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Sample records for selected essential medicines

  1. In vitro screening of selected essential oils from medicinal plants ...

    Enteric methane production lowers the efficiency of feed utilization in ruminants and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions which are responsible for global climate change. This study examined the effects of nine essential oils (EO) from Citrus aurantifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Laurus nobilis, ...

  2. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    Javid Hussain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa, Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium, and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods: Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc. were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results: The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II, α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions: J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  3. Essential travel medicine

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  4. A national survey on availability, price and affordability of selected essential medicines for non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka.

    Dabare, Panthihage Ruvini L; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Beneragama, Bvs Hemantha

    2014-08-08

    Access to medicines is a universal right. Low availability and low affordability of medicines are issues that deny this right to a significant proportion of the world population. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, price and affordability of essential medicines prescribed to treat non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. Methodology was based on the 2nd edition of the World Health Organization Health Action International Manual. A country survey was conducted and facilities representing both public and private pharmacies were selected. A total of 109 facilities was surveyed. At each facility data on the availability and prices of 50 essential medicines for non communicable diseases were collected. Percentage availability, median price of originator brand and lowest priced generic, median price ratio to the International Reference Price were calculated for surveyed medicines. Affordability was determined using the daily incomes of the lowest--paid unskilled government worker. Semi government community pharmacies had the highest (>80%) availability while outdoor pharmacies of public health care facilities, private pharmacies and outdoor pharmacies of private hospital showed a fairly high availability (50 - 80%) of surveyed medicines.Unit price of 76% of selected individual medicines was less than ten Sri Lankan rupees. Out of these 28% of medicines cost less than one Sri Lanka rupee. For 21 of the surveyed medicines the median price ratio to the international reference price was less than one. The prices of originator brands for 14 surveyed medicines were more than five times that of the lowest price generics.Less than a single day's wages was adequate to purchase a month's supply of the lowest priced generic of more than 67% of surveyed medicines. The availability of selected essential medicines was fairly high in both public and private sectors in Sri Lanka. Most medicines are affordable to the lowest income earners in the community. There

  5. Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Selected Medicinal Plants

    Phyo, Le Le; Thwe, Moe Moe; Than, Mar Lar

    2010-12-15

    Essential oils were extracted from the five medicinal plants (Syzygium aromaticum Linn, Cinnamoum tamala. Nees, Piper betle. Linn, Ocimum sanctum, Clausena exacavata Burn) by steam distillation method and percolation method with petroleum ether. These plants do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to phytochemical tests. Essential oils from these plants were also tested on antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that essential oils extracted from these five plants have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Among them, essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum possess the highest antimicrobial activity aganist all test organisms. B. pumalis and Calbican are the most susceptible to the five plants.

  6. Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oils from Selected Medicinal Plants

    Le Le Phyo; Moe Moe Thwe; Mar Lar Than

    2010-12-01

    Essential oils were extracted from the five medicinal plants (Syzygium aromaticum Linn, Cinnamoum tamala. Nees, Piper betle. Linn, Ocimum sanctum, Clausena exacavata Burn) by steam distillation method and percolation method with petroleum ether. These plants do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to phytochemical tests. Essential oils from these plants were also tested on antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that essential oils extracted from these five plants have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Among them, essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum possess the highest antimicrobial activity aganist all test organisms. B. pumalis and Calbican are the most susceptible to the five plants.

  7. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  8. The Quality of Selected Essential Medicines Sold in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets and Pharmacies in Tanzania.

    Eliangiringa Kaale

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines.We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu, co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC. For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine.The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6% passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4% gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and

  9. The Quality of Selected Essential Medicines Sold in Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets and Pharmacies in Tanzania.

    Kaale, Eliangiringa; Manyanga, Vicky; Chambuso, Mhina; Liana, Jafary; Rutta, Edmund; Embrey, Martha; Layloff, Thomas; Johnson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines. We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine. The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6%) passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4%) gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and likely due to

  10. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION FROM SELECT ALGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Hadjira Guenane1

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the total antioxidant capacity, minerals contents of four plants (Juniperus oxycedrus, Thymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis and Eruca vesicaria and chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of T. capitatus. Their antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAPS assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also determined. The results showed that the L. nobilis extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents (19.11 ± 0.22 mg GAE•g-1 dw, 4.47 ± 0.12 mg QE•g-1 dw, respectively. The extract of E. vesicaria had the highest value of TEAC for scavenging DPPH, whereas L. nobilis extract was active for ABTS and FRAP. GC/MS analysis revealed that the essential oil from the aerial parts of T. capitatus contained thirty-seven compounds; thymol was the major constituent (82.79 %. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, and trace amounts of Zn, Cu and Mn in all four extracts.

  11. A national survey on availability, price and affordability of selected essential medicines for non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka

    Dabare, Panthihage Ruvini L; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Beneragama, BVS Hemantha

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to medicines is a universal right. Low availability and low affordability of medicines are issues that deny this right to a significant proportion of the world population. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, price and affordability of essential medicines prescribed to treat non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. Methods Methodology was based on the 2nd edition of the World Health Organization Health Action International Manual. A country survey wa...

  12. Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging

    Mettler, Fred A. Jr

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging, by Drs. Fred A Mettler and Milton J Guiberteau, provides the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to master key nuclear imaging techniques. From physics, instrumentation, quality control, and legal requirements to hot topics such as sodium fluoride, radiopharmaceuticals, and recommended pediatric administered doses and guidelines, this sixth edition covers the fundamentals and recent developments in the practice of nuclear medicine.

  13. Survey on the availability, price and affordability of selected essential medicines for non-communicable diseases in community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley.

    Shrestha, Rajeev; Ghale, Anish; Chapagain, Bijay Raj; Gyawali, Mahasagar; Acharya, Trishna

    2017-01-01

    The access to essential medicines for non-communicable disease treatment is unacceptably low worldwide. The fundamental right to health cannot be fulfilled without equitable access to essential medicines. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 94 community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley. Non-probability quota sampling method was adopted for the purpose. Village Development Committees with more than 5000 populations were included in the study. The availability of the selected essential medicines, their price and producer identity were observed. Data entry and analysis were carried out in Microsoft Excel and Statistical package for social science. The availability of the essential medicines was not 100% in Kathmandu valley. High competition and high price variation were seen in metformin 500 mg (254.6%) and atorvastatin 10 mg (327.6%). The study showed that maximum (54.7%) brands were manufactured in Nepal. Furthermore, atorvastatin 10 mg (0.6 day wage) was found to be quite expensive, and glibenclamide 5 mg (0.1 day wage) was the cheapest one for diabetes mellitus treatment for 1 month of treatment period compared to daily wages of other essential medicines. The availability of the selected essential medicines was found to be ununiform and insufficient in the entire region. High competition was observed in the products with high price variation, and the access to cost-effective brand was poor. Furthermore, it was found that government salary is affordable to treat non-communicable disease with the help of the essential medicines.

  14. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine.

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Anand, Bhargavi; Bahuguna, Rohit; Govila, Vivek; Rastogi, Pavitra

    2013-09-01

    Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer's disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  15. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine

    Minkle Gulati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  16. Attitude and opinion towards essential medicine formulary.

    Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R Roy

    2010-06-01

    The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10-20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary.

  17. Attitude and opinion towards essential medicine formulary

    Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. Materials and Methods: A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10–20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Results: Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. Conclusion: About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary. PMID:20871765

  18. Essential Medicines in a High Income Country: Essential to Whom?

    Duong, Mai; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty; Chen, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an "essential" medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML) concept functions in a high income country context. In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach. Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain. This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach. The wide range of views of what stakeholders

  19. Essential Medicines in a High Income Country: Essential to Whom?

    Mai Duong

    Full Text Available To explore the perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders engaged in medicines decision making around what constitutes an "essential" medicine, and how the Essential Medicines List (EML concept functions in a high income country context.In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Australian stakeholders, recognised as decision makers, leaders or advisors in the area of medicines reimbursement or supply chain management. Participants were recruited from government, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical wholesale/distribution companies, medicines non-profit organisations, academic health disciplines, hospitals, and consumer groups. Perspectives on the definition and application of the EML concept in a high income country context were thematically analysed using grounded theory approach.Stakeholders found it challenging to describe the EML concept in the Australian context because many perceived it was generally used in resource scarce settings. Stakeholders were unable to distinguish whether nationally reimbursed medicines were essential medicines in Australia. Despite frequent generic drug shortages and high prices paid by consumers, many struggled to describe how the EML concept applied to Australia. Instead, broad inclusion of consumer needs, such as rare and high cost medicines, and consumer involvement in the decision making process, has led to expansive lists of nationally subsidised medicines. Therefore, improved communication and coordination is needed around shared interests between stakeholders regarding how medicines are prioritised and guaranteed in the supply chain.This study showed that decision-making in Australia around reimbursement of medicines has strayed from the fundamental utilitarian concept of essential medicines. Many stakeholders involved in medicine reimbursement decisions and management of the supply chain did not consider the EML concept in their approach. The wide range of views of

  20. [Reduction of ADRs of essential traditional Chinese medicines].

    Nie, Qing; Liu, Yan; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The essential traditional Chinese medicines (ETCM) are the characteristics of our National Essential Medicine List (NEML) and we should give full play to its unique advantage. The essential medicines of ETCM are specific, but also have dual characters, namely efficacy and ADRs. Although ADRs cannot be avoided, we can make efforts to control some conditions to minimize the possibility of ADRs. It is significant to give suggestions to reduce ADRs of ETCM under the ETCM system by analyzing the possibility of ADRs during ETCM selection, production distribution and use. This research focuses on ETCM, and the conclusion is also applicable to common traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation

    Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu

  2. Are essential medicines in Malaysia accessible, affordable and available?

    Saleh, Kamaruzaman; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M

    2005-12-01

    To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines. The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory). The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies. Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines. The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary. The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain

  3. Research in Medicine: Essentials for Developing Countries

    Yusuf YAKUPOGULLARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available (ExtractThe well-being has been the highest topic for humanity throughout the adventure of mankind on the earth. Therefore, extensive efforts have been performed on the science of medicine, and glorious advances have been gained especially in the last two centuries. Research is essential for medicine to develop new therapeutic methods and to monitor the results of the current treatment given to the patient. These are possibly the simplest reasons for investigations in medicine. On the other hand, qualified human resource, research ethics, financial supports, regular data recording and analysis, and publication are important issues for improvement of the medical researches in the developing countries.... 

  4. Monographs for medicines on WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines.

    Roth, Lukas; Adler, Melissa; Jain, Tanvi; Bempong, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    To raise awareness about the importance of public pharmaceutical standards, identify if and, if so, where current pharmacopeias are falling short in the development of new and complete monographs and foster collaboration among the various pharmacopeias, to prioritize, develop and make available standards for those key medicines for which no complete monographs exist. In August 2017, we mined eight pharmacopeias to identify which of the 669 medicines in the 20th edition of the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines were covered by complete or incomplete monographs. The pharmacopeias we included were the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, the British Pharmacopoeia, the Indian Pharmacopeia Commission, the International Pharmacopoeia, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, the Mexican Pharmacopoeia, the Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China and the United States Pharmacopeia. For 99 (15%) of the medicines on the Model List, no monographs were available in any of the eight pharmacopeias investigated. Only 3% (1/30) of the cardiovascular medicines listed, but 28% (9/32) of the antiretroviral medicines and 23% (6/26) of the antimalarial medicines lacked monographs. There appear to be no public standards for many so-called essential medicines. To address this shortfall, a greater collaboration in the global health community is needed.

  5. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions: Progress Since 2008.

    Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-06-01

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.

  6. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  7. Essential Medicines in Nigeria: Foregrounding Access to Affordable ...

    Abstract. Within every functional healthcare system, access to quality and affordable essential medicine stands out as one of the building blocks. However ... Keywords: Access to medicines, Essential medicines, Healthcare, Public health facilities, Counterfeit medicines, Traditional medicines, Health systems, Systems theory ...

  8. The Essential Medicinal Chemistry of Curcumin.

    Nelson, Kathryn M; Dahlin, Jayme L; Bisson, Jonathan; Graham, James; Pauli, Guido F; Walters, Michael A

    2017-03-09

    Curcumin is a constituent (up to ∼5%) of the traditional medicine known as turmeric. Interest in the therapeutic use of turmeric and the relative ease of isolation of curcuminoids has led to their extensive investigation. Curcumin has recently been classified as both a PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) and an IMPS (invalid metabolic panaceas) candidate. The likely false activity of curcumin in vitro and in vivo has resulted in >120 clinical trials of curcuminoids against several diseases. No double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial of curcumin has been successful. This manuscript reviews the essential medicinal chemistry of curcumin and provides evidence that curcumin is an unstable, reactive, nonbioavailable compound and, therefore, a highly improbable lead. On the basis of this in-depth evaluation, potential new directions for research on curcuminoids are discussed.

  9. Pharmaceutical patents and access to essential medicines in sub ...

    The World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) has reawakened old arguments over the impact of the intellectual property (IP) system on public access to essential medicines. As used here, essential medicines are those needed in symptom management, ...

  10. Essential Medicines in Nigeria: Foregrounding Access to Affordable ...

    (EM) given the fact that it established the criterion for medicines classification as well ... AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and access to essential medicines. Lancet .... Vaccines, and Health Commodities: Report of the WHO-MSH Consultative Meeting, ... Prepared for the Strategies for Enhancing Access to Medicines Program.

  11. International assistance and cooperation for access to essential medicines.

    Mok, Emily A

    2010-06-15

    Access to essential medicines is a critical problem that plagues many developing countries. With a daunting number of domestic constraints - technologically, economically, and otherwise - developing countries are faced with a steep uphill battle to meet the human rights obligation of providing essential medicines immediately. To meet these challenges, the international human rights obligations of international assistance and cooperation can play a key role to help developing countries fulfill the need for access to essential medicines. This article seeks to highlight and expand upon the current understanding of international assistance and cooperation for access to essential medicines through a review of obligations identified in international human rights law and a synthesis of official guidance provided on the matter.

  12. Basic science of nuclear medicine the bare bone essentials

    Lee, Kai H

    2015-01-01

    Through concise, straightforward explanations and supporting graphics that bring abstract concepts to life, the new Basic Science of Nuclear Medicine—the Bare Bone Essentials is an ideal tool for nuclear medicine technologist students and nuclear cardiology fellows looking for an introduction to the fundamentals of the physics and technologies of modern day nuclear medicine.

  13. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions : Progress since 2008

    Perehudoff, S. Katrina; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential

  14. Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti.

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; St Fort, Nazaire; Bero, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide survey in 2011 of availability and consumer prices of 60 essential medicines in Haiti using a standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International. The survey was conducted in 163 medicine outlets in four health care sectors (public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors). Medicine prices were expressed as ratios relative to the International Reference Price. Affordability was calculated by comparing the costs of treatment for common conditions with the salary of the lowest paid government worker and was compared to available data from four Latin American countries. For generic medicines, the availability in public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors was 20%, 37%, 24% and 23% of medications, respectively. Most of the available medicines were priced higher than the International Reference Price. The lowest paid government worker would need 2.5 days' wages to treat an adult respiratory infection with generic medicines from the public sector. For treatment of common conditions with originator brands (OB) purchased from a retail pharmacy, costs were between 1.4 (anaerobic bacterial infection) and 13.7 (hyperlipidemia) days' wages, respectively. Treatment of pediatric bacterial infections with the OB of ceftriaxone from a retail pharmacy would cost 24.6 days' wages. Prices in Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua were frequently lower for comparable medications. The availability of essential medicines was low and prices varied widely across all four sectors. Over 75% of Haitians live on less than US$ 2.00 /day; therefore, most medication regimens are largely unaffordable

  15. Price and availability survey of essential medicines in the Harare ...

    their innovator and/or generic equivalents) in both private retail and public pharmacies. Setting: Private and public sector retail pharmacies in Harare metropolitan province, Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods: Forty medicines were selected for ...

  16. Can NGOs regulate medicines markets? Social enterprise in wholesaling, and access to essential medicines.

    Mackintosh, Maureen; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Mujinja, Phares Gm

    2011-02-28

    Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.

  17. Availability and Expiry of Essential Medicines and Supplies During the

    Erah

    Pharmacotherapy Group,. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article. Availability and Expiry of Essential Medicines and. Supplies During the 'Pull' and 'Push' Drug Acquisition. Systems in a Rural Ugandan Hospital.

  18. [Study on essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent].

    Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Lv, Ze-Liang; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Essential medicines: an overview of some milestones in the last forty years (1975-2013

    José Antonio Pagés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in the last four decades in terms of access to essential medicines, more than a third of the world population especially from the poorest countries have serious difficulties in accessing the medicines they need at an affordable price and with the right quality. Already in 1975 the 28th World Health Assembly discussed the need to set recommendations regarding selection and acquisition of medicines at reasonable prices and proven quality to meet national health needs. Consequently in 1977, the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was prepared by an expert committee. Since then, the list has been subjected to a series of updating and dissemination processes, together with discussion about the cost, patents and quality of medicines, as well as information on safety and effectiveness of each drug that is listed. The article addresses how this process has evolved from the beginning to present day.

  20. Access to essential medicines: a Hobbesian social contract approach.

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    Medicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent-holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal cost. Recent international legal doctrine has placed great stress on the need to globalise intellectual property rights protections, and on the rights of intellectual property rights holders to have their property rights enforced. Although international intellectual property rights law does permit compulsory licensing of protected inventions in the interests of public health, the use of this right by sovereign states has proved highly controversial. In this paper I give an argument in support of states' sovereign right to expropriate private intellectual property in conditions of public health emergency. This argument turns on a social contract argument for the legitimacy of states. The argument shows, further, that under some circumstances states are not merely permitted compulsory to license inventions, but are actually obliged to do so, on pain of failure of their legitimacy as sovereign states. The argument draws freely on a loose interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's arguments in his Leviathan, and on an analogy between his state of War and the situation of public health disasters.

  1. Can NGOs regulate medicines markets? Social enterprise in wholesaling, and access to essential medicines

    Chaudhuri Sudip

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.

  2. Can NGOs regulate medicines markets? Social enterprise in wholesaling, and access to essential medicines

    2011-01-01

    Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action. PMID:21356076

  3. Essential oils as natural medicinal substances: review article

    Ehsan Aali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbal essential oils are volatile, natural, complex compounds formed by medicinal plants as secondary metabolites. As reported by international organization for standardization (ISO, the term "essential oils" (EOs is defined for a product obtained from vegetable raw materials or fruit using distillation with water or steam. The EOs are generally complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds include hydrocarbons (terpenes and sesquiterpenes and oxygenated compounds (alcohols, esters, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, phenols, and phenol ethers compounds. In medicinal plants, the EOs chemical profile usually very varies because of both intrinsic (sexual, seasonal, ontogenetic, and genetic variations and extrinsic (ecological and environmental aspects factors, also the EOs composition differs not only in the number and type of molecules but also in their stereochemical structures, and can be very different according to the extraction method. EOs represents a “green” alternative in the nutritional and pharmaceutical fields due to reported antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties thus, in recent times; EOs has gained great popularity as consumers have developed a particular ever-growing awareness toward the use of natural ingredients, especially in food and household. Therefore, the present review provides a comprehensive summary on the method of preparation of EOs from medicinal plants, chemical composition analysis, their biological and pharmacological effects and their potential benefits on health level. Present information was compiled using keywords “Essential oil, Medicinal Plants and Natural additive in scientific database as Science Direct, Elsevier, PubMed, Google scholar and SID, until 2005 to 2015. EOs have great antimicrobial activity and mostly destroy bacteria, fungi and viruses without harmful effects on consumer’s health. Finding of this study showed that the Thymol, α-Pinene,

  4. Monographs for medicines on WHO’s Model List of Essential Medicines

    Adler, Melissa; Jain, Tanvi; Bempong, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To raise awareness about the importance of public pharmaceutical standards, identify if and, if so, where current pharmacopeias are falling short in the development of new and complete monographs and foster collaboration among the various pharmacopeias, to prioritize, develop and make available standards for those key medicines for which no complete monographs exist. Methods In August 2017, we mined eight pharmacopeias to identify which of the 669 medicines in the 20th edition of the World Health Organization’s Model List of Essential Medicines were covered by complete or incomplete monographs. The pharmacopeias we included were the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, the British Pharmacopoeia, the Indian Pharmacopeia Commission, the International Pharmacopoeia, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, the Mexican Pharmacopoeia, the Pharmacopeia of the People’s Republic of China and the United States Pharmacopeia. Findings For 99 (15%) of the medicines on the Model List, no monographs were available in any of the eight pharmacopeias investigated. Only 3% (1/30) of the cardiovascular medicines listed, but 28% (9/32) of the antiretroviral medicines and 23% (6/26) of the antimalarial medicines lacked monographs. Conclusion There appear to be no public standards for many so-called essential medicines. To address this shortfall, a greater collaboration in the global health community is needed.

  5. Essential medicine policy in China: pros and cons.

    Hu, Shanlian

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the achievements, issues and policy recommendations for implementing essential medicine system in China after a 3-year effort. Policy documents analysis and Literature reviews are conducted. From 2009-2011, a series of national essential medicine (EM) policies has been established which contain EM list, organizing production, quality assurance, pricing, tendering and procurement, distribution, rational use, monitoring and evaluation, etc. About 98.8% government-run primary healthcare institutions and 41.5% village health posts are conducting zero-mark-up policy while buying EMs. The average cost per visit, per admission, and per description in outpatient and inpatient departments has declined. The issues with the national EM list cannot meet the requirements of clinical practice at the local level, all provinces have to increase additional 64-455 EMs in their local supplementary list; the limitation of EML in primary healthcare institutions causes patients to transfer directly to secondary or tertiary hospitals to search appropriate treatment; there is no defined regulation or legislation regarding the responsibility and accountability of government to compensate for the financial loss after implementing a zero mark-up policy in primary healthcare institutions. In the future, some innovative reform should be taken into account, such as revising EML, quality assurance, control margins within the distribution system, differential pricing and internal reference-based pricing, waive taxes and import duties of EMs, and separation between prescribing and dispensing in public hospital reform. Establishing a national essential medicine system is a difficult task to accomplish. The role of the zero-mark-up policy of EMs is to cut off the economic profit chain among different stakeholders. Using pharmaceutical profit to subsidize hospital revenue will be gradually eliminated in China.

  6. Availability and use of essential medicines in China: manufacturing, supply, and prescribing in Shandong and Gansu provinces

    Ross-Degnan Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current health care reform in China launched in 2009 tackles the problem of access to appropriate medicines for its 1.3 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines to all. To provide evidence for the reform process, we investigated the manufacturing, purchasing, and prescribing of essential medicines in two provinces. Methods We conducted surveys in 2007 of all manufacturers (n = 253 and of 59 purposively selected retail and 63 hospital pharmacies in Shandong and Gansu provinces to assess production and supply of products on the 2004 National Essential Medicines List (NEML, as well as factors underlying decision making about production and supply. We also reviewed prescriptions (n = 5456 in health facilities to calculate standard indicators of appropriate medicines use. Results Overall, manufacturers in Shandong and Gansu produced only 62% and 50%, respectively, of the essential medicines they were licensed to produce. Of a randomly selected 10% of NEML products, retail pharmacies stocked up to 60% of Western products. Median availability in hospital pharmacies ranged from 19% to 69%. Manufacturer and retail pharmacy managers based decisions on medicines production and stocking on economic considerations, while hospital pharmacy managers cited clinical need. Between 64% and 86% of prescriptions contained an essential medicine. However, overprescribing of antibiotics (34%-77% of prescriptions and injectables (22%-61% for adult non-infectious outpatient consultations was common. Conclusions We found that manufacturers, retail pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies paid limited attention to China's 2004 NEML in their decisions to manufacture, purchase, and stock essential medicines. We also found that prescribing of essential medicines was frequently inappropriate. These results should inform strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform.

  7. Availability and use of essential medicines in China: manufacturing, supply, and prescribing in Shandong and Gansu provinces.

    Chen, Wen; Tang, Shenglan; Sun, Jing; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wagner, Anita K

    2010-07-17

    The current health care reform in China launched in 2009 tackles the problem of access to appropriate medicines for its 1.3 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines to all. To provide evidence for the reform process, we investigated the manufacturing, purchasing, and prescribing of essential medicines in two provinces. We conducted surveys in 2007 of all manufacturers (n = 253) and of 59 purposively selected retail and 63 hospital pharmacies in Shandong and Gansu provinces to assess production and supply of products on the 2004 National Essential Medicines List (NEML), as well as factors underlying decision making about production and supply. We also reviewed prescriptions (n = 5456) in health facilities to calculate standard indicators of appropriate medicines use. Overall, manufacturers in Shandong and Gansu produced only 62% and 50%, respectively, of the essential medicines they were licensed to produce. Of a randomly selected 10% of NEML products, retail pharmacies stocked up to 60% of Western products. Median availability in hospital pharmacies ranged from 19% to 69%. Manufacturer and retail pharmacy managers based decisions on medicines production and stocking on economic considerations, while hospital pharmacy managers cited clinical need. Between 64% and 86% of prescriptions contained an essential medicine. However, overprescribing of antibiotics (34%-77% of prescriptions) and injectables (22%-61%) for adult non-infectious outpatient consultations was common. We found that manufacturers, retail pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies paid limited attention to China's 2004 NEML in their decisions to manufacture, purchase, and stock essential medicines. We also found that prescribing of essential medicines was frequently inappropriate. These results should inform strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform.

  8. Essential and toxic trace elements in the chinese medicine

    Wang, C.F.; Jenq Yann Yang; Ming-Jenq Duo; Chang, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of certain toxic and essential elements in various raw materials of Chinese herbs and 'scientific Chinese medicine' were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Correlation of these elements as they exist in the raw materials and in the prescription of medicine were investigated and the approximate intake of elements by patients were estimated. Values of elements determined both by AAS and INAA presented excellent agreement. The ranges of elemental concentrations were found to vary from 10 4 to 10 -1 mg/kg in different kinds of herbs. All herbs exhibit extraordinary enrichment capabilities from the environment for elements such as Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Cd, Cu, Pb and As. Higher contents of Cd, Pb and As in herbs may be attributed to the uptake of these elements from polluted soil due to industrial and anthropogenic activities. It was found that commercial scientific Chinese medicine, SCDBT, contains more elemental concentrations than that of herbs used in the prescription, which may indicate that possible contamination could be caused by unknown ingredients added in the process. A much higher toxic elemental content, such as Pb, Cd and As, has been found in CFH and the daily intake of these elements by the patient will exceed the PTDI values. (author)

  9. Availability of WHO Essential Medicines for Cancer Treatment in Botswana

    Yehoda M. Martei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Stock outs of cancer drugs are potentially fatal but have not been systematically studied in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the availability and alignment of the Botswana National Essential Medicines List (NEML for cancer drugs with the WHO’s Essential Medicines List (EML. Methods: The availability and cost of cancer drugs were analyzed using data from a weekly stock catalog sent by Botswana’s Central Medical Store to all pharmacy departments in government hospitals. Comparative data were extracted from the WHO EML and the “International Drug Price Indicator Guide-2014” from the Management Sciences for Health. Interviews with key informants were used to collect data on the Botswana NEML and the drug supply chain in the public sector. Results: The 2015 Botswana NEML for cancer had 80.5% alignment with the WHO EML. At least 40% of essential drugs were out of stock for a median duration of 30 days in 2015. Stock outs affected chemotherapy drugs included in first-line regimens for treating potentially curable diseases such as cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer and were not associated with buyer price of therapy. Analyses showed that the median price ratio for procured drugs was greater than 1 for 61% of the NEML drugs, which suggests inefficiency in procurement in the public sector. Conclusions: Botswana has one of the highest alignments of NEML to the WHO EML in the sub-Saharan African region, which is consistent with investment in the health care system evident in other clinical spheres. Better quantification of chemotherapy requirements using data from the National Cancer Registry and resource-sensitive treatment guidelines can help reduce stock outs and facilitate more effective and efficient procurement processes.

  10. Analysis of essential elements in medicinal plants and their respective soils by neutron activation analysis

    Ratna Raju, M.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Raju, M.K.; Brahmaji Rao, J.S.; Seshadreesan, N.P.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the essential elements for humans in selected medicinal plants and their respective growing soils are measured by Neutron Activation Analysis. The concentrations of Na, K, Fe, Br, Al, Mn, Cl, Ca and Mg were analyzed using 20 kW KAMINI Reactor, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam. Results show that justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases. Moreover, these results can be useful for preparing dosage of the herbal formulations. (author)

  11. Medicine in the 21st century: recommended essential geriatrics competencies for internal medicine and family medicine residents.

    Williams, Brent C; Warshaw, Gregg; Fabiny, Anne Rebecca; Lundebjerg Mpa, Nancy; Medina-Walpole, Annette; Sauvigne, Karen; Schwartzberg, Joanne G; Leipzig, Rosanne M

    2010-09-01

    Physician workforce projections by the Institute of Medicine require enhanced training in geriatrics for all primary care and subspecialty physicians. Defining essential geriatrics competencies for internal medicine and family medicine residents would improve training for primary care and subspecialty physicians. The objectives of this study were to (1) define essential geriatrics competencies common to internal medicine and family medicine residents that build on established national geriatrics competencies for medical students, are feasible within current residency programs, are assessable, and address the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies; and (2) involve key stakeholder organizations in their development and implementation. Initial candidate competencies were defined through small group meetings and a survey of more than 100 experts, followed by detailed item review by 26 program directors and residency clinical educators from key professional organizations. Throughout, an 8-member working group made revisions to maintain consistency and compatibility among the competencies. Support and participation by key stakeholder organizations were secured throughout the project. The process identified 26 competencies in 7 domains: Medication Management; Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Health; Complex or Chronic Illness(es) in Older Adults; Palliative and End-of-Life Care; Hospital Patient Safety; Transitions of Care; and Ambulatory Care. The competencies map directly onto the medical student geriatric competencies and the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Competencies. Through a consensus-building process that included leadership and members of key stakeholder organizations, a concise set of essential geriatrics competencies for internal medicine and family medicine residencies has been developed. These competencies are well aligned with concerns for residency training raised in a recent Medicare Payment Advisory

  12. Efficacy of medicinal essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia sp. isolates.

    Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Fahimirad, S

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method. A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850 μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (Pessential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Does economic incentive matter for rational use of medicine? China's experience from the essential medicines program.

    Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Luying; Jiang, Hongli; Mao, Wenhui

    2014-03-01

    Before the new round of healthcare reform in China, primary healthcare providers could obtain a fixed 15 % or greater mark-up of profits by prescribing and selling medicines. There were concerns that this perverse incentive was a key cause of irrational medicine use. China's new Essential Medicines Program (EMP) was launched in 2009 as part of the national health sector reform initiatives. One of its core policies was to eliminate primary care providers' economic incentives to overprescribe or prescribe unnecessarily expensive drugs, which were regarded as consequences of China's traditional financing system for health institutions. The objective of the study was to measure changes in prescribing patterns in primary healthcare facilities after the removal of the economic incentives for physicians to overprescribe as a result of the implementation of the EMP. A comparison design was applied to 8,258 prescriptions in 2007 and 8,278 prescriptions in 2010, from 83 primary healthcare facilities nationwide. Indicators were adopted to evaluate medicine utilization, which included overall number of medicines, average number of Western and traditional Chinese medicines, pharmaceutical expenditure per outpatient prescription, and proportion of prescriptions that contained two or more antibiotics. We further assessed the use of medicines (antibiotics, infusion, hormones, and intravenous injection) per disease-specific prescription for hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery heart disease, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, and gastritis. A difference-in-difference analysis was employed to evaluate the net policy effect. Overall changes in indicators were not found to be statistically significant between the 2 years. The results varied for different diseases. The number of Western drugs per outpatient prescription decreased while that of traditional Chinese medicines increased. Overuse of antibiotics remained an extensive problem in the treatment of many diseases

  14. Availability of essential medicines in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System.

    Nascimento, Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do; Álvares, Juliana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Costa, Ediná Alves; Leite, Silvana Nair; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the availability of tracer medicines in pharmaceutical services in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This is a cross-sectional and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional Sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). To analyze the availability of medicines, we verified 50 items selected from the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (Rename - National List of Essential Medicines) of 2012. Observation scripts were applied to medicine dispensing services in the primary health care. Interviews were carried out with patients, health care professionals, and public managers, using semi-structured questionnaires. The availability index was presented as the percentage of health units where the medicines were available. For statistical analysis, absolute, relative, and mean frequencies were presented (with 95% confidence intervals). The comparison of groups was carried out by Pearson Chi-square tests or variance analysis, when needed. One thousand, one hundred, and seventy-five observation scripts were filled in a national representative sample composed by 273 cities. Statistically significant differences were observed regarding the type of unit, infrastructure, and presence of a pharmacist between regions of Brazil. The average availability of tracer medicines in primary health care was 52.9%, with differences between regions and sampling strata. This index increased to 62.5% when phytotherapic medicines were excluded. We found limited availability of medicines for treatment of chronic and epidemiological diseases, such as tuberculosis and congenital syphilis. The low availability of essential medicines purchased centrally by the Brazilian Ministry of Health indicates deficiencies in supply chain management. The different views on the availability of tracer

  15. Availability of essential medicines in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do Nascimento

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the availability of tracer medicines in pharmaceutical services in primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. METHODS This is a cross-sectional and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional Sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015. To analyze the availability of medicines, we verified 50 items selected from the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (Rename – National List of Essential Medicines of 2012. Observation scripts were applied to medicine dispensing services in the primary health care. Interviews were carried out with patients, health care professionals, and public managers, using semi-structured questionnaires. The availability index was presented as the percentage of health units where the medicines were available. For statistical analysis, absolute, relative, and mean frequencies were presented (with 95% confidence intervals. The comparison of groups was carried out by Pearson Chi-square tests or variance analysis, when needed. RESULTS One thousand, one hundred, and seventy-five observation scripts were filled in a national representative sample composed by 273 cities. Statistically significant differences were observed regarding the type of unit, infrastructure, and presence of a pharmacist between regions of Brazil. The average availability of tracer medicines in primary health care was 52.9%, with differences between regions and sampling strata. This index increased to 62.5% when phytotherapic medicines were excluded. We found limited availability of medicines for treatment of chronic and epidemiological diseases, such as tuberculosis and congenital syphilis. CONCLUSIONS The low availability of essential medicines purchased centrally by the Brazilian Ministry of Health indicates deficiencies in supply chain

  16. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of implementation of essential medicine system in the primary health care institution in China].

    Huang, Donghong; Ren, Xiaohua; Hu, Jingxuan; Shi, Jingcheng; Xia, Da; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2015-02-01

    Our primary health care institution began to implement national essential medicine system in 2009. In past fi ve years, the goal of national essential medicine system has been initially achieved. For examples, medicine price is steadily reducing, the quality of medical services is improving and residents' satisfaction is substantial increasing every year. However, at the same time, we also found some urgent problems needed to be solved. For examples, the range of national essential medicine is limited, which is difficult to guarantee the quality of essential medication. In addition, how to compensate the primary health care institution is still a question.

