should be carried out or not. Angiography with painless fixation of Leksell frame was thought to be best procedure to measure the accurate volume of nidus before gamma knife radiosurgery. (author)

  20. THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Baring, M. G. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Belfiore, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhattacharyya, B. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M., E-mail: hartog@stanford.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); and others

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  1. The second FERMI large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  2. The second fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  3. Gamma dose effects valuation on micro computing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffre, F.

    1995-01-01

    Robotics in hostile environment raises the problem of micro computing components resistance with gamma radiation cumulated dose. The current aim is to reach a dose of 3000 grays with industrial components. A methodology and an instrumentation adapted to test this type of components have been developed. The aim of this work is to present the advantages and disadvantages bound to the use of industrial components in the presence of gamma radiation. After an analysis of the criteria allowing to justify the technological choices, the different steps which characterize the selection and the assessment methodology used are explained. The irradiation and measures means now operational are mentioned. Moreover, the supply aspects of the chosen components for the design of an industrialized system is taken into account. These selection and assessment components contribute to the development and design of computers for civil nuclear robotics. (O.M.)

  4. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  5. Energies and Yields of Prompt Gamma Rays from Fragments in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-04-15

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow-neutron induced fission of 235U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way it was possible to select various collimator settings and let gamma radiation of different half-lives be enhanced. Gamma-ray energy spectra from these time components were then recorded as function of mass. The spectrum shape differed greatly depending on the half-life of the radiation and the fragment from which it was emitted. The results of the present measurements were discussed in the light of existing fission models, and comparisons were made with prompt gamma-ray and neutron data from other fission experiments

  6. Energies and Yields of Prompt Gamma Rays from Fragments in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinsson, H.

    1971-04-01

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow-neutron induced fission of 235 U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way it was possible to select various collimator settings and let gamma radiation of different half-lives be enhanced. Gamma-ray energy spectra from these time components were then recorded as function of mass. The spectrum shape differed greatly depending on the half-life of the radiation and the fragment from which it was emitted. The results of the present measurements were discussed in the light of existing fission models, and comparisons were made with prompt gamma-ray and neutron data from other fission experiments

  7. Prompt Gamma Radiation from Fragments in the Thermal Fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinsson, H.; Lindow, L.

    1970-06-01

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow neutron induced fission of 235 U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way a decay curve was obtained from which the life-time of one of the gamma-emitting states could be estimated. The relative yield of the gamma-rays was determined as a function of mass for different gamma-ray energy portions and two specific time intervals after the fission events. Comparisons were made with data obtained from 252 Cf-fission. Attention is drawn to some features which seem to be the same in 235 U and 252 Cf-fission

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Port Gibson, Mississippi. Date of survey: March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballatore, L.A.; Hilton, L.K.

    1982-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 11 to 20 March 1982 over a 260-square-kilometer area centered on the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station at Port Gibson, Mississippi (the station was not yet in operation at the time of the survey). All gamma ray data were collected by flying east-west lines spaced 152 meters apart at an altitude 91 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 5 and 13 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging from 9 to 10 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples and ionization chamber measurements taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  9. Gamma ray energy tracking in GRETINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I. Y.

    2011-10-01

    The next generation of stable and exotic beam accelerators will provide physics opportunities to study nuclei farther away from the line of stability. However, these experiments will be more demanding on instrumentation performance. These come from the lower production rate for more exotic beams, worse beam impurities, and large beam velocity from the fragmentation and inverse reactions. Gamma-ray spectroscopy will be one of the most effective tools to study exotic nuclei. However, to fully exploit the physics reach provided by these new facilities, better gamma-ray detector will be needed. In the last 10 years, a new concept, gamma-ray energy tracking array, was developed. Tracking arrays will increase the detection sensitivity by factors of several hundred compared to current arrays used in nuclear physics research. Particularly, the capability of reconstructing the position of the interaction with millimeters resolution is needed to correct the Doppler broadening of gamma rays emitted from high velocity nuclei. GRETINA is a gamma-ray tracking array which uses 28 Ge crystals, each with 36 segments, to cover ¼ of the 4 π of the 4 π solid angle. The gamma ray tracking technique requires detailed pulse shape information from each of the segments. These pulses are digitized using 14-bit 100 MHz flash ADCs, and digital signal analysis algorithms implemented in the on-board FPGAs provides energy, time and selection of pulse traces. A digital trigger system, provided flexible trigger functions including a fast trigger output, and also allows complicated trigger decisions to be made up to 20 microseconds. Further analyzed, carried out in a computer cluster, determine the energy, time, and three-dimensional positions of all gamma-ray interactions in the array. This information is then utilized, together with the characteristics of Compton scattering and pair-production processes, to track the scattering sequences of the gamma rays. GRETINA construction is completed in

  10. Gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Takakura, Kintomo

    1991-01-01

    As to the gamma knife which is the radiation surgery device developed in Sweden a quarter century ago, its principle, structure, treatment techniques, already established clinical effect and the problems being left for hereafter are described. This treatment means supplements the operation under microscopes, and at present it takes the important position in neurosurgery, but hereafter, by the interdisciplinary cooperation of neurosurgery and clinical radiobiology, the more development can be expected. The method of irradiating the radiation of high dose selectively to a target region and breaking its tissue is called radiosurgery, and the device developed for this purpose is the gamma knife. First, it was applied to functional diseases, but good results were obtained by its application to auditory nerve and brain blood vessels, and it establishes the position as the safe treatment method of the morbid state in the deep part of brains, which is difficult to reach by operation. Accompanying the recent progress of the operation of skull base part, attention is paid to its application to various tumors in skull base. On the other hand, the radiosurgery combining a cyclotron or a linear accelerator with stereotaxic brain surgery is actively tried mainly to the deformation of brain blood vessels. (K.I.)

  11. RADIATION MECHANISM AND JET COMPOSITION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND GeV-TeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin; Lu Ye; Zhang Shuangnan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liang Enwei; Sun Xiaona [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang Bing, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and GeV-TeV-selected radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are compared based on our systematic modeling of the observed spectral energy distributions of a sample of AGNs with a single-zone leptonic model. We show that the correlation between the jet power (P{sub jet}) and the prompt gamma-ray luminosity (L{sub jet}) of GRBs is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the correlation between jet power and the synchrotron peak luminosity (L{sub s,jet}) of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Their radiation efficiencies ({epsilon}) are also comparable (>10% for most sources), which increase with the bolometric jet luminosity (L{sub bol,jet}) for FSRQs and with the L{sub jet} for GRBs with similar power-law indices. BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) do not follow the P{sub jet}-L{sub s,jet} relation of FSRQs. They have lower {epsilon} and L{sub bol,jet} values than FSRQs, and a tentative L{sub bol,jet}-{epsilon} relation is also found, with a power-law index different from that of the FSRQs. The magnetization parameters ({sigma}) of FSRQs are on average larger than that of BL Lacs. They are anti-correlated with {epsilon} for the FSRQs, but positively correlated with {epsilon} for the BL Lacs. GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies potentially share similar properties with FSRQs. Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs. The jets of BL Lacs, on the other hand, are less efficient and are likely more matter-dominated.

  12. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong-Wei; Su, Hong; Qian, Yi; Kong, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements.

  13. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongwei; Su Hong; Qian Yi; Kong Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements. (authors)

  14. Study of {gamma}'s in Naiade; Etude des gamma de Naiade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millot, J P; Rastoin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following a study of the gamma sources, the flux of gamma of different energies in the swimming pool is investigated. The biological dose can thus be obtained by calculation, and compared with the results given by photographic plates. The influence of photoneutrons is estimated by calculation, and research is being carried out on their influence on the thermal neutron flux curve on the axis of the uranium plate, with the plate emitting neutrons and with the plate protected by boral. (author) [French] Apres l'etude des sources de gamma, l'on etudie le flux de gamma de differentes energies dans la piscine. La dose biologique peut etre obtenue ainsi par le calcul et comparee avec les resultats donnes par les plaques photographiques. L'influence des photoneutrons est estimee par le calcul et l'on recherche leur influence sur la courbe de flux de neutrons thermiques sur l'axe de la plaque d'uranium, la plaque emettant des neutrons et la plaque protegee par du boral. (auteur)

  15. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey in Latvia 1995/96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Based on Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry measurements performed with the Danish AGS equipment in 1995 and 1996 maps of the natural radioactivity have been produdced for selected areas in Latvia. The calibration of the quipment have been improved by comparisons with soil sample measurements....

  16. Radon concentration in air and external gamma dose rate. Is there a correlation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, E.M.; Umisedo, N.K.; Marcos Rizzotto; Hugo Velasco; Valladares, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    We checked the existence of correlations between experimentally determined radon concentration in indoor air and gamma dose rate, in different environments: residences, workplaces in subway stations and radiotherapies, and a gold mine. Except for the mine environment, where a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.86) was obtained with statistical significance, we found no correlations between those quantities. Both radiation sources are originated from natural radionuclides, nonetheless the observation of correlations depends on various conditions, as we discuss here. (author)

  17. The selection of radiation tolerant electrical/electronic components for gamma radiation environments in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report briefly describes the mechanisms, units and effects of 1 MeV range gamma radiation on electrical/electronic components and materials. Information is tabulated on the gamma radiation tolerance of a wide range of components and materials. A radiation testing service, based at Harwell, is described. Lists of interested manufacturers and organisations are given. (author)

  18. X-band RF Photoinjector for Laser Compton X-ray and Gamma-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, G. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gibson, D. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barty, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Extremely bright narrow bandwidth gamma-ray sources are expanding the application of accelerator technology and light sources in new directions. An X-band test station has been commissioned at LLNL to develop multi-bunch electron beams. This multi-bunch mode will have stringent requirements for the electron bunch properties including low emittance and energy spread, but across multiple bunches. The test station is a unique facility featuring a 200 MV/m 5.59 cell X-band photogun powered by a SLAC XL4 klystron driven by a Scandinova solid-state modulator. This paper focuses on its current status including the generation and initial characterization of first electron beam. Design and installation of the inverse-Compton scattering interaction region and upgrade paths will be discussed along with future applications.

  19. Embolization with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of Giant Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dong Hyun; Kim, Moo Seong; Kim, Sung Tae; Paeng, Sung Hwa; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Won Hee

    2016-01-01

    Giant arteriovenous malformations (i.e., those greater than 6 cm maximum diameter or volume > 33 cc) are difficult to treat and often carry higher treatment morbidity and mortality rates. In our study, we reviewed the angiographic results and clinical outcomes for 11 patients with giant arteriovenous malformations who were treated between 1994 and 2012. The patients selected included 9 males (82%) and 2 females (18%). Their presenting symptoms were hemorrhage (n=2; 18%), seizure (n=7; 64%), and headache (n=2; 12%). Nine patients were Spetzler-Martin Grade III, 2 were Spetzler-Martin Grade IV. The mean arteriovenous malformation volume was 41 cc (33-52 cc). The mean age of the patients was 45.1 years (24-57 years) and the mean radiation dose delivered to the margin of the nidus was 14.2 Gy. Ten patients received pre-Gamma Knife radiosurgery embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery, 1 patient received pre-Gamma Knife radiosurgery embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery twice and the interval between Gamma Knife radiosurgeries was 3 months. The complete obliteration rate following Gamma Knife radiosurgery was 36%, subtotal obliteration ( > 70% decreased size of nidus) was 36%, and partial obliteration was 28%. One patient experienced a small hemorrhage after embolization. Combined embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery showed successful obliteration of the arteriovenous malformation nidus. The use of embolization to initially reduce nidus size followed by Gamma Knife radiosurgery improves the treatment results. Repeated Gamma Knife radiosurgery should be a treatment option when there is a small nidus remnant.

  20. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2016-01-01

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal (_5_6Ba, _6_4Gd, _8_2Pb, _8_3Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  1. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal ({sub 56}Ba, {sub 64}Gd, {sub 82}Pb, {sub 83}Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  2. Linear genetic programming application for successive-station monthly streamflow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danandeh Mehr, Ali; Kahya, Ercan; Yerdelen, Cahit

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been pronounced as a branch of computer science to model wide range of hydrological phenomena. A number of researches have been still comparing these techniques in order to find more effective approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. In this study, we examined the ability of linear genetic programming (LGP) technique to model successive-station monthly streamflow process, as an applied alternative for streamflow prediction. A comparative efficiency study between LGP and three different artificial neural network algorithms, namely feed forward back propagation (FFBP), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), and radial basis function (RBF), has also been presented in this study. For this aim, firstly, we put forward six different successive-station monthly streamflow prediction scenarios subjected to training by LGP and FFBP using the field data recorded at two gauging stations on Çoruh River, Turkey. Based on Nash-Sutcliffe and root mean squared error measures, we then compared the efficiency of these techniques and selected the best prediction scenario. Eventually, GRNN and RBF algorithms were utilized to restructure the selected scenario and to compare with corresponding FFBP and LGP. Our results indicated the promising role of LGP for successive-station monthly streamflow prediction providing more accurate results than those of all the ANN algorithms. We found an explicit LGP-based expression evolved by only the basic arithmetic functions as the best prediction model for the river, which uses the records of the both target and upstream stations.

  3. Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryashin, A.V.; Devlein, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, Y.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra form (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (author). 3 figs., 6 refs

  4. Gamma compensated pulsed ionization chamber wide range neutron/reactor power measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method and system of pulsed mode operation of ionization chambers is described in which a single sensor system with gamma compensation is provided by sampling, squaring, automatic gate selector, and differential amplifier circuit means, employed in relation to chambers sensitized to neutron plus gamma and gamma only to subtract out the gamma component, wherein squaring functions circuits, a supplemental high performance pulse rate system, and operational and display mode selection and sampling gate circuits are utilized to provide automatic wide range linear measurement capability for neutron flux and reactor power. Neon is employed as an additive in the ionization chambers to provide independence of ionized gas kinetics temperature effects, and the pulsed mode of operation provide independence of high temperature insulator leakage effects. (auth)

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and surrounding area, San Clemente, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    An airborne radiological survey of an 11 km 2 area surrounding the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station was made 9 to 17 January 1980. Count rates observed at 60 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the plant

  6. Delin and Delog codes for graphic representation of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travesi, A.; Romero, L.

    1983-01-01

    Two FORTRAN IV Codes have been developed for graphic representation of the gamma-ray spectra obtained with GeLi detectors and multichannel analyzers. The graphic plotting is carried out with the H.P. Graphic Plotter Mod HP-7221 A, using the graphic package software GRAPHICS-1000 from Hewlett-Packard. The codes have a great versatility and the representation of gamma spectra can be done in a lineal, semilog, or log-log scale, as desired. The gamma ray spectra data are fed into the computer through magnetic tape or perforated paper tape. The different output options and complementary data are given in a conversational way through a terminal with TV display. Among the options that can be selected by the user are the following: 1) smoothing the spectra; 2) drawing the spectra point by point or continuous; 3) output drawing in 1, 2 or 4 sheets with automatic division of the energy scale; 4) overlapping of selected spectra regions in γ-scale ampliation with automatic printout of the region limits and ampliation factor; 5) printing spectra data and identifications of selected photopeaks. The codes can be employed with any computer using printing devices, HP-GRAPHICS 1000 software compatible, but are easily modified for another printing software since their modular structure with FORTRAN IV written subroutines. (author)

  7. DELIN and DELOG codes for graphic representation of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Two Fortran IV Codes has been developed for graphic representation of the gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge Li detectors and multichannel analyzers. The grafic plotting es carried out with the H.P. Graphic Plotter Mod HP-7221 A, using the graphic package software GRAPHICS-1000 from Hewlett-Packard. The codes have a great versatility and the representation of gamma spectra can ba done in a lineal, semi log, or log-log scale, as desired. The gamma ray spectra data are feed into the computer through magnetic tape or perfored paper tape. The different out-put options and complementary data are given in a conversational way through a terminal with T.V. displays. Among the options that can be selected by the user are the following: - smoothing the spectra - drawing the spectra point by point or continuous - out-put drawing an 1, 2, or 4 sheet with automatic division of the energy scale. - overlapping of selected spectra regions in Y scale ampliation with automatic print-out of the region limits and ampliation factor. - Printing spectra data and identifications of selected photo peaks. The codes can be employed with any computer using printing devices, HP-Graphics 1000 software compatible, but are easily modified for another printing software since their modular structure with Fortran IV written

  8. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  9. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  10. A twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber as a selective detector for the delayed gamma-spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudefroy, L., E-mail: laurent.gaudefroy@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Roger, T., E-mail: roger@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Spitaels, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Aupiais, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Mottier, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud-11-CNRS-IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2017-05-21

    We present a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber. The detector is meant to provide high selective power for the study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments produced via {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission. A mean energy resolution on the kinetic energy of fission fragments of 675 keV (FWHM) is achieved and allows us to resolve masses of fragments for fission events where neutron emission is not energetically possible. The mean mass resolution measured for these particular events amounts to 0.54 mass units (FWHM). For fission events with neutron emission a resolution of 4 mass units (FWHM) is reported. Information on fragment emission angle is measured with a resolution of 0.1 on the difference of the cosines determined for both halves of the detector. A charge resolution of 4.5 charge units (FWHM) is also demonstrated.

  11. The wide-aperture gamma-ray telescope TAIGA-HiSCORE in the Tunka Valley: Design, composition and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gress, O., E-mail: grol08@rambler.ru [Institute of Applied Physics ISU, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Astapov, I. [NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.; Bezyazeekov, P. [Institute of Applied Physics ISU, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Bogdanov, A. [NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Boreyko, V. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brückner, M. [Institute for Computer Science, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale Universiteta di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Chvalaev, O.; Dyachok, A.; Gress, T. [Institute of Applied Physics ISU, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Epimakhov, S. [Institut fr Experimentalphysik, University of Hamburg (Germany); Fedoseev, E.; Gafarov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics ISU, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grinuk, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Grishin, O. [Institute of Applied Physics ISU, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Horns, D. [Institut fr Experimentalphysik, University of Hamburg (Germany); Ivanova, A. [Institute of Applied Physics ISU, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); and others

    2017-02-11

    The new TAIGA-HiSCORE non-imaging Cherenkov array aims to detect air showers induced by gamma rays above 30 TeV and to study cosmic rays above 100 TeV. TAIGA-HiSCORE is made of integrating air Cherenkov detector stations with a wide field of view (0.6 sr), placed at a distance of about 100 m. They cover an area of initially ∼0.25 km{sup 2} (prototype array), and of ∼5 km{sup 2} at the final phase of the experiment. Each station includes 4 PMTs with 20 or 25 cm diameter, equipped with light guides shaped as Winstone cones. We describe the design, specifications of the read-out, DAQ and control and monitoring systems of the array. The present 28 detector stations of the TAIGA-HiSCORE engineering setup are in operation since September 2015.

  12. Integrated five station nondestructive assay system for the support of decontamination and decommissioning of a former plutonium mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Bieri, J.M.; Hastings, R.D.; Horton, W.S.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Plettenberg, K.; Smith, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of a safe, efficient and economic decontamination and decommissioning of plutonium facilities can be greatly enhanced through the intelligent use of an integrated system of nondestructive assay equipment. We have designed and fabricated such a system utilizing five separate NDA stations integrated through a single data acquisition and management personal computer-based controller. The initial station utilizes a passive neutron measurement to determine item Pu inventory to the 0.1 gm level prior to insertion into the decontamination cell. A large active neutron station integrated into the cell is used to measure decontamination effectiveness at the 10 nci/gm level. Cell Pu buildup at critical points is monitored with passive neutron detectors. An active neutron station having better than 1 mg Pu assay sensitivity is used to quantify final compacted waste pucks outside the cell. Bulk Pu in various forms and isotopic enrichments is quantified in a combined passive neutron coincidence and high resolution gamma ray spectrometer station outside the cell. Item control and Pu inventory are managed with bar code labeling and a station integrating algorithm. Overall economy is achieved by multiple station use of the same expensive hardware such as the neutron generator

  13. SU-E-T-219: Comprehensive Validation of the Electron Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Algorithm in RayStation Treatment Planning System for An Elekta Linear Accelerator with AgilityTM Treatment Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Park, Yang-Kyun; Doppke, Karen P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated the performance of the electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in RayStation v4.0 for an Elekta machine with Agility™ treatment head. Methods: The machine has five electron energies (6–8 MeV) and five applicators (6×6 to 25×25 cm {sup 2}). The dose (cGy/MU at d{sub max}), depth dose and profiles were measured in water using an electron diode at 100 cm SSD for nine square fields ≥2×2 cm{sup 2} and four complex fields at normal incidence, and a 14×14 cm{sup 2} field at 15° and 30° incidence. The dose was also measured for three square fields ≥4×4 cm{sup 2} at 98, 105 and 110 cm SSD. Using selected energies, the EBT3 radiochromic film was used for dose measurements in slab-shaped inhomogeneous phantoms and a breast phantom with surface curvature. The measured and calculated doses were analyzed using a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm. Results: The calculated and measured doses varied by <3% for 116 of the 120 points, and <5% for the 4×4 cm{sup 2} field at 110 cm SSD at 9–18 MeV. The gamma analysis comparing the 105 pairs of in-water isodoses passed by >98.1%. The planar doses measured from films placed at 0.5 cm below a lung/tissue layer (12 MeV) and 1.0 cm below a bone/air layer (15 MeV) showed excellent agreement with calculations, with gamma passing by 99.9% and 98.5%, respectively. At the breast-tissue interface, the gamma passing rate is >98.8% at 12–18 MeV. The film results directly validated the accuracy of MU calculation and spatial dose distribution in presence of tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature - situations challenging for simpler pencil-beam algorithms. Conclusion: The electron Monte Carlo algorithm in RayStation v4.0 is fully validated for clinical use for the Elekta Agility™ machine. The comprehensive validation included small fields, complex fields, oblique beams, extended distance, tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature.

  14. Shielding of gamma field in residential houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, Z.; Pavlata, M.; Pokorna, I.; Urban, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the past some flats were built from defective materials contained uranium-238, which radiate dangerous gamma radiation. The object of this work consisted in searching mechanical barriers, which would decrease penetrating of this radiation into a flat. The measurement was realized in system made of connecting of Ge/Li detector with multichannel analyser MCA JAK 202 and IBM PC. Plenty of building parts such as bricks, plaster slabs with/without lead dust, wasted plaster from Pocerady Electric Power Station (EPS), etc., were measured to get and compare shading abilities. Maximal intensity of gamma radiation (47.1%) is visible for energy E=609 keV radium-226, therefore the measurement was only carried out for this energy. The measurement performed in defective houses start during years 1988-1991 demonstrated that excepting higher activity radon-222 and its daughter products forms uneligible gamma field, as well. This is limited by values of rate dose equivalent. The problem was successfully solved by lead slabs fixed to wood construction that is covered by applications. The manipulation with materials and construction was difficult, therefore another materials and segments were tested, for more easy fix to defective walls. In 1995 the experiment was realised in the cooperation with the chemical department of Pocerady EPS, the plaster is outlet product from the removing sulphur process. There were made an experimental slabs, sizes 18 x 18 x 2 cm. The barrier effect of slabs were compared with other building material and parts. So that the elimination of radiation would be effective is necessary reduce the level of radiation penetrating to the smallest level. However, the the thickness of shading material is limited by economical reasons, prices of material, square weighting and reducing of living room. The results of measuring is this one: the plaster slabs with lead dust made in EPS Pocerady are suitable to reduce gamma ray, the values of reducing coefficient are

  15. Public exposure to radio waves near GSM microcell and picocell base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T G; Mann, S M; Khalid, M; Blackwell, R P

    2006-01-01

    Exposures of the general public to radio waves at locations near 20 randomly selected GSM microcell and picocell base stations in the UK have been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Compliance distances were calculated for the antennas of the base stations from their reported radiated powers. Under pessimistic assumptions that would maximise exposures, the minimum height at which the general public reference level could potentially be exceeded near any of the base station antennas was calculated to be 2.4 m above ground level. The power densities of the broadcast carriers transmitted by the base stations have been measured and scaled to include all other possible carriers. Exposures were generally in the range 0.002-2% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure quotient near any of the base stations was 8.6%. Exposures close to microcell base stations were found to be generally greater than those close to macrocell base stations

  16. Beryllium-7 in Usnea antarctica Du Rietz from the Machu Picchu Antarctic Research Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of Be-7 in Usnea antarctica (lichen) collected during the austral summer of 2013 in the Antarctic Scientific Station 'Machu Picchu' were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry, obtaining values between 366.5 and 515.1 Becquerels per kilogram dry weight. The analysis of variance shows no significant difference in the concentrations of Be-7 between sampling areas located at different heights. The average value of Be-7 for 2013 is significantly higher to other sampling years, except for 1996. (authors).