  18. The effect of essential medicines programme on rational use of medicines in China.

    Gong, Yanhong; Yang, Chen; Yin, Xiaoxv; Zhu, Minmin; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Yunxia; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Dong, Xiaoxin; Cao, Shiyi; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-02-01

    Irrational use of medicines is a serious problem in China and has been the primary target of China's national essential medicines programme (NEMP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the NEMP on rational use of medicines in China. A nationwide sample of 3 76 700 prescriptions written by primary care providers from 2007 to 2011 was obtained following a multistage sampling process. Six prescribing indicators were measured: average number of drugs prescribed per prescription, average expenditure per prescription, percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics, with injections, with two or more antibiotics and with corticosteroids. The pre-post with control study design and the difference-in-difference (DID) methodology were employed to evaluate the effect of NEMP. Prescriptions from primary care institutions with the NEMP implementation were better than those without NEMP implementation. Adjusting for the institution's sizes, ownership, economic geographic regions and the year of NEMP implementation, the DID estimator was statistically significant in all prescribing indicators except for the percentage of prescriptions with injection. The number of drugs per prescription decreased by 0.2 per prescription [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.3, -0.1] after the NEMP was implemented; the percentages of prescriptions with antibiotics, with corticosteroids and with two or more antibiotics decreased by 7% (95% CI: -10, -4), 1% (95% CI: -2, 0) and 2% (95% CI: -3, 0), respectively; and the average expenditure per prescription decreased by eight Renminbi Yuan (95% CI: -14, -2). The effect of NEMP on reducing irrational prescribing was greater in public institutions than in private institutions (P rational use of medicines, and the effect is greater in public institutions than in private institutions. However, the irrational use is still high, pointing to the need for further reforms to tackle the underlying causes, such as clinical guidelines and patient

  19. Evaluating the quality and use of economic data in decisions about essential medicines.

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Wirtz, Veronika J; Reich, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of economic data provided in applications to the World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines and to evaluate the role of these data in decision-making by the expert committee that considers the applications. We analysed applications submitted to the WHO Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines between 2002 and 2013. The completeness of data on the price and cost-effectiveness of medicines was extracted from application documents and coded using a four-point scale. We recorded whether or not the expert committee discussed economic information and the outcomes of each application. Associations between the completeness of economic data and application outcomes were assessed using χ 2 tests. The expert committee received 134 applications. Only eight applications (6%) included complete price data and economic evaluation data. Many applicants omitted or misinterpreted the economic evaluation section of the application form. Despite the lack of economic data, all applications were reviewed by the committee. There was no significant association between the completeness of economic information and application outcomes. The expert committee tried to address information gaps in applications by further review and analysis of data related to the application. The World Health Organization should revise the instructions to applicants on economic data requirements; develop new mechanisms to assist applicants in completing the application process; and define methods for the use of economic data in decision-making.

  20. The availability of essential medicines for mental healthcare in Sofala, Mozambique

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Stergachis, Andy; Rao, Deepa; Hoek, Roxanne; Cumbe, Vasco; Napúa, Manuel; Sherr, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the availability of essential medicines for mental healthcare (MH) across levels of the public healthcare system to aid in future systems planning. Design Non-expired MH medications were assessed in 24 public health facilities and 13 district warehouses across Sofala Province, Mozambique, from July to August 2014. Medication categories included: antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antiepileptics and mood stabilizers, and anticholinergics and antihistamines. Results Only 7 of 12 (58.3%) district warehouses, 11 of 24 (45.8%) of all health facilities, and 10 of 12 (83.3%) of facilities with trained MH staff had availability of at least one medication of each category. Thioridazine was the most commonly available antipsychotic across all facilities (9 of 24, 37.5%), while chlorpromazine and thioridazine were most common at facilities providing MH care (8 of 12, 66.7%). The atypical antipsychotic risperidone was not available at any facility or district warehouse. Amitriptyline was the most commonly available antidepressant (10 of 12 districts; 12 of 24 overall facilities; 9 or 12 MH facilities). Despite being on the national essential drug list, fluoxetine was only available at one quaternary-level facility and no district warehouses. Conclusions Essential psychotropic medicines are routinely unavailable at public health facilities. Current essential drug lists include six typical but no atypical antipsychotics, which is concerning given the side-effect profiles of typical antipsychotics. Ensuring consistent availability of at least one selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor should also be a priority, as they are essential for the treatment of individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease and/or suicidal ideation. Similar to successful task-sharing approaches used for HIV/AIDS, mid-level providers could be retrained and certified to prescribe and monitor first-line psychotropic regimens. PMID:26081970

  1. Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study

    2014-01-01

    Background Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells. Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400–600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000–7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment. Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to

  2. Computational intelligence, medicine and biology selected links

    Zaitseva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of chapters presenting several examples of attempts to developing modern tools utilizing computational intelligence in different real life problems encountered by humans. Reasoning, prediction, modeling, optimization, decision making, etc. need modern, soft and intelligent algorithms, methods and methodologies to solve, in the efficient ways, problems appearing in human activity. The contents of the book is divided into two parts. Part I, consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence, medicine, health care and biomechanics. Several problems are considered: estimation of healthcare system reliability, classification of ultrasound thyroid images, application of fuzzy logic to measure weight status and central fatness, and deriving kinematics directly from video records. Part II, also consisting of four chapters, is devoted to selected links of computational intelligence and biology. The common denominato...

  3. The crisis in access to essential medicines in India: key issues which call for action.

    Bhargava, Anurag; Kalantri, S P

    2013-01-01

    The government is planning to introduce free generic and essential medicines in public health facilities. Most people in India buy healthcare from the private sector, a compulsion that accounts for a high proportion of healthcare-related expenditure. To reduce the burden of healthcare costs, the government must improve availability and affordability of generic and essential medicines in the market. It can do so because India's large pharmaceutical industry is a major source of generic medicines worldwide. In this article, we discuss three factors that have impeded access to generic and essential medicines: (1) mistaken notions among policymakers, prescribers and patients about branded drugs and generic drugs in India; (2) high prices of medicines due to the progressive dismantling of the system of regulation of medicine prices, and (3) a drug approval and regulatory system that allows medicines (including fixed dose combinations) of doubtful efficacy, rationale, safety and public health relevance to dominate the market at the cost of access to affordable generic and essential medicines. The consequences of ill-health and wasted expenditure on drugs raise issues of public health ethics.Improving access to essential medicines in India is an urgent public health and ethical imperative. This should include improved public provisioning, a system of regulation of drug prices, and an evidence-based drug approval process.

  4. Selecting clinical quality indicators for laboratory medicine.

    Barth, Julian H

    2012-05-01

    Quality in laboratory medicine is often described as doing the right test at the right time for the right person. Laboratory processes currently operate under the oversight of an accreditation body which gives confidence that the process is good. However, there are aspects of quality that are not measured by these processes. These are largely focused on ensuring that the most clinically appropriate test is performed and interpreted correctly. Clinical quality indicators were selected through a two-phase process. Firstly, a series of focus groups of clinical scientists were held with the aim of developing a list of quality indicators. These were subsequently ranked in order by an expert panel of primary and secondary care physicians. The 10 top indicators included the communication of critical results, comprehensive education to all users and adequate quality assurance for point-of-care testing. Laboratories should ensure their tests are used to national standards, that they have clinical utility, are calibrated to national standards and have long-term stability for chronic disease management. Laboratories should have error logs and demonstrate evidence of measures introduced to reduce chances of similar future errors. Laboratories should make a formal scientific evaluation of analytical quality. This paper describes the process of selection of quality indicators for laboratory medicine that have been validated sequentially by deliverers and users of the service. They now need to be converted into measureable variables related to outcome and validated in practice.

  5. PIXE determination of essential trace elements in some traditional Chinese medicines

    Xiao, L.; Qin, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The essential trace elements in 30 traditional Chinese medicines, (24 tonics and 6 nontonics) were determined by proton-induced X-ray emission. The authors' previous suggestion that traditional Chinese medicines may be classified by the order of magnitude of their essential trace elements, thus indicating their pharmacological effects, is not justified. The pharmacological effect of a trace element or its essentiality may be dependent on some ligand that can be chelated with it. A nonlinear mapping algorithm, however, shows that the 30 traditional Chinese medicines are nearly separated into two groups, indicating their tonic or nontonic pharmacological effects

  6. Essential Oils from the Medicinal Herbs Upregulate Dopamine Transporter in Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    Choi, Min Sun; Choi, Bang-sub; Kim, Sang Heon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jang, Chul Ho; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Dong-il; Jeon, Songhee; Koo, Byung-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, a component of the dopamine system, undergoes adaptive neurobiological changes from drug abuse. Prevention of relapse and reduction of withdrawal symptoms are still the major limitations in the current pharmacological treatments of drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of essential oils extracted from Elsholtzia ciliata, Shinchim, Angelicae gigantis Radix, and Eugenia caryophyllata, well-known traditional Korean medicines for addiction, on the modulation of dopamine system in amphetamine-treated cells and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect. The potential cytotoxic effect of essential oils was evaluated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells using cell viability assays. Quantification of DAT, p-CREB, p-MAPK, and p-Akt was done by immunoblotting. DAT was significantly reduced in cells treated with 50 μM of amphetamine in a time-dependent manner. No significant toxicity of essential oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Shinchim was observed at doses of 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL. However, essential oils from A. gigantis Radix at a dose of 100 μg/mL and E. caryophyllata at doses of 50 and 100 μg/mL showed cytotoxicity. Treatment with GBR 12909, a highly selective DAT inhibitor, significantly increased DAT expression compared with that of amphetamine only by enhancing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt. In addition, essential oils effectively induced hyperphosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), MAPK, and Akt, which resulted in DAT upregulation. Our study implies that the essential oils may rehabilitate brain dopamine function through increased DAT availability in abstinent former drug users.

  7. [Design and implementation of supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines supply in national essential medicines].

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Guang

    2017-11-01

    The supply of Chinese patent medicine is influenced by the price of raw materials (Chinese herbal medicines) and the stock of resources. On the one hand, raw material prices show cyclical volatility or even irreversible soaring, making the price of Chinese patent medicine is not stable or even the highest cost of hanging upside down. On the other hand, due to lack of resources or disable some of the proprietary Chinese medicine was forced to stop production. Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment Based on the micro-service architecture and Redis cluster deployment, the supply security monitoring and analysis system for Chinese patent medicines in national essential medicines has realized the dynamic monitoring and intelligence warning of herbs and Chinese patent medicine by connecting and integrating the database of Chinese medicine resources, the dynamic monitoring system of traditional Chinese medicine resources and the basic medicine database of Chinese patent medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. The essential tension competition, cooperation and multilevel selection in evolution

    Bahar, Sonya

    2018-01-01

    'The Essential Tension' explores how agents that naturally compete come to act together as a group. The author argues that the controversial concept of multilevel selection is essential to biological evolution, a proposition set to stimulate new debate. The idea of one collective unit emerging from the cooperative interactions of its constituent (and mutually competitive) parts has its roots in the ancient world. More recently, it has illuminated studies of animal behavior, and played a controversial role in evolutionary biology. In Part I, the author explores the historical development of the idea of a collectivity in biological systems, from early speculations on the sociology of human crowd behavior, through the mid-twentieth century debates over the role of group selection in evolution, to the notion of the selfish gene. Part II investigates the balance between competition and cooperation in a range of contemporary biological problems, from flocking and swarming to experimental evolution and the evolutio...

  9. A critical comparison between the World Health Organization list of essential medicines for children and the Brazilian list of essential medicines (Rename

    Helena Lutéscia L. Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: The lack of age-appropriate formulations of essential medicines for children in Brazil includes important therapeutic groups and indispensable drugs for severe clinical conditions. Some of these products exist in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market, but not in public facilities; others could be produced by national laboratories with commercial interest or stimulated by a specific governmental policy, as in other countries.

  10. Development of a provisional essential medicines list for children in Canada: consensus process.

    Woods, Hannah; Oronsaye, Efosa; Bali, Anjli; Rajakulasingam, Yathavan; Lee, Taehoon; Umali, Norman; Cohen, Eyal; Finkelstein, Yaron; Offringa, Martin; Persaud, Nav

    2018-03-26

    Worldwide, many countries have developed a list of essential medicines for children to improve prescribing. We aimed to create an essential medicines list for children in Canada. We adapted the previously created preliminary list of essential medicines for adults in Canada and the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children to create a provisional list of essential medicines for children in Canada. Canadian clinicians made suggestions for changes. Literature relevant to each suggestion was presented to clinician-scientists, who used a modified nominal group technique to make recommendations on the suggestions. Ontario Public Drug Programs prescription data were reviewed to identify commonly prescribed medications missing from the list. Literature relevant to these medications was shared with a clinician-scientist review panel to determine which should be added, and a revised list was developed. A total of 76 items were removed from the list of essential medicines for adults in Canada because they were not indicated for use in children or were not relevant in the Canadian health care context; 7 medications were added to the child list based on Ontario Public Drugs Programs prescribing data and clinician-scientist review. Suggestions to add, remove or substitute medications were made by peer-reviewers and resulted in removal of 1 medication and replacement of 1 medication. The process produced a provisional list of 67 essential medications for children. A provisional list of 67 essential medicines for children was created through a peer-reviewed, multistep process based on current clinical evidence, Canadian clinical practice guidelines and historical prescribing data. It is publicly posted at http://cleanmeds.ca/. The list should be further developed based on wider input and should be continuously revised based on emerging evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these medicines in all pediatric age groups. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  11. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  12. Access to essential medicines in Pakistan: policy and health systems research concerns.

    Shehla Zaidi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.

  13. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita, L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  15. Essential role of conformational selection in ligand binding.

    Vogt, Austin D; Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Two competing and mutually exclusive mechanisms of ligand recognition - conformational selection and induced fit - have dominated our interpretation of ligand binding in biological macromolecules for almost six decades. Conformational selection posits the pre-existence of multiple conformations of the macromolecule from which the ligand selects the optimal one. Induced fit, on the other hand, postulates the existence of conformational rearrangements of the original conformation into an optimal one that are induced by binding of the ligand. In the former case, conformational transitions precede the binding event; in the latter, conformational changes follow the binding step. Kineticists have used a facile criterion to distinguish between the two mechanisms based on the dependence of the rate of relaxation to equilibrium, kobs, on the ligand concentration, [L]. A value of kobs decreasing hyperbolically with [L] has been seen as diagnostic of conformational selection, while a value of kobs increasing hyperbolically with [L] has been considered diagnostic of induced fit. However, this simple conclusion is only valid under the rather unrealistic assumption of conformational transitions being much slower than binding and dissociation events. In general, induced fit only produces values of kobs that increase with [L] but conformational selection is more versatile and is associated with values of kobs that increase with, decrease with or are independent of [L]. The richer repertoire of kinetic properties of conformational selection applies to kinetic mechanisms with single or multiple saturable relaxations and explains the behavior of nearly all experimental systems reported in the literature thus far. Conformational selection is always sufficient and often necessary to account for the relaxation kinetics of ligand binding to a biological macromolecule and is therefore an essential component of any binding mechanism. On the other hand, induced fit is never necessary and

  16. Patent and exclusivity status of essential medicines for non-communicable disease.

    Tim K Mackey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs" is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs" that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. MATERIALS: We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization's ("WHO" Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines ("MLEM" and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. RESULTS: Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359 address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  17. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  18. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  19. Plant essential oils potency as natural antibiotic in Indonesian medicinal herb of “jamu”

    Soetjipto, H.; Martono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to compile antibacterial activity data of essential oils from Indonesian’s plants in order which can be used as a natural antibiotic in “jamu” to increase potential Indonesian medicinal herb. By using Agar Diffusing method, Bioautography and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum, respectively, antibacterial activity and chemical compounds of 12 plants essential oils were studied in the Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga since 2007 until 2015. The results of this studies showed that all of the essential oils have a medium to a strong antibacterial activity which are in the range of 30 - 2,500 μg and 80-5,000 μg. Further on, the essential oils analyzed by GCMS showed that each essential oils have different dominant compounds. These data can be used as basic doses in the usage of essential oils as natural antibiotics.

  20. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  1. Is the Brazilian pharmaceutical policy ensuring population access to essential medicines?

    Bertoldi Andréa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medicine prices, availability and affordability in Brazil, considering the differences across three types of medicines (originator brands, generics and similar medicines and different types of facilities (private pharmacies, public sector pharmacies and “popular pharmacies”. Methods Data on prices and availability of 50 medicines were collected in 56 pharmacies across six cities in Southern Brazil using the World Health Organization / Health Action International methodology. Median prices obtained were divided by international reference prices to derive the median price ratio (MPR. Results In the private sector, prices were 8.6 MPR for similar medicines, 11.3 MRP for generics and 18.7 MRP for originator brands, respectively. Mean availability was 65%, 74% and 48% for originator brands, generics and similar medicines, respectively. In the public sector, mean availability of similar medicines was 2–7 times higher than that of generics. Mean overall availability in the public sector ranged from 68.8% to 81.7%. In “popular pharmacies”, mean availability was greater than 90% in all cities. Conclusions Availability of medicines in the public sector does not meet the challenge of supplying essential medicines to the entire population, as stated in the Brazilian constitution. This has unavoidable repercussions for affordability, particularly amongst the lower socio-economic strata.

  2. Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Turkish Medicinal Plants

    Centaurea calolepis, Phlomis lycia, Eryngium thorifolium, Origanum ... leishmanicidal activity of the extracts was evaluated against L. .... examined under oil immersion with a light ..... Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of ...

  3. Distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions in Hubei of China: effects of centralized procurement arrangements.

    Yang, Lianping; Huang, Cunrui; Liu, Chaojie

    2017-11-14

    Poor distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions has attracted criticism since China adopted provincial centralized regional tendering and procurement systems. This study evaluated the impact of new procurement arrangements that limit the number of distributors at the county level in Hubei province, China. Procurement ordering and distribution data were collected from four counties that pioneered a new distribution arrangement (commencing September 2012) compared with six counties that continued the existing arrangement over the period from August 2011 to September 2013. The new arrangement allowed primary care institutions and/or suppliers to select a local distributor from a limited panel (from 3 to 5) of government nominated distributors. Difference-in-differences analyses were performed to assess the impact of the new arrangements on delivery and receipt of essential medicines. Overall, the new distribution arrangement has not improved distribution of essential medicines to primary care institutions. On the contrary, we found a 7.78-19.85 percentage point (p Procurement arrangements need to consider the special characteristics of rural facilities. In a county, there are more rural primary care institutions than urban ones. On average, rural primary care institutions demand more and are more geographically dispersed compared to their urban counterparts, which may impose increased distribution costs.

  4. Essential oil of Croton flavens L. (Welensali), a medicinal plant from Curacao

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Bos, R; van Meeteren, HE; Baarslag, JJJ; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Pras, N; do Rego Kuster, G; Petronia, RRL

    2000-01-01

    The volatile constituents from aerial and underground parts of Croton flavens L., a medicinal plant from Curacao, were investigated by GC and GC/MS (EI) analysis. The various plant parts yielded 0.27-0.50%, (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. There were only small differences in the

  5. Human Rights and Drug Control : Access to Controlled Essential Medicines in Resource-Constrained Countries

    Gispen, M.E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer a range of health and socio-economic related problems because of inadequate availability and use of controlled essential medicines like morphine and codeine for pain treatment. As a result, millions of people, often living in lesser-advanced conditions, suffer in

  6. Human rights & intellectual property for universal access to new essential medicines

    Perehudoff, Katrina; 't Hoen, Elisabeth; Babar, Zaheer

    2018-01-01

    This chapter illustrates how human rights principles can help governments, even those with the most modest budgets, scale-up universal access to expensive essential medicines. The key message is that governments have legally binding human rights obligations to immediately take steps to provide

  7. First Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C.; Wellems, Thomas E.; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E.; Guillen, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughp...

  8. Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Plant Extracts and Their Essential Oils

    Charalampos Proestos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the screening of some selected aromatic plants very popular in Greece, with respect to their total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, reducing activity, and oxidative stability. All plants were extracted with the conventional method, reflux with methanol. The essential oils of the plants were also analyzed for their antioxidant properties. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as the standard, while the phenolic substances were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC coupled with a multi-wavelength ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis detector. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extracts was measured by their ability to scavenge free radicals such as (a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and, (b ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiaziline-6- sulfonate. The Folin-Ciocalteu method proved the existence of antioxidants in the aromatic plant extracts. Taking into account the results of the DPPH and ABTS methods, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. Eventually, all plants exhibited low but noticeable protection levels against lipid oxidation, as determined by the Rancimat test.

  9. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant ...

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2013; 12 (4): 535-540. ISSN: 1596-5996 .... Table 1: Antibacterial activity of selected Thai medicinal plants against Streptococcus pyogenes NPRC 101. Botanical ..... Naphthoquinones,.

  10. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa

  11. Analysis of chemical constituents in medicinal plants of selected ...

    Analysis of chemical constituents in medicinal plants of selected districts of Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. I Hussain, R Ullah, J Khan, N Khan, M Zahoor, N Ullah, MuR Khattak, FA Khan, A Baseer, M Khurram ...

  12. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  13. Essential medicines in Tanzania: does the new delivery system improve supply and accountability?

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Cowley, Peter; Kasale, Harun; Mbuya, Conrad; Reid, Graham; de Savigny, Don

    2014-02-01

    Objective : Assess whether reform in the Tanzanian medicines delivery system from a central 'push' kit system to a decentralized 'pull' Integrated Logistics System (ILS) has improved medicines accountability. Methods : Rufiji District in Tanzania was used as a case study. Data on medicines ordered and patients seen were compiled from routine information at six public health facilities in 1999 under the kit system and in 2009 under the ILS. Three medicines were included for comparison: an antimalarial, anthelmintic and oral rehydration salts (ORS). Results : The quality of the 2009 data was hampered by incorrect quantification calculations for orders, especially for antimalarials. Between the periods 1999 and 2009, the percent of unaccounted antimalarials fell from 60 to 18%, while the percent of unaccounted anthelmintic medicines went from 82 to 71%. Accounting for ORS, on the other hand, did not improve as the unaccounted amounts increased from 64 to 81% during the same period. Conclusions : The ILS has not adequately addressed accountability concerns seen under the kit system due to a combination of governance and system-design challenges. These quantification weaknesses are likely to have contributed to the frequent periods of antimalarial stock-out experienced in Tanzania since 2009. We propose regular reconciliation between the health information system and the medicines delivery system, thereby improving visibility and guiding interventions to increase the availability of essential medicines.

  14. Improving Access to Essential Medicines: How Health Concerns can be Prioritised in the Global Governance System.

    Sridhar, Devi

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the politics of access to essential medicines and identifies 'space' in the current system where health concerns can be strengthened relative to trade. This issue is addressed from a global governance perspective focusing on the main actors who can have the greatest impact. These include developing country coalitions and citizens in developed countries though participation in civil society organisations. These actors have combined forces to tackle this issue successfully, resulting in the 2001 Doha Declaration on Public Health. The collaboration has been so powerful due to the assistance of the media as well as the decision to compromise with pharmaceutical companies and their host countries. To improve access to essential medicines, six C's are needed: coalitions, civil society, citizenship, compromise, communication and collaboration.

  15. An economic justification for open access to essential medicine patents in developing countries.

    Flynn, Sean; Hollis, Aidan; Palmedo, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an economic rationale for compulsory licensing of needed medicines in developing countries. The patent system is based on a trade-off between the "deadweight losses" caused by market power and the incentive to innovate created by increased profits from monopoly pricing during the period of the patent. However, markets for essential medicines under patent in developing countries with high income inequality are characterized by highly convex demand curves, producing large deadweight losses relative to potential profits when monopoly firms exercise profit-maximizing pricing strategies. As a result, these markets are systematically ill-suited to exclusive marketing rights, a problem which can be corrected through compulsory licensing. Open licenses that permit any qualified firm to supply the market on the same terms, such as may be available under licenses of right or essential facility legal standards, can be used to mitigate the negative effects of government-granted patents, thereby increasing overall social welfare.

  16. A critique of an argument against patent rights for essential medicines

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    holds, namely that patent rights for essential medicines are morally unjustified per se. Throughout this paper, ‘the strong view’ refers to this view. The strong view is one that enjoys considerable support both within and outside the academic community. This paper critically discusses one specific......Thomas Pogge has recently argued that the way in which research and development of essential medicines is incentivized, under existing World Trade Organization rules, should be supplemented with an additional incentivizing mechanism. One might hold a stronger view than the one that Pogge currently...... view also have some grounds for believing that the argument is sound. This belief comes, however, with what is arguably a too high cost, namely that the global institutional order becomes very demanding on taxpaying citizens of high-income countries if it is to be just. One may find acceptance...

  17. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    The use of essential oils (EOs) and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha pi...

  18. Availability and affordability of essential medicines for children in the Western part of Ethiopia: implication for access

    Sado, Edao; Sufa, Alemu

    2016-01-01

    Background Essential medicines (EMs) are those medicines which satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. Although it is a fundamental human right, access to essential medicines has been a big challenge in developing countries particularly for children. WHO recommends assessing the current situations on availability and affordability of EMs as the first step towards enhancing access to them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess access to EMs for children based on avai...

  19. Levels of Essential Elements in Different Medicinal Plants Determined by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Eid I. Brima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the content of essential elements in medicinal plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Five different medical plants (mahareeb (Cymbopogon schoenanthus, sheeh (Artemisia vulgaris, harjal (Cynanchum argel delile, nabipoot (Equisetum arvense, and cafmariam (Vitex agnus-castus were collected from Madina city in the KSA. Five elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fe levels were the highest and Se levels were the lowest in all plants. The range levels of all elements in all plants were as follows: Fe 193.4–1757.9, Mn 23.6–143.7, Zn 15.4–32.7, Se 0.13–0.92, and Cu 11.3–21.8 µg/g. Intakes of essential elements from the medical plants in infusion were calculated: Fe 4.6–13.4, Mn 6.7–123.2, Zn 7.0–42.7, Se 0.14–1.5, and Cu 1.5–5.0 µg/dose. The calculated intakes of essential elements for all plants did not exceed the daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. These medicinal plants may be useful sources of essential elements, which are vital for health.

  20. Biological, medicinal and toxicological significance of Eucalyptus leaf essential oil: a review.

    Dhakad, Ashok K; Pandey, Vijay V; Beg, Sobia; Rawat, Janhvi M; Singh, Avtar

    2018-02-01

    The genus Eucalyptus L'Heritier comprises about 900 species, of which more than 300 species contain volatile essential oil in their leaves. About 20 species, within these, have a high content of 1,8-cineole (more than 70%), commercially used for the production of essential oils in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, Eucalyptus is extensively planted for pulp, plywood and solid wood production, but its leaf aromatic oil has astounding widespread biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorder treatment, wound healing, and insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, and perfumes, soap making and grease remover. In the present review, we have made an attempt to congregate the biological ingredients of leaf essential oil, leaf oil as a natural medicine, and pharmacological and toxicological values of the leaf oil of different Eucalyptus species worldwide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants

    Nwe Yee Win; Nyunt Wynn; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Myint; Saw Hla Myint; Myint Khine

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

  2. The effect of an essential oil combination derived from selected ...

    One thousand two hundred and fifty sexed day-old broiler chicks obtained from a commercial hatchery were divided randomly into five treatment groups (negative control, antibiotic and essential oil combination (EOC) at three levels) of 250 birds each. Each treatment group was further sub-divided into five replicates of 50 ...

  3. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    Objective: Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major constrain to production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil plants in control of the disease.

  4. Evaluating availability and price of essential medicines in Boston area (Massachusetts, USA) using WHO/HAI methodology.

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rorden, Lindsey; Ewen, Margaret; Laing, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Many patients even those with health insurance pay out-of-pocket for medicines. We investigated the availability and prices of essential medicines in the Boston area. Using the WHO/HAI methodology, availability and undiscounted price data for both originator brand (OB) and lowest price generic (LPG) equivalent versions of 25 essential medicines (14 prescription; 11 over-the-counter (OTC)) were obtained from 17 private pharmacies. The inclusion and prices of 26 essential medicines in seven pharmacy discount programs were also studied. The medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs). In surveyed pharmacies, the OB medicines were less available as compared to the generics. The OB and LPG versions of OTC medicines were 21.33 and 11.53 times the IRP, respectively. The median prices of prescription medicines were higher, with OB and LPG versions at 158.14 and 38.03 times the IRP, respectively. In studied pharmacy discount programs, the price ratios of surveyed medicines varied from 4.4-13.9. While noting the WHO target that consumers should pay no more than four times the IRPs, medicine prices were considerably higher in the Boston area. The prices for medicines included in the pharmacy discount programs were closest to WHO's target. Consumers should shop around, as medicine inclusion and prices vary across discount programs. In order for consumers to identify meaningful potential savings through comparison shopping, price transparency is needed.

  5. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:26347061

  6. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  7. Allelopatic effects of some medicinal plant essential oils on plant seeds germination

    ALI SHOKOUHIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils from some medicinal plants on seed germination was studied with the aim of assessing their potential use as bioherbicides. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Seeds of 3 summer crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa, pepper (Piper longum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and anise (Pimpinella anisum at 3 different concentrations (25 and 50% diluted and undiluted. Treated seeds were grown in a growth chamber at 25°C for 5 days. The number of germinated seeds in each Petri dish was daily counted. After five days seed germination percentage (Ge was calculated. Biplot analysis was performed using genotype plus genotype environment interaction (GGE method. Results showed that the allelopathic effect on Ge was varied among studied plants, which was mainly due to i differences in the composition of the studied essential oils and ii different allelopathic effects of the studied essential oils on Ge. Accordingly, compared to the individual use, combining several essential oils would have a greater inhibitory effect on Ge of weeds.

  8. Chemical compositions of essential oils from two Artemisia species used in Mongolian traditional medicine

    Javzmaa N

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess many active constituents that work through a several modes of action. Artemisia, the largest genus of the family Asteraceae, has a number of effects against human and plant diseases. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate chemical compositions of essential oils of two Artemisia species, Artemisia palustris L and Artemisia sericea Weber ex Stechm from the Mongolian steppe zone using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A.palustris was characterized by the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as  trans-β-ocimene (59.1%, cis-β-ocimene (11.6% and myrcene (7.1%, while the oil of A.sericea was dominated by the presence of three oxygenated monoterpenoids as 1,8-cineole (25.8%, borneol (22.5% and camphor (18.8% which are used for preparation of a fragrance and medicinal products.

  9. A critique of an argument against patent rights for essential medicines

    Jorn Sonderholm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Pogge has recently argued that the way in which research and development of essential medicines is incentivized, under existing World Trade Organization rules, should be supplemented with an additional incentivizing mechanism. One might hold a stronger view than the one that Pogge currently holds, namely that patent rights for essential medicines are morally unjustified per se. Throughout this paper, ‘the strong view’ refers to this view. The strong view is one that enjoys considerable support both within and outside the academic community. This paper critically discusses one specific argument in favor of the strong view. This argument is named the ‘Poggean argument’. This denominator is appropriate because a number of the essential premises of the argument are constituted by propositions that Pogge at some point has defended. The Poggean argument is valid, and defenders of the strong view also have some grounds for believing that the argument is sound. This belief comes, however, with what is arguably a too high cost, namely that the global institutional order becomes very demanding on taxpaying citizens of high-income countries if it is to be just. One may find acceptance of this cost relatively unproblematic, but this cost is, it is argued, unacceptable to anyone who has views on distributive justice that are sympathetic to the core tenets of libertarianism.

  10. Analysis of vitamin C in selected medicinal plants

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, a very useful constituent of redox mechanism is used in medicine and also added in manufactured food for anti-oxidation. A UV-spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of Vitamin C in 4 different medicinal plants. High amount of Vitamin C 160 mg/100 g was found in Citrulus colcocynthis, followed by Hippophae rhamonides oil 136.1 mg/100g. A relatively low concentration of Vitamin C was recorded in Glycyrhiza glabra 56.2 mg/100g and Withinia somnifera 51.50 mg/100 g. The presence of high concentration of Vitamin C in selected medicinal plants might be responsible for their therapeutic effects and uses in the traditional system of medicine. (author)

  11. Integrating patient empowerment as an essential characteristic of the discipline of general practice/family medicine.

    Mola, Ernesto; De Bonis, Judith A; Giancane, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of healthcare for patients with chronic conditions have resulted in growing evidence supporting the inclusion of patient empowerment as a key ingredient of care. In 2002, WONCA Europe issued the European Definition of General Practice/Family Medicine, which is currently considered the point of reference for European health institutions and general medical practice. Patient empowerment does not appear among the 11 characteristics of the discipline. The aim of this study is to show that many characteristics of general practice are already oriented towards patient empowerment. Therefore, promoting patient empowerment and self-management should be included as a characteristic of the discipline. The following investigation was conducted: analysing the concept and approach to empowerment as applied to healthcare in the literature; examining whether aspects of empowerment are already part of general medical practice; and identifying reasons why the European definition of general practice/family medicine should contain empowerment as a characteristic of the discipline. General practice/family medicine is the most suitable setting for promoting patient empowerment, because many of its characteristics are already oriented towards encouraging it and because its widespread presence can ensure the generalization of empowerment promotion and self-management education to the totality of patients and communities. "Promoting patient empowerment and self-management" should be considered one of the essential characteristics of general practice/family medicine and should be included in its definition.

  12. An exploratory study on equity in funding allocation for essential medicines and health supplies in Uganda's public sector.

    Kusemererwa, Donna; Alban, Anita; Obua, Ocwa Thomas; Trap, Birna

    2016-08-30

    To ascertain equity in financing for essential medicines and health supplies (EMHS) in Uganda, this paper explores the relationships among government funding allocations for EMHS, patient load, and medicines availability across facilities at different levels of care. We collected data on EMHS allocations and availability of selected vital medicines from 43 purposively sampled hospitals and the highest level health centers (HC IV), 44 randomly selected lower-level health facilities (HC II, III), and from over 400 facility health information system records and National Medical Stores records. The data were analyzed to determine allocations per patient within and across levels of care and the effects of allocations on product availability. EMHS funding allocations per patient varied widely within facilities at the same level, and allocations per patient between levels overlapped considerably. For example, HC IV allocations per patient ranged from US$0.25 to US$2.14 (1:9 ratio of lowest to highest allocation), and over 75 % of HC IV facilities had the same or lower average allocation per patient than HC III facilities. Overall, 43 % of all the facilities had optimal stock levels, 27 % were understocked, and 30 % were overstocked. Using simulations, we reduced the ratio between the highest and lowest allocations per patient within a level of care to less than two and eliminated the overlap in allocation per patient between levels. Inequity in EMHS allocation is demonstrated by the wide range of funding allocations per patient and the corresponding disparities in medicines availability. We show that using patient load to calculate EMHS allocations has the potential to improve equity significantly. However, more research in this area is urgently needed. The article does not report any results of human participants. It is implemented in collaboration with the Uganda's Ministry of Health, Pharmacy Division.

  13. First Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium.

    Musselwhite, Laura W; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C; Wellems, Thomas E; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E; Guillen, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughput screening and medicinal chemistry research programs to identify lead compounds for small molecule drugs and novel drug targets. Furthermore, product development partnerships are emerging between academic institutions, non-profit entities, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to create diagnostics, therapies, and vaccines for diseases of the poor. With not for profit mission statements, open access publishing standards, open source platforms for data sharing and collaboration, and a shift in focus to more translational research, universities and other public research institutions are well-placed to accelerate development of medical technologies, particularly for neglected tropical diseases.

  14. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  15. Quantification of total and water extractable essential elements in medicinal plants used for stomach problems

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Shar, G.Q.; Mangrio, A.M; Shaikh, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease is well known. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to quantify the commonly occurring elements in three medicinal plans. Peganum harmala Linn, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Tamarix dioca used for stomach problems using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wet digestion method has been used to extract the acid extractable metals. Samples were boiled in water to obtain water extractable metals. The validation of the method was checked with the NBS-1570 (Spinach) as Standard Reference Material. Levels of essential elements were found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The considerable amounts of essential such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron were found in all these plant samples. (author)

  16. Radioactive Study of Malagasy medicinal plants and essential oil by gamma spectrometry

    RAMAROSON, V.

    1997-01-01

    Medicinal plants and essential oil derived from environmental samples such as plants, flowers, bushes or wild trees. Then, it is normal that naturally occuring radionuclides from Thorium and Uranium series on the one hand, K-40, a primordial radionuclide and common for all the samples on the other hand have been identified in such samples. Their activity are very low as it was expected to be, and Pb-210, one of the most radiotoxic among all natural radionuclides was not detected. Particularly, for essential oil, only the light radionuclide K-40 remains in the obtained oil, it is estimated that heavy metals such as Pb-212, identified in plants could not follow the vapour phase during the distillation process. However, detected counts per second of K-40 decrease from plants to oil which are then non-radioactive [fr

  17. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain.