  17. A tool to include gamma analysis software into a quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Christina E; McGarry, Conor K

    2016-03-01

    To provide a tool to enable gamma analysis software algorithms to be included in a quality assurance (QA) program. Four image sets were created comprising two geometric images to independently test the distance to agreement (DTA) and dose difference (DD) elements of the gamma algorithm, a clinical step and shoot IMRT field and a clinical VMAT arc. The images were analysed using global and local gamma analysis with 2 in-house and 8 commercially available software encompassing 15 software versions. The effect of image resolution on gamma pass rates was also investigated. All but one software accurately calculated the gamma passing rate for the geometric images. Variation in global gamma passing rates of 1% at 3%/3mm and over 2% at 1%/1mm was measured between software and software versions with analysis of appropriately sampled images. This study provides a suite of test images and the gamma pass rates achieved for a selection of commercially available software. This image suite will enable validation of gamma analysis software within a QA program and provide a frame of reference by which to compare results reported in the literature from various manufacturers and software versions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Post-irradiation examination of fuel elements of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (Report-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, J.K.; Sah, D.N.; Chatterjee, S.; Sivaramkrishnan, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed post-irradiation examination of three initial load fuel elements of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) has been carried out. The causes of the element failures have been analysed. It was observed that almost 90% of the length of the elements exoerienced nodular corrosion. It has been estimated that nodular corrosion would seriously affect the wall thickness and surface temperature of higher rated elements. Lunar shaped fret marks have also been observed at some spacer grid locations in the elements. The depth of the largest fret mark was measured to be 16.9% clad wall thickness. Detailed metallographic examination of the clad and fuel in the three elements has been done. The temperatures at different structural regions of the fuel cross-sections have been estimated. The change in fuel density during irradiation has been evaluated by comparing the irradiated fuel diameter with the mean pellet design diameter. The performance of the end plug welds and spacer grid sites in the elements has been assessed. The burnup distribution along the length of the elements has been evaluated by gamma scanning. The redistribution of fission products in the fuel has been examined by gamma scanning and beta-gamma autoradiography. Mechanical properties of the irradiated cladding have been examined by ring tensile testing. (auth.)

  19. Prompt Gamma Radiation from Fragments in the Thermal Fission of {sup 235}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden); Lindow, L [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1970-06-15

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way a decay curve was obtained from which the life-time of one of the gamma-emitting states could be estimated. The relative yield of the gamma-rays was determined as a function of mass for different gamma-ray energy portions and two specific time intervals after the fission events. Comparisons were made with data obtained from {sup 252} Cf-fission. Attention is drawn to some features which seem to be the same in {sup 235}U and {sup 252} Cf-fission.

  20. Estimation of expected value for lognormal and gamma distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    Concentrations of environmental pollutants tend to follow positively skewed frequency distributions. Two such density functions are the gamma and lognormal. Minimum variance unbiased estimators of the expected value for both densities are available. The small sample statistical properties of each of these estimators were compared for its own distribution, as well as the other distribution to check the robustness of the estimator. Results indicated that the arithmetic mean provides an unbiased estimator when the underlying density function of the sample is either lognormal or gamma, and that the achieved coverage of the confidence interval is greater than 75 percent for coefficients of variation less than two. Further Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to study the robustness of the above estimators by simulating a lognormal or gamma distribution with the expected value of a particular observation selected from a uniform distribution before the lognormal or gamma observation is generated. Again, the arithmetic mean provides an unbiased estimate of expected value, and the coverage of the confidence interval is greater than 75 percent for coefficients of variation less than two

  1. The NRPI multi-purpose on-line monitoring station for measurement of natural radioactivity in the ambient atmosphere and in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, K.; Slezakova, M.; Fronka, A.; Prokop, T.; Neubauer, L.

    2017-01-01

    During years 2010 12 an automated, on-line and wireless outdoor measurement station of atmospheric radon, gamma dose rate and meteorological parameters was realised at the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. At the turn of the year 2013 an expansion of the existing station was completed. Under the project funded by the Czech Technological Agency a new updated station was established, additionally equipped with modules for measurement of atmospheric radon/thoron short-lived decay products, radon in water and soil and radon exhalation rate from soil. After the introduction of the station updated key detection parameters and benefits, its use for atmospheric modelling and monitoring is demonstrated. There are summarised results from the 3-year measurement period in the NRPI outdoor area in Prague and from simultaneous annual measurement performed by another similar station located near uranium mud fields in DIAMO, state enterprise, Straz pod Ralskem. Observed seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric radon concentrations and variability of the equilibrium factor, F, are illustrated and compared. (authors)

  2. Comparing Effects Of GAMMA And Electron Beam Irradiation On Microbiological And Biochemical Characters Of Selected Egyptian Aromatic Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, S.A.; YUSSEF, B.M.; SHAMS EL DIEEN, N.M.; ABDALLA, M.

    2009-01-01

    Selected Egyptian aromatic herbs (AH) which face demand for exporting abroad, such as spearmint (Mentha viridis Linn.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), were exposed to gamma and electron beam (EB) irradiation at different doses (5 and 10 kGy). The evaluation of irradiation efficiency was based on microbiological and biochemical studies including changes in volatile compounds and antioxidative activity. The microbiological assay revealed presence of high load levels in raw AH with log of total bacteria of rosemary (6.862 cfu.g-1) and spearmint (6.762 cfu.g -1 ) while marjoram was the lowest one (5.771 cfu.g -1 ). The highest levels of the log of total molds and yeast counts were observed in marjoram (5.097 cfu.g -1 ) while the less levels were observed in rosemary and spearmint. Using gamma irradiation was more effective than EB in decontamination of microbes either in reducing numbers to safe levels at 5 kGy or completely elimination at high dose (10 kGy) in all tested samples. Some specific bacteria were present in AH such as Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens at different levels whereas the log of E. faecalis was detected only in marjoram and spearmint with heavy load as 4.554 and 3.427 cfu.g -1 , respectively, while rosemary was less than 2 cfu.g -1 . Irradiation with both sources at 5 kGy reduced the count by about 2 log cycles in marjoram and 1 log cycle in spearmint. No colonies of the same microbe were detected at high dose (10 kGy) in all herbs with exception of marjoram. The log of B. cereus contamination was higher in spearmint than marjoram then rosemary. Irradiation of AH at 5 kGy reduced these values whereas high dose (10 kGy) caused complete elimination of B. cereus.GLC analysis of AH volatile oils showed presence of 22 compounds in spearmint included mainly carvon specific smells of spearmint besides monoterpens as α- -pinen (1.6%), Β-pinen (2.06%), limonene (4.75%). Also

  3. Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, L.J. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC (United States). National Climatic Data Center

    1997-02-01

    This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

  4. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The results of all aspects of the early space station satellite servicing study tasks are presented. These results include identification of servicing tasks (and locations), identification of servicing mission system and detailed objectives, functional/operational requirements analyses of multiple servicing scenarios, assessment of critical servicing technology capabilities and development of an evolutionary capability plan, design and validation of selected servicing technology development missions (TDMs), identification of space station satellite servicing accommodation needs, and the cost and schedule implications of acquiring both required technology capability development and conducting the selected TDMs.

  5. Compatibility of the Space Station Freedom life sciences research centrifuge with microgravity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is developing a Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility for Space Station Freedom. In includes a 2.5-meter artificial gravity Bioresearch Centrifuge (BC), which is perhaps the most critical single element in the life sciences space research program. It rotates continuously at precise selectable rates, and utilizes advanced reliable technologies to reduce vibrations. Three disturbance types are analyzed using a current Space Station Freedom dynamic model in the 0.0 to 5.0 Hz range: sinusoidal, random, and transient. Results show that with proper selection of proven design techniques, BC vibrations are compatible with requirements.

  6. Milliken Station Demonstration Project FDG retrofit update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, R.C.; Jackson, C.E.; O`Dea, D.T. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The Milliken Clean Coal Demonstration Project is one of the nine Clean Coal Projects selected for funding in Round 4 of the U.S. DOE`s Clean Coal Demonstration Program. The project`s sponsor is New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG). Project team members include CONSOL Inc., Saarberg-Holter-Umwelttechnik (SHU), NALCO/FuelTech, Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Co., DHR Technologies, and CE Air Preheater. Gilbert/Commonwealth is the Architect/Engineer and Construction Manager for the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) retrofit. The project will provide full-scale demonstration of a combination of innovative emission-reducing technologies and plant upgraded for the control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired steam generator without a significant loss of station efficiency. The overall project goals are the following: 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency using limestone while burning high sulfur coal; up to 70% NO{sub x} reduction using the NOXOUT selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology in conjunction with combustion modifications; minimization of solid waste by producing marketable by-products including commercial grade gypsum, calcium chloride, and fly ash; zero wastewater discharge; maintenance of station efficiency by using a high efficiency heat-pipe air heater system and a low-power-consuming scrubber system. The demonstration project is being conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, located in Lansing, New York. Milliken Station has two 150-MWe pulverized coal-fired units built in the 1950s by Combustion Engineering. The SHU FGD process and the combustion modifications are being installed on both units, but the NOXOUT process, Plant Economic Optimization Advisor (PEOA), and the high-efficiency air heater system will be installed on only one unit.

  7. Nitric oxide selectively decreases interferon-gamma expression by activated human T lymphocytes via a cGMP-independent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, R; Vellenga, E; Postma, DS; De Monchy, JGR; Kauffman, HF

    1999-01-01

    The role of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by freshly isolated human T lymphocytes was investigated. The presence of NO, generated from any of the NO-donor compounds, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (NAP),

  8. {gamma} ray spectroscopy of neutron rich nuclei around N=20; Spectroscopie {gamma} des noyaux riches en neutrons autour de N=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelin, M

    2007-09-15

    There is an island of inversion around {sup 32}Mg (12 protons, 20 neutrons) in contradiction with a shell closure N=20. It means a coexistence of spherical and deformed shapes. This work is devoted to the study of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy for nuclei in this region, based on an experiment done at GANIL with a composite secondary beam produced by fragmentation. The originality of the method used here lies in the possibility to study simultaneously several nuclei, and for each of them to explore several reaction channels. The VAMOS spectrometer was used for the identification of the ejectiles. The {gamma}-rays were detected with EXOGAM, a germanium clover array. The detectors used before and after the target allowed for a unique identification and a selection of the reaction channel: inelastic scattering, transfer and fragmentation reaction. In this thesis the following nuclei were studied: {sup 28}Ne, {sup 30-32}Mg {sup 31-34}Al, {sup 33-35}Si, {sup 35}P. New {gamma}-rays have been observed. The {gamma}-ray angular distributions and {gamma}-{gamma} angular correlations have been measured for some transitions. Assignment of spins and parities has been proposed for some states. In particular, in {sup 34}Si, the 3{sup -} assignment is confirmed and a new candidate for the second 0{sup +} has been proposed. In {sup 32}Mg, the state at 2.321 MeV, for which conflicting assignment existed, is deduced from the present data as a 4{sup +}, and a 6{sup +} state is proposed. (author)

  9. PET with a coincidence gamma camera: results in selected oncological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, I.; Haase, A; Adam, S.; Prueter, I.; Richter, E.; Baehre, M.