    Rombolà, L; Amantea, D; Russo, R; Adornetto, A; Berliocchi, L; Tridico, L; Corasaniti, M T; Sakurada, S; Sakurada, T; Bagetta, G; Morrone, L A

    2016-01-01

    In complementary medicine, aromatherapy uses essential oils to improve agitation and aggression observed in dementia, mood, depression, anxiety and chronic pain. Preclinical research studies have reported that the essential oil obtained from bergamot (BEO) fruit (Citrus bergamia, Risso) modifies normal and pathological synaptic plasticity implicated, for instance, in nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Interestingly, recent results indicated that BEO modulates sensitive perception of pain in different models of nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pain modulating endogenous systems. Thus, local administration of BEO inhibited the nociceptive behavioral effect induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin or formalin in mice. Similar effects were observed with linalool and linalyl acetate, major volatile components of the phytocomplex, Pharmacological studies showed that the latter effects are reversed by local or systemic pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride alike with naloxone methiodide, high affinity peripheral μ-opioid receptor antagonist. These results and the synergistic effect observed following systemic or intrathecal injection of an inactive dose of morphine with BEO or linalool indicated an activation of peripheral opioid system. Recently, in neuropathic pain models systemic or local administration of BEO or linalool induced antiallodynic effects. In particular, in partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model, intraplantar injection of the phytocomplex or linalool in the ipsilateral hindpaw, but not in the contralateral, reduced PSNL-induced extracellularsignal- regulated kinase (ERK) activation and mechanical allodynia. In neuropathic pain high doses of morphine are needed to reduce pain. Interestingly, combination of inactive doses of BEO or linalool with a low dose of morphine induced antiallodynic effects in mice. Peripheral cannabinoid and opioid systems appear to be involved in the antinociception produced by

  18. Access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care: the role of the pharmaceutical industry and international regulation.

    Cottingham, Jane; Berer, Marge

    2011-11-01

    The range of medicines and technologies that are essential for sexual and reproductive health care is well established, but access to them is far from universally assured, particularly in less developed countries. This paper shows how the pharmaceutical industry plays a major role in the lack of access to essential medicines for sexual and reproductive health care, by a) investing in products for profit-making reasons despite their negative health impact (e.g. hormone replacement therapy), b) marketing new essential medicines at prices beyond the reach of countries that most need them (e.g. HPV vaccines), and c) failing to invest in the development of new products (e.g. microbicides and medical abortion pills). Small companies, some of them non-profit-making, struggle to fill some of that demand (e.g. for female condoms). International patent protection contributes to high prices of medicines, and while international agreements such as compulsory licensing under TRIPS and the Medicines Patent Pool allow for mechanisms to enable poorer countries to get access to essential medicines, the obstacles created by "big pharma" are daunting. All these barriers have fostered a market in sub-standard medicines (e.g. fake medical abortion pills sold over the internet). An agenda driven by sexual and reproductive health needs, based on the right to health, must focus on universal access to essential medicines at prices developing countries can afford. We call for greater public investment in essential medicines, expanded production of affordable generic drugs, and the development of broad strategic plans, that include affordable medicines and technologies, for addressing identified public health problems, such as cervical cancer. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimated effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada.

    Morgan, Steven G; Li, Winny; Yau, Brandon; Persaud, Nav

    2017-02-27

    Canada's universal health care system does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. We sought to estimate the effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada. We used administrative and market research data to estimate the 2015 shares of the volume and cost of prescriptions filled in the community setting that were for 117 drugs on a model list of essential medicines for Canada. We compared prices of these essential medicines in Canada with prices in the United States, Sweden and New Zealand. We estimated the cost of adding universal public drug coverage of these essential medicines based on anticipated effects on medication use and pricing. The 117 essential medicines on the model list accounted for 44% of all prescriptions and 30% of total prescription drug expenditures in 2015. Average prices of generic essential medicines were 47% lower in the US, 60% lower in Sweden and 84% lower in New Zealand; brand-name drugs were priced 43% lower in the US. Estimated savings from universal public coverage of these essential medicines was $4.27 billion per year (range $2.72 billion to $5.83 billion; 28% reduction) for patients and private drug plan sponsors, at an incremental government cost of $1.23 billion per year (range $373 million to $1.98 billion; 11% reduction). Our analysis showed that adding universal public coverage of essential medicines to the existing public drug plans in Canada could address most of Canadians' pharmaceutical needs and save billions of dollars annually. Doing so may be a pragmatic step forward while more comprehensive pharmacare reforms are planned. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  20. Pharmacist's contribution to the promotion of access and rational use of essential medicines in SUS.

    Melo, Daniela Oliveira de; Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo de

    2017-01-01

    to describe the pharmaceutical inclusion process in a Basic Health Unit multidisciplinary team and evaluate results related to rational use and promotion of access to essential medicines. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in a primary care health unit in the city of São Paulo. Pharmacist's activities were evaluated regarding the service structure and organization and prescribing quality improvement, guidance method creation, and implementation of clinical pharmacy service. Data measured before and after the interventions and between 2010 and 2011 were analyzed using Pearson´s chi-square test with a significance level of 5%, and odds ratio. Pharmacist's activities had statistically significant result in drug shortage reduction; prescribing quality improvement associated with an increased proportion of prescriptions met; decrease in the total of prescribed drugs among patients receiving pharmacotherapeutic follow-up and, comparing the years 2010 and 2011, changes in the pharmacotherapy recommendations have gained increased acceptance level. Pharmacist's activities may effectively provide rational use and promotion of access to essential medicines.

  1. The collision of rights and its impact on access to essential medicines: Challenges for South America

    Raúl Allard Soto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The collision between intellectual property rights and the right to health due to obligations assumed simultaneously –the WTO trips Agreement and the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights– by the twelve countries of South America, has had a profound impact regarding their populations access to essential medicines. The paper reports this situation in the region, while placing it in the context of the debate on trade and human rights, which has been particularly strong since the beginning of this century in the field of public health. The need for South American countries to strengthen intraregional cooperation as well as the promotion of South-South cooperation in access to essential medicines, taking into account the prevalence of pharmaceutical patents held by private laboratories in the northern hemisphere, is underlined. The advances made in this direction by the South American Health Council of Unasur, together with its actions as a regional bloc at the WTO meetings, are promising steps that must be complemented by the development of joint drug production capabilities.

  2. Health Care Financing in Ethiopia: Implications on Access to Essential Medicines.

    Ali, Eskinder Eshetu

    2014-09-01

    The Ethiopian health care system is under tremendous reform. One of the issues high on the agenda is health care financing. In an effort to protect citizens from catastrophic effects of the clearly high share of out-of-pocket expenditure, the government is currently working to introduce health insurance. This article aims to highlight the components of the Ethiopian health care financing reform and discuss its implications on access to essential medicines. A desk review of government policy documents and proclamations was done. Moreover, a review of the scientific literature was done via PubMed and search of other local journals not indexed in PubMed. Revenue retention by health facilities, systematizing the fee waiver system, standardizing exemption services, outsourcing of nonclinical services, user fee setting and revision, initiation of compulsory health insurance (community-based health insurance and social health insurance), establishment of a private wing in public hospitals, and health facility autonomy were the main components of the health care financing reform in Ethiopia. Although limited, the evidence shows that there is increased health care utilization, access to medicines, and quality of services as a result of the reforms. Encouraging progress has been made in the implementation of health care financing reforms in Ethiopia. However, there is shortage of evidence on the effect of the health care financing reforms on access to essential medicines in the country. Thus, a clear need exists for well-organized research on the issue. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection of medicines in Chilean public hospitals: an exploratory study

    Collao Juan F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in high income countries to control expenditure on medicines by improving the rationale for their selection. However, in middle income countries with differing priorities and needs, little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper we explore the policies and processes for the selection and use of medicines in a group of hospitals in Chile, a middle income country which has recently joined the OECD. Methods A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A national survey questionnaire was distributed to investigate the role and operation of PTCs (Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees. Interviews were conducted with key actors in the selection of medicines in large urban public hospitals. Results The national survey had an overall response rate of 42% (83 out of 196, whilst 7 out of 14 hospitals participated in the qualitative study. High complexity hospitals are large urban hospitals; all of which claim to have a working PTC. The pharmacy offices are mainly involved in dispensing medicines with little involvement in clinical duties. The interviews conducted suggest that the formulary of all the hospitals visited is no more than a stock list. PTCs are unable to influence the prescribing practices of doctors. Members do not feel prepared to challenge the opinions of specialists requesting a certain drug, and decisions are based primarily on costs. The inclusion of medicines in the clinical practice of hospitals is as a result of doctors bypassing the PTC and requesting the purchase of exceptional items, some of which are included in the formulary if they are widely used. Conclusions There is an urgent need to develop medicine policies in hospitals in Chile. The procedures used to purchase medicines need to be revised. Central guidance for PTCs could help ensure a more rational use of medicines. PTCs need to be empowered to design formularies which cover all the clinical

  4. Selection of medicines in Chilean public hospitals: an exploratory study.

    Collao, Juan F; Smith, Felicity; Barber, Nick

    2013-01-07

    There is a growing interest in high income countries to control expenditure on medicines by improving the rationale for their selection. However, in middle income countries with differing priorities and needs, little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper we explore the policies and processes for the selection and use of medicines in a group of hospitals in Chile, a middle income country which has recently joined the OECD. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A national survey questionnaire was distributed to investigate the role and operation of PTCs (Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees). Interviews were conducted with key actors in the selection of medicines in large urban public hospitals. The national survey had an overall response rate of 42% (83 out of 196), whilst 7 out of 14 hospitals participated in the qualitative study. High complexity hospitals are large urban hospitals; all of which claim to have a working PTC. The pharmacy offices are mainly involved in dispensing medicines with little involvement in clinical duties.The interviews conducted suggest that the formulary of all the hospitals visited is no more than a stock list. PTCs are unable to influence the prescribing practices of doctors. Members do not feel prepared to challenge the opinions of specialists requesting a certain drug, and decisions are based primarily on costs. The inclusion of medicines in the clinical practice of hospitals is as a result of doctors bypassing the PTC and requesting the purchase of exceptional items, some of which are included in the formulary if they are widely used. There is an urgent need to develop medicine policies in hospitals in Chile. The procedures used to purchase medicines need to be revised. Central guidance for PTCs could help ensure a more rational use of medicines. PTCs need to be empowered to design formularies which cover all the clinical needs of doctors, training members in the analysis of scientific

  5. Implementing differential pricing for essential medicines via country-specific bilateral negotiated discounts.

    Tetteh, Ebenezer Kwabena

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that limited access to essential medicines undermines efforts at improving the health and economic well-being of low-income populations. This has spurred on a number of solutions, including differential pricing based on the economics of price discrimination. A desirable feature of differential pricing is its potential ability to reconcile static and dynamic efficiency concerns. There are, however, various shades of differential pricing and this paper aims to evaluate their consistency with economic theory. Starting with the report of the workshop on 'Differential Pricing and Financing of Essential Drugs' held by secretariats of the World Trade Organization and WHO in Hosbjor, Norway, in 2001, this paper takes issue with how differential pricing has been defined as a tool for improving access to essential drug benefits. The paper notes that inadequate attention has been given to policies and institutional arrangements for creating, expressing and maintaining 'truly' price-elastic demands in low-income nations and for segmenting markets. In addition, considerations of equity and solidarity have distracted policy advocates from balancing conflicting, yet well intended, views and general rules. The paper argues why differential pricing should be implemented via country-specific bilateral negotiated discounts. It maintains that it is feasible to muster an environment conducive to profitable differential pricing whilst satisfying general rules and concerns about self-reliance, transparency, accountability, equity and solidarity.

  6. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  7. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  8. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activity of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    Abed, Kawther F

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial and anticandidal properties of essential oils obtained from 7 plant species used in traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries were evaluated for activity against test bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using an agar dilution method. Our results showed that oils from Azadirachta indica, Ziziphus spine, Matricaria chamomilla, Agrimonia eupatoria and Lupinus albus, even at the highest concentration did not inhibit any of the tested organisms. The essential oil extracted from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida plants did not show any antibacterial activities. However, essential oil extracts from Juniperus communis and Lavandula hybrida exhibited varying degrees of growth inhibition of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 2.0%( v/v) of Juniper oil and 0.5% (v/v) for Lavender oil against Candida albicans. Our results suggest that the anticandidal properties of Juniper and Lavender oils may be further investigated to explore the possibility of using them in the treatment of candidal infections. (author)

  9. In which developing countries are patents on essential medicines being filed?

    Beall, Reed F; Blanchet, Rosanne; Attaran, Amir

    2017-06-26

    This article is based upon data gathered during a study conducted in partnership with the World Intellectual Property Organization on the patent status of products appearing on the World Health Organization's 2013 Model List of Essential Medicines (MLEM). It is a statistical analysis aimed at answering: in which developing countries are patents on essential medicines being filed? Patent data were collected by linking those listed in the United States and Canada's medicine patent registers to corresponding patents in developing countries using two international patent databases (INPADOC and Derwent) via a commerical-grade patent search platform (Thomson Innovation). The respective supplier companies were then contacted to correct and verify our data. We next tallied the number of MLEM patents per developing country. Spearman correlations were done to assess bivariate relationships between variables, and a multivariate regression model was developed to explain the number of MLEM patents in each country using SPSS 23.0. A subset of 20 of the 375 (5%) products on the 2013 MLEM fit our inclusion criteria. The patent estate reports (i.e., the global list of patents for a given drug) varied greatly in their number with a median of 48 patents (interquartile range [IQR]: 26-76). Their geographic reach had a median of 15% of the developing countries sampled (IQR: 8-28%). The number of developing countries covered appeared to increase with the age of the patent estate (r = .433, p = 0.028). The number of MLEM patents per country was significantly positively associated with human development index (HDI), gross domestic income (GDI) per capita, total healthcare expenditure per capita, population size, the Rule of Law Index, and average education level. Population size, GDI per capita, and healthcare expenditure (in % of national expenditure) were predictors of the number of MLEM patents in countries (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.009, respectively). Population

  10. Impact of price deregulation policy on the affordability of essential medicines for women's health: a panel data analysis.

    Liu, Junjie; Wang, Liming; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping

    2017-12-01

    A new policy which required deregulation on prices of off-patent medicines for women's health during procurement was introduced in China in September 2015. The current study examines this policy's impact on the affordability of essential medicines for women's health. Based on product-level panel data, a fixed effect regression model is employed by using procurement records from Hubei Centralist Tender for Drug Purchase platform. In the model, Affordability was measured with prices. The Competition consists of two parts: generic competition and therapeutic class competition which are measured with generic competitors and therapeutic substitutes. Instrument variable is used to deal with endogeneity. The policy helped control prices of essential medicines for women's health. Generic competition helped control prices, however, therapeutic class competition caused higher prices. The new policy helped enhance the affordability of essential medicines for women's health as expected, which provides empirical evidence on price deregulation. Besides, generic competition is important in price control despite strict regulatory system in China.

  11. Assessment of the impact of market regulation in Mali on the price of essential medicines provided through the private sector.

    Maïga, Diadié; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-10-01

    In 1998, the government of Mali adopted a national pharmaceutical policy aimed at promoting a supply system for generic essential medicines that would guarantee equal access for all citizens. Distribution and delivery is a shared responsibility of both public and private sectors (wholesalers and pharmacies). To influence private sector behaviour, the national policy uses a combination of government regulation and market forces. In 2006, the government issued a decree fixing maximum prices in the private sector for 107 prescription drugs from the national list of 426 essential medicines. The current study assessed the impact of this intervention on the evolution of market prices (wholesale and retail), and the subsequent availability and public access to essential medicines in Mali. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in February and May 2006, and January 2009, with 16 wholesalers and 30 private drugstores in Bamako, Mali. The overall availability of essential medicines at private wholesalers (p=1) and pharmacies (p=0.53) was identical before and after the enforcement of the 2006 decree fixing maximum drug prices. Contrary to concerns expressed by wholesalers and pharmacies, and the other stakeholders, the decree did not impact negatively on availability of essential medicines. In fact, median wholesale prices in 2009 were 25.6% less than those fixed by the decree. In private pharmacies, retail prices were only 3% more expensive than the recommended prices, compared with being 25.5% more expensive prior to enforcement of the decree. The study shows that prices of essential medicines in Mali have evolved favourably towards the prices recommended by the government decree. Further, the study contributes to mounting evidence that market regulation by governments does not necessarily negatively affect drug availability; in fact, given the reduction in prices, the study shows that Malians arguably have better access to more affordable essential medicines

  12. Possibility for use essential oils in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry with special emphasis on oregano oil

    Vučinić Marijana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the latest studies on possible applications of oregano essential oil in veterinary medicine and animal livestock production. The first part of the paper deals with the definition of essential oils, possibilities for their extraction from plants, possibilities for their application in human and veterinary medicine, the interest of a science in essential oils, and, essential oils classification based on their use in human and veterinary medicine. The second part of the review deals with the properties of oregano essential oil, its main active principles, carvacrol and thymol and its application in veterinary medicine and animal livestock production. Oregano essential oil may be applied in animal feed, in the treatment of coccidiosis of domestic animals and candidiasis. It can be applied as a larvicide, repellent, insecticide and acaricide. It is used in aquaculture to treat fish diseases caused by bacteria and parasites or in the hatchery industry as a disinfectant for eggs or for disinfection of manure. The greatest potential of oregano essential oil is the possibility of its application in organic agriculture and organic animal husbandry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31087

  13. Organizational barriers associated with the implementation of national essential medicines policy: A cross-sectional study of township hospitals in China.

    Yang, Lianping; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies potential organizational barriers associated with the implementation of the Chinese National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in rural primary health care institutions. We used a multistage sampling strategy to select 90 township hospitals from six provinces, two from each of eastern, middle, and western China. Data relating to eight core NEMP indicators and institutional characteristics were collected from January to September 2011, using a questionnaire. Prescription-associated indicators were calculated from 9000 outpatient prescriptions selected at random. We categorized the eight NEMP indicators using an exploratory factor analysis, and performed linear regressions to determine the association between the factor scores and institution-level characteristics. The results identified three main factors. Overall, low levels of expenditure of medicines (F1) and poor performance in rational use of medicines (F2) were evident. The availability of medicines (F3) varied significantly across both hospitals and regions. Factor scores had no significant relationship with hospital size (in terms of number of beds and health workers); however, they were associated with revenue and structure of the hospital, patient service load, and support for health workers. Regression analyses showed that public finance per health worker was negatively associated with the availability of medicines (p finance from local governments may reduce medicine stock lines of township hospitals and lead them to seek alternative sources of income, jeopardizing their capacity to meet the needs of local consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reducing stock-outs of essential tuberculosis medicines: a system dynamics modelling approach to supply chain management.

    Bam, L; McLaren, Z M; Coetzee, E; von Leipzig, K H

    2017-10-01

    The under-performance of supply chains presents a significant hindrance to disease control in developing countries. Stock-outs of essential medicines lead to treatment interruption which can force changes in patient drug regimens, drive drug resistance and increase mortality. This study is one of few to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of supply chain policies in reducing shortages and costs. This study develops a systems dynamics simulation model of the downstream supply chain for amikacin, a second-line tuberculosis drug using 10 years of South African data. We evaluate current supply chain performance in terms of reliability, responsiveness and agility, following the widely-used Supply Chain Operation Reference framework. We simulate 141 scenarios that represent different combinations of supplier characteristics, inventory management strategies and demand forecasting methods to identify the Pareto optimal set of management policies that jointly minimize the number of shortages and total cost. Despite long supplier lead times and unpredictable demand, the amikacin supply chain is 98% reliable and agile enough to accommodate a 20% increase in demand without a shortage. However, this is accomplished by overstocking amikacin by 167%, which incurs high holding costs. The responsiveness of suppliers is low: only 57% of orders are delivered to the central provincial drug depot within one month. We identify three Pareto optimal safety stock management policies. Short supplier lead time can produce Pareto optimal outcomes even in the absence of other optimal policies. This study produces concrete, actionable guidelines to cost-effectively reduce stock-outs by implementing optimal supply chain policies. Preferentially selecting drug suppliers with short lead times accommodates unexpected changes in demand. Optimal supply chain management should be an essential component of national policy to reduce the mortality rate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  15. SENSITIVITY OF MOLDS ISOLATED FROM WAREHOUSES OF FOOD PRODUCTION FACILITY ON SELECTED ESSENTIAL OILS

    Łukasz Kręcidło

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Storage of raw materials is one of steps in food production chain. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of selected essential oils on the growth of four fungal strains: Trichoderma viride, Rhizomucor miehei, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium janthinellum. Strains were isolated from warehouses of the food production facility. Selected essential oils: thyme oil, rosewood oil and rosemary oil were used to assess antifungal activity. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Antifungal activity of essential oils was estimated in relative to peracetic acid (PAA and sterile water with Tween 80 (0,5%. The influence of essential oils on fungal growth was carried by medium poisoning method. Increment of fungal mycelium was measured every day by 10 days. The thyme essential oils totally inhibited fungal growth in the lowest concentration of 1 mm3·cm-3. The most resistant strain was Penicillium janthinellum.

  16. Adrenergic beta 2-selective blocker in isoprenaline-enhanced essential tremor.

    Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J

    1987-01-01

    A beta 2-selective adrenergic-receptor-blocking drug, ICI 118.551, 150 mg/day, prevented almost as effectively as the nonselective antagonist propranolol, 240 mg/day, the isoprenaline enhancement of essential tremor amplitude.

  17. PubMed Central: An Essential Resource for Information Professionals and Researchers. A Review of: Cornell, A., Bushman, B., & Womack, K. (2011. Analysis of journals that did not meet selection criteria for inclusion in the National Library of Medicine collection but have manuscripts in PubMed Central. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99, 168-170.

    Joanne L. Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – A review of the journals containing research listed in PubMed Central (PMC, but not selected for inclusion in the National Library of Medicine (NLM collection. The authors identified reasons why journals had not been included in the collection and if any met the NLM selection criteria and were appropriate for inclusion.Design – Descriptive study.Setting – National Library of Medicine, United States.Subjects – 571 journals that were not included in the NLM collection but had research articles in PMC.Methods – In October 2009, a report was produced from the NLM library system listing journals tagged as having articles in PMC and not being in the NLM collection. Information was gathered on the journals identified and these were checked against the Collection Development Manual of the NLM and the NLM checklist used for selecting electronic journals. The reason for non-selection of the journal was recorded and the subject category, according to the Library of Congress Classification, was noted. Recorded reasons why journals were not selected:• Less than 15% of articles were within scope of NLM collection• Not enough articles published• Coverage (lacking original research or not for a scholarly audience• Insufficient information to determine reasonFor journals where the criteria seemed to be met, the decision on selection to the NLM collection was reviewed.Main Results – The authors identified 571 journals that had articles in PMC but did not meet the criteria for inclusion in the NLM journal collection. The majority of these journals (73% were outside the NLM scope and a further 10% had not published a sufficient number of articles to be considered. A further 3% were assessed as not intended for a scholarly audience or lacked original research and another 3% could not be reviewed due to lack of information available. There were 65 journals (11% that were referred for further review as the selection criteria seemed to

  18. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus).

    Kamte, Stephane L Ngahang; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Campagnaro, Gustavo Daniel; Nya, Prosper C Biapa; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Ta, Léon Azefack; Giordani, Cristiano; Barboni, Luciano; Benelli, Giovanni; Cappellacci, Loredana; Hofer, Anders; Petrelli, Riccardo; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-07-06

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants ( Azadirachta indica , Aframomum melegueta , Aframomum daniellii , Clausena anisata , Dichrostachys cinerea , and Echinops giganteus ) traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica , A . daniellii , and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.

  19. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from medicinal plants of Kazakhstan.

    Sampietro, Diego A; Gomez, Analía de Los A; Jimenez, Cristina M; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A

    2017-06-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves of Kazakhstan medicinal plants was analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were 1,8-cineole (34.2%), myrcene (19.1%) and α-pinene (9.4%) in Ajania fruticulosa; 1,8-cineole (21.0%), β-thujone (11.0%), camphor (8.5%), borneol (7.3%) and α-thujone (6.5%), in Achillea nobilis; camphor (47.3%), 1,8-cineole (23.9%), camphene (9.8%) and β-thujone (6.0%) in Artemisia terrae-albae; 1,8-cineole(55.8%) and β-pinene (6.2%) in Hyssopus ambiguus; α-thuyene(46.3%) and δ-cadinene(6.3%) in Juniperus sibirica; sabinene (64%) in Juniperus sabina; and α-pinene (51.5%), β-phellandrene (11.2%) and δ-cadinene (6.3%) in Pinus sibirica. The essential oils did not show antifungal effect (MIC > 1.20 mg/mL) on Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger, while the oils from A. nobilis, A. terrae-albae, H. ambiguus and J. sabina exhibited moderate and moderate to weak antimicrobial activities on Fusarium verticillioides (MIC = 0.60 mg/mL) and Fusarium graminearum (MIC = 0.60-1.20 mg/mL), respectively. A principal component analysis associated the antifungal activity (r 2  > 0.80, p = 0.05) with the presence of borneol, camphor, camphene, 1,8-cineole,α- and β-thujone, and of the oxygenated monoterpenes.

  20. Screening and antibacterial efficacy of selected Indian medicinal plants

    Suresh Mickymaray; Mohammad Saleh Al Aboody; Pradipta Kumar Rath; Panneerselvam Annamalai; Thajuddin Nooruddin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of five Indian medicinal plants such as Acalypha indica L.(A. indica), Aerva lanata(L.) Juss. ex Schult.(A. lanata), Clerodendrum inerme(L.) Gaertn., Pergularia daemia(Forsk.) Chiov. and Solanum surattense Burm. f. against opportunistic bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV infected patients for the potential phytoconstituents in plant extracts.Methods: The opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli(E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens from Gramnegative group and Staphylococcus aureus from Gram-positive group were isolated from HIV infected patients. The antibacterial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal plants was carried out by disc diffusion method. The potential phytoconstituents of medicinal plant extracts were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry(GC–MS) analysis.Results: Among the five medicinal plants tested, A. indica and A. lanata showed the significant antibacterial activity. A. indica showed potential activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. A. lanata significantly exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 19 phytoconstituents were identified in the ethanolic extract of A. indica and A. lanata by GC–MS analysis respectively.Conclusions: The results of the present investigation revealed that A. indica and A. lanata, possessed significant antibacterial activity when compared with the other plant extracts tested. The presence of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by GC–MS analysis in both A. indica and A. lanata extracts has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and the findings in this study could be the first one to report.

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes for Essential Hypertension: A Literature Analysis of 13,272 Patients

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination.

  2. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

    Muhammad Ayaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils (EOs and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD and dementia. The effects of EOs on pathological targets of AD and dementia including amyloid deposition (Aβ, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, cholinergic hypofunction, oxidative stress and glutamatergic abnormalities were focused. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.

  3. Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants.

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    The use of essential oils (EOs) and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa , Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia. The effects of EOs on pathological targets of AD and dementia including amyloid deposition (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cholinergic hypofunction, oxidative stress and glutamatergic abnormalities were focused. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.

  4. The Impact of the National Essential Medicines Policy on Rational Drug Use in Primary Care Institutions in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Chao, Jianqian; Gu, Jiangyi; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Huanghui; Wu, Zhenchun

    2018-01-01

    Essential medicine policy is a successful global health policy to promote rational drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) on the rational drug use in primary care institutions in Jiangsu Province of China. In this exploratory study, a multistage, stratified, random sampling was used to select 3400 prescriptions from 17 primary care institutions who implemented the NEMP before (Jan 2010) and after the implementation of the NEMP (Jan 2014). The analyses were performed in SPSS 18.0 and SPSS Clementine client. After the implementation of the NEMP, the percentage of prescribed EML (Essential Medicines List) drugs rose significantly, the average number of drugs per prescription and average cost per prescription were declined significantly, while the differences of the prescription proportion of antibiotics and injection were not statistically significant. BP (Back Propagation) neural network analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription, the number of using antibiotics and hormone, regional differences, size of institutions, sponsorship, financial income of institutions, doctor degree, outpatient and emergency visits person times were important factors affecting the prescription costs, among these the average number of drugs per prescription has the greatest effect. The NEMP can promote the rational use of drugs in some degree, but its role is limited. We should not focus only on the EML but also make comprehensive NEMP.

  5. Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health : Access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs

  6. A Delphi study among internal medicine clinicians to determine which therapeutic information is essential to record in a medical record.

    van Unen, Robert J; Tichelaar, Jelle; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B; van Agtmael, Michiel A; Richir, Milan C; de Vries, Theo P G M

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that using a template for recording general and diagnostic information in the medical record (MR) improves the completeness of MR documentation, communication between doctors, and performance of doctors. However, little is known about how therapeutic information should be structured in the MR. The aim of this study was to investigate which specific therapeutic information registrars and consultants in internal medicine consider essential to record in the MR. Therefore, we carried out a 2-round Internet Delphi study. Fifty-nine items were assessed on a 5-point scale; an item was considered important if ≥ 80% of the respondents awarded it a score of 4 or 5. In total, 26 registrars and 30 consultants in internal medicine completed both rounds of the study. Overall, they considered it essential to include information about 11 items in the MR. Subgroup analyses revealed that the registrars considered 8 additional items essential, whereas the consultants considered 1 additional item essential to record. Study findings can be used as a starting point to develop a structured section of the MR for therapeutic information for both paper and electronic MRs. This section should contain at least 11 items considered essential by registrars and clinical consultants in internal medicine. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. A genetic replacement system for selection-based engineering of essential proteins

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential genes represent the core of biological functions required for viability. Molecular understanding of essentiality as well as design of synthetic cellular systems includes the engineering of essential proteins. An impediment to this effort is the lack of growth-based selection systems suitable for directed evolution approaches. Results We established a simple strategy for genetic replacement of an essential gene by a (library of) variant(s) during a transformation. The system was validated using three different essential genes and plasmid combinations and it reproducibly shows transformation efficiencies on the order of 107 transformants per microgram of DNA without any identifiable false positives. This allowed for reliable recovery of functional variants out of at least a 105-fold excess of non-functional variants. This outperformed selection in conventional bleach-out strains by at least two orders of magnitude, where recombination between functional and non-functional variants interfered with reliable recovery even in recA negative strains. Conclusions We propose that this selection system is extremely suitable for evaluating large libraries of engineered essential proteins resulting in the reliable isolation of functional variants in a clean strain background which can readily be used for in vivo applications as well as expression and purification for use in in vitro studies. PMID:22898007

  8. The impacts of implementation of National Essential Medicines Policies on primary healthcare institutions: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Guo, Zhigang; Guan, Xiaodong; Shi, Luwen

    2017-11-13

    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines Policies (NEMPs) as part of a new round of medical system reforms. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the NEMPs on primary healthcare institutions and discuss the roles of the policies in the new healthcare reforms of China. The study selected a total of six representative provinces of China, generating a sample of 261 primary healthcare institutions from August to December in 2010. A questionnaire survey developed by the study team was distributed to all of the primary healthcare institutions. Nine indicators from three dimensions as the outcome variables were used and calculated to evaluate the impacts of implementation of policies. All of the outcome variables were tested using independent-samples T test between the treatment group (with the NEMPs implemented) and the control group (without the NEMPs implemented). The ratio of drug sales and institution revenues at primary healthcare institutions was 42.99% in the treatment group, which was significantly lower than the control group (53.90%, p financial subsidies of the treatment group was shown to be higher (30.78% VS 20.82%, p institutions, the improvement of the mechanisms for government investment, and the healthcare pricing system. Meanwhile, the gaps between urban and rural areas need to be addressed. In conclusion, the NEMPs of China are instrumental to the aim of providing basic healthcare services to every citizen.

  9. Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine

    Mohammad Hossein Feiz Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and multi-drug resistant (K1 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. Results: According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25.  Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively.  The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts. Conclusion: This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of             C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action.

  10. Selective laser sintering (SLS) 3D printing of medicines.

    Fina, Fabrizio; Goyanes, Alvaro; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2017-08-30

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) 3-dimensional printing is currently used for industrial manufacturing of plastic, metallic and ceramic objects. To date there have been no reports on the use of SLS to fabricate oral drug loaded products; therefore, the aim of this work was to explore the suitability of SLS printing for manufacturing medicines. Two thermoplastic pharmaceutical grade polymers, Kollicoat IR (75% polyvinyl alcohol and 25% polyethylene glycol copolymer) and Eudragit L100-55 (50% methacrylic acid and 50% ethyl acrylate copolymer), with immediate and modified release characteristics respectively, were selected to investigate the versatility of a SLS printer. Each polymer was investigated with three different drug loadings of paracetamol (acetaminophen) (5, 20 and 35%). To aid the sintering process, 3% Candurin ® gold sheen was added to each of the powdered formulations. In total, six solid formulations were successfully printed; the printlets (3D printed tablets) were robust, and no evidence of drug degradation was observed. In biorelevant bicarbonate dissolution media, the Kollicoat formulations showed pH-independent release characteristics, with the release rate dependent on the drug content. In the case of the Eudragit formulations, these showed pH-dependent, modified-release profiles independent of drug loading, with complete release being achieved over 12h. In conclusion, this work has demonstrated that SLS is a versatile and practical 3D printing technology which can be applied to the pharmaceutical field, thus widening the armamentarium of 3D printing technologies available for the manufacture of modern medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants

    Aristides M. Leite

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward Artemia salina with CL50 values between 9.59 and 253.43 μL/mL. Essential oils from E. uniflora, M. piperita, O. vulgare and R. officinalis showed embryotoxicity on Aedes aegypti larvae with a viability inhibition between 40 and 100%. These results show the bioactivity of the assayed essential oils and phytochemicals and, partially, justify their insertion in further evaluation in order to establish a safe exploitation of their biological potentiality.

  12. Characterization of the selection of medicines for the Brazilian primary health care

    Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the process of selection of medicines for primary health care in the Brazilian regions. METHODS This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015, a cross-sectional study that consisted of an information gathering in a sample of cities in the five regions of Brazil. The data used were collected by interviews with those responsible for pharmaceutical services (PS (n = 506, professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines (n = 1,139, and physicians (n = 1,558. To evaluate the difference between ratios, we adopted the Chi-square test for complex samples. The differences between the averages were analyzed in generalized linear models with F-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analyses considered significant had p≤0.05. RESULTS The professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services reported non-existence of a formally constituted Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC (12.5%. They claimed to have an updated (80.4% list of Essential Medicines (85.3% and being active participants of this process (88.2%. However, in the perception of respondents, the list only partially (70.1% meets the health demands. Of the interviewed professionals responsible for the dispensing of medicines, only 16.6% were pharmacists; even so, 47.8% reported to know the procedures to change the list. From the perspective of most of these professionals (70.9%, the list meets the health demands of the city. Among physicians, only 27.2% reported to know the procedures to change the list, but 76.5% would have some claim to change it. Most of them reported to base their claims in clinical experiences (80.0%. For 13.0% of them, the list meets the health demands. CONCLUSIONS As this is the first national survey of

  13. 14 CFR 272.9 - Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and payment of compensation.

    2010-01-01

    ... SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.9 Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of a carrier to provide essential...

  14. The Antibacterial Activity of Selected Labiatae (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils against Brucella melitensis.

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Safi, Mazen

    2013-03-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. The major cause of brucellosis worldwide is brucella melitensis. Medicinal plants are considered as new antibacterial sources that could replace conventional antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some native plants, alone and in combination with some antibiotics, in the treatment of brucellosis. The present experimental in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the anti-brucella activities of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus, Salvia palaestina Benth, Mentha piperia, and Lavandula stoechas L., alone and in combination with some antibiotics. The activity against 16 tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis isolates was determined by disc diffusion method incorporating a concentration of 5%. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Microdilution brucella broth susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the MICs of essential oils and five antibiotics. Among all the herbs evaluated, only the essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus plants demonstrated most effective anti-brucella activity, and were then chosen for MIC study. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC50) of essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus against tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis were 3.125 µl/ml and 6.25 µl/ml, respectively. Among the essential oils studied, those of O. syriacum and T. syriacus were most effective. Since a combination of levofloxacin and Thymus syriacus essential oil increased the efficacy of this antibiotic, O. syriacum and T. syriacus are recommended to be used as bactericidal agents against B. melitensis.

  15. The Antibacterial Activity of Selected Labiatae (Lamiaceae Essential Oils against Brucella melitensis

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. The major cause of brucellosis worldwide is brucella melitensis. Medicinal plants are considered as new antibacterial sources that could replace conventional antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some native plants, alone and in combination with some antibiotics, in the treatment of brucellosis.Methods: The present experimental in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the anti-brucella activities of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus, Salvia palaestina Benth, Mentha piperia, and Lavandula stoechas L., alone and in combination with some antibiotics. The activity against 16 tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis isolates was determined by disc diffusion method incorporating a concentration of 5%. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Microdilution brucella broth susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the MICs of essential oils and five antibiotics.Results: Among all the herbs evaluated, only the essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus plants demonstrated most effective anti-brucella activity, and were then chosen for MIC study. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 of essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus against tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis were 3.125 µl/ml and 6.25 µl/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Among the essential oils studied, those of O. syriacum and T. syriacus were most effective. Since a combination of levofloxacin and Thymus syriacus essential oil increased the efficacy of this antibiotic, O. syriacum and T. syriacus are recommended to be used as bactericidal agents against B. melitensis.