    2001-01-01

    Since early 1997, about 1660 investigations with coincidence gamma camera PET (CGC-PET) have been performed in our department, mostly undertaken for oncological questions. Based on these data, several retrospective and prospective studies were performed. In the following, the results in CUP (cancer of unknown primary) syndrome, melanoma and malignant lymphoma are presented. Methods: CGC-PET was performed after application of 250-350 MBq [ 18 F]FDG using a coincidence double head gamma camera with 19 mm Nal cristal. CUP-Syndrome: After completing conventional diagnostic procedures, 32 patients have been examined in a prospective study, including 25 patients with recently detected CUP and 7 patients undergoing restaging after therapy. Localization of the primary tumor was successful in 12 (38%) cases. Melanoma: We evaluated 50 studies in 41 patients suffering from melanoma, retrospectively. CGC-PET showed a sensitivity of 76%, and a specificity of 94%. In comparison to conventional diagnostic methods, CGC-PET delineated important additional information in 16%. CGC-PET was superior to morphological diagnostic tools in the differentiation between residual scar tissue and active tumor following immunochemotherapy. Malignant lymphoma: 29 CGC-PET in 29 patients were performed for staging of malignant lymphoma, sensitivity was 86% versus 88% for CT. Overall CGC-PET showed additional information to conventional diagnostic methods, but revealed problems in detecting small infiltrations of organs. In restaging malignant melanoma (26 patients, 33 studies), specificity of CGC-PET was superior to conventional diagnostics (92% versus 35%). (orig.) [de

  10. Performance of analytical methods for tomographic gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The use of gamma-ray computerized tomography for nondestructive assay of radioactive materials has led to the development of specialized analytical methods. Over the past few years, Los Alamos has developed and implemented a computer code, called ARC-TGS, for the analysis of data obtained by tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). ARC-TGS reduces TGS transmission and emission tomographic data, providing the user with images of the sample contents, the activity or mass of selected radionuclides, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the measured quantities. The results provided by ARC-TGS can be corrected for self-attenuation when the isotope of interest emits more than one gamma-ray. In addition, ARC-TGS provides information needed to estimate TGS quantification limits and to estimate the scan time needed to screen for small amounts of radioactivity. In this report, an overview of the analytical methods used by ARC-TGS is presented along with an assessment of the performance of these methods for TGS

  11. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  12. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  13. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  14. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  15. ATLAS searches for VH, HH, VV, V+$\\gamma$/$\\gamma\\gamma$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441490; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for massive resonances decaying into couples of bosons is described. The considered final states are: $HH$, $VH$, $VV$, $V\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with $V$ indicating either the $W$ or the $Z$ boson. Final states with different number of leptons or photons and where, in many cases, at least one Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which allow to optimize the signal acceptance for low or high Higgs boson transverse momentum. The most recent diboson resonance searches using LHC Run 2 data are described.

  16. Development of gallium arsenide gamma spectrometric detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kuru, I.

    1975-03-01

    GaAs semiconductor material has been considered to be a suitable material for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature since it has a wid-band gap, larger than that of silicon and germanium. The basic objective of this work is to develop a GaAs gamma-ray spectrometric detector which could be used for gamma spectrometric measurement of uranium and plutonium in nuclear fuel safeguards. Liquid phase epitaxial techniques using iron (Fe) as dopant have been developed in making high purity GaAs crystals suitable for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature. Concentration of Fe in the epitaxial crystal was controlled by initial growth temperature. The best quality epitaxial crystal was obtained under the following conditions: starting temperature is about 800degC, the proportion of Fe to Ga solvent is 1 to 300. Carrier concentration of epitaxial crystals grown distributed in the ranges of 10 12 cm -3 to 10 14 cm -3 at room temperature. The thickness of the crystals ranged from 38 μm to 120 μm. Au-GaAs surface barrier detector was made of epitaxial crystal. Some of the detector were encapsulated in a can with a 50 μm Be window by welding a can to the detector holder. The detector with high energy resolution and good charge collecting characteristics was selected by alpha spectrometry at room temperature. Energy resolution of the detector for gamma-rays up to about 200 keV was very good at room temperature operation. The best energy resolutions taken with a GaAs detector were 3 keV (fwhm) and 3.8 keV for 241 Am 59.6 keV and 57 Co 122 keV, respectively, at room temperature. In order to study the applicability of the detector for nuclear safeguards, the measurements of 235 U gamma-ray spectrum have been carried out at room temperature. It was clarified that the gamma-ray spectrum of enriched U sample could be measured in high resolution with GaAs detector at room temperature, and that the content of 235 U in enriched U sources could be determined by

  17. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  18. Method of incident low-energy gamma-ray direction reconstruction in the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheymits, M D; Leonov, A A; Zverev, V G; Galper, A M; Arkhangelskaya, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Yurkin, Yu T; Bakaldin, A V; Suchkov, S I; Topchiev, N P; Dalkarov, O D

    2016-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space-based telescope has as its main goals to measure cosmic γ-ray fluxes and the electron-positron cosmic-ray component produced, theoretically, in dark-matter-particles decay or annihilation processes, to search for discrete γ-ray sources and study them in detail, to examine the energy spectra of diffuse γ-rays — both galactic and extragalactic — and to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and γ-rays from the active Sun. Scientific goals of GAMMA-400 telescope require fine angular resolution. The telescope is of a pair-production type. In the converter-tracker, the incident gamma-ray photon converts into electron-positron pair in the tungsten layer and then the tracks are detected by silicon- strip position-sensitive detectors. Multiple scattering processes become a significant obstacle in the incident-gamma direction reconstruction for energies below several gigaelectronvolts. The method of utilising this process to improve the resolution is proposed in the presented work. (paper)

  19. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

    Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

  20. Observations of the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    EGRET has extended the highest energy observations of gamma-ray bursts to GeV gamma rays. Such high energies imply the fireball that is radiating the gamma-rays has a bulk Lorentz factor of several hundred. However, EGRET only detected a few gamma-ray bursts. GLAST will likely detect several hundred bursts and may extend the maximum energy to a few 100 GeV. Meanwhile new ground based detectors with sensitivity to gamma-ray bursts are beginning operation, and one recently reported evidence for TeV emission from a burst

  1. Principle and methodology of nuclear power plant site selection. Application to radiocobalt cycle in the Rhone river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.

    1987-01-01

    In a first bibliographic part, after some generalities on radioactivity and nuclear power, general principles of radiation protection and national and international regulations are presented. The methodology of the radioecological study involved in site selection is developed. In a second more experimental part, the processing of radiocobalt gamma radioactivity measurement in water, fishes, plants and Rhone river sediments demonstrates the influence of age and geographical situation of the nuclear power stations located along the river. A laboratory experiment of cobalt 60 transfer from chironomes larvae to carp is carried out. Comparison with the results of other laboratory experiments makes it possible to propose an experimental model of cobalt transfer within a fresh water ecosystem; radioactivity levels calculated for various compartments seem to be consistent with the Rhone river levels [fr

  2. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  3. Performance evaluation of gamma irradiated SiR-EPDM blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepalaxmi, R., E-mail: deepalaxmivaithi@gmail.com; Rajini, V.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The effects of gamma irradiation on SiR-EPDM blend are examined. • Cross-linking reaction is dominant in blends C, D and E, due to higher EPDM content. • The tensile strength and hardness of blend E is improved by gamma irradiation. • The blend C and EPDM rich blends (D, E) are found to have superior performance. • Among C, D and E, suitable blend can be selected for a particular NPP application. - Abstract: Cable insulation materials (CIM) should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in nuclear power plants (NPP). The CIM will be exposed to gamma irradiation at the installed locations. In order to forecast long-term performance of CIM, the short time accelerated testing was carried out. Due to its good mechanical strength, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is widely used as CIM. Silicone rubber (SiR) is used in high temperature environments, due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of these two polymers may result in the improvement in their specific properties. This paper analyses the effects of gamma irradiation on the five different compositions (90-10; 70-30; 50-50; 30-70; 10-90) of SiR-EPDM blends. The blends were exposed to four different doses (25 Mrad, 100 Mrad, 200 Mrad and 250 Mrad) of gamma irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like volume resistivity (VRY), surface resistivity (SRY), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), hardness (H) of the virgin and gamma irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simultaneous occurrence of cross-linking and chain scission is found to be the mechanism for ageing in SiR-EPDM blends. The electrical parameters such as volume resistivity and surface resistivity of all the blends are found to improve for all doses of gamma irradiation. To validate the influence of cross-linking reaction of the Si

  4. Occipital Alpha and Gamma Oscillations Support Complementary Mechanisms for Processing Stimulus Value Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Tom R; den Boer, Sebastiaan; Cools, Roshan; Jensen, Ole; Fallon, Sean James; Zumer, Johanna M

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous information going unnoticed. Neural systems are also in place for processing rewarding and punishing information. Here, we examine the interaction between selective attention (left vs. right) and stimulus's learned value associations (neutral, punished, or rewarded) and how they compete for control of posterior neural oscillations. We found that both attention and stimulus-value associations influenced neural oscillations. Whereas selective attention had comparable effects on alpha and gamma oscillations, value associations had dissociable effects on these neural markers of attention. Salient targets (associated with positive and negative outcomes) hijacked changes in alpha power-increasing hemispheric alpha lateralization when salient targets were attended, decreasing it when they were being ignored. In contrast, hemispheric gamma-band lateralization was specifically abolished by negative distractors. Source analysis indicated occipital generators of both attentional and value effects. Thus, posterior cortical oscillations support both the ability to selectively attend while at the same time retaining the ability to remain sensitive to valuable features in the environment. Moreover, the versatility of our attentional system to respond separately to salient from merely positively valued stimuli appears to be carried out by separate neural processes reflected in different frequency bands.

  5. Inclusive Search for the Higgs Boson in the $H \\to \\gamma\\gamma$ Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Pieri, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Letts, James; Litvin, V; Branson, James G

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of the inclusive search for the Higgs boson in the H->gamma gamma channel with the CMS detector at LHC. The analysis is based on full Monte Carlo simulation. Though for the moment we have only simulated data to work with, we have designed an analysis that can determine the background from real data and will thus only depend on signal Monte Carlo when data will be available. This largely reduces the systematic error and, together with the excellent energy resolution of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, enables a search that would otherwise be very difficult because of the large amount of expected background. We have studied both a standard cut-based search and a more optimized analysis that takes advantage of the wide range of signal/background expectations as function of the possible selection cuts. Since discovery in this channel is expected to take one or more years of LHC running, such optimized analyses should be studied to minimize the time to discovery and to assu...

  6. Quality assessment of gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindler, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are methods and equipment in nuclear medical diagnostics that allow selective visualisation of the functioning of organs or organ systems, using radioactive substances for labelling and demonstration of metabolic processes. Following a previous contribution on fundamentals and systems components of a gamma camera system, the article in hand deals with the quality characteristics of such a system and with practical quality control and its significance for clinical applications. [de

  7. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  8. Studying the ability of mutation and selection of promising lines of Brassia Verrucosa Lindl. by gamma irradiation in combination with in vitro technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thi Thuy Linh; Le Van Thuc; Dang Thi Dien; Han Huynh Dien; Le Thi Bich Thy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to induce mutation in Warty Brassia (Brassia verrucosa Lindl.) through in vitro mutagenesis by treating the bud clusters with gamma irradiation, aiming to select the valuable varieties of Warty Brassia. The following contents were conducted: detecting of genetic polymorphism of the variants by applying RAPD analysis; evaluating the growth of variation forms of Warty Brassia obtaining after irradiation in the nursery stage; selecting desired variations. The results revealed that 9 variants were examined genetic diversity, 8 variants there were genetic differences among 8 variants and original variety. There were differences in the growth potential among morphological variants under nursery condition. The mutants having large pseudobulb, dark green leaves and the mutants having pseudobulb round in shape, short leaves promise to develop mutants strains. Types of mutation were selected and multiply rapidly from generation M_1V_1 - M_1V_3, they retained 100% morphological features of their parents. The study is being conducting to assess the flower color and shape of the mutants derived from Warty Brassia. (author)

  9. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveczky, Maria M; Sherwood, Tracy A; Klein, Thomas W; Friedman, Herman; Medveczky, Peter G

    2004-09-15

    The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome of gamma herpesviruses persists in lymphoid cell nuclei in a latent episomal circular form. In response to extracellular signals, the latent virus can be activated, which leads to production of infectious virus progeny. Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of THC on gamma herpesvirus replication. Tissue cultures infected with various gamma herpesviruses were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of THC and the amount of viral DNA or infectious virus yield was compared to those of control cultures. The effect of THC on Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication was measured by the Gardella method and replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) of monkeys, murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (MHV 68), and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) was measured by yield reduction assays. Inhibition of the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase method. Micromolar concentrations of THC inhibit KSHV and EBV reactivation in virus infected/immortalized B cells. THC also strongly inhibits lytic replication of MHV 68 and HVS in vitro. Importantly, concentrations of THC that inhibit virus replication of gamma herpesviruses have no effect on cell growth or HSV-1 replication, indicating selectivity. THC was shown to selectively inhibit the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter of KSHV and MHV 68. THC specifically targets viral and/or cellular mechanisms required for replication and possibly shared by these gamma herpesviruses, and the endocannabinoid system is possibly involved in regulating gamma herpesvirus latency and lytic replication. The immediate early gene ORF 50 promoter activity was specifically inhibited by THC. These studies may also provide the foundation for the development