  16. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    Burham, B.O.

    2007-11-01

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R f values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  17. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    Burham, B O [Atomic Energy Researches Coordination Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-11-15

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R{sub f} values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  18. Availability and affordability of essential medicines for children in the Western part of Ethiopia: implication for access.

    Sado, Edao; Sufa, Alemu

    2016-03-15

    Essential medicines (EMs) are those medicines which satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. Although it is a fundamental human right, access to essential medicines has been a big challenge in developing countries particularly for children. WHO recommends assessing the current situations on availability and affordability of EMs as the first step towards enhancing access to them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess access to EMs for children based on availability, affordability, and price. We adapted the WHO and Health Action International tools to measure availability, affordability, and prices of EMs. We collected data on 22 EMs for children from 15 public to 40 private sectors' drug outlets in east Wollega zone. Availability was expressed as percentage of drug outlets per sector that stocked surveyed medicines on the day of data collection, and prices were expressed as median price ratio. Affordability was measured as the number of daily wages required for the lowest-paid government unskilled worker (1.04 US $per day) to purchase one standard treatment of an acute condition or treatment for a chronic condition for a month. The average availability of essential medicines was 43 % at public and 42.8 % at private sectors. Lowest priced medicines were sold at median of 1.18 and 1.54 times their international reference prices (IRP) in the public and private sectors, respectively. Half of these medicines were priced at 0.90 to 1.3 in the public sector and 1.23 to 2.07 in the private sector times their respective IRP. Patient prices were 36 % times higher in the private sector than in the public sector. Medicines were unaffordable for treatment of common conditions prevalent in the zone at both public and private sectors as they cost a day or more days' wages for the lowest paid government unskilled worker. Access to EMs to children is hampered by low availability and high price which is unaffordable. Thus, further study on larger scale is

  19. An evaluation of the Essential Medicines List, Standard Treatment Guidelines and prescribing restrictions, as an integrated strategy to enhance quality, efficacy and safety of and improve access to essential medicines in Papua New Guinea.

    Joshua, Isaac B; Passmore, Phillip R; Sunderland, Bruce V

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has advocated the development and use of country specific Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) and Essential Medicines Lists (EML) as strategies to promote the rational use of medicines. When implemented effectively STGs offer many health advantages. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has official STGs and a Medical and Dental Catalogue (MDC) which serves as a national EML for use at different levels of health facilities. This study evaluated consistency between the PNG Adult STGs (2003 and 2012) and those for children (2005 and 2011) with respect to the MDCs (2002, 2012) for six chronic and/or acute diseases: asthma, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, pneumonia and psychosis. Additionally, the potential impact of prescriber level restrictions on rational medicines use for patient's living in rural areas, where no medical officer is present, was evaluated. Almost all drugs included in the STGs for each disease state evaluated were listed in the MDCs. However, significant discrepancies occurred between the recommended treatments in the STGs with the range of related medicines listed in the MDCs. Many medicines recommended in the STGs for chronic diseases had prescriber level restrictions hindering access for most of the PNG population who live in rural and remote areas. In addition many more medicines were listed in the MDCs which are commonly used to treat arthritis, high blood pressure and psychosis than were recommended in the STGs contributing to inappropriate prescribing. We recommend the public health and rational use of medicines deficiencies associated with these findings are addressed requiring: reviewing prescriber level restrictions; updating the STGs; aligning the MDC to reflect recommendations in the STGs; establishing the process where the MDC would automatically be updated based on any changes made to the STGs; and developing STGs for higher levels of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  20. Assessment of Essential Medicines Stock-Outs at Health Centers in ...

    data, we received an ethical review exemption from the. Rwanda National Ethics Committee. Methods ... pharmacies can purchase medicines from private medical stores or receive .... practice for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory.

  1. The multiple mini-interview for emergency medicine resident selection.

    Hopson, Laura R; Burkhardt, John C; Stansfield, R Brent; Vohra, Taher; Turner-Lawrence, Danielle; Losman, Eve D

    2014-04-01

    The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) uses multiple, short-structured contacts to evaluate communication and professionalism. It predicts medical school success better than the traditional interview and application. Its acceptability and utility in emergency medicine (EM) residency selection are unknown. We theorized that participants would judge the MMI equal to a traditional unstructured interview and it would provide new information for candidate assessment. Seventy-one interns from 3 programs in the first month of training completed an eight-station MMI focused on EM topics. Pre- and post-surveys assessed reactions. MMI scores were compared with application data. EM grades correlated with MMI performance (F[1, 66] = 4.18; p interview (mean difference = 1.36; p interview and MMI) was preferred over a MMI alone (mean difference = 1.1; p interview, participants were receptive to a mixed-methods interview. The MMI does correlate with performance on the EM clerkship and therefore can measure important abilities for EM success. Future work will determine whether MMI performance predicts residency performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Krimat Soumia; Dob Tahar; Lamari Lynda; Boumeridja Saida; Chelghoum Chabane; Metidji Hafidha

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods:Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results:The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03%to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL), while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity inβ-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions:The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  3. Chemical and biological characterization of novel essential oils from Eremophila bignoniiflora (F. Muell) (Myoporaceae): a traditional Aboriginal Australian bush medicine.

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Hitchcock, Maria; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from the traditional Australian medicinal plant Eremophila bignoniiflora, characterized chemically and then screened for bioactivity. Characterization and quantification were completed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection, respectively. Antimicrobial capacity was assessed using disc diffusion and micro-titre plate broth dilution and further characterized using thin layer chromatography followed by bioautography to assign activity to separated individual active components. Antifungal capacity was investigated using micro-titre plate broth dilution against pathogenic Trichophyton species. Free radical scavenging ability was assessed using the diphenylpicrylhydradyl reaction in methanol. The predominant components of the essential oil were fenchyl-acetate and bornyl-acetate. However, bioautography indicated antimicrobial ability to be largely linked to the less abundant, more polar constituents. Oils displayed only modest antifungal ability against pathogenic Trichophyton species associated with dermatophytosis, but moderate to high antimicrobial activity, particularly against the yeast Candida albicans and the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis. Essential oils exhibited relatively low free radical scavenging ability. Speculation over the role of essential oils in the traditional medicinal applications of E. bignoniiflora follows, exploring correlations between traditional use and investigated bioactivities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural radionuclides (226Ra and 40K) in selected Thai medicinal plants.

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Phonchanthuek, Endu; Prasandee, Kamonkhuan

    2018-04-01

    A soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is an important parameter that could be used to estimate radionuclides levels in medicinal plants. This work reports concentrations of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) and TFs in six Thai medicinal plants grown in central Thailand using an HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. Either root, leaf, or flower parts of each medicinal plant were selected for use in the investigation according to their practical uses in traditional medicine. The results showed that due to K being essential in plants, 40 K had higher arithmetic means of activity concentrations and geometric means of TFs (geometric standard deviations in parentheses) of 610 ± 260 Bq kg -1 dry weight (DW) and 2.0 (1.4), respectively, than 226 Ra, which had the activity concentrations and TFs of 4.8 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 DW and 0.17 (1.8), respectively. The results also showed that the leaves of medicinal plants had higher activity concentrations and TFs than root and flower parts, probably due to higher metabolic activities in leaves. Furthermore, there was good agreement between the results from the current work and other similar reports on medicinal plants. The information obtained from this work could strengthen knowledge of natural radionuclides in plants and particularly increase available TF data on Thai medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of mycorrhiza on growth and essential oil production in selected aromatic plants

    Waed Tarraf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis is widely investigated in aromatic herbs. Several studies have shown different effects on secondary metabolites, biomass production, as well as oil quantitative and qualitative aspects. The seeking to increase the yield of plants and their oils is an interesting topic in the world of medicinal and aromatic plant production. In tune with that, this study evaluated the effectiveness of two mycorrhiza fungi, Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae and Septoglomus viscosum (syn. Glomus viscosum, on three species from Lamiaceae family: Salvia officinalis L., Origanum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. besides untreated control. It was found that the effect of symbiosis on growth was more favourable with S. viscosum than other AM fungus. The S. viscosum inoculation raised the yield of essential oil in oregano. Analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that manool obtained the highest abundance in leaf essential oil of inoculated sage; thymol was the major component whatever the treatment in thyme and lower relative content of carvacrol was reported with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation in oregano. The results suggest the mycorrhizal inoculation as a promising technology in sustainable agricultural system to improve the plant productivity performance. Specific inocula are strategic to enhance the chemical profile of essential oils.

  6. Essential Public Health Competencies for Medical Students: Establishing a Consensus in Family Medicine.

    Morley, Christopher P; Rosas, Scott R; Mishori, Ranit; Jordan, William; Jarris, Yumi Shitama; Competencies Work Group, Family Medicine/Public Health; Prunuske, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: The integration of public health (PH) competency training into medical education, and further integration of PH and primary care, has been urged by the U.S. Institute of Medicine. However, PH competencies are numerous, and no consensus exists over which competencies are most important for adoption by current trainees. Our objective was to conduct a group concept mapping exercise with stakeholders identifying the most important and feasible PH skills to incorporate in medical and residency curricula. We utilized a group concept mapping technique via the Concept System Global Max ( http://www.conceptsystems.com ), where family medicine educators and PH professionals completed the phrase, "A key Public Health competency for physicians-in-training to learn is …" with 1-10 statements. The statement list was edited for duplication and other issues; stakeholders then sorted the statements and rated them for importance and feasibility of integration. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to create a two-dimensional point map of domains of PH training, allowing visual comparison of groupings of related ideas and relative importance of these ideas. There were 116 nonduplicative statements (225 total) suggested by 120 participants. Three metacategories of competencies emerged: Clinic, Community & Culture, Health System Understanding, and Population Health Science & Data. Insights: We identified and organized a set of topics that serve as a foundation for the integration of family medicine and PH education. Incorporating these topics into medical education is viewed as important and feasible by family medicine educators and PH professions.

  7. Intraspecific variation in essential oil composition of the medicinal plant Lippia integrifolia (Verbenaceae). Evidence for five chemotypes.

    Marcial, Guillermo; de Lampasona, Marina P; Vega, Marta I; Lizarraga, Emilio; Viturro, Carmen I; Slanis, Alberto; Juárez, Miguel A; Elechosa, Miguel A; Catalán, César A N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia (incayuyo) are widely used in northwestern and central Argentina for their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential oil composition of thirty-one wild populations of L. integrifolia covering most of its natural range was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of one hundred and fifty two terpenoids were identified in the essential oils. Sesquiterpenoids were the dominant components in all but one of the collections analyzed, the only exception being a sample collected in San Juan province where monoterpenoids amounted to 51%. Five clearly defined chemotypes were observed. One possessed an exquisite and delicate sweet aroma with trans-davanone as dominant component (usually above 80%). Another with an exotic floral odour was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenoids based on the rare lippifoliane and africanane skeletons. The trans-davanone chemotype is the first report of an essential oil containing that sesquiterpene ketone as the main constituent. The absolute configuration of trans-davanone from L. integrifolia was established as 6S, 7S, 10S, the enantiomer of trans-davanone from 'davana oil' (Artemisia pallens). Wild plants belonging to trans-davanone and lippifolienone chemotypes were propagated and cultivated in the same parcel of land in Santa Maria, Catamarca. The essential oil compositions of the cultivated plants were essentially identical to the original plants in the wild, indicating that the essential oil composition is largely under genetic control. Specimens collected near the Bolivian border that initially were identified as L. boliviana Rusby yielded an essential oil practically identical to the trans-davanone chemotype of L. integrifolia supporting the recent view that L. integrifolia (Gris.) Hieron. and L. boliviana Rusby are synonymous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of some selected medicinal plants of ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Key words: Rumex hastatus, Rumex dentatus, Rumex nepalensis, Rheum australe, Polygonum persicaria,. Polygonum .... It was incubated at 25 - 27°C for 24 h under illumination. .... Glossary of Indian Medicinal. Plants (the ...

  9. Antioxidant and chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blend of selected spices

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blends of selected Nigerian spices as well as its antioxidant protective potentials against free radical in vitro. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from selected spices blend consisting of Monodora myristica, Myristica fragrans, Tetrapleura tetraptera, and Aframomum sceptrum using a Clevenger type apparatus. Oil obtained was subjected to phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis as well as analyzed for antioxidant activity which covers for 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging activities and reducing property. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed over 50 compoundfs with α-phellandrene being the most predominant compound (27.32%, which was followed by (--β-bourbonene (15.78% and 5-(1-methylethyl-α-phellandrene (11.80%. Phytochemical analysis showed high flavonoid content and a lower phenolic content. The oil showed a dose like dependent effect on the1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging activities, these activities increased with increasing concentration. The same was also observed for the reducing power properties of the oil. Conclusions: The antioxidant activities exhibited by the essential oil in vitro signify its protective potential against free radicals. The chemical constituents, α-phellandrene in particular and the studied phytochemicals may be responsible for these effects. However, in vivo study is needed to further authenticate this potency.

  10. Access to Paediatric Essential Medicines: A Survey of Prices, Availability, Affordability and Price Components in Shaanxi Province, China

    Wang, Xiao; Fang, Yu; Yang, Shimin; Jiang, Minghuan; Yan, Kangkang; Wu, Lina; Lv, Bing; Shen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prices and availability of paediatric essential medicines in Shaanxi Province, China. Methods Price and availability data for 28 paediatric essential medicines were collected from 60 public hospitals and 60 retail pharmacies in six areas of Shaanxi Province using a standardised methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International, during November to December 2012. Affordability was measured as the number of days’ wages required for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase standard treatments for common conditions. Data on medicine price components were collected from hospitals, wholesalers and distributors to obtain price mark-ups. Findings The mean availabilities of originator brands (OBs) and lowest-priced generics (LPGs) were 10.8% and 27.3% in the public hospitals and 11.9% and 20.6% in the private pharmacies. The public procurement and retail prices were 2.25 and 2.59 times the international reference prices (IRPs) for three OBs, and 0.52 and 0.93 times for 20 LPGs. In the private sector, the final prices for OBs and LPGs were 3.89 and 1.25 times their IRPs. The final price in the private sector was 2.7% lower than in the public sector for OBs, and 14.1% higher for LPGs. Generally, standard treatments cost less than 1 day’s wages in both sectors. Distribution mark-ups applied to brand salbutamol in Xi'an was 65.5%, and up to 185.3% for generic. Cumulative mark-ups for LPGs in Ankang were also high, from 33% to 50%. The manufacturer’s selling price is the largest contributor to the final price in both areas. Conclusions The government should approve a list of national paediatric essential medicines. The availability, price and affordability of these should be improved in both public hospitals and private pharmacies to enable children to obtain effective treatment. Measures should be taken to improve the efficiency of the centralised medicine purchasing system. PMID:24595099

  11. Access to paediatric essential medicines: a survey of prices, availability, affordability and price components in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prices and availability of paediatric essential medicines in Shaanxi Province, China. METHODS: Price and availability data for 28 paediatric essential medicines were collected from 60 public hospitals and 60 retail pharmacies in six areas of Shaanxi Province using a standardised methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International, during November to December 2012. Affordability was measured as the number of days' wages required for the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase standard treatments for common conditions. Data on medicine price components were collected from hospitals, wholesalers and distributors to obtain price mark-ups. FINDINGS: The mean availabilities of originator brands (OBs and lowest-priced generics (LPGs were 10.8% and 27.3% in the public hospitals and 11.9% and 20.6% in the private pharmacies. The public procurement and retail prices were 2.25 and 2.59 times the international reference prices (IRPs for three OBs, and 0.52 and 0.93 times for 20 LPGs. In the private sector, the final prices for OBs and LPGs were 3.89 and 1.25 times their IRPs. The final price in the private sector was 2.7% lower than in the public sector for OBs, and 14.1% higher for LPGs. Generally, standard treatments cost less than 1 day's wages in both sectors. Distribution mark-ups applied to brand salbutamol in Xi'an was 65.5%, and up to 185.3% for generic. Cumulative mark-ups for LPGs in Ankang were also high, from 33% to 50%. The manufacturer's selling price is the largest contributor to the final price in both areas. CONCLUSIONS: The government should approve a list of national paediatric essential medicines. The availability, price and affordability of these should be improved in both public hospitals and private pharmacies to enable children to obtain effective treatment. Measures should be taken to improve the efficiency of the centralised medicine purchasing system.

  12. Efficacy of selected complementary and alternative medicine interventions for chronic pain.

    Tan, Gabriel; Craine, Michael H; Bair, Matthew J; Garcia, M Kay; Giordano, James; Jensen, Mark P; McDonald, Shelley M; Patterson, David; Sherman, Richard A; Williams, Wright; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2007-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, therapies, and products that are not presently considered part of conventional medicine. This article provides an up-to-date review of the efficacy of selected CAM modalities in the management of chronic pain. Findings are presented according to the classification system developed by the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (formerly Office of Alternative Medicine) and are grouped into four domains: biologically based medicine, energy medicine, manipulative and body-based medicine, and mind-body medicine. Homeopathy and acupuncture are discussed separately as "whole or professionalized CAM practices." Based on the guidelines of the Clinical Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association, findings indicate that some CAM modalities have a solid track record of efficacy, whereas others are promising but require additional research. The article concludes with recommendations to pain practitioners.

  13. In vitro susceptibility of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to selected essential oils and their major components.

    Costa, Sonya; Cavadas, Cláudia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; do Céu Sousa, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated. Of the 17 essential oils screened three showed high trypanocidal activity (IC 50  oils had no cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells showing the highest values of Selectivity Index (63.4, 9.0 and 11.8, respectively). The oils of Distichoselinum tenuifolium, Lavandula viridis, Origanum virens, Seseli tortuosom, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymbra capitata also exhibited activity (IC 50 of 10-25 μg/mL) but showed cytotoxicity on macrophages. Of the nine compounds tested, α-pinene (IC 50 of 2.9 μg/mL) and citral (IC 50 of 18.9 μg/mL) exhibited the highest anti-trypanosomal activities. Citral is likely the active component of C. citratus and α-pinene is responsible for the antitrypanosomal effects of J. oxycedrus. The present work leads us to propose the J. oxycedrus, C. citratus and L. luisieri oils as valuable sources of new molecules for African Sleeping Sickness treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A methodological framework of preparing economic evidence for selection of medicines in the Chinese setting.

    Sun, Xin; Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2010-08-01

    Medicines are becoming a major component of health expenditure in China. Selection of effective and cost-effective medicines represents an important effort to improve medicines use. A guideline on cost-effectiveness studies has been available in China. This guideline, however, fails to be a practical tool to prepare and critically appraise economic evidence. This article discusses, in the Chinese context, the approach to integrating economic component into the medicines selection, and elaborates the methods of producing economic evidence, including conducing economic reviews and primary economic studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  15. Transfer of 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from some medicinal plants to their essential oils

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Amin, Y.; Ibrahim, S.; Nassri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils were extracted from 35 medicinal plants used by Syrians, organic compounds were determined in these oils and concentrations of 210 Po 210 Pb and 238 U were determined in the original plants and in the essential oils. The results showed that the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were found in leaves with large surfaces and in Sage were as high as 73.5 Bq kg −1 and 73.2 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The activity concentration of 238 U was as high as 4.26 Bq kg −1 in Aloe. On the other hand, activity concentrations of 210 Po ranged between 0.2 and 71.1 Bq kg −1 in extracted essential oils for Rosemary and False yellowhead, respectively. The activity concentration of 210 Pb reached 63.7 Bq kg −1 in Aloe oil. The activity concentrations of 238 U were very low in all extracted oils; the highest value was 0.31 Bq kg −1 in peel of Orange oil. The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb from plant to its oil was the highest for Eugenia; 7.1% and 5.5% for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the transfer factor of radionuclides from plant to its essential oil and the chemical content of this oil. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides 210 Po, 210 Pb and 238 U were determined in 35 medicinal plants and their essential oils. • The highest activity concentration of 210 Po and 210 Pb were 73.5 Bq kg −1 and 73.2 Bq kg −1 in Sage, respectively. • The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb from Eugenia plant to its oil was the highest amongst other plants. • The data obtained in this study can be considered the first reported data for medicinal plants and their oils in Syria

  16. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  17. The Investigation of Decontamination Effects of Ozone Gas on Microbial Load and Essential Oil of Several Medicinal Plants

    Razieh VALI ASILL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, Ozone as a disinfectant method, without putting on the harmful effects on human and plant products, it is alternative common methods for disinfection of plant material. The research as a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications and the effects of Ozone gas on decreasing the microbial load of some important medicinal plants include: Peppermint (Mentha piperita, Summer savory (Satureja hortensis, Indian valerian(Valeriana wallichii, Meliss (Melissa officinalis and Iranian thyme (Zataria multiflora were investigated. Medicinal plants leaves were treated with Ozone gas concentration 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 ml/L at times of 10 and 30 then total count, coliform and mold and yeast of the samples were studied. The result showed that Ozone gas decreases microbial load of medicinal plants samples. But Ozone gas and Ozone gas in medicinal plants interaction effect had no effect on essential oil content. The lowest and the highest of microbial load were detected in samples treated with concentration of 0.9 ml/L of Ozone gas and control respectively. The highest and the lowest of microbial load were observed in Iranian thyme and Indian valerian respectively. Also result showed that Ozone gas treatment for 30 min had the greatest of effect in reducing the microbial load and 0.9 ml/L Ozone gas concentration had the lowest of microbial load. Results of this survey reflect that the use of Ozone as a method of disinfection for medicinal plants is a decontamination.

  18. Renal haemodynamic in essential hypertension assessed by 133Xe washout and selective renal angiography

    Gatta, A.; Merkel, C.; Pessina, A.C.; Milani, L.; Sacerdoti, D.; Zuin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The renal and intrarenal haemodynamic pattern in 17 patients with essential hypertension of different severity and duration was studied by means of the 133-Xenon washout technique and the selective renal angiography. The mean and the cortical renal blood flows were on average significantly decreased as compared to the controls. A good agreement was found between the reduction in renal perfusion and the degree of vascular abnormalities as shown by angiography; on the contrary no correlation was found between the impairment in renal blood flow and the degree and/or duration of hypertension

  19. [Diagnosis and treatment in general internal medicine. Curriculum selection].

    Casal, E R; Vázquez, E N; Husni, C

    1994-01-01

    In our country general internists are the providers of adult medical care in urban areas. In the past twenty years, with the increasing subspecialization within internal medicine and the development of advances in technology, the role of the general internist seems to be endangered. Recently much attention has been focused on this area and Divisions and Programs of General Internal Medicine have been established in most medical schools in the USA. The University of Buenos Aires instituted a Program of General Internal Medicine in its major teaching hospital in 1987. One of its purposes was to offer an educational experience to residents in the field of internal medicine primary care. This paper summarizes how this program was carried out and the subjects proposed in the area of Diagnosis and Treatment. The Program of General Internal Medicine is performed in the Outpatient Division and it is staffed by 3 faculty members and 4 fellows. Residents in Internal Medicine have a three month, full-time block rotation in the Program. A young, city dwelling, lower middle class population participates in the Program, with almost 10000 visits a year. The Program offers an experience that includes supervised patient care, an average of 100 office visits a month, and seminars and/or workshops covering topics of "Diagnosis and Treatment", "Case Presentations", "Clinical Epidemiology", "Prevention", and "Doctor-Patient Interview". In the area of Diagnosis and Treatment, the criteria used were: 1-frequency of diagnosis as determined by previous investigations, 2-relevant clinical conditions absent from the frequency list as determined by a consensus process by faculty members.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low-resource countries: An Ishikawa framework.

    Tran, Dan N; Bero, Lisa A

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) - essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008-2010. These reports summarized country-wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a "fishbone" (Ishikawa) diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health-system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health-system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. The "fishbone" Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the development of tailored intervention programs to improve and expand the use

  1. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low–resource countries: An Ishikawa framework

    Dan N. Tran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 – essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia. Methods We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008–2010. These reports summarized country–wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a “fishbone” (Ishikawa diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health–system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Results Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health–system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. Conclusions The “fishbone” Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the

  2. Does providing more services increase the primary hospitals' revenue? An assessment of national essential medicine policy based on 2,675 counties in China.

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available To understand whether the increased outpatient service provision (OSP brings in enough additional income (excluding income from essential medicine for primary hospitals (INCOME to compensate for reduced costs of medicine.The two outcomes, annual OSP and INCOME for the period of 2008-2012, were collected from 34,506 primary hospitals in 2,675 counties in 31 provinces in China by the national surveillance system. The data had a four-level hierarchical structure; time points were nested within primary hospital, hospitals within county, and counties within province. We fitted bivariate five-level random effects regression models to examine correlations between OSP and INCOME in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of the essential medicine policy (EMP. We adjusted for the effects of time period and selected hospital resources.The estimated correlation coefficients between the two outcomes' mean values were strongly positive among provinces (r = 0.910, moderately positive among counties (r = 0.380, and none among hospitals (r = 0.002 and time (r = 0.007. The correlation between their policy effects was weakly positive among provinces (r = 0.234, but none at the county and hospital levels. However, there were markedly negative correlation coefficients between the mean and policy effects at -0.328 for OSP and -0.541 for INCOME at the hospital level.There was no evidence to suggest an association between the two outcomes in terms of their mean values and dose-response effects of EMP at the hospital level. This indicated that increased OSP did not bring enough additional INCOME. Sustainable mechanisms to compensate primary hospitals are needed.

  3. [Mechanism and implication of regulation of the pricing of essential medicines in the private pharmaceutical sector in Mali].

    Maïga, D; Maïga, S; Maïga, M D

    2010-04-01

    The healthcare and pharmaceutical professions in Mali were privatized in 1985. Privatization led to swift expansion of the private sector and upset the balance that had existed between the public and private sectors. A national pharmaceutical policy did not emerge until a decade later. Its purpose was to promote a system ensuring fair access to essential generic medicines for all. It was hoped that synergy between the two sectors would promote that objective. However, the policy calling for distribution of essential generic medicine through the private sector was not accompanied by an adequate system for pricing. This problem led the government to adopt a price regulation policy to realign market dynamics with public health goals. This experience shows that a sustained effort from public policy makers is necessary to prevail against the professional and business interests that can conflict with the public interest. Analysis of this experience also demonstrates the need to improve, restructure, and control the pharmaceutical industry. The government must continue to play its crucial role in the context of limited resources and inequality between consumers and pharmaceutical companies.

  4. Selective adrenergic beta-2-receptor blocking drug, ICI-118.551, is effective in essential tremor.

    Teräväinen, H; Huttunen, J; Larsen, T A

    1986-07-01

    Eighteen patients with essential tremor were treated for 2 days with a non-selective adrenergic beta-blocking drug (dl-propranolol, 80 mg X 3), a beta-2-selective blocker (ICI-118.551, 50 mg X 3) and placebo (X 3) in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Postural hand tremor was recorded with an accelerometer before administration of the drugs and at the end of each treatment period. Compared with placebo, both the beta-blocking drugs caused a statistically significant decrease in tremor intensity and they possessed approximately similar antitremor potency. Subjective benefit was reported by 12 of the 18 patients receiving ICI-118.551, 13 when on propranolol and 3 when on placebo.

  5. Levels of selected essential and non-essential metals in seeds of korarima (Aframomum corrorima cultivated in Ethiopia

    Birhanu Mekassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryThe levels of essential (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn and Ni and non-essential (Cd and Pb metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in samples of korarima (Aframomum corrorima seeds and the corresponding soils collected from southern and southwestern Ethiopia. A wet digestion procedure involving the use of 3 mL of HNO3 (69-72% and 1 mL of HClO4 (70% were used to solubilize the metals from the korarima seed samples, and a modified aqua regia (HCl:HNO3 reagent with added hydrogen peroxide (6 mL of aqua regia and 1.5 mL of H2O2 was used for the soil samples. The levels of the nutrients in the korarima seed samples were in the following ranges: Ca (1794-2181; Mg (1626-2067; Mn (141-180; Fe (37-46; Zn (12-18; Ni (6.6-8.5; Cu (5.8-8.3; Cr (3.8-5.8 and Co (2.0-2.3 in µg g–1, respectively. The concentration of non-essential cadmium was in the range from 0.9-1 µg g–1 while that of lead was below the detection limit of the method. There was good correlation between the levels of some metals (Ni, Fe, Cd, Ca, Cu, Mg in the korarima seeds and soil samples but poor correlation between other metals (Cr, Zn, Mn, Co.

  6. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  7. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    The present work was designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of some Cameroonian medicinal plants including Entada abyssinica, Entada africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Allexis cauliflora, Anthocleista leibrechtsiana, Carapa procera, Carica papaya and Persea americana against Gram-negative bacteria ...

  8. In vitro activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya on ...

    Although chemotherapy has been used to control the disease, cases of drug resistance by trypanosomes are a major problem and prospects of vaccine development are remote. Herbal medicines have been claimed to be effective in the control of the disease in endemic areas. This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ...

  9. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against ...

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... extracts from 30 plants used by Venda traditional healers for the ... cost of antifungal agents (Debruyne, 1997; Traeder et al., ... the use of medicinal plants is very common based on ... used to determine the activity of the plant extracts against the .... diffusion method: Table 3) as well as the two Candida.

  10. Demand, propagation and seedling establishment of selected medicinal trees

    Netshiluvhi, TR

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-listing of medicinal tree species for propagation was done through three criteria; number of bags sold, price per bag and mean scarcity value. There is a strong correlation between the mean scarcity values and number of bags sold per annum...

  11. Analysis of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants from Dir, Swat and Peshawar districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Hussain, I.; Khattak, M.R.; Khan, F.A.; Rehman, I.; Khan, F.U.

    2011-01-01

    Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Manganese, Zinc, Iron, Nickel, Copper, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium were analyzed quantitatively in selected medicinal plants including, Acorus calamus, Artemisia annua, Chenopodium foliosum, Cupressus arizonica, Euphorbia helioscopia L, Lepidium sativum, Nerium oleander, Ranunculus mariculatus , Tecoma stans, Urtica dioica by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The main purpose of this study was to quantify essential and non-essential heavy metals in selected herbs, which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal products and standardized extracts. The high conc. of iron, Mn was found in Nerium oleander 26.52 mg/kg, 94.40 mg/kg. Zn in Lepidium sativum 77.00 mg/kg and high conc. of K 94600 and Na 400 mg/kg was found in Tecoma stans. The concentration of other heavy metals particularly Cu, Ni and Pb were also found in higher conc. in the selected herbs. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contents of toxic metals and their concentration level which may have adverse effect on human health, besides providing a scientific data. (author)

  12. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro.

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology.

  13. Selecting essential information for biosurveillance--a multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Nicholas Generous

    Full Text Available The National Strategy for Biosurveillance defines biosurveillance as "the process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information related to all-hazards threats or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision-making at all levels." However, the strategy does not specify how "essential information" is to be identified and integrated into the current biosurveillance enterprise, or what the metrics qualify information as being "essential". The question of data stream identification and selection requires a structured methodology that can systematically evaluate the tradeoffs between the many criteria that need to be taken in account. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory, a type of multi-criteria decision analysis, can provide a well-defined, structured approach that can offer solutions to this problem. While the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theoryas a practical method to apply formal scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex, multi-criteria problems has been demonstrated in a variety of fields, this method has never been applied to decision support in biosurveillance.We have developed a formalized decision support analytic framework that can facilitate identification of "essential information" for use in biosurveillance systems or processes and we offer this framework to the global BSV community as a tool for optimizing the BSV enterprise. To demonstrate utility, we applied the framework to the problem of evaluating data streams for use in an integrated global infectious disease surveillance system.

  14. Selecting essential information for biosurveillance--a multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Generous, Nicholas; Margevicius, Kristen J; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J; Brown, Mac; Daniel, W Brent; Castro, Lauren; Hengartner, Andrea; Deshpande, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Biosurveillance defines biosurveillance as "the process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information related to all-hazards threats or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision-making at all levels." However, the strategy does not specify how "essential information" is to be identified and integrated into the current biosurveillance enterprise, or what the metrics qualify information as being "essential". The question of data stream identification and selection requires a structured methodology that can systematically evaluate the tradeoffs between the many criteria that need to be taken in account. Multi-Attribute Utility Theory, a type of multi-criteria decision analysis, can provide a well-defined, structured approach that can offer solutions to this problem. While the use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theoryas a practical method to apply formal scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex, multi-criteria problems has been demonstrated in a variety of fields, this method has never been applied to decision support in biosurveillance.We have developed a formalized decision support analytic framework that can facilitate identification of "essential information" for use in biosurveillance systems or processes and we offer this framework to the global BSV community as a tool for optimizing the BSV enterprise. To demonstrate utility, we applied the framework to the problem of evaluating data streams for use in an integrated global infectious disease surveillance system.

  15. Impact of pharmacy worker training and deployment on access to essential medicines and health outcomes in Malawi: protocol for a cluster quasi-experimental evaluation.

    Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2014-10-11

    Access to essential medicines is core to saving lives and improving health outcomes of people worldwide, particularly in the low- and middle-income countries. Having a trained pharmacy workforce to manage the supply chain and safely dispense medicines is critical to ensuring timely access to quality pharmaceuticals and improving child health outcomes. This study measures the impact of an innovative pharmacy assistant training program in the low-income country of Malawi on access to medicines and health outcomes. We employ a cluster quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-samples and decision analytic modeling to examine access to and the use of medicines for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea for children less than 5 years of age. Two intervention districts, with newly trained and deployed pharmacy assistants, and two usual care comparison districts, matched on socio-economic, geographic, and health-care utilization indicators, were selected for the study. A baseline household survey was conducted in March 2014, prior to the deployment of pharmacy assistants to the intervention district health centers. Follow-up surveys are planned at 12- and 24-months post-deployment. In addition, interviews are planned with caregivers, and time-motion studies will be conducted with health-care providers at the health centers to estimate costs and resources use. This impact evaluation is designed to provide data on the effects of a novel pharmacy assistant program on pharmaceutical systems performance, and morbidity and mortality for the most common causes of death for children under five. The results of this study should contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to scale up the health systems strengthening workforce development program to have the greatest impact on the supply chain and health outcomes in Malawi.

  16. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC 50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  18. In-vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from locally available medicinal plants

    Ara, G.; Shawar, D.; Akbar, A.; Kanwal, F.; Imran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of essential oils from locally available species of four plants, Nigella sativa, Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum tenuis and Curcuma aromatica was carried out using steam distillation followed by ether extraction. Dried and purified extracted oils were screened for their antibacterial activity against three bacterial strains namely, Bacillus lichaniformis (Gram +ve), Micrococcus leutus (Gram +ve) and Salmonella Typhimurium (Gram -ve) using Mc. Cartney's method. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) values of these oils were also determined. It was observed that the oils extracted from Nigella sativa and Cinnamomum tenuis were found to be more potent as compared to other two species. With the exception of Nigella sativa, all the other oils showed bacterial inhibition at 50 mmol concentration. These results support that these plant oils can be used to cure bacterial infections and may also have role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. (author)

  19. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model

    Dejan Brkić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  20. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-10-27

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  1. Establishing an Integrative Medicine Program Within an Academic Health Center: Essential Considerations.

    Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Post, Diana E; Hrbek, Andrea L; O'Connor, Bonnie B; Osypiuk, Kamila; Wayne, Peter M; Buring, Julie E; Levy, Donald B

    2016-09-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) refers to the combination of conventional and "complementary" medical services (e.g., chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, mindfulness training). More than half of all medical schools in the United States and Canada have programs in IM, and more than 30 academic health centers currently deliver multidisciplinary IM care. What remains unclear, however, is the ideal delivery model (or models) whereby individuals can responsibly access IM care safely, effectively, and reproducibly in a coordinated and cost-effective way.Current models of IM across existing clinical centers vary tremendously in their organizational settings, principal clinical focus, and services provided; practitioner team composition and training; incorporation of research activities and educational programs; and administrative organization (e.g., reporting structure, use of medical records, scope of clinical practice) and financial strategies (i.e., specific business plans and models for sustainability).In this article, the authors address these important strategic issues by sharing lessons learned from the design and implementation of an IM facility within an academic teaching hospital, the Brigham and Women's Hospital at Harvard Medical School; and review alternative options based on information about IM centers across the United States.The authors conclude that there is currently no consensus as to how integrative care models should be optimally organized, implemented, replicated, assessed, and funded. The time may be right for prospective research in "best practices" across emerging models of IM care nationally in an effort to standardize, refine, and replicate them in preparation for rigorous cost-effectiveness evaluations.