  10. Constraints on the galactic distribution of cosmic rays from the COS-B gamma-ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The velocity information of the HI and CO observations is used as a distance indicator to ascertain the spatial distribution of the interstellar gas. Using this distance information, the galacto-centric distribution of the gamma-ray emissivity (the production rate per H atom) is determined for three gamma-ray energy ranges from a correlation study of the gamma-ray intensity maps and the gas-tracer maps for selected galacto-centric distance intervals, taking into account the expected IC contribution and pointlike gamma-ray sources. On the assumption that unresolved gamma-ray point sources do not contribute significantly to the observed gamma-ray emission, the gamma-ray emissivity is proportional to the Cosmic ray density and, more specifically, the energy dependence can be used to study separately the distribution of Cosmic ray electrons and nuclei: whereas the emission for the 300 MeV - 5 GeV range is dominated by π 0 -decay, the 70 MeV - 150 MeV range has a large electron bremsstrahlung contribution

  11. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  12. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  13. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk

    2002-12-01

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of 137 Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants

  14. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  15. Measurement of the $W^{+}W^{-} \\gamma$ Cross-section and First direct Limits on Anomalous Electroweak Quartic Gauge Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    A study of W+W- events accompanied by hard photon radiation produced in e+e- collisions at LEP is presented. Events consistent with two on-shell W-bosons and an isolated photon are selected from 183pb^-1 of data recorded at root{s}=189GeV. From these data, 17 W+W-gamma candidates are selected with photon energy greater than 10GeV, consistent with the Standard Model expectation. These events are used to measure the e+e- to W+W-gamma cross-section within a set of geometric and kinematic cuts; sigma{W+W-gamma} = 136+-37+-8 fb, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. The photon energy spectrum is used to set the first direct, albeit weak, limits on possible anomalous contributions to the {W+ W- gamma gamma} and {W+ W- gamma Z0} vertices: -0.070GeV^{-2} < a_0/Lambda^2 < 0.070GeV^{-2}, -0.13GeV^{-2} < a_c/Lambda^2 < 0.19GeV^{-2}, -0.61GeV^{-2} < a_n/Lambda^2 < 0.57GeV^{-2}, where Lambda represents the energy scale for new physics.

  16. Optimized Design of Spacing in Pulsed Neutron Gamma Density Logging While Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Feng;HAN Zhong-yue;WU He;HAN Fei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive source, used in traditional density logging, has great impact on the environment, while the pulsed neutron source applied in the logging tool is more safety and greener. In our country, the pulsed neutron-gamma density logging technology is still in the stage of development. Optimizing the parameters of neutron-gamma density instrument is essential to improve the measuring accuracy. This paper mainly studied the effects of spacing to typical neutron-gamma density logging tool which included one D-T neutron generator and two gamma scintillation detectors. The optimization of spacing were based on measuring sensitivity and counting statistic. The short spacing from 25 to 35 cm and long spacing from 60 to 65 cm were selected as the optimal position for near and far detector respectively. The result can provide theoretical support for design and manufacture of the instrument.

  17. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes using SWORD (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, C.; Grove, J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mattson, K.; Polaski, D.; Jackson, L.

    2013-12-01

    We report on simulations of the relativistic feedback discharges involved with the production of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The simulations were conducted using Geant4 using the SoftWare for the Optimization of Radiation Detectors (SWORD) framework. SWORD provides a graphical interface for setting up simulations in select high-energy radiation transport engines. Using Geant4, we determine avalanche length, the energy spectrum of the electrons and gamma-rays as they leave the field region, and the feedback factor describing the degree to which the production of energetic particles is self-sustaining. We validate our simulations against previous work in order to determine the reliability of our results. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  18. Of repeat stations and tectonic regionalization of Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Doneva, Blagitsa; Delipetrov, Todor; Rasson, L. Jean

    2010-01-01

    Geomagnetic field is vector sum of causes deep in the Earth's interior and their influence can be felt in the whole Earth. There are sources of magnetic fields which are characterized for larger regions and local anomalous geomagnetic fields. When selecting the location of base station, regions where local geomagnetic anomalies are present, should be avoided, with aim to receive measured results which gives the geomagnetic field characteristic for that region. The territory of the Republic of Macedonia has complex relief, and also has complex geological structure and these features have high influence on the regional geomagnetic field. Bearing in mind the complex relief and geological structure, strict procedure of geomagnetic field observations were conducted for every selected location for repeat station. Maps from the measurements in 2004 are also presented in this paper. (Author)

  19. Removal of endocrine disruptors PAEs in drinking water by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Zheng Zheng; Zheng Binguo; Wang Changbao; Li Lili

    2012-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) belong to environmental endocrine disruptor. The dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were selected for the radiation study. The removal efficiencies of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water by gamma-ray irradiation are discussed. The results show that these PAEs could be efficiently removed by gamma-ray irradiation. The removal efficiencies of DMP, DEP and DBP (12 mg/L) in aqueous solutions by 0.8 kGy gamma-ray treatment were 96.6%, 94.5% and 86.2%. The absorbed dose needed for the removal of total carbon in aqueous solutions was much larger than the doses for PAEs degradation. When 2 kGy was selected, the removal efficiencies of TC for DMP, DEP and DBP were only 23.6%, 14.3% and 12.9%. The study results also show that the radiation degradation reaction of PAEs should be divided into two stages: low dose addition reaction and high dose ring-opening reaction. This study is of significance in the disposal of micro-polluted drinking water. (authors)

  20. Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Xuan Phong; Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Xuan Hai; Le Van Ngoc; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Dang Lanh; Tran Quoc Duong

    2013-01-01

    In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

  1. Theta-Gamma Coding Meets Communication-through-Coherence: Neuronal Oscillatory Multiplexing Theories Reconciled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Douglas; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-10-01

    Several theories have been advanced to explain how cross-frequency coupling, the interaction of neuronal oscillations at different frequencies, could enable item multiplexing in neural systems. The communication-through-coherence theory proposes that phase-matching of gamma oscillations between areas enables selective processing of a single item at a time, and a later refinement of the theory includes a theta-frequency oscillation that provides a periodic reset of the system. Alternatively, the theta-gamma neural code theory proposes that a sequence of items is processed, one per gamma cycle, and that this sequence is repeated or updated across theta cycles. In short, both theories serve to segregate representations via the temporal domain, but differ on the number of objects concurrently represented. In this study, we set out to test whether each of these theories is actually physiologically plausible, by implementing them within a single model inspired by physiological data. Using a spiking network model of visual processing, we show that each of these theories is physiologically plausible and computationally useful. Both theories were implemented within a single network architecture, with two areas connected in a feedforward manner, and gamma oscillations generated by feedback inhibition within areas. Simply increasing the amplitude of global inhibition in the lower area, equivalent to an increase in the spatial scope of the gamma oscillation, yielded a switch from one mode to the other. Thus, these different processing modes may co-exist in the brain, enabling dynamic switching between exploratory and selective modes of attention.

  2. Total Cross Section in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2001-01-01

    The reaction e+e- -> e+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons for quasi-real photons is studied using data from root(s) = 183 GeV up to 202 GeV. Results on the total cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e- hadrons) and sigma(+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons) are given for the two-photon centre-of-mass energies 5 GeV < Wgammagamma < 185 GeV. The total cross section of two real photons is described by a Regge parametrisation. We observe a steeper rise with the two-photon centre-of-mass energy as compared to the hadron-hadron and the photon-proton cross sections. The data are also compared to the expectations of different theoretical models.

  3. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  4. Environmental radiological studies downstream from Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.W.; Brunk, J.L.; Jokela, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the information compiled in 1984 while assessing the environmental impact of radionuclides in aquatic releases from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station. Gamma-emitting radionuclides discharged since 1981 are found in many of the dietary components derived from the creeks receiving the effluent wastewater. Some soils and crops are found to contain radionuclides that originate from the contaminated water that was transferred to land during the irrigation season. 134 Cs and 137 Cs are the primary gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the edible flesh of fish from the creeks. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased exponentially with distance from the plant. No significant differences in the 137 Cs activity were found between male and female fish of equal size, but concentrations may vary in fish of different size, with the season and diet. 21% of the total 137 Cs and 134 Cs discharged between 1981 and 1984 is associated with the creek sediments to a distance of 27 km from the plant. Fractions of the missing inventory have been transferred to land during the irrigation season or to downstream regions more distant than 27 km from the plant. The radiocesium content of the sediments in 1984 decreased significantly in a downstream direction, much in the same manner as concentrations decreased in fish. Radioactivity originating from the plant was not above detection limits in any terrestrial food item sampled beyond 6.5 km from the plant. Based on the usage factors provided by individuals interviewed in a 1984 survey, the fish and aquatic-organism ingestion pathway contributed the largest radiological dose to humans utilizing products contaminated with the radionuclides in the liquid wastes discharged from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station in 1984

  5. Regional travel-time residual studies and station correction from 1-D velocity models for some stations around Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Abel U.; Nawawi, Mohd.; Khalil, Amin Esmail; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the average P-wave travel-time residuals for some stations around Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore at regional distances. Six years (January, 2010-December, 2015) record of events from central and northern Sumatra was obtained from the digital seismic archives of Integrated Research Institute for Seismology (IRIS). The criteria used for the data selection are designed to be above the magnitude of mb 4.5, depth less than 200 km and an epicentral distance shorter than 1000 km. Within this window a total number of 152 earthquakes were obtained. Furthermore, data were filtered based on the clarity of the seismic phases that are manually picked. A total of 1088 P-wave arrivals and 962 S-wave arrivals were hand-picked from 10 seismic stations around the Peninsula. Three stations IPM, KUM, and KOM from Peninsular Malaysia, four stations BTDF, NTU, BESC and KAPK from Singapore and three stations SURA, SRIT and SKLT located in the southern part of Thailand are used. Station NTU was chosen as the Ref. station because it recorded the large number of events. Travel-times were calculated using three 1-D models (Preliminary Ref. Earth Model PREM (Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981, IASP91, and Lienert et al., 1986) and an adopted two-point ray tracing algorithm. For the three models, we corroborate our calculated travel-times with the results from the use of TAUP travel-time calculation software. Relative to station NTU, our results show that the average P wave travel-time residual for PREM model ranges from -0.16 to 0.45 s for BESC and IPM respectively. For IASP91 model, the average residual ranges from -0.25 to 0.24 s for SRIT and SKLT respectively, and ranges from -0.22 to 0.30 s for KAPK and IPM respectively for Lienert et al. (1986) model. Generally, most stations have slightly positive residuals relative to station NTU. These corrections reflect the difference between actual and estimated model velocities along ray paths to stations and

  6. Setup and Calibration of SLAC's Peripheral Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.

    2004-09-03

    The goals of this project were to troubleshoot, repair, calibrate, and establish documentation regarding SLAC's (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's) PMS (Peripheral Monitoring Station) system. The PMS system consists of seven PMSs that continuously monitor skyshine (neutron and photon) radiation levels in SLAC's environment. Each PMS consists of a boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}) neutron detector (model RS-P1-0802-104 or NW-G-20-12) and a Geiger Moeller (GM) gamma ray detector (model TGM N107 or LND 719) together with their respective electronics. Electronics for each detector are housed in Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIMs) and are plugged into a NIM bin in the station. All communication lines from the stations to the Main Control Center (MCC) were tested prior to troubleshooting. To test communication with MCC, a pulse generator (Systron Donner model 100C) was connected to each channel in the PMS and data at MCC was checked for consistency. If MCC displayed no data, the communication cables to MCC or the CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) crates were in need of repair. If MCC did display data, then it was known that the communication lines were intact. All electronics from each station were brought into the lab for troubleshooting. Troubleshooting usually consisted of connecting an oscilloscope or scaler (Ortec model 871 or 775) at different points in the circuit of each detector to record simulated pulses produced by a pulse generator; the input and output pulses were compared to establish the location of any problems in the circuit. Once any problems were isolated, repairs were done accordingly. The detectors and electronics were then calibrated in the field using radioactive sources. Calibration is a process that determines the response of the detector. Detector response is defined as the ratio of the number of counts per minute interpreted by the detector to the amount of dose equivalent rate (in mrem per hour, either calculated