  2. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  3. Allelopathic effect of essential oils of medicinal plants in Bidens pilosa L.

    M.C.S. Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the inhibitory allelopathic effects of the volatile extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Cymbopogum nardus L. on seed germination and root growth of seedlings of Bidens pilosa. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. For this end, we used oils at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (v/v. Five treatments were used for each of the oils arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in Petri dishes lined with filter paper moistened with distilled water and, aiming at the indirect contact with each oil, two sheets of filter paper were placed on top of the lid, in which three (3 mL of each oil solution were added. Then, the dishes were incubated in a germination chamber at 25°C. The pH did not contribute to alter the results; the volatile extracts of essential oils of C. zeylanicum, L. sidoides and C. nardus inhibited seed germination and root growth of seedlings of B. pilosa, which shows allelopathic potential; and the concentration of 0.08% of oils caused the overall deterioration of the roots and death of seedlings of B. pilosa.

  4. Availability and affordability of essential medicines: exploring the health seeking behaviours and health service utilisation for children under-5 years living in squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Shafiq, Yasir; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Kumar, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Child health outcomes in the poor communities are largely affected by the non-availability of essential medicines at government health facilities and non-affordability of prescribed medicines at private retail pharmacies. This phenomenon largely defines health seeking behaviours and health service utilisation patterns of the families of the children. Using observational visits, we examined the shelf-availability of medicines for children less than 5 years of age at a rural health centre and conducted focus group discussions with the mothers to explore the effects of non-availability and non-affordability of medicines. We also validated all information by interviewing the health care providers of the area. We found that erratic and insufficient supply of essential medicines at the government health facility and a limited purchasing power to buy medicines from a retail pharmacy, led to considerable 'financial burden' on the poor people, non-compliance with the treatment, health care seeking from informal health providers and healer shopping. This trend has a serious repercussion on the health seeking behaviours and of course the health outcomes, especially among children. On the users' side, health education and health promotion campaign must be instituted to explain the adverse effects on child health ensure appropriate health care seeking behaviours. For the supply side, the health care authorities must ensure the availability of essential medicines for the children at the government facilities. Local community representatives must be involved in the matters related to medicines stock management at the facility.

  5. A Fast Radiochemical Method for the Determination of Some Essential Trace Elements in Biology and Medicine

    Samsahl, K

    1966-02-15

    An anion-exchange method based on fast selective sorption steps from mixtures of sulfuric, hydrobromic, and hydrochloric acid solutions has been developed for the separation of five different groups of radioactive trace elements in neutron-irradiated biological material. The separations are performed automatically with a simple proportioning pump apparatus. The apparatus allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to the series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the method is described in detail. The successful use of the method is practically independent on the level of Na activity present in the sample.

  6. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  7. Antifungal activity of plant essential oils and selected Pseudomonas strains against Phomopsis theicola

    Starović Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of natural plant protection products as an alternative to synthetic fungicides is of significant importance regarding the environment. This study was carried out with an objective to investigate in vitro antifungal activities of several essential oils extracted from oregano, basil, myrtle and Turkish pickling herb, and the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the genus Pseudomonas, against the phytopathogenic fungus Phomopsis theicola. Microdilution methods were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of selected antimicrobial essential oils (EOs. All EOs exhibited significant levels of antifungal activity against the tested fungal isolates. The oregano EO was found the most potent one (MIC - 5.5 µg/mL, followed by basil (MIC - 75.0µg/mL, myrtle (MIC - 775 µg/mL and Turkish pickling herb (MIC - 7750 µg/mL. Inhibition of Ph. theicola mycelial growth was observed for all tested Pseudomonas spp. strains. K113 and L1 strains were highly effective and achieved more than 60% of fungal growth inhibition using the overnight culture and more than 57% inhibition by applying cell-free supernatants of both strains. A future field trial with K113 and L1 cultures and cell-free supernatants, containing extracellular metabolites toward Ph. theicola, will estimate their effectiveness and applicability as an alternative to chemical protection of apple trees.

  8. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  9. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  10. WHO and national lists of essential medicines in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean: are they adequate to promote paediatric endocrinology and diabetes care?

    Rowlands, Amanda; Acosta-Gualandri, Alejandra; Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric endocrinology and diabetes is a paediatric specialty with less common conditions and higher cost medicines. Access to medicines for our specialty in low and middle income countries remains limited. We analysed the content of the WHO (children and adults) and of all available national Model Lists of Essential Medicines (EMLs) for Mexico, the Caribbean, Central and South America from a paediatric endocrinology and diabetes standpoint. A master list of medicines deemed necessary in paediatric endocrinology and diabetes was established and compared with the WHO and national EMLs, taking into account the gross national income. The WHO EMLs, which are largely recognised as an international benchmark and drive the content of the national EMLs, included many but not all medicines present on our master list. Interestingly, several national EMLs from richer countries included medicines that were not present in the WHO EMLs. Our analysis suggests that these medicines could be considered by the WHO for inclusion in their EMLs, which may promote the adoption of more medicines by individual countries. We also propose several changes to the WHO and national EMLs that could facilitate access to medicines in our specialty: age cut-off for a child using physical maturity rather than a set age limit; greater standardisation of the formatting of the national EMLs for easier comparison and collaborations between countries; greater emphasis on age-specificity and population-specificity for some medicines; and formatting of the EMLs in a disease-focused manner rather than as individual medicines. PMID:28588968

  11. Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae).

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-09-01

    In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone.

  12. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species

    Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations. Results: The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans-caryophyllene for H. courbaril; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion: The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  13. Perceived impacts of the national essential medicines system: a cross-sectional survey of health workers in urban community health services in China.

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Jianping; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Xianhong; Guo, Qing

    2017-07-10

    This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of primary care workers about the impacts of the national essential medicines policy (NEMP). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken in 42 urban community health centres randomly selected from four provinces in China. 791 primary care workers rated the impacts of the NEMP on a 5-point Likert scale. An average score for the impacts of the NEMP on four aspects (the practice of health workers, interactions of patients with health workers, operations of health centres and provision of medicines) was calculated, each ranging from 0 to 100. A higher score indicates a more positive rating. Linear regression models were established to determine the sociodemographic characteristics (region, age, gender, profession, training, income) that were associated with the ratings. The respondents gave an average rating score of 65.61±11.76, 63.17±13.62, 66.35±13.02 and 67.26±11.60 for the impacts of the NEMP on health workers, patients, health centres and provision of medicines, respectively. Respondents from the central region rated the NEMP higher than those from the eastern and western regions. The pharmacists (β=5.457~7.558, pimpacts (as perceived by the health workers) on health services delivery in primary care settings. However, the impacts of the NEMP vary by region, professional practice and the income level of health workers. It is important to maintain support from physicians through income subsidies (to compensate for potential loss) and training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. History of residency selection issues in podiatric medicine.

    Dorcey, E U; Tinkleman, A R

    1996-08-01

    Issues related to residency interview and selection processes have concerned the podiatric medical profession for nearly 20 years. This article presents a chronology and summary of efforts undertaken to address these problems, including a discussion of legal ramifications of residency approval requirements related to establishment of a uniform notification date and participation in a resident-matching service.

  15. Selection and Training of Personnel for the New Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy Centre in Bariloche

    Lopez, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A basic strategy for the development of a new organization is the selection of personnel, especially if it is an institute that offers a technological and professional innovation. This work aims to define specific profiles for the Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy, Bariloche, and to design a plan for selecting and training professionals. (author

  16. Medicines

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  17. Selected Terms in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Their Interpretations (XV)

    谢竹藩

    2001-01-01

    @@Febrifugation (清热) (清热) [qing re] or Heat-Clearing Method (清法) [qing fa] One of the principal therapeutic methods by administering medicines cool or cold in nature to treat interior heat. Clearing heat and removing toxin (清热解毒)(清热解毒) [qing re jie du]: a therapeutic method for acute infectious diseases and pyogenic inflammations caused by toxic heat. Clearing Qi heat (清气分热) (清气分热) [qing qi fen re]: a therapeutic method of treating acute febrile disease at the Qi stage, also abbreviated as "clearing the Qi" (清气) (清气) [qing qi]. Clearing Ying heat (清营分热) (清营分热) [qing ying fen re]: a therapeutic method of treating acute febrile disease at the Ying stage, also abbreviated as "clearing the Ying" (清营) (清营) [qing ying]. Clearing Heart fire (清心火) [qing xin huo]: a method to treat exuberant Heart fire, also known as "clearing the Heart" (清心) [qing xin]. Clearing Lung heat (清肺热) (清肺热) [qing fei re]: a method to treat excessive heat in the Lung, also known as "clearing the Lung" (清肺) [qing fei].

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL FINGERPRINT STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS RICH IN FLAVONOIDS.

    Konieczyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a size-exclusion column (SEC) with electrochemical (voltammetric) detection at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) was applied for studying the correlations between electroactive Cu and Fe species with phenolic groups of flavonoids. For comparison with electrochemical results, SEC-HPLC-DAD detection was used. The studied plant material comprised of: Betula verrucosa Ehrh., Equisetun arvense L., Polygonum aviculare L., Viola tricolor L., Crataegus oxyacantha L., Sambucus nigra L. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. Based upon the results, high negative correlation was found for the chromatographic peak currents at 45 min with the sum of Cu and Fe for the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus and Betula species, and for the peak currents at 65 min of the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus, Helichrysum and Betula botanical species. This behavior confirms that it is mainly the flavonoids with easily oxidizable phenolic groups which are strongly influenced by the presence of Cu and Fe. Moreover, the electrochemical profiles obtained thanks to the use of HPLC hyphenated with voltammetric detection can be potentially applied for fingerprint studies of the plant materials used in medicine.

  19. Wound Healing Properties of Selected Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine

    Amos Marume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants have arrays of phytoconstituents that have wide ranging biological effects like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties key in wound management. In vivo wound healing properties of ointments made of crude methanolic extracts (10% extract w/w in white soft paraffin of three plant species, Cissus quadrangularis L. (whole aerial plant parts, Adenium multiflorum Klotzsch (whole aerial plant parts and Erythrina abyssinica Lam. Ex DC. (leaves and bark used in ethnoveterinary medicine were evaluated on BALB/c female mice based on wound area changes, regular observations, healing skin's percentage crude protein content and histological examinations. White soft paraffin and 3% oxytetracycline ointment were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Wound area changes over a 15 day period for mice treated with C. quadrangularis and A. multiflorum extract ointments were comparable to those of the positive control (oxytetracycline ointment. Wounds managed with the same extract ointments exhibited high crude protein contents, similar to what was observed on animals treated with the positive control. Histological evaluations revealed that C. quadrangularis had superior wound healing properties with the wound area completely returning to normal skin structure by day 15 of the experiment. E. abyssinica leaf and bark extract ointments exhibited lower wound healing properties though the leaf extract exhibited some modest healing properties.

  20. The content changes of selected phenolic compounds during processing of medicinal plants

    GROŠAFTOVÁ, Blanka

    2007-01-01

    This work was aimed to the problem of change of the content of selected phenolic substances during treatment and storage of medical plants. Flavonoids represent small, but very important group of phenolic compounds. The biggest attention was paid to quercetin and rutine.Content of phenolic substances was determined by method of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) in case of 6 medicinal plants usually used in traditional and modern medicine.

  1. Factors that influence medical student selection of an emergency medicine residency program: implications for training programs.

    Love, Jeffrey N; Howell, John M; Hegarty, Cullen B; McLaughlin, Steven A; Coates, Wendy C; Hopson, Laura R; Hern, Gene H; Rosen, Carlo L; Fisher, Jonathan; Santen, Sally A

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of student decision-making when selecting an emergency medicine (EM) training program is essential for program directors as they enter interview season. To build upon preexisting knowledge, a survey was created to identify and prioritize the factors influencing candidate decision-making of U.S. medical graduates. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study that anonymously surveyed U.S. allopathic applicants to EM training programs. It took place in the 3-week period between the 2011 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) rank list submission deadline and the announcement of match results. Of 1,525 invitations to participate, 870 candidates (57%) completed the survey. Overall, 96% of respondents stated that both geographic location and individual program characteristics were important to decision-making, with approximately equal numbers favoring location when compared to those who favored program characteristics. The most important factors in this regard were preference for a particular geographic location (74.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72% to 78%) and to be close to spouse, significant other, or family (59.7%, 95% CI = 56% to 63%). Factors pertaining to geographic location tend to be out of the control of the program leadership. The most important program factors include the interview experience (48.9%, 95% CI = 46% to 52%), personal experience with the residents (48.5%, 95% CI = 45% to 52%), and academic reputation (44.9%, 95% CI = 42% to 48%). Unlike location, individual program factors are often either directly or somewhat under the control of the program leadership. Several other factors were ranked as the most important factor a disproportionate number of times, including a rotation in that emergency department (ED), orientation (academic vs. community), and duration of training (3-year vs. 4-year programs). For a subset of applicants, these factors had particular importance in overall decision-making. The vast majority

  2. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is China's leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world's largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs.The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35-84 y over 2015-2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015 were considered cost-effective. Treating hypertensive adults with prior

  3. Factors influencing selection of internal medicine residency--a prospective study.

    Pereg, David; Gronich, Naomi; Lishner, Michael

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the popularity of internal medicine residency has been decreasing. We studied the effect of an improved working environment and a decrease in residents' workload on the selection of internal medicine residency. An organizational diagnosis team joined our department and identified several causes for residents' heavy workload. These findings were subsequently discussed in a workshop and led to a modification of the daily routine and a parallel decrease in workload and rise in residents' satisfaction. Following these changes, the demand for residency in our department rose. We conclude that an improvement in the working environment and workload during residency increases the residents' satisfaction and the demand for residency in internal medicine.

  4. Selective attentional deficit in essential tremor: Evidence from the attention network test.

    Pauletti, Caterina; Mannarelli, Daniela; De Lucia, Maria Caterina; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Currà, Antonio; Missori, Paolo; Marinelli, Lucio; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    The traditional view of essential tremor (ET) as a monosymptomatic and benign disorder has been reconsidered after patients with ET have been shown to experience cognitive deficits that are also related to attention. The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a rapid, widely used test to measure the efficiency of three attentional networks, i.e. alerting, orienting and executive, by evaluating reaction times (RTs) in response to visual stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in ET patients by means of the ANT. 21 non-demented patients with ET and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed the ANT. RT was significantly longer in ET patients than in controls (p attention in ET patients, probably owing to a dysfunction in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop. These selective attentional deficits are not related to clinical motor symptoms, contributing to shed further light on the clinical picture of ET. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Burt, S A; Reinders, R D

    2003-01-01

    To quantify the antibacterial properties of five essential oils (EO) on a non-toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence and absence of a stabilizer and an emulsifier and at three different temperatures. Five EOs known to exhibit antibacterial properties were screened by disc diffusion assay and the most active were selected for further study in microdilution colorimetric assays. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris; light and red varieties) EO had the strongest bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, followed by bay (Pimenta racemosa) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata synonym: Syzygium aromaticum) EO. Oregano oil was colicidal at 625 microl l(-1) at 10, 20 and 37 degrees C. The addition of 0.05% (w/v) agar as stabilizer reinforced the antibacterial properties, particularly at 10 degrees C, whereas 0.25% (w/v) lecithin reduced antibacterial activity. Scanning electron micrographs showed extensive morphological changes to treated cells. Oregano and thyme EO possess significant in vitro colicidal and colistatic properties, which are exhibited in a broad temperature range and substantially improved by the addition of agar as stabilizer. Bay and clove bud EO are less active. Lecithin diminished antibacterial properties. The bactericidal concentration of oregano EO irreversibly damaged E. coli O157:H7 cells within 1 min. Oregano and light thyme EO, particularly when enhanced by agar stabilizer, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in foods.

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagan...

  7. Self-care essential extras: an integration of holistic nursing, functional medicine, and health coaching to promote therapeutic lifestyle change and decrease chronic disease.

    Scattergood, Donna M

    2010-01-01

    The Essential Vitality Program blends holistic nursing, functional medicine, and health coaching to promote lifestyle changes that modify risk factors of costly chronic disease. Karl is a client who experienced enhanced vitality, decreased chronic pain and medications use, and improved meaningful functioning, by partnering with a holistic nurse coach.

  8. Antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from Satureja hortensis against selected clinical pathogens

    Görmez, Arzu; Yanmiş, Derya; Bozari, Sedat; Gürkök, Sumeyra

    2017-04-01

    The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms has become a worldwide concern to public health. To overcome the current resistance problem, new antimicrobial agents are extremely needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Satureja hortensis essential oils against seven clinical pathogens. Chemical compositions of hydro distillated essential oils from S. hortensis were analyzed by GS-MS. The antibacterial activity was investigated against Corynebacterium diphtheria, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia plymuthica Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae by the use of disc diffusion method and broth micro dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of essential oils were found as low as 7.81 µg/mL. Notably, essential oils of S. hortensis exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activities against the tested clinical pathogens. The results indicate that these essential oils can be used in treatment of different infectious diseases.

  9. Eight Essential Foods in Iranian Traditional Medicine and their Role in Health Promotion and Well-being.

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Hadian, Mahdi; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad Masoud; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2017-01-01

    Eight essential foods (EEF) described in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) have a determinant role to balance human temperament insuring health and well-being. EEF included oral, imaginary, auditory, visual, olfactory, touch, sexual, and familiarity food. Oral foods should be halal, compatible with individual temper, consumed up twice a day, and compatible with different seasons and geographic conditions. Imaginary food consists of the individual thought content which is directly related to mental and physical fitness. It helps to balance temperament if be free of negative thoughts such as suspicion and distrust to others. Auditory food includes all sounds surrounding us, some of which are sedative and help to balance temperaments, such as natural sounds, and spiritual and beautiful words. Visual food includes everything in the range of human vision which is impressive on his/her thought. Natural beautiful scenes have almost a warm temper and help to balance human temperament. Olfactory food includes odors which stimulate the smell. Touch food includes all materials in direct contact with body skin, like clothes, which have a determinant role in temper moderation in the case of being natural. Sexual food complies with the human need to express his/her love and/or is loved, so its fulfillment could prevent human mal-temperament. Familiarity food can be provided by companion with friends and family members and has a significant role to insure well-being. Given the comprehensiveness of EEF in ITM which covers all human health-related aspects, we can insure health and well-being among our population by promoting and public educating of these principles.

  10. Eight essential foods in Iranian traditional medicine and their role in health promotion and well-being

    Mehrdad Zeinalian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight essential foods (EEF described in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM have a determinant role to balance human temperament insuring health and well-being. EEF included oral, imaginary, auditory, visual, olfactory, touch, sexual, and familiarity food. Oral foods should be halal, compatible with individual temper, consumed up twice a day, and compatible with different seasons and geographic conditions. Imaginary food consists of the individual thought content which is directly related to mental and physical fitness. It helps to balance temperament if be free of negative thoughts such as suspicion and distrust to others. Auditory food includes all sounds surrounding us, some of which are sedative and help to balance temperaments, such as natural sounds, and spiritual and beautiful words. Visual food includes everything in the range of human vision which is impressive on his/her thought. Natural beautiful scenes have almost a warm temper and help to balance human temperament. Olfactory food includes odors which stimulate the smell. Touch food includes all materials in direct contact with body skin, like clothes, which have a determinant role in temper moderation in the case of being natural. Sexual food complies with the human need to express his/her love and/or is loved, so its fulfillment could prevent human mal-temperament. Familiarity food can be provided by companion with friends and family members and has a significant role to insure well-being. Given the comprehensiveness of EEF in ITM which covers all human health-related aspects, we can insure health and well-being among our population by promoting and public educating of these principles.

  11. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  12. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan.

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-11-02

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli , 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC 50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) . Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC 50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  13. Chemical Composition and antiproliferative activity of essential oil from the leaves of a medicinal herb, Levisticum officinale, against UMSCC1 head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a challenging disease with a high mortality rate. Natural products represent a valuable source for the development of novel anticancer drugs. We investigated the cytotoxic potential of essential oil from the leaves of a medicinal plant, Levisticum officinale (lovage) on head and neck squamous carcinoma cells (HNSCC). Cytotoxicity of lovage essential oil was investigated on the HNSCC cell line, UMSCC1. Additionally, we performed pharmacogenomics analyses. Lovage essential oil extract had an IC₅₀ value of 292.6 μg/ml. Genes involved in apoptosis, cancer, cellular growth and cell cycle regulation were the most prominently affected in microarray analyses. The three pathways to be most significantly regulated were extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) signaling, integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, virus entry via endocytic pathways and p53 signaling. Levisticum officinale essential oil inhibits human HNSCC cell growth.

  14. Selection of chemical markers for the quality control of medicinal plants of the genus Cecropia.

    Rivera-Mondragón, Andrés; Ortíz, Orlando O; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Vlietinck, Arnold; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2017-12-01

    Several Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) species are traditionally used in Latin America for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes, arterial hypertension, asthma, bronchitis, anxiety, and inflammation. At present, a number of commercial products based on these plants have been introduced into the market with very little information on methods for guaranteeing their quality and safety. This work proposes potential chemical markers for the quality control of the raw materials of Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Cecropia peltata L., Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Cecropia pachystachya Trécul, and Cecropia hololeuca Miq. The Herbal Chemical Marker Ranking System (Herb MaRS) developed by the National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM) at the University of Western Sydney was used for selecting chemical markers for the quality control of selected medicinal species of Cecropia. This review covers the period from 1982 to 2016. Chlorogenic acid, flavonoidal glycosides (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and rutin), catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins (B2, B5, and C1), steroids (β-sitosterol), and triterpenoids (α-amyrin, pomolic, tormentic and ursolic acids) were selected as chemical markers for the quality control of the leaves. It is necessary to establish comprehensive standards for guaranteeing quality, safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The selection of adequate chemical markers for quality control purposes requires a good knowledge about the chemical composition of medicinal plants and their associated biological properties. To the best of our knowledge this review article is the first to address the identification and quantitative determination of the chemical markers for the genus Cecropia.

  15. Selection and production of oregano rich in essential oil and carvacrol

    Mheen, van der H.J.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in oregano essential oil and its component carvacrol for the use as a feed additive with antimicrobial properties, enhancing the health of poultry and pigs. This chapter describes the initial agronomic attempts (in the years 2001-2004) to acquire and develop Origanum

  16. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species ( Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana ) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi ( Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum ). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens ( Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans ). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum . The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating

  17. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  18. An essential hospital package for South Africa--selection criteria, costs and affordability.

    Söderlund, N

    1999-07-01

    In 1995 the Committee of Enquiry into National Health Insurance (NHI) recommended that formally employed individuals and their employers be required to fund at least a minimum package of hospital cover for workers and their dependents. This has recently been echoed in a Department of Health policy paper on social health insurance. This research aims to define and cost a minimum package of essential hospital care for competing (public and private) health insurers in South Africa. CRITERIA FOR PACKAGE DEFINITION: Based on the objectives implict in the NHI Committee report, the following criteria were used to define the essential package: (i) the extent to which there was another appropriate responsible party who should pay for treatment; (ii) the degree of discretion in deciding whether or not to provide treatment (roughly equivalent to 'urgency'); and (iii) the cost and effectiveness of treatment. On the basis of the above criteria, 396 out of 598 possible interventions were included in the package. Using local mine hospital and private sector utilisation rates and mine hospital cost data, it was estimated that the essential inpatient package would cost around R502 per enrollee per year, using 1998 prices, for a working age population and their dependents. Age-sex standardised outpatient care costs in the mine hospital population studied were estimated at R183 per person per year. It was therefore estimated that the total inpatient and outpatient hospital package would cost around R685 per person per year. The results presented in this paper are intended to inform the process of defining a national essential hospital benefit package. Assuming that contributions were proportionally related to income, and that costs should not exceed 6% of wages, the package should be affordable to all of those earning above R20,000 per year. Significant additional work is required, firstly at a technical level to assess the appropriateness of the prioritization approach used here

  19. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

    2009-02-01

    The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods.

  20. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins.

    Morgan, Claire C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. RESULTS: We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. CONCLUSION: Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene.

  1. Concentrations of cadmium and selected essential elements in malignant large intestine tissue

    Dziki, Adam; Kilanowicz, Anna; Sapota, Andrzej; Duda-Szymańska, Joanna; Daragó, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Incidence rates of large intestine cancer indicate a role of environmental and occupational factors. The role of essential elements and their interaction with toxic metals can contribute to the explanation of a complex mechanism by which large intestine cancer develops. Bearing this in mind, determining the levels of essential and toxic elements in tissues (organs), as well as in body fluids, seems to shed light on their role in the mode of action in malignant disease. Aim Determination of the levels of cadmium, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, magnesium, and iron in large intestine malignant tissue. Material and methods Two intraoperative intestine sections were investigated: one from the malignant tissue and the other one from the normal tissue, collected from each person with diagnosed large intestine cancer. Cadmium, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, and iron levels were determined with atomic absorption spectrometry, and selenium levels by spectrofluorimetric method. Results The levels of copper, selenium, and magnesium were higher in the malignant than in normal tissues. In addition, the zinc/copper and calcium/magnesium relationship was altered in malignant tissue, where correlations were lower compared to non-malignant tissue. Conclusions The results seems to demonstrate disturbed homeostasis of some essential elements. However, it is hard to confirm their involvement in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:27110307

  2. Selective Access to Heterocyclic Sulfonamides and Sulfonyl Fluorides via a Parallel Medicinal Chemistry Enabled Method.

    Tucker, Joseph W; Chenard, Lois; Young, Joseph M

    2015-11-09

    A sulfur-functionalized aminoacrolein derivative is used for the efficient and selective synthesis of heterocyclic sulfonyl chlorides, sulfonyl fluorides, and sulfonamides. The development of a 3-step parallel medicinal chemistry (PMC) protocol for the synthesis of pyrazole-4-sulfonamides effectively demonstrates the utility of this reagent. This reactivity was expanded to provide rapid access to other heterocyclic sulfonyl fluorides, including pyrimidines and pyridines, whose corresponding sulfonyl chlorides lack suitable chemical stability.

  3. INFLUENCE OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS

    Henrieta ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was designed to investigate the effects of feed supplementation with essential oils on egg weight and body mass of laying hens. Hens of the laying breed Isa Brown were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 3 groups (n=26 and fed for 45 weeks on diets which differed in kind of essential oil supplemented. Hens were fed from day 1 by the standard feed mixture. Laying hens accepted fodder ad libitum. In the control group hens took feed mixture without additions, in the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with 0.25 ml/kg thyme essential oil and in the second one hens got hyssop essential oil in the same dose of 0.25 ml/kg. The housing system satisfied enriched cage requirements specified by the Directive 1999/74 EC. The useful area provided for one laying hen presented 943.2 cm2. The equipment of cage consisted of roosts, place for rooting in ashes – synthetic grass, nest and equipment for shortening of clutches. The results showed that the average body weight for a rearing period was in order groups: 736.15±523.49; 747.20±541.6 and 721.95±522.57 (g±SD. Differences between groups were not significant (P>0.05. The average body weight during the laying period was 1763.85±171.46; 1786.08±192.09 and 1729.73±129.12 g for control, thyme oil and hyssop oil supplementation respectively. During the laying period there were significant differences in body weight between control and experimental group with hyssop essential oil supplementation (P<0.05 and between both experimental groups (P<0.01. No significant differences were found out between control group and experimental groups (P>0.05 in egg weight (58.36±4.91; 58.82±4.95 and 58.26±5.33 g respectively.

  4. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein...... patterns reflect the renal tubular abnormality involved in the dysregulation of sodium excretion. MethodsAfter 2-week drug washout and 4-day diet, systemic and renal hemodynamics, cardio-renal hormones, glomerular filtration and renal excretion were studied in male patients during saline loading (SL...

  5. Evaluation of selected Indian traditional folk medicinal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with antioxidant and cytotoxicity study.

    Tawde K. V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate different solvent extracts of selected Indian traditional medicinal plant against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity. Methods: Acacia catechu (L. Willd (Root extract and Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Corr., Andrographis paniculata Nees. and Datura metel L. were sequentially extracted in water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane and evaluated for their anti-tuberculosis (TB activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using agar diffusion assay. The zone of inhibition ( at 20 and 40 mg/ ml was measured and MIC were calculated. The results were compared with Rifampicin as a standard anti TB drug. The extracts were also evaluated for DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities to understand their antioxidant potential. MTT based cytotoxicity assay was used for evaluating cytotoxicity of the selected samples against Chang liver cells. Results: The selected botanicals were sequentially extracted in water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane and tested for growth inhibition of M. tuberculosi. The hexane extract of A. catechu root and ethanol extract of A. paniculata leaf showed promising activity against M. tuberculosis while remaining extracts showed moderate anti TB activity. The samples were found to possess considerable DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities with no demonstrable cytotoxicity against Chang liver cells. Conclusions: Five traditional medicinal plants were selected for the present study. The selection of medicinal plants was based on their traditional usage for the treatment of tuberculosis, asthma and chronic respiratory diseases. Herein we report for the first time, the anti TB activity of root extracts of Acacia catechu and Ailanthus excelsa while leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata, Aegle marmelos and Datura metel. The study holds importance in the midst of multi drug resistance (MDR crisis in the TB management, since it unravels the scientific basis

  6. Medical students, money, and career selection: students' perception of financial factors and remuneration in family medicine.

    Morra, Dante J; Regehr, Glenn; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2009-02-01

    Medical students have had a declining interest in family medicine as a career. Some studies have shown a small inverse relationship between debt levels and primary care, but it is unclear how students perceive remuneration in different specialties and how these perceptions might influence career choice. Medical students at one school were surveyed to understand their perceptions of physician remuneration and to gain insight into how these perceptions might affect career selection. Response rate was 72% (560/781 students). Students' estimates of physician income were accurate throughout training, with the overall estimate for family medicine being lower than the actual income by only $10,656. The vast majority of students agreed with the statement that family physicians get paid too little (85%-89% of each class). The importance of payment as a factor in career decision making increased with higher debt and with advancing training. Students are able to accurately predict income by specialty from an early stage of training and have a negative perception of income in family medicine. The perception that family physicians make too little money could be an important driver--or at least a modifier--in the lack of interest in family medicine.

  7. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the "Borda" Method: a Pilot Study.

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran's public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called "Borda" in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software "Math-lab"7, "SPSS" 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. "Borda" estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance decision making.

  8. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens

    Paula L. Vieira-Brock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils (EOs are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products–air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray–for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (− and (+-limonene; whereas, (+-menthol showed greater effect than (−-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners. Keywords: Essential oils, Soap, Body spray, Air freshener

  9. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been

  10. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Abd-alla, Adly Mohamed M.; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3–6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. - Highlights: • The mortality of T. castaneum increased with an increase of the radiation dose. • R. officinalis was more toxic to T. castaneum than P. atriplicifolia. • Gamma radiation and essential oils could be used as combined methods in IPM. • Combination of radiation with essential oils made a synergistic effect. • The synergistic effect of the R–G was much more appropriate from P–G

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Romika Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.

  12. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  13. Selected topical agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of minor injuries- a review

    Ping Chung eLEUNG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level.A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas:(1Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study;(2Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation;(3Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and(4Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications.Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain’s disease and the elbow (Tennis elbow. The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive.It is therefore concluded that further explorations are

  14. Finding the Perfect Match: Factors That Influence Family Medicine Residency Selection.

    Wright, Katherine M; Ryan, Elizabeth R; Gatta, John L; Anderson, Lauren; Clements, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    Residency program selection is a significant experience for emerging physicians, yet there is limited information about how applicants narrow their list of potential programs. This study examines factors that influence residency program selection among medical students interested in family medicine at the time of application. Medical students with an expressed interest in family medicine were invited to participate in a 37-item, online survey. Students were asked to rate factors that may impact residency selection on a 6-point Likert scale in addition to three open-ended qualitative questions. Mean values were calculated for each survey item and were used to determine a rank order for selection criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that predict a strong interest in urban, suburban, and rural residency programs. Logistic regression was also used to identify factors that predict a strong interest in academic health center-based residencies, community-based residencies, and community-based residencies with an academic affiliation. A total of 705 medical students from 32 states across the country completed the survey. Location, work/life balance, and program structure (curriculum, schedule) were rated the most important factors for residency selection. Logistic regression analysis was used to refine our understanding of how each factor relates to specific types of residencies. These findings have implications for how to best advise students in selecting a residency, as well as marketing residencies to the right candidates. Refining the recruitment process will ensure a better fit between applicants and potential programs. Limited recruitment resources may be better utilized by focusing on targeted dissemination strategies.

  15. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens.

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Vaughan, Brent M; Vollmer, David L

    2017-12-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products-air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray-for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (-) and (+)-limonene; whereas, (+)-menthol showed greater effect than (-)-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners.

  16. Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants: Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    Marwa Chraibi; Abdellah Farah; Sara Lebrazi; Oumaima El Amine; Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini; Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro to the essential oils obtained from two medicinal plants: Thymus satureioides(T. satureioides) and Mentha pulegium(M. pulegium), and to study their chemical composition.Methods: The aerial parts of T. satureioides and M. pulegium(leaves and stems) were hydro-distillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and essential oils were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimycobacterial screening of essential oils was performed on the basis of the inhibition zone diameter by disc diffusion method against two mycobacterial strains whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro-dilution method.Results: Chemical analysis of their aerial part’s essential oils gave as major compounds,borneol(34.26%), carvacrol(31.21%) and thymol(3.71%) for T. satureioides and R(+)-pulegone(75.48%), carvone(6.66%) and dihydrocarvone(4.64%) for M. pulegium.Thereafter their antimycobacterial effect evaluation, using the micro-dilution method,indicated that minimal inhibitory concentration values of T. satureioides essential oil ranged from 0.062% to 0.015%(v/v) and from 0.125% to 0.031%(v/v) for M. pulegium respectively against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis.Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.

  17. Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants:Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    Marwa Chraibi; Abdellah Farah; Sara Lebrazi; Oumaima El Amine; Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini; Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro to the essential oils obtained from two medicinal plants: Thymus satureioides (T. satureioides) and Mentha pulegium (M. pulegium), and to study their chemical composition. Methods: The aerial parts of T. satureioides and M. pulegium (leaves and stems) were hydro-distillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and essential oils were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimycobacterial screening of essential oils was performed on the basis of the inhibition zone diameter by disc diffusion method against two mycobacterial strains whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro-dilution method. Results: Chemical analysis of their aerial part's essential oils gave as major compounds, borneol (34.26%), carvacrol (31.21%) and thymol (3.71%) for T. satureioides and R(+)-pulegone (75.48%), carvone (6.66%) and dihydrocarvone (4.64%) for M. pulegium. Thereafter their antimycobacterial effect evaluation, using the micro-dilution method, indicated that minimal inhibitory concentration values of T. satureioides essential oil ranged from 0.062%to 0.015%(v/v) and from 0.125%to 0.031%(v/v) for M. pulegium respectively against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.

  18. The essential role of chemokines in the selective regulation of lymphocyte homing.

    Bono, María Rosa; Elgueta, Raúl; Sauma, Daniela; Pino, Karina; Osorio, Fabiola; Michea, Paula; Fierro, Alberto; Rosemblatt, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of lymphocyte migration has become a major issue in our understanding of acquired immunity. The selective migration of naïve, effector, memory and regulatory T-cells is a multiple step process regulated by a specific arrangement of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion receptors that guide these cells to specific locations. Recent research has outlined two major pathways of lymphocyte trafficking under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, one concerning tropism to cutaneous tissue and a second one related to mucosal-associated sites. In this article we will outline our present understanding of the role of cytokines and chemokines as regulators of lymphocyte migration through tissues.

  19. Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity towards multidrug-resistant leukemia cells of essential oils derived from Lebanese medicinal plants.