  7. Portable gamma-ray holdup and attributes measurements of high- and variable-burnup plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, T.R.; Russo, P.A.; Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Takahashi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoki, I.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup-plutonium holdup has been assayed quantitatively by low resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The assay was calibrated with four plutonium standards representing a range of fuel burnup and 241 Am content. Selection of a calibration standard based on its qualitative spectral similarity to gamma-ray spectra of the process material is partially responsible for the success of these holdup measurements. The spectral analysis method is based on the determination of net counts in a single spectral region of interest (ROI). However, the low-resolution gamma-ray assay signal for the high-burnup plutonium includes unknown amounts of contamination from 241 Am. For most needs, the range of calibration standards required for this selection procedure is not available. A new low-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis procedure for assay of 239 Pu has been developed. The procedure uses the calculated isotope activity ratios and the measured net counts in three spectral ROIs to evaluate and remove the 241 Am contamination from the 239 Pu assay signal on a spectrum-by-spectrum basis. The calibration for the new procedure requires only a single plutonium standard. The procedure also provides a measure of the burnup and age attributes of holdup deposits. The new procedure has been demonstrated using portable gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment for a wide range of plutonium standards and has also been applied to the assay of 239 Pu holdup in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoharan, V.; Thangavelu, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M 1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M 2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M 2 plants being 1,730. All the M 2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  9. Multi-dimensional analysis of high resolution {gamma}-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Huettmeier, U.J.; France, G. de; Haas, B.; Romain, P.; Theisen, Ch.; Vivien, J.P.; Zen, J. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1992-12-31

    A new generation of high resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometers capable of recording high-fold coincidence events with a large efficiency will soon be available. Algorithms are developed to analyze high-fold {gamma}-ray coincidences. As a contribution to the software development associated with the EUROGAM spectrometer, the performances of computer codes designed to select multi-dimensional gates from 3-, 4- and 5-fold coincidence databases were tested. The tests were performed on events generated with a Monte Carlo simulation and also on real experimental triple data recorded with the 8{pi} spectrometer and with a preliminary version of the EUROGAM array. (R.P.) 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs.

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  11. Application of Principal Component Analysis in Prompt Gamma Spectra for Material Sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hee Jung; Lee, Yun Hee; Song, Byoung Chul; Park, Yong Joon; Kim, Won Ho

    2006-11-15

    For the detection of illicit materials in a very short time by comparing unknown samples' gamma spectra to pre-programmed material signatures, we at first, selected a method to reduce the noise of the obtained gamma spectra. After a noise reduction, a pattern recognition technique was applied to discriminate the illicit materials from the innocuous materials in the noise reduced data. Principal component analysis was applied for a noise reduction and pattern recognition in prompt gamma spectra. A computer program for the detection of illicit materials based on PCA method was developed in our lab and can be applied to the PGNAA system for the baggage checking at all ports of entry at a very short time.

  12. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. We also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  13. Prompt dipole gamma-ray emission in fusionlike heavy-ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pierroutsakou, D; Di Pietro, M; Mordente, R; Ordine, A; Romoli, M; De Rosa, A; Inglima, G; La Commara, M; Martin, B; Roca, V; Sandoli, M; Trotta, M; Vardaci, E; Ming, R; Rizzo, F; Soramel, F; Stroe, L

    2003-01-01

    The sup 3 sup 2 S+ sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Mo and sup 3 sup 6 S+ sup 9 sup 6 Mo fusionlike reactions were studied at incident energy of E sub l sub a sub b =298 MeV and 320 MeV, respectively, with the aim of probing the influence of the entrance channel charge asymmetry on the dipole gamma-ray emission. The excitation energy and spin distribution of the compound nucleus created in these reactions were identical, the only difference being associated with the unequal charge asymmetry of the two entrance channels. High-energy gamma-rays were detected in an array of 9 seven-pack BaF sub 2 clusters. Coincidence with fusionlike residues detected in four PPAC ensured the selection of central reaction events. By studying the differential gamma-ray multiplicity associated with the two reactions it was shown that the dipole strength excited in the compound nucleus increases with the entrance channel charge asymmetry. From the linearized spectra, the increase of the GDR gamma-ray intensity was found to be propor to 25% for th...

  14. Shielding of gamma field in residential houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smejkal, Z; Pavlata, M [Univ. Pardubice, (Czech Republic); Pokorna, I; Urban, M [Institute of CO CR, 53341 Lazne Bohdanec (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In the past some flats were built from defective materials contained uranium-238, which radiate dangerous gamma radiation. The object of this work consisted in searching mechanical barriers, which would decrease penetrating of this radiation into a flat. The measurement was realized in system made of connecting of Ge/Li detector with multichannel analyser MCA JAK 202 and IBM PC. Plenty of building parts such as bricks, plaster slabs with/without lead dust, wasted plaster from Pocerady Electric Power Station (EPS), etc., were measured to get and compare shading abilities. Maximal intensity of gamma radiation (47.1%) is visible for energy E=609 keV radium-226, therefore the measurement was only carried out for this energy. The measurement performed in defective houses start during years 1988-1991 demonstrated that excepting higher activity radon-222 and its daughter products forms uneligible gamma field, as well. This is limited by values of rate dose equivalent. The problem was successfully solved by lead slabs fixed to wood construction that is covered by applications. The manipulation with materials and construction was difficult, therefore another materials and segments were tested, for more easy fix to defective walls. In 1995 the experiment was realised in the cooperation with the chemical department of Pocerady EPS, the plaster is outlet product from the removing sulphur process. There were made an experimental slabs, sizes 18 x 18 x 2 cm. The barrier effect of slabs were compared with other building material and parts. So that the elimination of radiation would be effective is necessary reduce the level of radiation penetrating to the smallest level. However, the the thickness of shading material is limited by economical reasons, prices of material, square weighting and reducing of living room. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Doubly heavy baryon production at {gamma}{gamma} collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shiyuan [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: lishy@sdu.edu.cn; Si Zongguo [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: zgsi@sdu.edu.cn; Yang Zhongjuan [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yangzhongjuan@mail.sdu.edu.cn

    2007-05-10

    The inclusive production of doubly heavy baryons {xi}{sub cc} and {xi}{sub bb} at {gamma}{gamma} collider is investigated. It is found that the contribution from the heavy quark pair QQ in color triplet and color sextet are important.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, Miroslav E-mail: fyzimiro@savba.sk; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-03-21

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector {gamma}-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges.

  18. Genetic studies on two soybean cultivars irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of gamma irradiation was used in two Egyptian soybean cultivars; Giza-22 and Giza-82, to induce genetic variability with doses of 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Some agronomic characters were tested in M1 and M2 generations single plants. Oil and protein contents were measured from the resulted mutants of the two soybean cultivars at M2 generation. Some genetic parameters were estimated on the mean values of M2 generation. The results showed significant differences induced by gamma ray doses in all studied characters, particularly for 200 Gy in M1 generation. Gamma irradiation increased the genetic variability in M2 generation, which helped in selecting some high yielding mutants and some mutants with high oil and protein contents from the two cultivars. The estimated coefficients of phenotypic variance as well as coefficient of genotypic variance were high for seeds weight/plant, pod weight/plant, number of seeds/plant, number of pods/plant and number of nods/plant which showed better scope in genetic improvement. Heritability in the broad sense was high in most of the studied characters. The expected genetic advance (G.A) from selection was high for number of seeds, for number of pods, for pods weight and for mature plant height

  19. Probe station for testing of ALICE silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Humanic, T J; Piemonte, C; Rashevsky, A; Sugarbaker, E R; Vacchi, A

    2003-01-01

    Large area, 7.25 cm multiplied by 8.76 cm silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for the ALICE experiment at LHC. An active area of the detector of more than 50 cm**2 imposes high demands on the quality of processing and raw material. Automated testing procedures have been developed to test detectors before mounting them on the ladders. Probe stations for ALICE SDD testing were designed and built at INFN, Trieste and Ohio State University (OSU). Testing procedures, detector selection criteria and some details of the OSU probe station design are discussed.

  20. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  1. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straelberg, E.; Berg, K.; Dowdall, M.

    2010-11-01

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  2. Comparison Of Optical, UV, X-ray, And Gamma-ray Variations Of Selected Blazars In 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Santina; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Walker, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of several gamma-ray bright blazars. We combine optical data obtained at Maria Mitchell Observatory on Nantucket Island with space- and ground-based observations carried out with a variety of instruments. These include a number of other optical telescopes, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope at photon energies of 0.1-200 GeV, the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer at 2.4-10 keV, and the Swift satellite at 0.3-10 keV plus optical and UV wavelengths. Three of the observed blazars proved to be particularly active - BL Lac, 3C 279, and PKS 1510-089. BL Lac was of special interest, varying greatly in optical brightness from night to night. In addition, as reported by the VERITAS group, it exhibited a remarkable, short-lived flare at TeV gamma-ray energies on one of the nights. We cross-correlate the variations in the different wavebands in an effort to guide theoretical interpretations of the optical and high-energy emission from blazars. This project was supported by NSF/REU grant AST-0851892 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association. The research at Boston University was supported in part by NSF grants AST-0907893, and by NASA through Fermi grants NNX08AV65G and NNX11AQ03G.

  3. Assessment of Radiofrequency Radiation Distribution around Mobile Base Stations in Makurdi, Benue State

    OpenAIRE

    J.T. Iortile; E.H. Agba

    2014-01-01

    The radiofrequency field levels of selected MTN and ZAIN base stations in Makurdi were measured using electromagnetic field tester (EMF 827, Lutron). Measurements were done at distances of approximately 5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 metres for each base station at the North, South, West, and East directions. Results shows that the average magnetic field levels of MTN and ZAIN base station ranged between 0.09 μT to 0.15 μT. The mean electric field values for eye, brain and muscles ranged betwee...

  4. Development of a methodology for radionuclide impurity analysis in radiopharmaceuticals using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Eduardo Bonfim de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Poledna, Roberto; Lins, Ronaldo; Leiras, Anderson; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de

    2016-01-01

    The LNMRI has sought to develop a methodology for the identification and accurate detection of gamma radiation impurities stations in metrological level, aiming to meet the recommendations not only of international pharmacopoeia, as well as the CNEN and ANVISA regarding the quality control can ensure patients the doses received by the practices are as low as feasible. As an initial target, it was possible to obtain an efficiency curve with uncertainty around 1% necessary to initiate future measurements of interest applied to nuclear medicine and to start the development of impurities analysis technique. (author)

  5. New nuclear medicine gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villacorta, Edmundo V.

    1997-01-01

    The acquisition of the Open E.CAM and DIACAM gamma cameras by Makati Medical Center is expected to enhance the capabilities of its nuclear medicine facilities. When used as an aid to diagnosis, nuclear medicine entails the introduction of a minute amount of radioactive material into the patient; thus, no reaction or side-effect is expected. When it reaches the particular target organ, depending on the radiopharmaceutical, a lesion will appear as a decrease (cold) area or increase (hot) area in the radioactive distribution as recorded byu the gamma cameras. Gamma camera images in slices or SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography), increase the sensitivity and accuracy in detecting smaller and deeply seated lesions, which otherwise may not be detected in the regular single planar images. Due to the 'open' design of the equipment, claustrophobic patients will no longer feel enclosed during the procedure. These new gamma cameras yield improved resolution and superb image quality, and the higher photon sensitivity shortens imaging acquisition time. The E.CAM, which is the latest generation gamma camera, is featured by its variable angle dual-head system, the only one available in the Philipines, and the excellent choice for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI). From the usual 45 minutes, the acquisition time for gated SPECT imaging of the heart has now been remarkably reduced to 12 minutes. 'Gated' infers snap-shots of the heart in selected phases of its contraction and relaxation as triggered by ECG. The DIACAM is installed in a room with access outside the main entrance of the department, intended specially for bed-borne patients. Both systems are equipped with a network of high performance Macintosh ICOND acquisition and processing computers. Added to the hardware is the ICON processing software which allows total simultaneous acquisition and processing capabilities in the same operator's terminal. Video film and color printers are also provided. Together

  6. Comparative studies of the ITU-T prediction model for radiofrequency radiation emission and real time measurements at some selected mobile base transceiver stations in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeng, S. O

    2014-07-01

    Recent developments in the electronics industry have led to the widespread use of radiofrequency (RF) devices in various areas including telecommunications. The increasing numbers of mobile base station (BTS) as well as their proximity to residential areas have been accompanied by public health concerns due to the radiation exposure. The main objective of this research was to compare and modify the ITU- T predictive model for radiofrequency radiation emission for BTS with measured data at some selected cell sites in Accra, Ghana. Theoretical and experimental assessment of radiofrequency exposures due to mobile base station antennas have been analysed. The maximum and minimum average power density measured from individual base station in the town was 1. 86µW/m2 and 0.00961µW/m2 respectively. The ITU-T Predictive model power density ranged between 6.40mW/m 2 and 0.344W/m 2 . Results obtained showed a variation between measured power density levels and the ITU-T predictive model. The ITU-T model power density levels decrease with increase in radial distance while real time measurements do not due to fluctuations during measurement. The ITU-T model overestimated the power density levels by a factor l0 5 as compared to real time measurements. The ITU-T model was modified to reduce the level of overestimation. The result showed that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance. Occupational exposure quotient ranged between 5.43E-10 and 1.89E-08 whilst general public exposure quotient ranged between 2.72E-09 and 9.44E-08. From the results, it shows that the RF exposure levels in Accra from these mobile phone base station antennas are below the permitted RF exposure limit to the general public recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (au)

  7. Significance of radioelement concentration measurements made by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry over the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.; Killeen, P.G.; Carson, J.M.; Cameron, G.W.; Richardson, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada are presented as maps contoured in units of radioelement and concentration ratios. These contoured values represent the average surface concentrations of the radioelements over areas of the order of several square kilometres. The relationship between this ''average surface concentration'' and the radioelement concentration in bedrock underlying the area depends on: (1) the percentage of outcrop; (2) the relation between overburden and bedrock radioelement concentration; (3) percentage of marshland or surface water in the area; (4) soil moisture; and (5) density of vegetation. More than 2500 portable gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of outcrop and overburden have been made in the Bancroft, Elliot Lake and Fort Smith areas of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. In the areas examined, the radioelement concentrations in glacial drift reflect the concentrations in the underlying bedrock. Rocks with near-crustal average contents of thorium, uranium and potassium are overlain by glacial drift having approximately the same concentrations. As the concentration in bedrock increases, the concentration in the local overburden also increases, but not to the same extent. In addition, in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements were made at almost 1000 stations within the area of airborne surveys near Mont Laurier and Elliot Lake. These ground measurements were compared with the airborne measurements by averaging the values for all those ground stations located in the areas between each contour level on airborne maps. Radioelement concentrations in bedrock are considerably higher than corresponding airborne measurements, and this difference between bedrock and airborne values increases at higher radioelement concentrations. Radioelement concentrations in glacial drift are only slightly higher than airborne contour values for the same area. Airborne contour maps of the radioelement ratios

  8. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Selection of herbicide-resistant cell lines by using {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Yeon [Sunchun University, Sunchun (Korea); Seo, Yong Weon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In order to develop the herbicide resistant cell lines, micro calli derived from rice anther culture and mature seed of wheat cultivars were irradiated with gamma rays. 1) The callus was dedifferentiated by 7 or 21 day pretreatment at 7 deg. C in two rice cultivars, Ilpumbyeo ad Dongjinbyeo. 2) To check the optimum concentration of herbicide, three herbicides were tested with micro calli. 3) The optimum dose of gamma ray to seeds of wheat seemed to be from 100 to 150 Gy. 4) AFLP and RAPD technique were established to develope herbicide resistant molecular marker in rice. 34 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  9. Efficient Outage Probability Evaluation of Diversity Receivers Over Generalized Gamma Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we are interested in determining the cumulative distribution function of the sum of generalized Gamma in the setting of rare event simulations. To this end, we present an efficient importance sampling estimator. The main result of this work is the bounded relative property of the proposed estimator. This result is used to accurately estimate the outage probability of multibranch maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining diversity receivers over generalized Gamma fading channels. Selected numerical simulations are discussed to show the robustness of our estimator compared to naive Monte Carlo.

  10. Efficient Outage Probability Evaluation of Diversity Receivers Over Generalized Gamma Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in determining the cumulative distribution function of the sum of generalized Gamma in the setting of rare event simulations. To this end, we present an efficient importance sampling estimator. The main result of this work is the bounded relative property of the proposed estimator. This result is used to accurately estimate the outage probability of multibranch maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining diversity receivers over generalized Gamma fading channels. Selected numerical simulations are discussed to show the robustness of our estimator compared to naive Monte Carlo.

  11. Determination of the rock clayiness from statistically standardized gamma-logging diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholodilov, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    Statistical standardization (using mathematical expectancy and dispersion) was done on gamma-logging diagrams made from 43 boreholes in producing strata of mid Jurassic and lower Cretaceous deposits in the Dagestan Plain. The material of the deposits is chiefly sands and aleurites containing 5 to 45% clay. The dependence of the standard deviation of the gamma-log curves on the clayiness of the rocks was determined at intervals of 400 and 300 meters. The intervals were selected by considering the borehole depth. The coefficients of correlation were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively

  12. Increase in neutrophil Fc gamma receptor I expression following interferon gamma treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, N J; Knight, S M; Godolphin, J L; Guyre, P M

    1992-04-01

    The therapeutic potential of interferon gamma (IFN gamma) in a number of disease states is still being explored, but progress is hampered by the lack of a suitable measure of in vivo biological activity. To assess the in vivo biological effects of recombinant human IFN gamma (rhIFN gamma), 14 patients were studied in a randomised, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial of this cytokine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The levels of Fc gamma receptors on peripheral blood neutrophils were measured at baseline and after 21 days of once daily, subcutaneous injections of rhIFN gamma or placebo. An induction of neutrophil Fc gamma receptor type I (Fc gamma RI) was seen in the group of patients receiving recombinant human rhIFN gamma but not in those receiving placebo. No change in the expression of Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RIII was detected. The amount of induction of Fc gamma RI detected on the neutrophils of patients receiving rhIFN gamma did not correlate with clinical measures of response at either 21 days or at the end of the study (24 weeks). No significant clinical responses were observed in the rhIFN gamma group at these times. These data confirm that the reported in vitro effect of IFN gamma on human neutrophil Fc receptor expression can be reproduced in vivo.

  13. Occipital Alpha and Gamma Oscillations Support Complementary Mechanisms for Processing Stimulus Value Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, T.R.; Boer, Sebastiaan den; Cools, R.; Jensen, O.; Fallon, S.J.; Zumer, J.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8–12 Hz) and gamma (40–100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous

  14. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimum Tahir; Azhar Mohamad; Rozeita Laboh; Umikalsum Mohd Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  15. Form factors of the transitions {gamma}{sup *}{pi}{sup 0} {r_arrow} {gamma} and {gamma}{sup *}{eta}{r_arrow}{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, A. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The author discusses possibilities to study {gamma}*{pi}{sup 0} and {gamma}*{eta} {r_arrow} {gamma} transition form factors at CEBAF energies. The author shows that for 4 GeV electron beam, these form factors can be measured at CEBAF for the 4-momentum transfers Q{sup 2} {le} 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} using virtual Compton scattering on the proton and nuclear target in the kinematic regime of low momentum transfers to the target. These measurements can be extended to Q{sup 2} {le} 4.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} using the electron beam with the energy 6 GeV.

  16. Progress in SLR-GPS co-location at San Juan (Argentina) station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Hernan; Rojas, Alvis; Adarvez, Sonia; Quinteros, Johana; Cobos, Pablo; Aracena, Andrés; Pacheco, Ana M.; Podestá, Ricardo; Actis, Eloy V.; Li, Jinzeng; Yin, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rui; Huang, Dongping; Márquez, Raúl

    2012-08-01

    From February, 2006, performing a Cooperation Agreement with National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) of Universidad Nacional de San Juan (UNSJ) is operating a SLR System (ILRS 7406 Station). From the beginning of 2012 a GPS Aztech - Micro Z CGRS is operative at the same place, which made the SLR - GPS co - location possible. The prior objective is to reach co - location between both techniques, so the Station became of 1st order in ITRF net. For that we study and adopt an appropriate strategy to select and place Survey Control Points that ensures higher precision in determination of 3D vectors between the selected reference point s. Afterwards we perform translocation tasks of receptor and antenna checking that the GPS verifies builder standards. Then we design and compensate survey control network, by means of software of our own draught. We expect to obtain definitive local ties with precision better than 3 mm, as suggested by IERS for co - located stations. There are very few stations with co - located spatial techniques in the Southern Hemisphere, so it is of great importance to have one in Argentina for improve our participation in IERS on the new realizations of ITRF from now on.

  17. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and computer data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuwanshi, S.S.; Bhishma Kumar; Tewari, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    The physical basis for the measurement of radioelemental concentrations of U, Th, and K on the surface of the earth by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) are described in this paper. The yield of an infinite radioactive plane source for a particular gamma energy helps to know the sampled volume in AGRS, the ground coverage, the ground resolution, the effective planning of the survey, flight line spacing, and sampling time. The infinite source-yield enables the determination of the attenuation coefficients in actual surveys and lays down the criteria for a standard test strip. Scattering of gamma-rays in matter is discussed in order to study its influence in the measurements from air. The theoretical gamma-ray spectrum from terrestrial U, Th, and K are discussed in contrast to its realistic picture which poses problems for their direct use for measurements. The criterion of FWHM (full width at half maximum) and inter-energy distance with their yields is described which finally helps to select the energy windows for (window and MCA) AGRS system. Factors which affect the measurements of radioelemental concentration in AGRS surveys include both correctable and non-correctable ones. Correctable factors are : (a) non-terrestrial sources of gamma-rays aircraft, cosmic, and airborne background (H) (B); (b) interference due to gamma-scattering inter channel effects (l); (c) height variations (H) due to navigation and topography; (d) temperature (T) of ambient air; and (e) pressure (P) of air at flying altitude. For removal of background effects, measurements over test strip and calibration pads are necessary for making the corrections in the order - BIH. These methods are described in the paper. The non-correctable factors include effects, due to terrain moisture, vegetation, and others. The possible ways to eliminate these effects are also briefly described. (author). 17 refs., 13 figs

  18. The $e^+ e^- \\to Z\\gamma\\gamma \\to q\\overline{q}\\gamma\\gamma$ Reaction at LEP and Constraints on Anomalous Quartic Gauge Boson Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Latt, J; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    The cross section of the process e^+ e^- -> Z \\gamma\\gamma -> qq~ \\gamma \\gamma is measured with 215 pb^-1 of data collected with the L3 detector during the final LEP run at centre-of-mass energies around 205 GeV and 207 GeV. No deviation from the Standard Model expectation is observed. The full data sample of 713 pb^-1, collected above the Z resonance, is used to constrain the coefficients of anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings to: -0.02 GeV^-2 < a_0/\\Lambda^2 < 0.03 GeV^-2 and -0.07 GeV^-2 < a_c/\\Lambda^2 < 0.05 GeV^-2, at 95% confidence level.

  19. QCD and $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ studies at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2016-10-20

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is a post-LHC project aiming at searches for physics beyond the SM in a new 80--100~km tunnel at CERN. Running in its first phase as a very-high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), it will provide unique possibilities for indirect searches of new phenomena through high-precision tests of the SM. In addition, by collecting tens of ab$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity in the range of center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$~=90--350~GeV, the FCC-ee also offers unique physics opportunities for precise measurements of QCD phenomena and of photon-photon collisions through, literally, billions of hadronic final states as well as unprecedented large fluxes of quasireal $\\gamma$'s radiated from the $\\rm e^+e^-$ beams. We succinctly summarize the FCC-ee perspectives for high-precision extractions of the QCD coupling, for detailed analyses of parton radiation and fragmentation, and for SM and BSM studies through $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions.