    Saab, Antoine M; Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Maietti, Silvia; Zeino, Maʼen; Arend, Joachim; Gambari, Roberto; Bernardi, Francesco; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Juniperus excelsa fruit essential oil as well as J. oxycedrus, Cedrus libani, and Pinus pinea wood essential oils have been obtained with yields between 2.2 ± 0.3 % to 3.4 ± 0.5 % and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sesquiterpenes mainly characterized C. libani and J. oxycedrus essential oils, while in P. pinea and J. excelsa, monoterpenes were the most abundant compounds. In J. oxycedrus, cis-calamenene (7.8 %), cuparene (3.8 %), and cis-thujopsenal (2.0 %) have been detected for the first time. The cytotoxic activity of these essential oils against drug-sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-expressing CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells has been investigated (IC₅₀ values: 29.46 to 61.54 µg/mL). Remarkably, multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 cells did not reveal cross-resistance, indicating that these essential oils might be useful to treat otherwise drug-resistant and refractory tumors. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Access to diagnostic tests and essential medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes care: cost, availability and affordability in the West Region of Cameroon.

    Ahmadou M Jingi

    Full Text Available To assess the availability and affordability of medicines and routine tests for cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes in the West region of Cameroon, a low-income setting.A survey was conducted on the availability and cost of twelve routine tests and twenty medicines for CVD and diabetes in eight health districts (four urban and four rural covering over 60% of the population of the region (1.8 million. We analyzed the percentage of tests and medicines available, the median price against the international reference price (median price ratio for the medicines, and affordability in terms of the number of days' wages it would cost the lowest-paid unskilled government worker for initial investigation tests and procurement for one month of treatment.The availability of tests varied between 10% for the ECG to 100% for the fasting blood sugar. The average cost for the initial investigation using the minimum tests cost 29.76 days' wages. The availability of medicines varied from 36.4% to 59.1% in urban and from 9.1% to 50% in rural settings. Only metformin and benzathine-benzylpenicilline had a median price ratio of ≤ 1.5, with statins being largely unaffordable (at least 30.51 days' wages. One month of combination treatment for coronary heart disease costs at least 40.87 days' wages.The investigation and management of patients with medium-to-high cardiovascular risk remains largely unavailable and unaffordable in this setting. An effective non-communicable disease program should lay emphasis on primary prevention, and improve affordable access to essential medicines in public outlets.

  1. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    Hossain, M Amzad; Shah, Muhammad Dawood; Gnanaraj, Charles; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil. The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro antioxidation activity and genoprotective effect of selected Chinese medicinal herbs.

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Shirley Ching Yee; Wong, Julia Wai Ming; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2011-01-01

    Some traditional Chinese medicinal seeds and fruits are well known for their antioxidant properties. This research aims to investigate whether Fructus Lycii, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Semen Cuscutae protect DNA from oxidant challenge by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The standard comet assay was used to assess the genoprotective effect of these medicinal herbs. Blood was taken from three healthy adults, aged from 36 to 42. Lymphocytes were isolated and treated with different concentrations of aqueous herbal extracts, while controls were treated with phosphate buffered saline. The lymphocytes were stressed with 50 μM H(2)O(2). Treated cells were embedded in agarose and layered on slides. These sandwiched lymphocytes were lysed and afterwards subjected to an electric field in an alkaline environment. Damaged DNA was pulled out from the nucleus towards the positive electrode as a comet tail; its density was related to the degree of DNA damage. Finally, the slides were stained with fluorescence dye and tails were visually scored for 100 cells. The experiment was repeated three times and DNA damage in treated cells was compared to the controls. There was no statistical difference in DNA damage among the herb treated cells and untreated cells in the comet assay. Our data demonstrated that the selected medicinal herbs did not show in vitro DNA protection in the comet assay against oxidant challenge.

  3. Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae

    Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.

    2016-11-01

    An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.

  4. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  5. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  6. Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program

    Flávia Liparini Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Plant samples were collected, herborised and then identified using traditional techniques and specialised literature. We sampled 107 medicinal plant species belonging to 86 genera and 39 families, predominantly Asteraceae with 16 species. Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw, M. pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Ruta graveolens L. were found to have Consensus of Main Use corrected (CMUc values above 50%, which were in agreement with the traditional uses described by the informants. However, species with CMUc values equal to or above 20%, combined with the scientific information survey, were also used to select medicinal plants for the phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. The selection of medicinal plants based on the CMUc index from this particular community, in combination with the scientific survey, appears to be an effective strategy for the implementation of phytotherapy programs.Estudos etnofarmacológicos são importantes no registro e na preservação de conhecimentos de uma cultura tradicional associada ao uso medicinal da biodiversidade. No presente trabalho, foi realizado o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas por conhecedores populares na comunidade de Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, como ferramenta para auxiliar na seleção de espécies vegetais visando à implantação de um programa de fitoterapia local na comunidade estudada. Participaram 11 conhecedores escolhidos por amostragem Bola de Neve e submetidos a

  7. Adiponectin gene polymorphism is selectively associated with the concomitant presence of metabolic syndrome and essential hypertension.

    Hsin-Bang Leu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular risk increases with the presence of both metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypertension (HTN. Although the adiponectin (ADIPOQ gene has been reported to be involved in MetS, its association with HTN remained undetermined. This study aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ gene with the phenotypes of HTN and MetS. METHODS: A total of 962 participants from 302 families from the Taiwan young-onset hypertension genetic study were enrolled. Plasma adiponectin were measured, and association analysis was conducted by using GEE regression-based method. Another study, of 1448 unrelated participants, was conducted to replicate the association between ADIPOQ gene and variable phenotypes of MetS with or without HTN. RESULTS: Among 962 subjects from family samples, the lowest plasma adiponectin value was observed in MetS with HTN component (9.3±0.47 µg/ml compared with hypertensives (13.4±0.74 µg /ml or MetS without HTN (11.9±0.60 µg/ml, P<0.05. The SNP rs1501299 (G276T in ADIPOQ gene was found associated with the presence of HTN in MetS (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.14-5.3, p = 0.02, but not rs2241766 (T45G. No association of ADIPOQ gene with HTN alone or MetS without HTN was observed. The significant association of the SNP rs1501299 (G276T with the phenotype of presence of HTN in MetS was confirmed (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.1-4.3 in the replication study. CONCLUSIONS: ADIPOQ genetic variants were selectively and specifically associated with the concomitant presence of MetS and HTN, suggesting potential genetic linkage between MetS and HTN.

  8. A possible role of partially pyrolysed essential oils in Australian Aboriginal traditional ceremonial and medicinal smoking applications of Eremophila longifolia (R. Br.) F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae).

    Sadgrove, N J; Jones, G L

    2013-06-03

    Eremophila longifolia is one of the most respected of the traditional medicines used by Australian Aboriginal people. Customary use involves smoldering the leaves over hot embers of a fire to produce an acrid smoke, believed to have therapeutic effects broadly consistent with antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory capacity. The current study aims to examine the contribution of partially pyrolysed and non-pyrolysed essential oils in traditional usage of Eremophila longifolia. Non-pyrolysed and partially pyrolysed essential oils were produced by hydrodistillation and part-wet/part-dry distillation, respectively. All samples were tested for antimicrobial activity by broth dilution. Some of these samples were further treated to an incrementally stepped temperature profile in a novel procedure employing a commercial thermocycler in an attempt to mimic the effect of temperature gradients produced during smoking ceremonies. Components from the pyrodistilled oils were compared with the non-pyrodistilled oils, using GC-MS, GC-FID and HPLC-PAD. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, was used to compare free radical scavenging ability. Partially pyrolysed oils had approximately three or more times greater antimicrobial activity, enhanced in cultures warmed incrementally to 60°C and held for 30s and further enhanced if held for 2 min. Partially pyrolysed oils showed a radical scavenging capacity 30-700 times greater than the corresponding non-pyrolysed oils. HPLC-PAD revealed the presence of additional constituents not present in the fresh essential oil. These results, by showing enhanced antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, provide the first known Western scientific justification for the smoking ceremonies involving leaves of Eremophila longifolia. During customary use, both partially pyrolysed as well as non-pyrolysed essential oils may contribute significantly to the overall intended medicinal effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  9. Frontline health workers as brokers: provider perceptions, experiences and mitigating strategies to improve access to essential medicines in South Africa.

    Magadzire, Bvudzai Priscilla; Budden, Ashwin; Ward, Kim; Jeffery, Roger; Sanders, David

    2014-11-05

    Front-line health providers have a unique role as brokers (patient advocates) between the health system and patients in ensuring access to medicines (ATM). ATM is a fundamental component of health systems. This paper examines in a South African context supply- and demand- ATM barriers from the provider perspective using a five dimensional framework: availability (fit between existing resources and clients' needs); accessibility (fit between physical location of healthcare and location of clients); accommodation (fit between the organisation of services and clients' practical circumstances); acceptability (fit between clients' and providers' mutual expectations and appropriateness of care) and affordability (fit between cost of care and ability to pay). This cross-sectional, qualitative study uses semi-structured interviews with nurses, pharmacy personnel and doctors. Thirty-six providers were purposively recruited from six public sector Community Health Centres in two districts in the Eastern Cape Province representing both rural and urban settings. Content analysis combined structured coding and grounded theory approaches. Finally, the five dimensional framework was applied to illustrate the interconnected facets of the issue. Factors perceived to affect ATM were identified. Availability of medicines was hampered by logistical bottlenecks in the medicines supply chain; poor public transport networks affected accessibility. Organization of disease programmes meshed poorly with the needs of patients with comorbidities and circular migrants who move between provinces searching for economic opportunities, proximity to services such as social grants and shopping centres influenced where patients obtain medicines. Acceptability was affected by, for example, HIV related stigma leading patients to seek distant services. Travel costs exacerbated by the interplay of several ATM barriers influenced affordability. Providers play a brokerage role by adopting flexible

  10. Chemical and biological characterisation of solvent extracts and essential oils from leaves and fruit of two Australian species of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) used in aboriginal medicinal practice.

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-02-13

    Although no known medicinal use for Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (Pittosporaceae) has been recorded, anecdotal evidence suggests that Australian Aboriginal people used Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd., G. Lodd. & W. Lodd. topically for eczema, pruritis or to induce lactation in mothers following child-birth and internally for coughs, colds or cramps. Essential oil composition and bioactivity as well as differential solvent extract antimicrobial activity from Pittosporum angustifolium are investigated here first, to partially describe the composition of volatiles released in traditional applications of Pittosporum angustifolium for colds or as a lactagogue, and second to investigate antibacterial activity related to topical applications. Essential oils were also investigated from Pittosporum undulatum Vent., first to enhance essential oil data produced in previous studies, and second as a comparison to Pittosporum angustifolium. Essential oils were hydrodistilled from fruit and leaves of both species using a modified approach to lessen the negative (frothing) effect of saponins. This was achieved by floating pumice or pearlite obsidian over the mixture to crush the suds formed while boiling. Essential oil extracts were analysed using GC-MS, quantified using GC-FID then screened for antimicrobial activity using a micro-titre plate broth dilution assay (MIC). Using dichloromethane, methanol, hexane and H(2)O as solvents, extracts were produced from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum angustifolium and screened for antimicrobial activity and qualitative phytochemical character. Although the essential oil from leaves and fruit of Pittosporum undulatum demonstrated some component variation, the essential oil from fruits of Pittosporum angustifolium had major constituents that strongly varied according to the geographical location of collection, suggesting the existence of at least two chemotypes; one with high abundance of acetic acid decyl ester. This chemotype had high

  11. Positive Selection Driving Cytoplasmic Genome Evolution of the Medicinally Important Ginseng Plant Genus Panax.

    Jiang, Peng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ming-Rui; Liu, Bao; Wen, Jun; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Panax L. (the ginseng genus) is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species. Our results show that heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution rate is abundant in both of the two cytoplasmic genomes, with the mitochondrial genome possessing more variants at the total level but the chloroplast showing higher sequence polymorphisms at the genic regions. Genome-wide scanning of positive selection identified five and 12 genes from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Functional analyses further revealed that these selected genes play important roles in plant development, cellular metabolism and adaptation. We therefore conclude that positive selection might be one of the potential evolutionary forces that shaped nucleotide variation pattern of these Panax species. In particular, the mitochondrial genes evolved under stronger selective pressure compared to the chloroplast genes.

  12. How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Hodes, R; Price, I; Bungane, N; Toska, E; Cluver, L

    2017-08-25

    Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively.

  13. Short-term differences in drug prices after implementation of the national essential medicines system: A case study in rural Jiangxi Province, China.

    Wang, Junyong; Liu, Xia; Wang, Suzhen; Chen, Heli; Wang, Xun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Yanchen; Zheng, Xianping; Hao, Mo

    2015-01-01

    China's 2009 national essential medicine system (NEMS) was designed to reduce prices through a zero-markup policy and a centralized bidding system. To analyze NEMS's short-term impact on drug prices, we estimated the retail and wholesale prices before and after the reform at health institutions in rural Jiangxi Province. We undertook two cross-sectional surveys of prices of 39 medicines in November 2008 and May 2010, calculated inflation adjusted prices, and used the Wilcoxon signed-rank and rank-sum tests to examine price changes at different health institutions. Retail prices at pilot (P health centers decreased significantly, whereas the declines at retail pharmacies (P = 0.57) and village clinics (P = 0.29) were insignificant. The decline at pilot township health centers was the largest, compared with other kinds of health institutions (P health institutions, the centralized bidding system was insufficient to lower wholesale prices. A drug price management system should be constructed to control medicine prices and a long-term price information system is needed to monitor price changes.

  14. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oils of four dietary and medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Ndoye Foe, Florentine Marie-Chantal; Tchinang, Tatiana Flore Kemegni; Nyegue, Ascencion Maximilienne; Abdou, Jean-Pierre; Yaya, Abel Joel Gbaweng; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; Essame, Jean-Louis Oyono; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2016-04-07

    In the Cameroonian traditional medicine, plants of the Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Liliaceae families are used to treat several metabolic diseases. These plants are rich in various compounds belonging to the glucosinolates and thiosulfinates family. Till date, very little studies have been done aiming at assessing the antioxidant and inflammatory properties of the essential oils (EOs) of these plants. Essential oils are volatile extracts produced by secondary metabolism. They are usually constituted of terpens and may also contain specific non terpenic components such as glucosinolates and thiosulfinates for the species that are being considered in the present study. This study highlights and compares the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the essential oils of the stem barks of Drypetes gossweileri (Euphorbiaceae), roots of Pentadiplandra brazzeana (Capparidaceae), red bulbs of Allium cepa and Alium sativum (Liliaceae) collected in Cameroon (Central Africa). The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In vitro antioxidant activities were determined using the radical scavenging assay, total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and determination of antioxidant activity index (AAI) according to the method described by Scherer and Godoy. The anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using albumin denaturation method. Differences (p essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (41.62 %), diallyl disulfide (19.74 %), allyl methyl trisulfide (12.95 %), diallyl sulfide (7.1 %) and diallyl tetrasulfide (4.22 %). Those of Allium cepa essential oil were diallyl trisulfide (22.17 %), dipropyl trisulfide (11.11 %), 2-methyl-3,4-dithiaheptane (9.88 %), methyl propyl trisulfide (8.14 %), dipropyl tetrasulfide (8.07 %) and 2-propenyl propyl disulfide (5.15 %). Drypetes gossweileri and Pentadiplandra

  15. Comparison of sample preparation methods for the determination of essential and toxic elements in important indigenous medicinal plant Aloe barbadensis

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Wattoo, M.H.S.

    2002-01-01

    The role of elements particularly traces elements in health and disease is now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very important herb Aloe barbadensis, it is commonly used in different ailments especially of elementary tract. We used four extraction methods for the determination of total elements in Aloe barbadensis. The procedure, which is found to be more efficient and decompose the biological material, is nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide as compared to other method. The sample of plants was collected from surrounding of Hyderabad; Sindh University and vouches specimens were prepared following the standard herbarium techniques. Fifteen essential, trace and toxic elements such as Zn, Cr, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Pb, Al, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni and Cd were determined in plant and in its decoction. Using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Hitachi Model 180-50. It is noted that, level of essential elements was found high as compare to the level of toxic elements. (author)

  16. Chitosan encapsulation of essential oil "cocktails" with well-defined binary Zn(II)-Schiff base species targeting antibacterial medicinal nanotechnology.

    Halevas, Eleftherios; Nday, Christiane M; Chatzigeorgiou, Evanthia; Varsamis, Vasileios; Eleftheriadou, Despoina; Jackson, Graham E; Litsardakis, Georgios; Lazari, Diamanto; Ypsilantis, Konstantinos; Salifoglou, Athanasios

    2017-11-01

    The advent of biodegradable nanomaterials with enhanced antibacterial activity stands as a challenge to the global research community. In an attempt to pursue the development of novel antibacterial medicinal nanotechnology, we herein a) synthesized ionic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles, b) compared and evaluated the antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from nine different herbs (Greek origin) and their combinations with a well-defined antibacterial Zn(II)-Schiff base compound, and c) encapsulated the most effective hybrid combination of Zn(II)-essential oils inside the chitosan matrix, thereby targeting well-formulated nanoparticles of distinct biological impact. The empty and loaded chitosan nanoparticles were physicochemically characterized by FT-IR, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with the entrapment and drug release studies being conducted through UV-Visible and atomic absorption techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the novel hybrid materials were demonstrated against Gram positive (S. aureus, B. subtilis, and B. cereus) and Gram negative (E. coli and X. campestris) bacteria using modified agar diffusion methods. The collective physicochemical profile of the hybrid Zn(II)-essential oil cocktails, formulated so as to achieve optimal activity when loaded to chitosan nanoparticles, signifies the importance of design in the development of efficient nanomedicinal pharmaceuticals a) based on both natural products and biogenic metal ionic cofactors, and b) targeting bacterial infections and drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    Noorlidah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC. Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI. Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%, Schizophyllum commune (27.6%, and Hericium erinaceus (17.7% showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL. Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents.

  18. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents. PMID:21716693

  19. Cardioprotective and Metabolomic Profiling of Selected Medicinal Plants against Oxidative Stress

    Nadia Afsheen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the antioxidant and metabolomic profiling of seven selected medicinally important herbs including Rauvolfia serpentina, Terminalia arjuna, Coriandrum sativum, Elettaria cardamom, Piper nigrum, Allium sativum, and Crataegus oxyacantha was performed. The in vivo cardioprotective potential of these medicinal plants was evaluated against surgically induced oxidative stress through left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (LADCA in dogs. The antioxidant profiling of these plants was done through DPPH and DNA protection assay. The C. oxyacantha and T. arjuna showed maximum antioxidant potential, while the E. cardamom showed poor antioxidative strength even at its high concentration. Different concentrations of extracts of the said plants exhibited the protection of plasmid DNA against H2O2 damage as compared to the plasmid DNA merely treated with H2O2. The metabolomic profiling through LC-MS analysis of these antioxidants revealed the presence of active secondary metabolites responsible for their antioxidant potential. During in vivo analysis, blood samples of all treatment groups were drawn at different time intervals to analyze the cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. The results depicted that the group pretreated with HC4 significantly sustained the level of CK-MB, SGOT, and LDH as well as hemodynamic parameters near to normal. The histopathological examination also confirmed the cardioprotective potential of HC4. Thus, the HC4 being safe and inexpensive cardioprotective herbal combination could be considered as an alternate of synthetic drugs.

  20. Cardioprotective and Metabolomic Profiling of Selected Medicinal Plants against Oxidative Stress

    Afsheen, Nadia; Jahan, Nazish; Ijaz, Misbah; Manzoor, Asad; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Hina, Saman

    2018-01-01

    In this research work, the antioxidant and metabolomic profiling of seven selected medicinally important herbs including Rauvolfia serpentina, Terminalia arjuna, Coriandrum sativum, Elettaria cardamom, Piper nigrum, Allium sativum, and Crataegus oxyacantha was performed. The in vivo cardioprotective potential of these medicinal plants was evaluated against surgically induced oxidative stress through left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (LADCA) in dogs. The antioxidant profiling of these plants was done through DPPH and DNA protection assay. The C. oxyacantha and T. arjuna showed maximum antioxidant potential, while the E. cardamom showed poor antioxidative strength even at its high concentration. Different concentrations of extracts of the said plants exhibited the protection of plasmid DNA against H2O2 damage as compared to the plasmid DNA merely treated with H2O2. The metabolomic profiling through LC-MS analysis of these antioxidants revealed the presence of active secondary metabolites responsible for their antioxidant potential. During in vivo analysis, blood samples of all treatment groups were drawn at different time intervals to analyze the cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. The results depicted that the group pretreated with HC4 significantly sustained the level of CK-MB, SGOT, and LDH as well as hemodynamic parameters near to normal. The histopathological examination also confirmed the cardioprotective potential of HC4. Thus, the HC4 being safe and inexpensive cardioprotective herbal combination could be considered as an alternate of synthetic drugs. PMID:29576858

  1. Advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation: considerations in the design and selection of an imaging system

    Links, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear medicine remains a vibrant and dynamic medical specialty because it so adeptly marries advances in basic science research, technology, and medical practice in attempting to solve patients' problems. As a physicist, it is my responsibility to identify or design new instrumentation and techniques, and to implement, validate, and help apply these new approaches in the practice of nuclear medicine. At Johns Hopkins, we are currently in the process of purchasing both a single-photon/coincidence tomographic imaging system and a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Given the exciting advances that have been made, but the conflicting opinions of manufacturers and colleagues alike regarding ''best'' choices, it seemed useful to review what is new now, and what is on the horizon, to help identify all of the important considerations in the design and selection of an imaging system. It is important to note that many of the ''advances'' described here are in an early stage of development, and may never make it to routine clinical practice. Further, not all of the advances are of equal importance, or have the same degree of general clinical applicability. Please also note that the references contained herein are for illustrative purposes and are not all-inclusive; no implication that those chosen are ''better'' than others not mentioned is intended. (orig.)

  2. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants on Colon, Colorectal and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Leila Mohammad Taghizadeh Kashani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many natural products from plants have been recognized to exert anticancer activity. In this study, ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal herbs from Iranian flora including Alyssum homolocarpum Fisch. (from seeds, Urtica dioica L. (from aerial parts, Cichorium intybus L. (from roots and Solanum nigrum L. (from fruits, were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect on different cell lines.Methods: Cytotoxic effect of these extracts was studied on three different cancer cell lines; colon carcinoma (HT-29, colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 and breast ductal carcinoma (T47D. In addition, Swiss mouse embryo fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 were used as normal nonmalignant cells. MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was utilized for calculating the cytotoxicity of extracts on cell lines.Results: Results showed the potent cytotoxic activity of U. dioica ethanolic extract against T47D cell line with IC50 value of 46.14±4.55 µg/ml. Other extracts showed poor activity with IC50>100 µg/ml.Conclusions: Cytotoxic activity recorded in the present study revealed high potential antiproliferative activity of U. dioica ethanolic extract against T47D cell line. The real IC50 values of this extract may be considerably lower than the IC50 measured in our study if its pharmacological active compounds become pure. The results emphasize the importance of studies on U. dioica ethanolic extract to characterize potential components as cytotoxic natural medicines.

  3. Flavonoids distribution in selected medicinal plants of Margalla Hills and surroundings

    Khan, A.M.; Qureshi, R.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2012-01-01

    The present studies comprise the distribution of important flavonoids amongst the selected 13 medicinal plants viz., Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Broussonetia papyrifera, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis collected from Margalla Hills for their authentication. Kaemferol was only detected in Verbascum thapsus. Myrcetin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo and Broussonetia papyrifera. Catechin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa , Chenopodium ambrosoides and Caryopteris grata. Vitexin was found absent in all the plants under study except Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Peganum harmala. Orientin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Urtica dioica and Caryopteris grata. Rutin and Kaempferol-7-neohesperoside were detected only in Broussonetia papyrifera. Quercitin was detected in Euphorbia hirta, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis. Luteolin was common among all the species. (author)

  4. Effect of selected local medicinal plants on the asexual blood stage of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Afzan, Adlin; Ali, Rosnani; Amir Jalaluddin, Nur Fasihah; Wasiman, Mohd Isa; Shiekh Zahari, Siti Habsah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2014-12-15

    The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties. Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water. The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique. In order to determine the selectivity index (SI), all plant extracts demonstrating a good antiplasmodial activity were tested for their cytotoxicity activity against normal Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Twenty three extracts derived from Curcuma zedoaria (rhizome), Curcuma aeruginosa (rhizome), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Morinda elliptica (leaf), Curcuma mangga (rhizome), Elephantopus scaber (leaf), Vitex negundo (leaf), Brucea javanica (leaf, root and seed), Annona muricata (leaf), Cinnamomun iners (leaf) and Vernonia amygdalina (leaf) showed promising antiplasmodial activities against the blood stage chloroquine resistant P. falciparum (EC50 toxicity effect to MDBK cells in vitro (SI ≥10). The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively. The findings justified the bioassay guided fractionation on these plants for the search of potent antimalarial compounds or formulation of standardized extracts which may enhance the antimalarial effect in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (MMB 2013)

    Meng, Ellis; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-03-01

    In this special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering are a collection of the best microengineering papers presented at the 7th International Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (MMB 2013) which took place in the seaside town of Marina del Rey, California, USA on 10-12 April, 2013. During the 3-day conference, participants enjoyed talks from 6 invited keynote speakers and 125 flash oral/poster presentations. The MMB conference is a biennial meeting with the primary purpose of fostering interactions between biologists and medical researchers, clinicians, chemists, physicists and engineers to enhance and strengthen the potential microtechnologies that will revolutionize the fields of medicine and biological sciences. The conference possesses a unique format where all poster presenters provide a brief 60 s oral presentation highlighting their research. This format was devised to provide training and exposure for young researchers, especially PhD students and postdocs, in the field and stimulate interdisciplinary exchanges. Therefore, MMB provides an intimate intellectual venue the facilitate discussions and collaborations to advance new research tools and technologies for medicine and biological sciences. The MMB conference series was co-founded by Professor David Beebe (University of Wisconsin—Madison) and Professor André Dittmar (University of Lyon) and was the first international meeting to provide a forum focusing on emerging applications of microtechnologies to unmet needs in medicine and biology. The series was held for the first time in 2000, in Lyon, France and followed by Madison, USA (2002), Oahu Island in Hawaii, USA (2005), Okinawa, Japan (2006), Québec City, Canada (2009), Lucerne, Switzerland (2011), and Marina del Rey, USA (2013). The next conference will be held in Seoul, Korea in 2015. This collection of articles highlights recent progress in microtechnologies with medical and biological applications. We are

  6. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which may result from alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota following gastrointestinal infection, or with intestinal dysbiosis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This may be treated with antibiotics, but there is concern that widespread antibiotic use might lead to antibiotic resistance. Some herbal medicines have been shown to be beneficial, but their mechanism(s) of action remain incompletely understood. To try to understand whether antibacterial properties might be involved in the efficacy of these herbal medicines, and to investigate potential new treatments for IBS, we have conducted a preliminary study in vitro to compare the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of culinary and medicinal herbs against the bacterium, Esherichia coli. Methods Essential oils were tested for their ability to inhibit E. coli growth in disc diffusion assays and in liquid culture, and to kill E. coli in a zone of clearance assay. Extracts of coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves were tested for their antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. Disc diffusion and zone of clearance assays were analysed by two-tailed t tests whereas ANOVA was performed for the turbidometric assays. Results Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay. The compounds present in these oils were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Finally, extracts were made of spearmint, lemon balm and coriander leaves with various solvents and these were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli in the disc diffusion assay. In each case, extracts made with ethanol and methanol exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions Many of the essential oils

  7. Determination of macro, essential trace elements, toxic heavy metal concentrations, crude oil extracts and ash composition from Saudi Arabian fruits and vegetables having medicinal values

    Hana R. Alzahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of essential elements (Mg, Ca, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Al, Ni, and Cu and toxic heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr, Cd, and Cr from Saudi Arabian fruits and vegetables were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP/OES. Two types of butters, Caralluma munbayana and Caralluma hesperidum, Vigna (Vigna unguiculata, common fig (Ficus carica, Annona seeds (Annonaceae seeds, Annona fruits (Annonaceae fruits, Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Fennel flowers (Nigella sativa were investigated, because they are used by indigenous groups as traditional medicines with Soxhlet-extraction and dry-ashing protocol. The estimated daily dietary element intake in food samples was further calculated in order to evaluate the element dietary intake and fruit and vegetable consumption pattern of the indigenes of Saudi Arabia. The crude oil and ash compositions varied widely, but suggested that most of the foods were good sources of oils and minerals. The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES calibration curves were excellent with good linearity (R2 > 0.9921. The use of ICP-OES in this study allowed the accurate analysis and the detection of the elements at low levels. Essential elements (K, Ca, Na, and Mg had the highest concentrations while toxic heavy metals (As, Pb, and Cd had the lowest in the foods. Essential element pairs (Mg-Na, Mg-Ca, Fe-Al were highly correlated, suggesting that these foods are sources of multiple nutrients. Toxic element pairs (Pb-Cd, Pb-As, and Cd-As, however, were poorly correlated in the foods, suggesting that these elements do not have a common source in these foods. Average consumption of these foods should provide the recommended daily allowances of essential elements, but will not expose consumers to toxic heavy metals. The ICP-OES method was validated by determining method detection limits and percent recoveries of laboratory-fortified blanks, which were generally 90–100%.

  8. Research into microscopic structure and essential oils of endemic medicinal plant species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae

    Sulejman Redžić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we looked into the cells and histological organization of leaves (Saturejae folium as well as a phyto-chemical composition of overground parts (Saturejae herba of endemic species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae collected during year 2003 on south slopes of mountain Velez in Herzegovina. Microscopic organization was analyzed in wet slides using light microscope. Estimation of stomata index was done according to Ph. Yug. IV. Chemical composition of overground material extracts was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC using thymol as a reference. In our research we found the following: Leaf structure of the analyzed species Satureja subspicata points at numerous specificities in anatomical and histological sense. In histological sense, leaf is of ventral type, with differentiated upper and lower epidermis and palisade and spongy tissue in between. Stoma index assigned according to Ph. Yug. IV leads to a conclusion that it is the case of diastitic stomata, which is common feature of most species from Lamiaceae family. Comparative qualitative analysis of essential oils in species Satureja subspicata showed similarities with other species from Lamiaceae family such as Thymus L. (thymol. In fact, we found more common substances that are part of the species Satureja montana L. extract, but in different concentrations.

  9. Urban-rural inequality regarding drug prescriptions in primary care facilities - a pre-post comparison of the National Essential Medicines Scheme of China.

    Yao, Qiang; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Ju

    2015-07-30

    To assess the impact of the National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) with respect to urban-rural inequalities regarding drug prescriptions in primary care facilities. A stratified two-stage random sampling strategy was used to sample 23,040 prescriptions from 192 primary care facilities from 2009 to 2010. Difference-in-Difference (DID) analyses were performed to test the association between NEMS and urban-rural gaps in prescription patterns. Between-Group Variance and Theil Index were calculated to measure urban-rural absolute and relative disparities in drug prescriptions. The use of the Essential Medicines List (EML) achieved a compliance rate of up to 90% in both urban and rural facilities. An overall reduction of average prescription cost improved economic access to drugs for patients in both areas. However, we observed an increased urban-rural disparity in average expenditure per prescription. The rate of antibiotics and glucocorticoids prescription remained high, despite a reduced disparity between urban and rural facilities. The average incidence of antibiotic prescription increased slightly in urban facilities (62 to 63%) and reduced in rural facilities (67% to 66%). The urban-rural disparity in the use of parenteral administration (injections and infusions) increased, albeit at a high level in both areas (44%-52%). NEMS interventions are effective in reducing the overall average prescription costs. Despite the increased use of the EML, indicator performances with respect to rational drug prescribing and use remain poor and exceed the WHO/INRUD recommended cutoff values and worldwide benchmarks. There is an increased gap between urban and rural areas in the use of parenteral administration and expenditure per prescription.

  10. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS

    Sharifah Mohamad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a. The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA, adequate intake (AI and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.

  11. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China

    Yao Ge Huang; Branka Barl; Gerald. Ivanochko

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a brief account of the distribution, production, and use of some non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, medicinal and nutraceutical mushrooms, pharmaceutical insects, and "wild" vegetables in Jilin Province, China. All materials featured in this paper are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) inside and outside of China...

  12. Switching from originator brand medicines to generic equivalents in selected developing countries: how much could be saved?

    Cameron, Alexandra; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Laing, Richard Ogilvie

    2012-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, patients and reimbursement agencies that purchase medicines in the private sector pay more for originator brands when generic equivalents exist. We estimated the savings that could be obtained from a hypothetical switch in medicine consumption from originator brands to lowest-priced generic equivalents for a selection of medicines in 17 countries. In this cost minimization analysis, the prices of originator brands and their lowest-priced generic equivalents were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted by using a standard methodology. Fourteen medicines most commonly included in the surveys, plus three statins, were included in the analysis. For each medicine, the volume of private sector consumption of the originator brand product was obtained from IMS Health, Inc. Volumes were applied to the median unit prices for both originator brands and their lowest-priced generics to estimate cost savings. Prices were adjusted to 2008 by using consumer price index data and were adjusted for purchasing power parity. For the medicines studied, an average of 9% to 89% could be saved by an individual country from a switch in private sector purchases from originator brands to lowest-priced generics. In public hospitals in China, US $ 370 million could be saved from switching only four medicines, saving an average of 65%. Across individual medicines, average potential savings ranged from 11% for beclometasone inhaler to 73% for ceftriaxone injection. Substantial savings could be achieved by switching private sector purchases from originator brand medicines to lowest-priced generic equivalents. Strategies to promote generic uptake, such as generic substitution by pharmacists and increasing confidence in generics by professionals and the public, should be included in national medicines policies. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and patterns of prenatal use of traditional medicine among women at selected harare clinics: a cross-sectional study

    Mureyi Dudzai D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal use of traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine is widespread globally despite the lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these therapeutic options. Documentation on the prevalence and patterns of this maternal practice in the Zimbabwean setting was also lacking. Methods A cross sectional survey of 248 women at selected health centres in Harare was carried out to address the need for such data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Fifty-two (52% (95% C.I. 44%-60% of the participants reported to have used at least one traditional medicine intervention during the third trimester of their most recent pregnancy to induce labour, avoid perineal tearing and improve the safety of their delivery process. The study found prenatal use of traditional medicine to be significantly associated with nulliparity and nulligravidity. Such practice was also significant among participants residing in a particular high density suburb located in close proximity to informal traders of traditional medicines. Prenatal traditional medicine use was not significantly linked to experiencing an obstetrics-related adverse event. Instead, participants who reported not using any traditional medicine during pregnancy reported experiencing significantly more adverse events, mainly perineal tearing during delivery. Conclusions The practice of prenatal use of traditional medicine was significant in the study setting, with a prevalence of 52%. A variety of products were used in various dosage forms for differing indications. Nulliparity, nulligavidity and possible accessibility of these products were the factors significantly associated with prenatal use of traditional medicine. Prenatal use of traditional medicine was not significantly associated with any obstetric adverse event.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Antidiabetic Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms (Agaricomycetes).

    Singh, Varinder; Bedi, Gurleen Kaur; Shri, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Management of type 2 diabetes by delaying or preventing glucose absorption using natural products is gaining significant attention. Edible mushrooms are well documented for their nutritional and medicinal properties. This investigation was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extracts of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms, namely, Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe indica, and Volvariella volvacea, using in vitro models (α-amylase inhibition assay, glucose uptake by yeast cells, and glucose adsorption capacity). The most active extract was subsequently examined in vivo using the oral starch tolerance test in mice. All prepared extracts showed dose-dependent inhibition of α-amylase and an increase in glucose transport across yeast cells. C. indica extract was the most active α-amylase inhibitor (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 18.07 ± 0.75 mg/mL) and exhibited maximum glucose uptake by yeast cells (77.53 ± 0.97% at 35 mg/mL). All extracts demonstrated weak glucose adsorption ability. The positive in vitro tests for C. indica paved the way for in vivo studies. C. indica extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced postprandial blood glucose peaks in mice challenged with starch. The extract (400 mg/kg) and acarbose normalized blood glucose levels at 180 minutes, when they were statistically similar to values in normal mice. Thus, it may be concluded that the antidiabetic effect of C. indica is mediated by inhibition of starch metabolism (α-amylase inhibition), increased glucose uptake by peripheral cells (promotion of glucose uptake by yeast cells), and mild entrapment (adsorption) of glucose. Hence, C. indica can be developed as antidiabetic drug after detailed pharmacological studies.

  15. Anti-caries activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis on Terminalia laxiflora

    Ebtihal Abdalla M. Mohieldin

    Full Text Available Abstract In Sudan, some medicinal plants, such as Acacia seyal, Calotropis procera and Balanites aegyptiaca have been used to prevent or treat oral health problems. The stem and stem bark of Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, are used as antiseptics for mouthwash to prevent gingivitis and thrush in Africa. Methanol and 50% hydroethanolic extracts of 25 plants that are used in traditional Sudanese medicine for several diseases and cavity disorders were screened for anti-cavity activities. T. laxiflora methanolic wood extracts, which exhibited such activity, were investigated. The crude extracts were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus sobrinus in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and glucosyltransferase inhibition. The active extract of T. laxiflora wood was subsequently fractionated by different chromatographic techniques. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and assessed for S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase inhibitory effects. Methanolic extracts of Terminalia brownii (bark, T. laxiflora (wood, A. seyal (bark, Persicaria glabra (leaves and Tamarix nilotica (stem showed good activities against both S. sobrinus and glucosyltransferase (MIC ≤ 1 mg/ml, IC50 values <50 µg/ml. Over all plant extracts, T. laxiflora demonstrated the good combined activities (MIC 0.5 mg/ml, glucosyltransferase, IC50 10.3 µg/ml; therefore, its methanolic wood extracts were selected for further phytochemical studies. Four constituents were isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic techniques. Pharmacological evaluation of the obtained compounds showed that flavogallonic acid dilactone had comparatively good antibacterial activity. In the glucosyltransferase inhibitory test, terchebulin displayed potent activity with an IC50 of 7.5 µM. The screening presented in this study showed that methanol extracts of T. laxiflora wood possessed promising anti-cavity effects.

  16. The medicine selection process in four large university hospitals in Brazil: Does the DTC have a role?

    Elisangela da Costa Lima-Dellamora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about evidence-based medicine selection and the role of the Drug and Therapeutics Committee (DTC is an important topic in the literature but is scarcely discussed in Brazil. Our objective, using a qualitative design, was to analyze the medicine selection process performed in four large university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Information was collected from documents, interviews with key informants and direct observations. Two dimensions were analyzed: the structural and organizational aspects of the selection process and the criteria and methods used in medicine selection. The findings showed that the DTC was active in two hospitals. The structure for decision-making was weak. DTC members had little experience in evidence-based selection, and their everyday functions did not influence their participation in DTC activities. The methods used to evaluate evidence were inadequate. The uncritical adoption of new medicines in these complex hospital facilities may be hampering pharmaceutical services, with consequences for the entire health system. Although the qualitative approach considerably limits the extent to which the results can be extrapolated, we believe that our findings may be relevant to other university hospitals in the country.

  17. Evaluation for antidiabetic activity in selected medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    Shafii Khamis; Siti Harjieh Ibrahim; Noorul Azliana Jamaludin; Muhammad Hanafi Mohamad Mokhtar; Nor Azizah Marsiddi

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes were investigated. The nuts of Areca cathecu, leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa and Ficus deltoidea were each extracted by boiling in distilled water. The aqueous extracts were filtered and the filtrates were then spray dried. Their biological evaluation was conducted to determine their blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Commercially available antidiabetic drug, glybenclamide was used as positive control. Toxicity of the extracts was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality assay and in vivo acute toxicity test in rats. Aqueous extracts of all the plants studied showed significant reduction in blood glucose level up to 50% in rats over a period of 3 to 4 weeks. The largest reduction in blood glucose levels was exhibited by the aqueous extracts of the Lagestroemia speciosa, followed by the Ficus deltoidea and Areca cathecu. There was no evidence of toxicity of the extracts against the brine shrimp (up to 4,000 μg/ml) and in rats (up to 0.2% body weight). (Author)

  18. Careers in medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine: an innovative approach to specialty exploration and selection.

    Sweeney, Kyle R; Fritz, Ryan A; Rodgers, Scott M

    2012-07-01

    Research on resident attrition rates suggests that medical students would benefit from more comprehensive career advising programs during medical school. Responding to this need, students and administrators at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (Vanderbilt) introduced a broad Careers in Medicine (CiM) program in 2005 to complement the CiM resources offered by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). In this article, the authors detail the Vanderbilt CiM program's four core components: career-related events, an elective course, specialty interest groups, and career advising. The authors discuss the program's implementation and its student-led organizational structure, and they provide a critical assessment of important lessons learned. Using data from internal satisfaction surveys and the AAMC's Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (GQ), they demonstrate the success of Vanderbilt's career counseling efforts. According to recent GQ data, Vanderbilt ranks above the U.S. medical school average on graduating students' ratings of overall satisfaction with career services and of the usefulness of key programming. The authors present this description of the Vanderbilt CiM model as a framework for other medical schools to consider adopting or adapting as they explore options for expanding their own career counseling services.

  19. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Ângelo Luís

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs, together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities.

  20. Evaluation of the mobility and pollution index of selected essential/toxic metals in paddy soil by sequential extraction method.

    Hasan, Maria; Kausar, Dilshad; Akhter, Gulraiz; Shah, Munir H

    2018-01-01

    Comparative distribution and mobility of selected essential and toxic metals in the paddy soil from district Sargodha, Pakistan was evaluated by the modified Community Bureau of Reference (mBCR) sequential extraction procedure. Most of the soil samples showed slightly alkaline nature while the soil texture was predominantly silty loam in nature. The metal contents were quantified in the exchangeable, reducible, oxidisable and residual fractions of the soil by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the metal data were subjected to the statistical analyses in order to evaluate the mutual relationships among the metals in each fraction. Among the metals, Ca, Sr and Mn were found to be more mobile in the soil. A number of significant correlations between different metal pairs were noted in various fractions. Contamination factor, geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor revealed extremely severe enrichment/contamination for Cd; moderate to significant enrichment/contamination for Ni, Zn, Co and Pb while Cr, Sr, Cu and Mn revealed minimal to moderate contamination and accumulation in the soil. Multivariate cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of the metals in various fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selected essential oils inhibit key physiological enzymes and possess intracellular and extracellular antimelanogenic properties in vitro

    Zaahira Aumeeruddy-Elalfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs extracted from six medicinal herbs and food plants [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ, Psiadia arguta (PA, Psiadia terebinthina (PT, Citrus grandis (CGp, Citrus hystrix (CH, and Citrus reticulata (CR] were studied for any inhibitory potential against key physiological enzymes involved in diabetes (α-glucosidase, skin aging (collagenase and elastase, and neurodegenerative disorders (acetylcholinesterase. Kinetic studies of the active EOs on the aforementioned enzymes were determined using Lineweaver–Burk plots. The intracellular and extracellular antimelanogenic potential of the EOs were evaluated on B16F10 mouse melanocytes. CH and CR were found to significantly inhibit (2.476 ± 0.13 μg/mL and 3.636 ± 0.10 μg/mL, respectively acetylcholinesterase, compared with galantamine (3.989 ± 0.16 μg/mL. CH inhibited collagenase (50% inhibitory concentration 28.71 ± 0.16 μg/mL compared with the control (24.45 ± 0.19 μg/mL. The percentage inhibition in the elastase assay of CH was 63.21% compared to the positive control (75.09%. In addition, CH, CR, CGp, CZ, and PT were found to significantly inhibit α-glucosidase (276.70 ± 0.73 μg/mL, 169.90 ± 0.58 μg/mL, 240.60 ± 6.50 μg/mL, 64.52 ± 0.69 μg/mL, and 313.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL, respectively, compared to acarbose (448.80 ± 0.81 μg/mL. Active EOs showed both uncompetitive and competitive types of inhibition. The EOs also inhibited intracellular (50% inhibitory concentration 15.92 ± 1.06 μg/mL, 23.75 ± 4.47 μg/mL, and 28.99 ± 5.70 μg/mL for CH, CR, and CGp, respectively and extracellular (< 15.625 μg/mL for CH, CR, CGp, and PT melanin production when tested against B16F10 mouse melanocytes. Results from the present study tend to show that EOs extracted from these medicinal plants can inhibit key enzymes and may be potential candidates for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Impact of pharmacy worker training and deployment on access to essential medicines for children under five in Malawi: a cluster quasi-experimental evaluation.

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy

    2017-09-11

    Poor access to essential medicines is common in many low- and middle-income countries, partly due to an insufficient and inadequately trained workforce to manage the medicines supply chain. We conducted a prospective impact evaluation of the training and deployment of pharmacy assistants (PAs) to rural health centers in Malawi. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare access to medicines in two districts where newly trained PAs were deployed to health centers (intervention) and two districts with no trained PAs at health centers (comparison). A baseline household survey and two annual post-intervention household surveys were conducted. We studied children under five years with a history of fever, cough and difficulty in breathing, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks. We collected data on access to antimalarials, antibiotics and oral rehydration salts (ORS) during the childrens' symptomatic periods. We used difference-in-differences regression models to estimate the impact of PA training and deployment on access to medicines. We included 3974 children across the three rounds of annual surveys: 1840 (46%) in the districts with PAs deployed at health centers and 2096 (53%) in districts with no PAs deployed at health centers. Approximately 80% of children had a fever, nearly 30% had a cough, and 43% had diarrhea in the previous two weeks. In the first year of the program, the presence of a PA led to a significant 74% increase in the odds of access to any antimalarial, and a significant 49% increase in the odds of access to artemisinin combination therapies. This effect was restricted to the first year post-intervention. There was no effect of presence of a PA on access to antibiotics or ORS. The training and deployment of pharmacy assistants to rural health centers in Malawi increased access to antimalarial medications over the first year, but the effect was attenuated over the second year. Pharmacy assistants training and deployment demonstrated no impact on

  3. Essentials of Periodontal Medicine in Preventive Medicine

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Anand, Bhargavi; Bahuguna, Rohit; Govila, Vivek; Rastogi, Pavitra

    2013-01-01

    Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has a...

  4. In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Kissi-Twum, Abena Adomah; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Addo, Phyllis; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ngoutane Mfopa, Alvine; Fekam Boyom, Fabrice; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo

    2016-04-13

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most prevalent mycobacteriosis, after tuberculosis and leprosy. The currently recommended combination of rifampicin-streptomycin suffers from side effects and poor compliance, which leads to reliance on local herbal remedies. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial properties and toxicity of selected medicinal plants. Sixty-five extracts from 27 plant species were screened against Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium smegmatis, using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA). The cytotoxicity of promising extracts was assayed on normal Chang liver cells by an MTT assay. Twenty five extracts showed activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 16 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL against M. smegmatis, while 17 showed activity against M. ulcerans with MIC values ranging from 125 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. In most of the cases, plant extracts with antimycobacterial activity showed no cytotoxicity on normal human liver cells. Exception were Carica papaya, Cleistopholis patens, and Polyalthia suaveolens with 50% cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranging from 3.8 to 223 µg/mL. These preliminary results support the use of some West African plants in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to isolate and characterize the active ingredients in the extracts.

  5. Evaluation of antitrypanosomal and anti inflammatory activities of selected Nigerian medicinal plants in mice.

    Adelodun, Victoria O; Elusiyan, C A; Olorunmola, F O; Adewoyin, F B; Omisore, N O; Adepiti, A O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Adewunmi, C O

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of nine selected Nigerian medicinal plants were investigated on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice. The anti-inflammatory properties of hexane fraction of the most promising U. chamae extract was assessed by acute oedema of the mice paw model while the modulatory effect of the extract on Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response on in vivo leucocytes mobilization was evaluated. 'Dose-probing acute toxicity tests' established an oral and intraperitoneal LD50 for T. ivorensis stem bark as >1600 5000 mg/kg. Extracts of Khaya senegalensis, Harungana madagascariensis, Terminalia ivorensis, Curcuma longa, Ocimum gratissimum and Alcornea cordifolia showed weak anti-trypanosomal effect and did not exhibit significant clearance in parasitemia at the test dose administered compared with the positive control (Diminal®). However, the leaf extract of U. chamae and its hexane fraction demonstrated a significant response (P < 0.01). The fraction at 1000 mg/kg inhibited oedema by 107%. Uvaria. chamae demonstrated both antitrypanosomal and anti-inflammatory properties by increasing the survival time of infected mice due to reduction in parasitemia caused by T. brucei brucei.

  6. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time.

  7. Selected medicinal plants used in herbal industries; their toxicity against pathogenic microorganisms

    Fazal, H.; Ahmad, M.; Abbasi, B.H.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant strains of fungi and bacteria are imposing the need for new drugs. Reliable natural sources with minor side effects are needed to control anti-human pathogenic invaders specially bacteria. Given the demands for natural products that are inherently safe and environmentally compatible, the advancement in antimicrobial potential has provided a better alternative to synthetic resistance antibiotics. In the present investigation such types of medicinal plants were selected for analyses that are used by local herbal practioners for multiple diseases. Thirty three extracts of Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina and Vetiveria zizanioides in chloroform, ethanol and hexane were investigated for their antimicrobial potential. These extracts were tested against eight microorganisms including four gram negative bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, three gram positive bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus and a fungal strain viz., Candida albicans. Majority of the extracts showed marked antimicrobial potential against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  8. In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease

    Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is the third most prevalent mycobacteriosis, after tuberculosis and leprosy. The currently recommended combination of rifampicin-streptomycin suffers from side effects and poor compliance, which leads to reliance on local herbal remedies. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial properties and toxicity of selected medicinal plants. Sixty-five extracts from 27 plant species were screened against Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium smegmatis, using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA. The cytotoxicity of promising extracts was assayed on normal Chang liver cells by an MTT assay. Twenty five extracts showed activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 16 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL against M. smegmatis, while 17 showed activity against M. ulcerans with MIC values ranging from 125 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. In most of the cases, plant extracts with antimycobacterial activity showed no cytotoxicity on normal human liver cells. Exception were Carica papaya, Cleistopholis patens, and Polyalthia suaveolens with 50% cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 ranging from 3.8 to 223 µg/mL. These preliminary results support the use of some West African plants in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to isolate and characterize the active ingredients in the extracts.

  9. Examination of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic medicinal preparations.

    Kruszewska, Hanna; Zareba, Tomasz; Tyski, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the antimicrobial activity of non-antibiotic drugs, selected from the pharmaceutical products analyzed during the state control performed in National Medicines Institute, Warszawa, Poland. In 2010, over 90 pharmaceutical preparations have been randomly chosen from different groups of drugs. The surveillance study was performed on standard ATCC microbial strains used for drug control: S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It was shown that the drugs listed below inhibited growth of at least one of the examined strains: Arketis 20 mg tab. (paroxetine), Buvasodil 150 mg tab. (buflomedile), Halidor 100 mg tab. (bencyclane), Hydroxyzinum espefa 25 mg tab. (hydroxyzine), Norifaz 35 mg tab. (risedronate), Strattera 60 mg cap. (atomoxetine), Tamiflu 75 mg tab. (oseltamivir), Valpro-ratiopharm Chrono 300 mg tab. with longer dissolution (valproate), Vetminth oral paste 24 g+3 g/100 mL (niclozamide, oxybendazol). Strattera cap. showed broad activity spectrum. It inhibited growth of all examined strains (MIC of active substance -- atomoxetine ranged between 2.6-13 mg/mL).

  10. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C.

    Villamizar, Luz Helena; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Andrade, Juliana de; Teixeira, Maria Luisa; Soares, Maurilio José

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp.) have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL) and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL) trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL). At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs) storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL) than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC) and RBCs (4ºC) showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL) at 4ºC. The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.

  11. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C

    Luz Helena Villamizar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp. have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. OBJECTIVES In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. METHODS PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. FINDINGS PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL. At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL. Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC and RBCs (4ºC showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL at 4ºC. MAIN CONCLUSION The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.

  12. Activity concentration and AACED due to 40K in some selected medicinal plants

    Chandrashekara, K.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The activity concentrations in soil and medicinal plants, soil to plant transfer factors (TF), and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) of 40 K in prominent medicinal plants of Malnad Kerala were estimated. The range of activity concentrations were 144.15 - 558.99 and 405.87 - 2990.75 Bq kg -1 in soil and medicinal plants respectively. The TF was found to vary from 2.34 to 14.84, whereas AACED varied in the range 2.51 - 18.54 mSv y -1 . The study may help to form the database and safety regulations connected with 40 K activity in medicinal plants. (author)

  13. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of cymbopogon citratus

    Malik Anushree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Methods Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM/Atomic force microscopy (AFM and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Results Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%; α-citral or geranial (36.2% and β-citral or neral (26.5%, monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9% and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%. Conclusion Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious

  14. The ability of selected plant essential oils to enhance the action of recommended antibiotics against pathogenic wound bacteria.

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Łysakowska, Monika; Kowalczyk, Edward; Szymańska, Grażyna; Kochan, Ewa; Krukowska, Jolanta; Olszewski, Jurek; Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the ability of essential oils to support antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria in wounds. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria obtained from wound infections were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Essential oils were analysed by GC-FID-MS. The susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics, essential oils and their combination was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the essential oils were established by the micro-dilution broth method. Although cinnamon, clove, thyme and lavender essential oils were found to have the greatest antibacterial activity when used alone, the greatest additive and synergistic effects against pathogenic wound bacteria in combination with recommended antibiotics were demonstrated by basil, clary sage and rosemary oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  16. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  17. Antimelanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Saad, Hazwani Mat; Sim, Kae Shin; Tan, Yee Shin

    2018-01-01

    Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing. The antimelanogenesis activity of the extracts was determined by cell viability assay, measurement of intracellular melanin content, and cellular tyrosinase assay with B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the mushroom extracts was tested by measuring the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-10 excreted by RAW264.7 macrophages. Brown A. bisporus reduced intracellular melanin content to the largest extent-up to 57.05 ± 3.90%-without a cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells. This extract also reduced cellular tyrosinase activity to 17.93 ± 2.65%, performing better than kojic acid, the positive control. In parallel, the extract from brown A. bisporus, at the highest concentration tested, has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity through reductions of NO and TNF-α levels. The other 5 extracts showed moderate antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. In summary, our findings show that A. bisporus (brown) extract has the potential to be used as an ingredient in whitening skincare products and to sooth the inflammatory response on the skin.

  18. Potent anti-proliferative effects against oral and cervical cancers of Thai medicinal plants selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Pattamapun, Kassara; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-07-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.

  19. Innovations in travel medicine and the progress of tourism-Selected narratives

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2009-01-01

    Health and tourism is an emerging theme in research. Focus of this article is on travel medicine, which is a well-established discipline in the medical sciences, but not yet quite so in the social sciences. There is a limited insight into the relationship between innovations and developments...... in medicines on the one hand, and economics and institutionalisation of tourism on the other hand. The article explores this issue. Three narratives provide examples of the interconnections. The first case describes developments in drugs for malaria and relations with tourism. The second case addresses...... recreational drugs. The third case investigates the concept of wilderness medicine and the pharmaceuticals and medical gears that facilitate this category of tourism. Thus, the paper demonstrates through some examples that innovations in the medical fields and institutionalisation of the use of medicine may...

  20. The Basic Principles in Assessment and Selection of Reference Doses: Considerations in Nuclear Medicine (invited paper)

    Mattsson, S.; Jacobsson, L.; Vestergren, E.

    1998-01-01

    The possible ways to optimise the relation between diagnostic information and patient absorbed dose differ between nuclear medicine and X ray imaging. In nuclear medicine, very little has been done to find an optimal dosage of radiopharmaceuticals. Current nuclear medicine methods are discussed in the light of the recent ICRP Publications and the new EU Patient Directive. The paper also discusses how reference levels for administered activity may be derived from patient studies. In order to eliminate the most inappropriate choices (too low or too high activities), knowledge of the current statistical distribution of administered activities may be helpful. Different methods to estimate the amount of activity that should be administered to children of various body sizes to guarantee the same image quality as for adults are also discussed. Examples of current activity levels for common nuclear medicine procedures, indicating the state of the practice, are given. (author)

  1. Selected Topical Agents Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Minor Injuries- A Review

    Leung, Ping-chung; Ko, Erik Chun-hay; Siu, Wing-sum; Pang, Ellie Suet-yee; Lau, Clara Bik-san

    2016-01-01

    Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches. In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries. In this era of evidence-based...

  2. Selected topical agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of minor injuries- a review

    Ping Chung eLEUNG; Ping Chung eLEUNG; Ping Chung eLEUNG; Sammy Wing-sum eSIU; Chun Hay eKo; Clara Bik-san eLau; Clara Bik-san eLau

    2016-01-01

    Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based c...

  3. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  4. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  5. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    Wagacha, John M.; Dossaji, Saifuddin F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83 mm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48 mg/mL and 95–190 mg/mL, respectively. These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:27721831

  6. Anti-leishmanial and toxicity activities of some selected Iranian medicinal plants.

    Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Jafari, Hamidreza; Ramazani, Ali; Davoudi, Noushin

    2012-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis in Iran. As there is not any vaccine for leishmaniasis, treatment is important to prevent the spreading of parasites. There is, therefore, a need to develop newer drugs from different sources. The aim of this study was to assess anti-leishmanial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 17 different medicinal plants against Leishmania major promastigotes and macrophage cell line J774. The selection of the hereby studied 17 plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro anti-leishmanial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Four plants, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Satureia hortensis, Carum copticum heirm, and Thymus migricus, displayed high anti-leishmanial activity (IC50, 9.76 ± 1.27, 15.625 ± 3.76, 15.625 ± 5.46, and 31.25 ± 15.44 μM, respectively) and were toxic against the J774 macrophage cell line at higher concentrations than those needed to inhibit the parasite cell growth (IC50, 45.13 ± 3.17, 100.44 ± 17.48, 43.76 ± 0.78, and 39.67 ± 3.29 μM, respectively). Glucantime as positive control inhibited the growth of L. major promastigotes with IC50 = 254 μg/ml on promastigotes (1 × 10(6)/100 μ/well) of a log phase culture, without affecting the growth of J774 macrophages. These data revealed that C. gilliesii, S. hortensis, C. copticum heirm, and T. migricus extracts contain active compounds, which could serve as alternative agents in the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The activity of these herbs against L. major promastigotes and macrophage cell line J774 was reported for the first time in our study.

  7. Disparities in availability of essential medicines to treat non-communicable diseases in Uganda: A Poisson analysis using the Service Availability and Readiness Assessment.

    Armstrong-Hough, Mari; Kishore, Sandeep P; Byakika, Sarah; Mutungi, Gerald; Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Schwartz, Jeremy I

    2018-01-01

    Although the WHO-developed Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool is a comprehensive and widely applied survey of health facility preparedness, SARA data have not previously been used to model predictors of readiness. We sought to demonstrate that SARA data can be used to model availability of essential medicines for treating non-communicable diseases (EM-NCD). We fit a Poisson regression model using 2013 SARA data from 196 Ugandan health facilities. The outcome was total number of different EM-NCD available. Basic amenities, equipment, region, health facility type, managing authority, NCD diagnostic capacity, and range of HIV services were tested as predictor variables. In multivariate models, we found significant associations between EM-NCD availability and region, managing authority, facility type, and range of HIV services. For-profit facilities' EM-NCD counts were 98% higher than public facilities (p < .001). General hospitals and referral health centers had 98% (p = .004) and 105% (p = .002) higher counts compared to primary health centers. Facilities in the North and East had significantly lower counts than those in the capital region (p = 0.015; p = 0.003). Offering HIV care was associated with 35% lower EM-NCD counts (p = 0.006). Offering HIV counseling and testing was associated with 57% higher counts (p = 0.048). We identified multiple within-country disparities in availability of EM-NCD in Uganda. Our findings can be used to identify gaps and guide distribution of limited resources. While the primary purpose of SARA is to assess and monitor health services readiness, we show that it can also be an important resource for answering complex research and policy questions requiring multivariate analysis.

  8. Toxicity of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffino oil against the common bed bug, cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) resurged in the U.S. and many other countries over the past decade. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous “green pesticides”, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic ...

  9. Evaluation of an ethnopharmacologically selected Bhutanese medicinal plants for their major classes of phytochemicals and biological activities.

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Tonsomboon, Aunchalee; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    2011-09-01

    As many as 229 medicinal plants have been currently used in the Bhutanese Traditional Medicine (BTM) as a chief ingredient of polyherbal formulations and these plants have been individually indicated for treating various types of infections including malaria, tumor, and microbial. We have focused our study only on seven species of these plants. We aim to evaluate the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities of the seven medicinal plants of Bhutan selected using an ethno-directed bio-rational approach. This study creates a scientific basis for their use in the BTM and gives foundation for further phytochemical and biological evaluations which can result in the discovery of new drug lead compounds. A three stage process was conducted which consisted of: (1) an assessment of a pharmacopoeia and a formulary book of the BTM for their mode of plant uses; (2) selecting 25 anti-infective medicinal plants based on the five established criteria, collecting them, and screening for their major classes of phytochemicals using appropriate test protocols; and (3) finally analyzing the crude extracts of the seven medicinal plants, using the standard test protocols, for their antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities as directed by the ethnopharmacological uses of each plant. Out of 25 medicinal plants screened for their major classes of phytochemicals, the majority contained tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Out of the seven plant species investigated for their biological activities, all seven of them exhibited mild antimicrobial properties, five plants gave significant in vitro antiplasmodial activities, two plants gave moderate anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense activity, and one plant showed mild cytotoxicity. Meconopsis simplicifolia showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 0.40 μg/ml against TM4/8.2 strain (a wild type chloroquine and

  10. [Factors determining the selection of treatment options of complementary and alternative medicine].

    Zörgő, Szilvia; Purebl, György; Zana, Ágnes

    2016-04-10

    Complementary and alternative medicine have undoubtedly been gaining ground on the healthcare market, thus the vital question arises why patients choose these treatments, oftentimes at the cost of discontinuing the Western medical therapy. The aim of the authors was to investigate and scrutinize factors leading to the utilization of various alternative medical services. The basis of this qualitative research was medical anthropological fieldwork conducted at a clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine including participant observation (355 hours), unstructured interviews with patients (n = 93) and in-depth interviews (n = 14). Patients of alternative medical systems often do not receive a diagnosis, explanation or cure for their illness from Western medicine, or they do not agree with what they are offered. In other instances, patients choose alternative medicine because it exhibits a philosophical congruence with their already existing explanatory model, that is, previous concepts of world, man or illness. A particular therapy is always part of a cultural system and it is embedded in a specific psycho-social context, hence choice of therapy must be interpreted in accordance with this perspective.

  11. Availability, diversification and versatility explain human selection of introduced plants in Ecuadorian traditional medicine.

    G Hart

    Full Text Available Globally, a majority of people use plants as a primary source of healthcare and introduced plants are increasingly discussed as medicine. Protecting this resource for human health depends upon understanding which plants are used and how use patterns will change over time. The increasing use of introduced plants in local pharmacopoeia has been explained by their greater abundance or accessibility (availability hypothesis, their ability to cure medical conditions that are not treated by native plants (diversification hypothesis, or as a result of the introduced plants' having many different simultaneous roles (versatility hypothesis. In order to describe the role of introduced plants in Ecuador, and to test these three hypotheses, we asked if introduced plants are over-represented in the Ecuadorian pharmacopoeia, and if their use as medicine is best explained by the introduced plants' greater availability, different therapeutic applications, or greater number of use categories. Drawing on 44,585 plant-use entries, and the checklist of >17,000 species found in Ecuador, we used multi-model inference to test if more introduced plants are used as medicines in Ecuador than expected by chance, and examine the support for each of the three hypotheses above. We find nuanced support for all hypotheses. More introduced plants are utilized than would be expected by chance, which can be explained by geographic distribution, their strong association with cultivation, diversification (except with regard to introduced diseases, and therapeutic versatility, but not versatility of use categories. Introduced plants make a disproportionately high contribution to plant medicine in Ecuador. The strong association of cultivation with introduced medicinal plant use highlights the importance of the maintenance of human-mediated environments such as homegardens and agroforests for the provisioning of healthcare services.

  12. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE FUNGAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUROTIUM BY CONTACT VAPOUR

    Miroslava Císarová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs,we used concretely thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary, by vapour contact against the fungal species Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri and Eurotium sp.. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA plates. Plates were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for 7, 14, and 21 days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of concentration 50 µl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and Eurotium sp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The essential oil (EO of basil had antifungal activity on growth of E. chevalieri only after 7th and 14th days of the incubation, but in case of Eurotium sp. on all days of cultivation. Only E. rubrum was sensitive to jasmine EO and E. chevalieri to basil EO after all days of the incubation. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. The conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Eurotium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  14. The in vitro effect of selected essential oils on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus species.

    Císarová, Miroslava; Tančinová, Dana; Medo, Juraj; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Salvia officinalis L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Carum carvi L., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Zingiber officinalis Rosc., Mentha piperita L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. (C. verum J.S.Presl.) were produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nová Ľubovňa, Slovakia). All essential oils exhibited activity against all tested strains of fungi. After 14 days of incubation, A. flavus (KMi-202-LR) showed the highest susceptibility with a growth inhibition percentage (GIP) of 18.70% to C. limon and 5.92% to C. sinensis, while A. parasiticus (KMi-220-LR) exhibited a GIP of 20.56% to J. officinale. The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of EOs with the most significant activity were recorded. The best antifungal activity, using the micro-atmosphere method was found in S. aromaticum with an MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air, T. vulgaris (MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air) and O. vulgare (MID of 31.5 μL L -1 air) against all tested strains. Mycotoxin production of the tested strains was evaluated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. Mycotoxin production of AFB 1 and AFG 1 was inhibited following all treatments with C. carvi, R. officinale and S. officinale, Eucalyptus globulus L. and O. basilicum L. Essential oils exhibited a potential inhibition activity against toxic fungi, although, these affected only the production of AFB 1 .

  15. Selectivity on-target of bromodomain chemical probes by structure-guided medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Galdeano, Carles; Ciulli, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Targeting epigenetic proteins is a rapidly growing area for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing small molecules binding to bromodomains, the readers of acetyl-lysine modifications. A plethora of co-crystal structures has motivated focused fragment-based design and optimization programs within both industry and academia. These efforts have yielded several compounds entering the clinic, and many more are increasingly being used as chemical probes to interrogate bromodomain biology. High selectivity of chemical probes is necessary to ensure biological activity is due to an on-target effect. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of bromodomain-targeting compounds, focusing on the structural basis for their on-target selectivity or lack thereof. We also highlight chemical biology approaches to enhance on-target selectivity.

  16. Content of selected biologically active compounds in tea infusions of widely used European medicinal plants

    Dadáková, E.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 27-34 ISSN 1803-4403 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/05/2546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : medicinal plant * Filipendula ulmaria * phenolic comupounds * rutin * quercetin Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing http://joa.zf.jcu.cz; http://versita.com/science/agriculture/joa

  17. Assessing universality of DNA barcoding in geographically isolated selected desert medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Hussain, Fatma; Ahmed, Nisar; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2018-01-01

    In pursuit of developing fast and accurate species-level molecular identification methods, we tested six DNA barcodes, namely ITS2, matK, rbcLa, ITS2+matK, ITS2+rbcLa, matK+rbcLa and ITS2+matK+rbcLa, for their capacity to identify frequently consumed but geographically isolated medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae indigenous to the desert of Cholistan. Data were analysed by BLASTn sequence similarity, pairwise sequence divergence in TAXONDNA, and phylogenetic (neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood trees) methods. Comparison of six barcode regions showed that ITS2 has the highest number of variable sites (209/360) for tested Fabaceae and (106/365) Poaceae species, the highest species-level identification (40%) in BLASTn procedure, distinct DNA barcoding gap, 100% correct species identification in BM and BCM functions of TAXONDNA, and clear cladding pattern with high nodal support in phylogenetic trees in both families. ITS2+matK+rbcLa followed ITS2 in its species-level identification capacity. The study was concluded with advocating the DNA barcoding as an effective tool for species identification and ITS2 as the best barcode region in identifying medicinal species of Fabaceae and Poaceae. Current research has practical implementation potential in the fields of pharmaco-vigilance, trade of medicinal plants and biodiversity conservation. PMID:29576968

  18. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE FUNGAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUROTIUM BY CONTACT VAPOUR

    Miroslava Císarová; Jaroslava Kačinová; Dana Tančinová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs),we used concretely thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary, by vapour contact against the fungal species Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri and Eurotium sp.. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA) plates. Plates were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for 7, 14, and 21 days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment). Volatile phase effect o...

  19. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  20. A bioinformatics approach for precision medicine off-label drug drug selection among triple negative breast cancer patients.

    Cheng, Lijun; Schneider, Bryan P; Li, Lang

    2016-07-01

    Cancer has been extensively characterized on the basis of genomics. The integration of genetic information about cancers with data on how the cancers respond to target based therapy to help to optimum cancer treatment. The increasing usage of sequencing technology in cancer research and clinical practice has enormously advanced our understanding of cancer mechanisms. The cancer precision medicine is becoming a reality. Although off-label drug usage is a common practice in treating cancer, it suffers from the lack of knowledge base for proper cancer drug selections. This eminent need has become even more apparent considering the upcoming genomics data. In this paper, a personalized medicine knowledge base is constructed by integrating various cancer drugs, drug-target database, and knowledge sources for the proper cancer drugs and their target selections. Based on the knowledge base, a bioinformatics approach for cancer drugs selection in precision medicine is developed. It integrates personal molecular profile data, including copy number variation, mutation, and gene expression. By analyzing the 85 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient data in the Cancer Genome Altar, we have shown that 71.7% of the TNBC patients have FDA approved drug targets, and 51.7% of the patients have more than one drug target. Sixty-five drug targets are identified as TNBC treatment targets and 85 candidate drugs are recommended. Many existing TNBC candidate targets, such as Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP1), Cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6), epidermal growth factor receptor, etc., were identified. On the other hand, we found some additional targets that are not yet fully investigated in the TNBC, such as Gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase (GGH), Thymidylate Synthetase (TYMS), Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 (PTK6), Topoisomerase (DNA) I, Mitochondrial (TOP1MT), Smoothened, Frizzled Class Receptor (SMO), etc. Our additional analysis of target and drug selection strategy is also fully

  1. MEDYCYNA, PŁYWANIE I SPRAWNOŚĆ FIZYCZNA, WYBRANE ASPEKTY = MEDICINE, SWIMMING AND PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY, SELECTED ASPECTS

    Ahmad El-Essa; Ewa Zieliński; Kinga Grobelska; Dariusz Skalski

    2018-01-01

    MEDYCYNA, PŁYWANIE I SPRAWNOŚĆ FIZYCZNA, WYBRANE ASPEKTY = MEDICINE, SWIMMING AND PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY, SELECTED ASPECTS Stan zdrowia populacji oraz systemu opieki zdrowotnej w krajach rozwijających się na przykładzie Ghany = Health status and healthcare system condition in developing countries on the Ghana’s example Zarys anatomii i fizjologii narządu wzroku = Outline of anatomy and phisiology of the organ of eyesight Mechaniczne urazy gałki ocznej i ich możliwe powikłania = Mecha...

  2. Investigation of Antileishmanial Effect of Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil of Medicinal Plant Leaf Black Alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina), on The Number of Clinical Isolates of Leishmania Major Promastigotes in Vitro

    E Gharirvand Eskandari; M Doudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leishmaniasis has created enormous global health problems. Side effects, drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines had led to the new effective compounds effective of plants. The aim of this study was to introduce a traditional medicinal plant called Black alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina) that can be used as a valuable resource against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: In this experimental study, alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil by distillat...

  3. Study of some Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants for the essential trace elemental contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.; Andhele, M.L.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some medicinal plants used in the Indian Ayurvedic system was performed by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plants samples collected in summer, winter and rainy seasons was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Consensus definition and essential reporting parameters of selective fetal growth restriction in twin pregnancy: a Delphi procedure

    Khalil, Asma; Beune, Irene; Hecher, Kurt; Wynia, Klaske; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Reed, Keith; Lewi, Liesbeth; Oepkes, Dick; Gratacos, Eduardo; Thilaganathan, Basky; Gordijn, Sanne J.

    2018-01-01

    Twin pregnancies complicated by selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR) are associated with increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. Inconsistences in the diagnostic criteria for sFGR employed in existing studies hinder the ability to compare or combine their findings. It is therefore

  5. Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for Ohio and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013

    Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in Ohio. Descriptive statistics are presented for Ohio and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population characteristics,…

  6. Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for Iowa and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013

    Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in Iowa. Descriptive statistics are presented for Iowa and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population characteristics,…

  7. [Concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, polyphenols and saponins in selected medicinal plants from Ecuador and their relationship with acute toxicity against Artemia salina].