  20. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  1. Liquid radwaste processing history at Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilau, A.; Rutar, F.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a historical perspective of liquid radwaste processing at the Fort Calhoun Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station, located in east central Nebraska. Of particular interest is the textual and graphical comparison of the operational implications of the various waste processing methods employed in the last ten years at the Fort Calhoun Station. Fort Calhoun's waste collection and processing systems are described in detail. These process systems include evaporation and solidification employing an in-plant drum solidification system. This solidification system was later replaced with vendor solidification services which solidified wastes in large liners. Ultimately, the plant converted its processing operation to ion exchange cleanup using ion selective media. The operational and economic impact of each of these process systems is discussed including overall costs, personnel exposure, capital expenditure requirements, burial volumes generated, maintenance and reliability assessments. Operational goals and performance criteria employed in the decision-making process for selection of the optimal technology are discussed, including the impact of various influent and effluent requirements

  2. Genomic sequences of murine gamma B- and gamma C-crystallin-encoding genes: promoter analysis and complete evolutionary pattern of mouse, rat and human gamma-crystallins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, J; Liebstein, A; Pietrowski, D; Schmitt-John, T; Werner, T

    1993-12-22

    The murine genes, gamma B-cry and gamma C-cry, encoding the gamma B- and gamma C-crystallins, were isolated from a genomic DNA library. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequences of both genes were determined from 661 and 711 bp, respectively, upstream from the first exon to the corresponding polyadenylation sites, comprising more than 2650 and 2890 bp, respectively. The new sequences were compared to the partial cDNA sequences available for the murine gamma B-cry and gamma C-cry, as well as to the corresponding genomic sequences from rat and man, at both the nt and predicted amino acid (aa) sequence levels. In the gamma B-cry promoter region, a canonical CCAAT-box, a TATA-box, putative NF-I and C/EBP sites were detected. An R-repeat is inserted 366 bp upstream from the transcription start point. In contrast, the gamma C-cry promoter does not contain a CCAAT-box, but some other putative binding sites for transcription factors (AP-2, UBP-1, LBP-1) were located by computer analysis. The promoter regions of all six gamma-cry from mouse, rat and human, except human psi gamma F-cry, were analyzed for common sequence elements. A complex sequence element of about 70-80 bp was found in the proximal promoter, which contains a gamma-cry-specific and almost invariant sequence (crygpel) of 14 nt, and ends with the also invariant TATA-box. Within the complex sequence element, a minimum of three further features specific for the gamma A-, gamma B- and gamma D/E/F-cry genes can be defined, at least two of which were recently shown to be functional. In addition to these four sequence elements, a subtype-specific structure of inverted repeats with different-sized spacers can be deduced from the multiple sequence alignment. A phylogenetic analysis based on the promoter region, as well as the complete exon 3 of all gamma-cry from mouse, rat and man, suggests separation of only five gamma-cry subtypes (gamma A-, gamma B-, gamma C-, gamma D- and gamma E/F-cry) prior to species separation.

  3. Nuclear safeguards control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedege, R.; Braatz, U.; Heger, H.

    1976-01-01

    The execution of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has initiated a third phase in the efforts taken to ensure peace by limiting the number of atomic powers. In this phase it is important, above all, to turn into workable systems the conditions imposed upon technology by the different provisions of the Verification Agreement of the NPT. This is achieved mainly by elaborating annexes to the Agreement specifically geared to certain model plants, typical representatives selected for LWR power stations being the plants at Garigliano, Italy (BWR), and Stade, Federal Republic of Germany (PWR). The surveillance measures taken to prevent any diversion of special nuclear material for purposes of nuclear weapons manufacture must be effective in achieving their specific objective and must not impede the circumspect management of operations of the plants concerned. A VDEW working party has studied the technical details of the planned surveillance measures in nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany and now presents a concept of material balancing by units which meets the conditions imposed by the inspection authority and could also be accepted by the operators of nuclear power stations. The concept provides for uninterrupted control of the material balance areas of the nuclear power stations concerned, allows continuous control of the whole nuclear fuel cycle, is based exclusively on existing methods and facilities, and can be implemented at low cost. (orig.) [de

  4. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015 to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF.

  5. Yield and its components and some agronomic characters of four mungbean mutants induces by gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mosawi, A. R. A.; Ibrahim, A. F.; Azzo, F. Z.; Khadim, A. A.; Ibrahim, W. H.; Abdul-Al-majed, A.

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the Tuwaitha research station / Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission (past) Ministry of science and Technology (now) in Agricultural seasons 2000 - 2001 to evaluate four mungbean mutants induced by gamma ray compared with local variety and Australian pedigree. The results showed that mutants AMU-45 was superiority on anther mutants and the local in date of flowering (41.50 days), maturity (71.25 days), yield (1609.88 kg/ha) and its components. (Author)

  6. 47 CFR 80.1073 - Radio operator requirements for ship stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 80.1073 Section 80.1073 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS... selecting HF DSC guard channels and receiving scheduled maritime safety information broadcasts; (4...

  7. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  8. SU-E-T-453: Optimization of Dose Gradient for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, N; Chen, Y; Yang, J

    2012-06-01

    The goals of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are the ablation of target tissue and sparing of critical normal tissue. We develop tools to aid in the selection of collimation and prescription (Rx) isodose line to optimize the dose gradient for single isocenter intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with GammaKnife 4C utilizing the updated physics data in GammaPlan v10.1. Single isocenter intracranial SRS plans were created to treat the center of a solid water anthropomorphism head phantom for each GammaKnife collimator (4 mm, 8 mm, 14 mm, and 18 mm). The dose gradient, defined as the difference of effective radii of spheres equal to half and full Rx volumes, and Rx treatment volume was analyzed for isodoses from 99% to 20% of Rx. The dosimetric data on Rx volume and dose gradient vs. Rx isodose for each collimator was compiled into an easy to read nomogram as well as plotted graphically. The 4, 8, 14, and 18 mm collimators have the sharpest dose gradient at the 64%, 70%, 76%, and 77% Rx isodose lines, respectively. This corresponds to treating 4.77 mm, 8.86 mm, 14.78 mm, and 18.77 mm diameter targets with dose gradients radii of 1.06 mm, 1.63 mm, 2.54 mm, and 3.17 mm, respectively. We analyzed the dosimetric data for the most recent version of GammaPlan treatment planning software to develop tools that when applied clinically will aid in the selection of a collimator and Rx isodose line for optimal dose gradient and target coverage for single isocenter intracranial SRS with GammaKnife 4C. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. PSYCRODATA: a software which calculates the air humidity characteristics and relate its with the variations of the gamma environmental bottom; PSYCRODATA: software que calcula las caracteristicas de la humedad del aire y las relaciona con las variaciones del fondo gamma ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso A, D.; Dominguez L, O.; Ramos V, O.; Caveda R, C.A.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba); Dominguez G, A.; Valdes S, E. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnicas Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Rodriguez V, E. [Instituto de Meteorologia (INSMET), La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: lola@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The computer tool 'Psycrodata', able to calculate the values of those characteristics of the humidity of the air starting from the measurements carried out of humidity and temperature in the post of occident of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance was obtained. Among the facilities that 'Psycrodata' toasts it is the keeping the obtained information in a database facilitating the making of reports. For another part the possibility of selection of different approaches for the calculation and the introduction of the psicrometric coefficient to use, its make that each station can have the suitable psicrometric chart keeping in mind the instrumentation and the characteristics of the area of location of the same one. Also, can have facilities to import text files for later on to be plotted, it allowed to correlate the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation, besides of the temperature and the humidity, with the tension of the water steam, the temperature of the dew point and the saturation deficit. (Author)

  10. Validating the Melusine Gamma Spectroscopy Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, Luke E.; Keillor, Martin E.; Stavenger, Timothy J.

    2013-11-26

    This technical report describes testing to evaluate the gamma spectroscopy tool, Melusine, under development by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The goal was to verify that the software can successfully be used to provide accurate results and statistical uncertainties for the detection of isotopes of interest and their activities. Of special interest were spectra similar to those produced by radionuclide stations that contribute to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization’s International Monitoring System. Two data sets were used to test Melusine’s capabilities. The first was the result of a multi-lab calibration effort based on neutron activations produced at the University of California at Davis. The second was taken from the Proficiency Test Exercises conducted by the CTBTO directly in 2005. In 37 of 42 cases, Melusine produced results in agreement with the best answer presently available, in most cases with calculated uncertainties comparable to or better than competing analyses. In fact, Melusine technically provided one more result than CTBTO’s PTE analyses that agreed with the “book answer” (Monte Carlo simulation). Despite these promising results, the Melusine software is still under development. Effort is especially needed to simplify its analysis process, improve stability, and provide user documentation. Some significant analysis tasks require further vetting, such as those to address summing effects. However, our test results indicate that Melusine’s calculations as presently implemented are sound and can be used to reliably analyze spectra from the CTBTO’s radionuclide stations.

  11. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  12. Aerosol and gamma background measurements at Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelov Christo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trans boundary and local pollution, global climate changes and cosmic rays are the main areas of research performed at the regional Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW station Moussala BEO (2925 m a.s.l., 42°10’45’’ N, 23°35’07’’ E. Real time measurements and observations are performed in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Complex information about the aerosol is obtained by using a threewavelength integrating Nephelometer for measuring the scattering and backscattering coefficients, a continuous light absorption photometer and a scanning mobile particle sizer. The system for measuring radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols allows us to monitor a large scale radioactive aerosol transport. The measurements of the gamma background and the gamma-rays spectrum in the air near Moussala peak are carried out in real time. The HYSPLIT back trajectory model is used to determine the origin of the data registered. DREAM code calculations [2] are used to forecast the air mass trajectory. The information obtained combined with a full set of corresponding meteorological parameters is transmitted via a high frequency radio telecommunication system to the Internet.

  13. A computational study on altered theta-gamma coupling during learning and phase coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Zhang

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the role of coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in the brain in the context of learning and memory. Here we have used a neural network model which is capable of producing coupling of theta phase to gamma amplitude firstly to explore its ability to reproduce reported learning changes and secondly to memory-span and phase coding effects. The spiking neural network incorporates two kinetically different GABA(A receptor-mediated currents to generate both theta and gamma rhythms and we have found that by selective alteration of both NMDA receptors and GABA(A,slow receptors it can reproduce learning-related changes in the strength of coupling between theta and gamma either with or without coincident changes in theta amplitude. When the model was used to explore the relationship between theta and gamma oscillations, working memory capacity and phase coding it showed that the potential storage capacity of short term memories, in terms of nested gamma-subcycles, coincides with the maximal theta power. Increasing theta power is also related to the precision of theta phase which functions as a potential timing clock for neuronal firing in the cortex or hippocampus.

  14. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of 89 Sr/ 9 0 Sr, by beta counting and 131 I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  15. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: pgtares@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: rfsouza@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear S.A., Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr, by beta counting and {sup 131}I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  16. Development of the POLAR experiment for the gamma-ray bursts polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The polarimetric data taken together with lightcurve and spectral data may provide a powerful probe of the nature of sources and emission mechanisms of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). We would like to know if most of the GRBs are strongly polarized. There were several reports of detections of linear polarization but more accurate observational data and the statistical study are still needed. The POLAR experiment is a space-born polarimeter designed for measurement of γ-ray in the energy range 50-500 keV. The detector was mounted onto the Chinese Tiangong 2 space station in 2016. The preflight status of the POLAR experiment has been presented in the talk.

  17. UTN's gamma irradiation facility: design and concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Noor Mohamad Yunus

    1986-01-01

    UTN is building a multipurpose gamma irradiation facility which compromises of research and pilot scale irradiation cells in The Fifth Malaysia Plan. The paper high-lights the basic futures of the facility in terms of its design and selection including layout sketches. Plant performances and limitations are discussed. Plants safety is briefly highlighted in block diagrams. Lastly, a typical specification brief is tabled in appendix for reference purposes. (author)

  18. Computation of the mass attenuation coefficient of polymeric materials at specific gamma photon energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirji, Rajeshwari; Lobo, Blaise

    2017-06-01

    The gamma ray mass attenuation coefficients of ten synthetic polymeric materials, namely, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been calculated using second order polynomial equation and logarithmic interpolation formula at selected gamma photon energies, in the energy range starting from 14.4 keV up to 1332 keV. It is important to note that second order polynomial equation fits very well with NIST data for all the polymeric materials considered here, for gamma photon energies ranging from 300 keV up to 2000 keV. Third order polynomial fitting is best suited for lower gamma photon energies (from 10 keV up to 200 keV).

  19. An Imaging Camera for Biomedical Application Based on Compton Scattering of Gamma Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we present the R&D of a Compton Camera (CC) for small object imaging. The CC concept requires two detectors to obtain the incoming direction of the gamma ray. This approach, sometimes named ``Electronic Collimation,'' differs from the usual technique that employs collimators for physically selecting gamma-rays of a given direction. This solution offers the advantage of much greater sensitivity and hence smaller doses. We propose a novel design, which uses two simila...

  20. Springer Measurements of the pp $\\to W\\gamma\\gamma$ and pp $\\to Z\\gamma\\gamma$ cross sections and limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings at $ \\sqrt{s}=8 $ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, A.M.; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Krammer, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Shopova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Ge