    Jaramillo Jaramillo, Carmita; Jaramillo Espinoza, Anyi; D'Armas, Haydelba; Troccoli, Luis; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (pplants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (pplant extracts

  8. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal

    Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P.; Thapa-Magar, Khum B.; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes. PMID:27936247

  9. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal.

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes.

  10. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae and selected monoterpenes

    Roberta C.S. Neves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tetranychus urticae is considered one of the main plagues in the world. Its occurrence in Pernambuco was registered for the first time in 1985 and it has caused considerable damage to the farmers, attacking different cultures of agricultural interest. The essential oils from different parts of Vitex agnus-castus harvested in the Atlantic forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and the acaricidal potential was evaluated against Tetranychus urticae using two methods under laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 47 components accounting for 98.8 ± 0.0%, 93.0 ± 0.1% and 97.4 ± 1.0% of the essential oils from the leaves, fruit and inflorescence, respectively. The compounds 1,8-cineole and β-(E-farnesene were the major components of the oils from the leaves (17.6 ± 0.3% and 13.6 ± 0.2%, respectively and fruit (17.5 ± 0.1% and 15.4 ± 0.0%, respectively. β-(E-farnesene (13.5 ± 0.1% and β-caryophyllene (11.7 ± 0.1% were the major components of the oils from the flowers. Acaricidal action varied depending on the part of the plant and method employed. Through fumigation, the oil from the leaves (CL50= 0.61 μL L-1 of air was approximately six fold more toxic than the oil from the fruit. However, through residual contact, the oil from the fruit (CL50 = 137.11 μLmL-1 was 1.1 fold more toxic than the oil from the leaves. The relationship between the chemical composition of the oils and acaricidal activity is also presented.

  11. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) and selected monoterpenes.

    Neves, Roberta C S; Camara, Claudio A G da

    2016-09-01

    Tetranychus urticae is considered one of the main plagues in the world. Its occurrence in Pernambuco was registered for the first time in 1985 and it has caused considerable damage to the farmers, attacking different cultures of agricultural interest. The essential oils from different parts of Vitex agnus-castus harvested in the Atlantic forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and the acaricidal potential was evaluated against Tetranychus urticae using two methods under laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 47 components accounting for 98.8 ± 0.0%, 93.0 ± 0.1% and 97.4 ± 1.0% of the essential oils from the leaves, fruit and inflorescence, respectively. The compounds 1,8-cineole and β-(E)-farnesene were the major components of the oils from the leaves (17.6 ± 0.3% and 13.6 ± 0.2%, respectively) and fruit (17.5 ± 0.1% and 15.4 ± 0.0%, respectively). β-(E)-farnesene (13.5 ± 0.1%) and β-caryophyllene (11.7 ± 0.1%) were the major components of the oils from the flowers. Acaricidal action varied depending on the part of the plant and method employed. Through fumigation, the oil from the leaves (CL50= 0.61 μL L-1 of air) was approximately six fold more toxic than the oil from the fruit. However, through residual contact, the oil from the fruit (CL50 = 137.11 μLmL-1) was 1.1 fold more toxic than the oil from the leaves. The relationship between the chemical composition of the oils and acaricidal activity is also presented.

  12. Toxic element profiles in selected medicinal plants growing on serpentines in Bulgaria.

    Pavlova, Dolja; Karadjova, Irina

    2013-12-01

    Populations of medicinal plants growing on serpentines and their respective soils were analyzed for Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Aqua regia extraction and 0.43 M acetic acid extraction were used for the quantification of pseudototal and bioavailable fractions, respectively, of elements in soil and nitric acid digestion for determination of total element content in plants. Screening was performed to (1) document levels of toxic metals in herbs extensively used in preparation of products and standardized extracts, (2) compare accumulation abilities of ferns and seed plants, and (3) estimate correlations between metal content in plants and their soils. The toxic element content of plants varied from site to site on a large scale. The concentrations of Fe and Ni were elevated while those of Cu, Zn, and Pb were close to average values usually found in plants. The highest concentrations for almost all elements were measured in both Teucrium species. Specific differences in metal accumulation between ferns and seed plants were not recorded. The investigated species are not hyperaccumulators but can accumulate toxic elements, in some cases exceeding permissible levels proposed by the World Health Organization and European Pharmacopoeia. The harvesting of medicinal plants from serpentines could be hazardous to humans.

  13. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80% and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton’s reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals.

  14. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Lu?s, ?ngelo; Duarte, Ana Paula; Pereira, Lu?sa; Domingues, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial e...

  15. Actin gene identification from selected medicinal plants for their use as internal controls for gene expression studies

    Mufti, F.U.D.; Banaras, S.

    2015-01-01

    Internal control genes are the constitutive genes which maintain the basic cellular functions and regularly express in both normal and stressed conditions in living organisms. They are used in normalization of gene expression studies in comparative analysis of target genes, as their expression remains comparatively unchanged in all varied conditions. Among internal control genes, actin is considered as a candidate gene for expression studies due to its vital role in shaping cytoskeleton and plant physiology. Unfortunately most of such knowledge is limited to only model plants or crops, not much is known about important medicinal plants. Therefore, we selected seven important medicinal wild plants for molecular identification of actin gene. We used gene specific primers designed from the conserved regions of several known orthologues or homologues of actin genes from other plants. The amplified products of 370-380 bp were sequenced and submitted to GeneBank after their confirmation using different bioinformatics tools. All the novel partial sequences of putative actin genes were submitted to GeneBank (Parthenium hysterophorus (KJ774023), Fagonia indica (KJ774024), Rhazya stricta (KJ774025), Whithania coagulans (KJ774026), Capparis decidua (KJ774027), Verbena officinalis (KJ774028) and Aerva javanica (KJ774029)). The comparisons of these partial sequences by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic trees demonstrated high similarity with known actin genes of other plants. Our findings illustrated highly conserved nature of actin gene among these selected plants. These novel partial fragments of actin genes from these wild medicinal plants can be used as internal controls for future gene expression studies of these important plants after precise validations of their stable expression in such plants. (author)

  16. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region

    Al-Musayeib Nawal M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 T. brucei and selectivity index of >4. Results Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. Conclusion The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases.

  17. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

    Rafik Shaikh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb. A. Juss. (Miliaceae, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers. (Menispermaceae, Lavandula bipinnata (L. O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae, and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21±0.24%, HL-60 (30.25±1.36%, HEP-3B (25.36±1.78%, and PN-15 (29.21±0.52%. Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 more than (COX-1, which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%. The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydroxyl (OH, and superoxide radical (SOR scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents.

  18. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication.

    Shaikh, Rafik; Pund, Mahesh; Dawane, Ashwini; Iliyas, Sayyed

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. (Miliaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), Lavandula bipinnata (L.) O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae), and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae) extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21 ± 0.24%), HL-60 (30.25 ± 1.36%), HEP-3B (25.36 ± 1.78%), and PN-15 (29.21 ± 0.52%). Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) more than (COX-1), which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%). The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), and superoxide radical (SOR) scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents.

  19. ZCURVE 3.0: identify prokaryotic genes with higher accuracy as well as automatically and accurately select essential genes.

    Hua, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yan; Yuan, Ya-Zhou; Yang, De-Chang; Wei, Wen; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-07-01

    In 2003, we developed an ab initio program, ZCURVE 1.0, to find genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes. In this work, we present the updated version (i.e. ZCURVE 3.0). Using 422 prokaryotic genomes, the average accuracy was 93.7% with the updated version, compared with 88.7% with the original version. Such results also demonstrate that ZCURVE 3.0 is comparable with Glimmer 3.02 and may provide complementary predictions to it. In fact, the joint application of the two programs generated better results by correctly finding more annotated genes while also containing fewer false-positive predictions. As the exclusive function, ZCURVE 3.0 contains one post-processing program that can identify essential genes with high accuracy (generally >90%). We hope ZCURVE 3.0 will receive wide use with the web-based running mode. The updated ZCURVE can be freely accessed from http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/zcurve/ or http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/zcurveb/ without any restrictions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. ZCURVE 3.0: identify prokaryotic genes with higher accuracy as well as automatically and accurately select essential genes

    Hua, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yan; Yuan, Ya-Zhou; Yang, De-Chang; Wei, Wen; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, we developed an ab initio program, ZCURVE 1.0, to find genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes. In this work, we present the updated version (i.e. ZCURVE 3.0). Using 422 prokaryotic genomes, the average accuracy was 93.7% with the updated version, compared with 88.7% with the original version. Such results also demonstrate that ZCURVE 3.0 is comparable with Glimmer 3.02 and may provide complementary predictions to it. In fact, the joint application of the two programs generated better results by correctly finding more annotated genes while also containing fewer false-positive predictions. As the exclusive function, ZCURVE 3.0 contains one post-processing program that can identify essential genes with high accuracy (generally >90%). We hope ZCURVE 3.0 will receive wide use with the web-based running mode. The updated ZCURVE can be freely accessed from http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/zcurve/ or http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/zcurveb/ without any restrictions. PMID:25977299

  1. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines ...

  2. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-01-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments

  3. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage [Bayero University, Kano Nigeria (Nigeria); Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina Nigeria (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abubakar, Nuraddeen [Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria (Nigeria)

    2015-04-24

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  4. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  5. Traditional medicine in Sakarya province (Turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected species.

    Uzun, Ergin; Sariyar, Günay; Adsersen, Anne; Karakoc, Berna; Otük, Gülten; Oktayoglu, Ercan; Pirildar, Sevda

    2004-12-01

    Traditional medicine in North-West of Turkey (Sakarya province) were studied during a 2 months field study by interviewing local informants from several villages. Plant species used to treat infections were tested for antimicrobial activity. Information was collected for 46 plant species from 30 families and for 5 animal species. Twenty four of the plant species were cultivated. Most used families were Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae and the most used plants were Artemisia absinthium, Equisetum telmateia, Lavandula stoechas, Melissa officinalis, Tussilago farfara and Urtica dioica. A total of 139 medicinal uses were obtained. Plants are used mainly for infectious diseases (18%), for neurological and psychological disorders (13.7%), cardiovascular disorders (13%), skin disorders (12.2%) and respiratory disorders (10.1%). Extracts were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 65538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans ATCC 10231, using microbroth dilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). This research showed that Arum maculatum, Datura stramonium, Geranium asphodeloides and Equisetum telmateia petroleum ether extracts had MIC values of 39.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml and 39.1 microg/ml, respectively against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Datura stramonium petroleum ether extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli and Trachystemon orientalis ethanol extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of Arum maculatum, Equisetum telmateia, Geranium asphodeloides, Plantago intermedia, Senecio vulgaris and Trachystemon orientalis has been reported here for the first time.

  6. Antimicrobial and anti-Quorum Sensing activities of selected medicinal plants of Ethiopia: Implication for development of potent antimicrobial agents.

    Bacha, Ketema; Tariku, Yinebeb; Gebreyesus, Fisseha; Zerihun, Shibru; Mohammed, Ali; Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Schmitz, Ruth A; Mulat, Mulugeta

    2016-07-11

    Traditional medicinal plants have been used as an alternative medicine in many parts of the world, including Ethiopia. There are many documented scientific reports on antimicrobial activities of the same. To our knowledge, however, there is no report on the anti-Quorum Sensing (Quorum Quenching, QQ) potential of traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants. As many of the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria depend on Quorum Sensing (QS) systems to coordinate their virulence expression, interference with QS could be a novel approach to control bacterial infections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate selected medicinal plants from Ethiopia for their antimicrobial activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens; and to assess the interference of these plant extracts with QS of bacteria. Antimicrobial activities of plant extracts (oil, resins and crude extracts) were evaluated following standard agar diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of potent extracts were determined using 96 well micro-titer plates and optical densities were measured using an ELISA Microplate reader. Interference with Quorum Sensing activities of extracts was determined using the recently established E. coli based reporter strain AI1-QQ.1 and signaling molecule N-(ß-ketocaproyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). Petroleum ether extract of seed of Nigella sativa exhibited the highest activity against both the laboratory isolated Bacillus cereus [inhibition zone (IZ), 44 ± 0.31 mm] and B. cereus ATCC 10987 (IZ, 40 ± 2.33 mm). Similarly, oil extract from mature ripe fruit husk of Aframomum corrorima and mature unripe fruit of A. corrorima revealed promising activities against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 (IZ, 35 ± 1.52 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus DSM 346 (IZ, 25 ± 1.32 mm), respectively. Antimicrobial activities of oil extract from husk of A. corrorima and petroleum ether extract of seed of N. sativa were significantly higher than that of

  7. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  8. Evaluation of phenolic content variability, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of selected traditional medicinal plants from India

    Garima eSingh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics, antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma cancer cell lines and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 µg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW and 3.17 to 102.2 µg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 µg/mL, ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 µg/mL and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2 cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09 and 29.66 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  9. [Selective digestive tract decontamination in intensive care medicine. Fundamentals and current evaluation].

    Krueger, W A; Heininger, A; Unertl, K E

    2003-02-01

    Selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) is a method where topical non-absorbable antibiotics are applied to the oropharynx and stomach which primarily is aimed at the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The rationale for SDD is that ventilator associated pneumonia usually originates from the patients'own oropharyngeal microflora. SDD is also used for the prevention of gut-derived infections in acute necrotizing pancreatitis and in liver transplantation. Despite numerous clinical trials and several meta-analyses, SDD is still a controversial topic. It is now commonly accepted that the incidence of pneumonia is reduced,however, the concept of using topical antibiotics has its inherent limitations and the best results have been obtained by combination with a short course of intravenous antibiotics. Several issues surrounding the notorious difficulties in establishing the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia especially in the presence of antibiotics are an on-going matter of debate.Furthermore, pneumonia is the leading cause of death from nosocomial infections and its prevention was not adequately followed by reduced mortality in most individual trials, however, a benefit was suggested by recalculation of data in meta-analyses. Patients are not well defined by their need for ICU admission and mechanical ventilation and the attributable mortality of infections depends more on the type and severity of the underlying diseases. Recently published trials substantially improved our understanding as to which patients may derive most benefit from SDD.Currently, it seems that an improved survival can be achieved in surgical and trauma patients with severe but salvageable diseases, which might be classified e.g.by calculation of APACHE-II scores on admission.However, the most important drawback of SDD is the development of resistance and an increased selection pressure towards Gram-positive pathogens, especially in institutions with endemic multi

  10. Cytotoxicity of selected medicinal plants used in Mt. Frere District, South Africa.

    Mnengi, Dorris; Kappo, Abidemi; Kambizi, Learnmore; Nakin, Motebang

    2014-01-01

    In South African traditional medicine, some are plants known to combat pediatric diseases and are commonly used by traditional healers. The aim was to evaluate cytotoxicity effects of plants. The ground plant material was exhaustively extracted using methanol, acetone and water separately for 72 hrs. These organic solvents were removed from filtrates using a rotavapour. Stock solutions were prepared at 40 mg/ml Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and test solutions were transferred into vials and 10 brine shrimps introduced in each. The number of dead shrimps was counted to ascertain toxicity. Ten A. salina nauplii (larva) were transferred into each sample vial and filtered brine solution was added to make 5 ml. The nauplii were counted macroscopically in the stem of the pipette against a lighted background. A drop of dry yeast suspension was added as food to each vial. Probit analysis was used to determine the concentration at which lethality to brine shrimp represents 50 % (LC50). All the tested extracts showed that the concentration is directly proportional to death of brine shrimps. Fifty percent lethality (LC50) of the tested crude extract ranged between 4.1 and 4.6 µg/ml with methanol extract of B. abyssinica being the lowest and T. acutiloba the highest. This study revealed that 100% of plant crude extracts screened for activity against Artemisia salina larvae showed strong cytotoxicity below 10 µg/ml and plant species with LC50 values toxicity.

  11. Medicinal plants from the Yanesha (Peru): evaluation of the leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity of selected extracts.

    Valadeau, Céline; Pabon, Adriana; Deharo, Eric; Albán-Castillo, Joaquina; Estevez, Yannick; Lores, Fransis Augusto; Rojas, Rosario; Gamboa, Dionicia; Sauvain, Michel; Castillo, Denis; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2009-06-25

    Ninety-four ethanolic extracts of plants used medicinally by the Yanesha, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, for affections related to leishmaniasis and malaria were screened in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes and against a Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain. The viability of Leishmania amazonensis amastigote stages was assessed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) while the impact on Plasmodium falciparum was determined by measuring the incorporation of radio-labelled hypoxanthine. Six plant species displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (IC(50) Piper aduncum L. and Piper sp.) and the leaves of Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae). Eight species displayed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC50 < 10 microg/ml): Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), Piper dennisii Trel (Piperaceae), Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae), Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav. (Solanaceae), Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Zingiberaceae, Lantana sp. (Verbenaceae), Hyptis lacustris A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) and Calea montana Klat. (Asteraceae). Most of them are used against skin affections by Yanesha people. Results are discussed herein, according to the traditional use of the plants and compared with data obtained from the literature.

  12. Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Kumar, V Prashanth; Chauhan, Neelam S; Padh, Harish; Rajani, M

    2006-09-19

    A series of 61 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 33 different families used in various infectious disorders, were screened for their antimicrobial properties. Screening was carried out at 1000 and 500 microg/ml concentrations by agar dilution method against Bacillus cereus var mycoides, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Twenty-eight plant extracts showed activity against at least one of the test organisms used in the screening. On the basis of the results obtained, we conclude that the crude extracts of Dorema ammoniacum, Sphaeranthus indicus, Dracaena cinnabari, Mallotus philippinensis, Jatropha gossypifolia, Aristolochia indica, Lantana camara, Nardostachys jatamansi, Randia dumetorum and Cassia fistula exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and properties that support folkloric use in the treatment of some diseases as broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. This probably explains the use of these plants by the indigenous people against a number of infections.

  13. Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine

    Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Eberlein, U; Lassmann, M

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue. (paper)

  14. Purification of radionuclides for nuclear medicine: The multicolumn selectivity inversion generator concept

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    A new radionuclide generator system has been developed and demonstrated for the production of 212 Bi from 224 Ra/ 212 Pb and for 90 Y from 90 Sr. The new concept, called a Multicolumn Selectivity Inversion Generator, involves the selective retention of the desired daughter radionuclide from a solution of the parent or parents by a primary separation column followed by stripping the daughter radionuclide from the primary column, and immediately without feed adjustment, passing the daughter through a secondary separation (guard) column that retains the parents while the daughter elutes unrestrained. The new generator system minimises the effects of radiation damage to the support material permitting the reliable production of nuclides of high chemical and radionuclidic purity. (author)

  15. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some selected Nigerian medicinal plants

    Taiwo O. Elufioye

    Full Text Available Plants have been found to be useful as memory enhansers as well as antiaging. Twenty two of such plants from sixteen families were investigated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE inhibitory activities using the in vitro Ellman's spectrophotometric and in situ bioautographic methods with physostigmine as standard. At least three morphological parts were examined for each of the plants investigated and the test concentration was 42.5 µg/ mL. Some plants were active on both enzymes though with some morphological parts being more active than others. The root bark of Spondias mombin showed the highest activity to the two enzymes; 64.77% and 83.94% on AChE and BuChE respectively. Other plant parts of the selected plants exhibited some remarkable selectivity in their actions. Those selectively active against AChE were Alchornia laxiflora stem bark (41.12% and root bark, Callophyllum inophyllurn root bark (56.52%. The leaves of C. jagus (74.25%, Morinda lucida leaves (40.15%, Peltophorum pterocarpum leaves and stem bark (49.5% and 68.85%, respectively, physiostigmine gave 90.31% inhibition. Generally higher activities were found against BuChE. Bombax bromoposenze leaves, root bark and stem bark were particularly active. The inhibition was over 80%. Other selective plant parts are the leaves Antiaris africana, Cissampelos owarensis aerial parts (78.96%, Combretum molle leaves and stem bark (90.42% and 88.13%, respectively, Dioscorea dumentorum root bark and tuber (over 87%, G. kola leaves, Markhamia tomentosa root bark, Pycnanthus angolensis stem bark and Tetrapleura tetraptera leaves. Most of these plants are taken as food or are food ingredients in Nigeria and may account for the low incidence of Alzheimer's disease in the country and may play certain roles in the mediation of the disease.

  16. Report on the Medicinal Use of Eleven Lamiaceae Species in Lebanon and Rationalization of Their Antimicrobial Potential by Examination of the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Their Essential Oils.

    Khoury, Madona; Stien, Didier; Eparvier, Véronique; Ouaini, Naïm; El Beyrouthy, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Many Lamiaceae species are consumed in the Lebanese cuisine as food or condiment and are largely used in the traditional medicine of Lebanon to treat various diseases, including microbial infections. In this article we report the traditional medicinal uses of eleven Lamiaceae species: Coridothymus capitatus L., Lavandula stoechas L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata , Origanum syriacum L., Rosmarinus officinalis , Salvia fruticosa Miller., Satureja cuneifolia Ten., Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L., and Vitex agnus-castus L. and study the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of their essential oils (EOs). Our survey showed that Lamiaceae species are mainly used against gastrointestinal disorders and microbial infections. Chemical analysis of the EOs obtained from these plants allowed us to identify seventy-five compounds describing more than 90% of the relative composition of each EO. Essential oils with high amounts of thymol and carvacrol possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity. As expected, these two compounds demonstrated an interesting antifungal efficacy against the filamentous fungus T. rubrum . Our results confirmed that some of the Lamiaceae species used in Lebanon ethnopharmacological practices as antimicrobial agents do possess antibacterial and antifungal potential consistent with their use in alternative or complementary medicine.

  17. Report on the Medicinal Use of Eleven Lamiaceae Species in Lebanon and Rationalization of Their Antimicrobial Potential by Examination of the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Their Essential Oils

    Khoury, Madona; Eparvier, Véronique; Ouaini, Naïm

    2016-01-01

    Many Lamiaceae species are consumed in the Lebanese cuisine as food or condiment and are largely used in the traditional medicine of Lebanon to treat various diseases, including microbial infections. In this article we report the traditional medicinal uses of eleven Lamiaceae species: Coridothymus capitatus L., Lavandula stoechas L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata, Origanum syriacum L., Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia fruticosa Miller., Satureja cuneifolia Ten., Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L., and Vitex agnus-castus L. and study the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of their essential oils (EOs). Our survey showed that Lamiaceae species are mainly used against gastrointestinal disorders and microbial infections. Chemical analysis of the EOs obtained from these plants allowed us to identify seventy-five compounds describing more than 90% of the relative composition of each EO. Essential oils with high amounts of thymol and carvacrol possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity. As expected, these two compounds demonstrated an interesting antifungal efficacy against the filamentous fungus T. rubrum. Our results confirmed that some of the Lamiaceae species used in Lebanon ethnopharmacological practices as antimicrobial agents do possess antibacterial and antifungal potential consistent with their use in alternative or complementary medicine. PMID:28053641

  18. Report on the Medicinal Use of Eleven Lamiaceae Species in Lebanon and Rationalization of Their Antimicrobial Potential by Examination of the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Their Essential Oils

    Madona Khoury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Lamiaceae species are consumed in the Lebanese cuisine as food or condiment and are largely used in the traditional medicine of Lebanon to treat various diseases, including microbial infections. In this article we report the traditional medicinal uses of eleven Lamiaceae species: Coridothymus capitatus L., Lavandula stoechas L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata, Origanum syriacum L., Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia fruticosa Miller., Satureja cuneifolia Ten., Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L., and Vitex agnus-castus L. and study the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of their essential oils (EOs. Our survey showed that Lamiaceae species are mainly used against gastrointestinal disorders and microbial infections. Chemical analysis of the EOs obtained from these plants allowed us to identify seventy-five compounds describing more than 90% of the relative composition of each EO. Essential oils with high amounts of thymol and carvacrol possessed the strongest antimicrobial activity. As expected, these two compounds demonstrated an interesting antifungal efficacy against the filamentous fungus T. rubrum. Our results confirmed that some of the Lamiaceae species used in Lebanon ethnopharmacological practices as antimicrobial agents do possess antibacterial and antifungal potential consistent with their use in alternative or complementary medicine.

  19. Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants: Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    Marwa Chraibi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.

  20. Overdependence on For-Profit Pharmacies: A Descriptive Survey of User Evaluation of Medicines Availability in Public Hospitals in Selected Nigerian States.

    Ushie, Boniface Ayanbekongshie; Ugal, David Betelwhobel; Ingwu, Justin Agorye

    2016-01-01

    Lower availability of medicines in Nigerian public health facilities-the most affordable option for the masses-undermines global health reforms to improve access to health for all, especially the chronically ill and poor. Thus, a sizeable proportion of healthcare users, irrespective of purchasing power, buy medicines at higher costs from for-profit pharmacies. We examined user evaluation of medicine availability in public facilities and how this influences their choice of where to buy medicines in selected states-Cross River, Enugu and Oyo-in Nigeria. We approached and interviewed 1711 healthcare users using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire as they exited for-profit pharmacies after purchasing medicines. This ensured that both clients who had presented at health facilities (private/public) and those who did not were included. Information was collected on why respondents could not buy medicines at the hospitals they attended, their views of medicine availability and whether their choice of where to buy medicines is influenced by non-availability. Respondents' mean age was 37.7±14.4 years; 52% were males, 59% were married, 82% earned ≥NGN18, 000 (US$57.19) per month, and 72% were not insured. Majority (66%) had prescriptions; of this, 70% were from public facilities. Eighteen percent of all respondents indicated that all their medicines were usually available at the public facilities, most (29%), some (44%) and not always available (10%). Reasons for using for-profit pharmacies included: health workers attitudes (43%), referral by providers (43%); inadequate money to purchase all prescribed drugs (42%) and cumbersome processes for obtaining medicines. Lower availability of medicines has serious implications for healthcare behavior, especially because of poverty. It is crucial for government to fulfill its mandate of equitable access to care for all by making medicines available and cheap through reviving and sustaining the drug revolving

  1. Conformity of package inserts information to regulatory requirements among selected branded and generic medicinal products circulating on the East African market.

    Sillo, Hiiti B; Masota, Nelson E; Kisoma, Sunday; Rago, Lembit; Mgoyela, Veronica; Kaale, Eliangiringa A

    2018-01-01

    Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines. A total of 99 package inserts from six (6) types of medicines namely Albendazole, Artemether/Lumefantrine (ALu), Ciprofloxacin, Paracetamol, Amoxicillin and Metronidazole were purposefully collected from three EAC Partner States: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The medicines were selected based on their indications as first line treatments, high rates of utilization within the medicines supply system and their positions in treatment of diseases of public importance across EAC Partner States. The inserts were evaluated on the availability of information regarding fifteen (15) parameters as extracted from the EAC harmonized guidelines for registration of medicines. Moreover, comparisons were made between the percentage conformity of the branded versus generic products, markets from which the samples were collected, origin of the manufacturer and type of medicine. Majority (93.9-100%) of the medicines' package inserts highly conformed to the inclusion of the information regarding the description and composition of the medications, indications, dosage and methods of administration, warnings and precautions, contraindications and storage conditions. However, the information on handling and disposal, container package description, excipients used, clinical pharmacology of

  2. Ex Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Fenton Reaction-Mediated Oxidation of Biological Lipid Substrates

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical-mediated oxidation is often linked to various degenerative diseases. Biological substrates with lipids as major components are susceptible to oxygen-derived lipid peroxidation due to their composition. Lipid peroxide products act as biomarkers in evaluating the antioxidant potential of various plants and functional foods. The study focused on evaluation of the antioxidant potential of two extracts (methanol and 80% methanol of four medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidation of three biological lipid substrates; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain homogenate. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. Also, the correlation between the polyphenol, flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity in biological substrates was analyzed. Results indicated highest antioxidant potential by 80% methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (97.55%, methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (72.15%, and methanol extract of Canthium parviflorum (49.55% in cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and brain, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in cholesterol (r=0.816 and low-density lipoprotein (r=0.948 and Costus speciosus in brain (r=0.977, polyphenols, and r=0.949, flavonoids correlated well with the antioxidant activity. The findings prove the antioxidant potential of the selected medicinal plants against Fenton reaction in biological lipid substrates.

  3. The rhizospheres of traditional medicinal plants in Panxi, China, host a diverse selection of actinobacteria with antimicrobial properties.

    Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Qiang; Guan, Tongwei; Lindström, Kristina; Ao, Xiaoling; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2012-06-01

    Actinobacteria are a prolific source of antibiotics. Since the rate of discovery of novel antibiotics is decreasing, actinobacteria from unique environments need to be explored. In particular, actinobacterial biocontrol strains from medicinal plants need to be studied as they can be a source of potent antibiotics. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in analyzing the actinobacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of seven traditional medicinal plant species from Panxi, China, and assessed the antimicrobial activity of the isolates. Each of the plant species hosted a unique set of actinobacterial strains. Out of the 64 morphologically distinct isolates, half were Streptomyces sp., eight were Micromonospora sp., and the rest were members of 18 actinobacterial genera. In particular, Ainsliaea henryi Diels. hosted a diverse selection of actinobacteria, although the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence identity ranges of the isolates and of the 16S rRNA gene clone library were not congruent. In the clone library, 40% of the sequences were related to uncultured actinobacteria, emphasizing the need to develop isolation methods to assess the full potential of the actinobacteria. All Streptomyces isolates showed antimicrobial activity. While the antimicrobial activities of the rare actinobacteria were limited, the growth of Escherichia coli, Verticillium dahliae, and Fusarium oxysporum were inhibited only by rare actinobacteria, and strains related to Saccharopolyspora shandongensis and Streptosporangium roseum showed broad antimicrobial activity.

  4. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines.

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the consumers' preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; 'convenience customers') were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; 'loyal customers') were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy's staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; 'convenience and price-sensitive customers') were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist's opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct

  5. [Application of wavelength selection algorithm to measure the effective component of Chinese medicine based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Gu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ke-Xin; Wang, Yan

    2006-09-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has raised a lot of interest in the pharmaceutical industry because it is a rapid and cost-effective analytical type of spectroscopy with no need for extensive sample preparation, and with the easy-realizable ability of on-line application. The NIR technology can increase the quality control standard of the Chinese medicine and accelerate the entry into the international market. In the present paper, two methods for wavelength selection are applied to the measurement of borneol, one of which is the multiple-chain stepwise, which tends to select many variables in the same area containing valuable information, and the other is the mixture genetic algorithm, which incorporates simulated annealing so as to improve the local searching ability while maintaining the global searching ability. The results present that the number of wavelength is reduced to 16% compared with the original number of wavelength, and the prediction accuracy has increased 47.6%. Therefore, the method of wavelength selection is a good way to enhance the prediction accuracy and simplify the model in NIR region.

  6. Collimator Selection in Nuclear Medicine Imaging Using I-123 Generated by Te-124 Reaction

    Kim, Hee Joung; Son, Hye Kyung; Nam, Ki Pyo; Lee, Hee Kyung; Bong, Joung Kyun

    1996-01-01

    In the case of I-123 from the Te-124(p,2n)reaction, the radionuclidic impurity is the high-energy gamma-emitting I-124, which interferes greatly with nuclear medicine images. The choice of a collimator can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images of [I-123]MIBG, [I-123]μ-CIT, or [I-123]IPT. The tradeoffs that two different collimators make among spatial resolution, sensitivity, and scatter were studied by imaging a line source at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm distance using a number of plexiglass sheets between source and collimator, petridish, two-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom, Jaszczak phantom, and three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom after filling with I-123. (FWHM, FWTM, Sensitivity) for low-energy ultrahigh-resolution parallel-hole(LEUHRP) collimator and medium-energy general-purpose(MEGP) collimator were measured as (9.27 mm, 61.27 mm, 129 CPM/μCi) and (10.53 mm, 23.17 mm, 105CPM/μ/Ci), respectively. The image quality of two-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom with LEUHRP looked better than the one with MEGP. However, the image quality of Jaszczak phantom and three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom with LEUHRP looked much worse than the one with MEGP because of scatter contributions in three-dimensional imaging situation. The results suggest that the MEGP is preferable to LEUHRP for three-dimensional imaging studies of [I-123]MIBG, [I-123] β-CIT, or [I-123] IPT.

  7. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-03-01

    To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota.

  8. Expiry of medicines in supply outlets in Uganda.

    Nakyanzi, Josephine Katabaazi; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Oria, Hussein; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru

    2010-02-01

    The expiry of medicines in the supply chain is a serious threat to the already constrained access to medicines in developing countries. We investigated the extent of, and the main contributing factors to, expiry of medicines in medicine supply outlets in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of six public and 32 private medicine outlets was done using semi-structured questionnaires. The study area has 19 public medicine outlets (three non-profit wholesalers, 16 hospital stores/pharmacies), 123 private wholesale pharmacies and 173 retail pharmacies, equivalent to about 70% of the country's pharmaceutical businesses. Our findings indicate that medicines prone to expiry include those used for vertical programmes, donated medicines and those with a slow turnover. Awareness about the threat of expiry of medicines to the delivery of health services has increased. We have adapted training modules to emphasize management of medicine expiry for pharmacy students, pharmacists and other persons handling medicines. Our work has also generated more research interest on medicine expiry in Uganda. Even essential medicines expire in the supply chain in Uganda. Sound coordination is needed between public medicine wholesalers and their clients to harmonize procurement and consumption as well as with vertical programmes to prevent duplicate procurement. Additionally, national medicine regulatory authorities should enforce existing international guidelines to prevent dumping of donated medicine. Medicine selection and quantification should be matched with consumer tastes and prescribing habits. Lean supply and stock rotation should be considered.

  9. Essentials of Risk Theory

    Roeser, S.; Hillerbrand, R.; Sandin, P.; Peterson, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Risk has become one of the main topics in fields as diverse as engineering, medicine and economics, and it is also studied by social scientists, psychologists and legal scholars. This Springer Essentials version offers an overview of the in-depth handbook and highlights some of the main points

  10. Caracterização de demandas judiciais de fornecimento de medicamentos "essenciais" no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Characterization of lawsuits for the supply of "essential" medicines in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Vera Lúcia Edais Pepe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O reconhecimento do direito à saúde possui duas repercussões práticas: a responsabilidade ética e legal do poder público em assegurar atenção integral à saúde da população, e a possibilidade de o cidadão reivindicar judicialmente o cumprimento desta obrigação estatal. Este estudo objetivou pesquisar as demandas de medicamentos considerados essenciais nas decisões da 2ª instância do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em 2006. Foram analisados 185 processos e em três casos o pedido foi negado. Os tempos medianos entre início da ação e decisão liminar, sentença na 1a instância, e acórdão na 2ª instância, foram de 7, 239 e 478 dias, respectivamente. Em 98 processos o medicamento pode ser identificado e em 80,6% havia solicitação de ao menos um medicamento não pertencente aos elencos oficiais. Isto sugere que, além de problemas relacionados à aquisição, distribuição e dispensação de itens listados, os não selecionados em listas oficiais foram também grande motivação da demanda. Os medicamentos mais solicitados foram os dos sistemas cardiovascular e nervoso central.Recognition of the right to health raises two practical issues: the government's ethical and legal duty to ensure comprehensive health care and citizens' recourse to legal action to guarantee this right. This study focused on lawsuits to demand "essential" medicines, filed at the State Court of Appeals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. One hundred and eighty-five suits were examined, and the claims were granted in all but three cases. Median times between filing the suit, the injunction, first ruling, and appellate ruling were 7, 239, and 478 days respectively. In 80.6% of the 98 suits in which the specific medicines could be identified, at least one drug did not belong to any publicly funded list of medicines. This could indicate that lawsuits demanding "essential" drugs were motivated not only by problems in procurement

  11. Assessment of the in Vitro Antiprotozoal and Cytotoxic Potential of 20 Selected Medicinal Plants from the Island of Soqotra

    Louis Maes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis continue to be major public health problems in need of new and more effective drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty endemic medicinal plants collected from the island of Soqotra in the Indian Ocean. The plant materials were extracted with methanol and tested for antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, for antileishmanial activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and for antitrypanosomal activity against intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 fibroblasts. Selective activity was obtained for Punica protopunica against Plasmodium (IC50 2.2 µg/mL while Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens displayed activity against the three kinetoplastid parasites (IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Acridocarpus socotranus showed activity against T. brucei and T. cruzi (IC50 3.5 and 8.4 µg/mL. Ballochia atrovirgata, Dendrosicycos socotrana, Dracaena cinnabari and Euphorbia socotrana displayed non-specific inhibition of the parasites related to high cytotoxicity.

  12. Investigation of Antileishmanial Effect of Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil of Medicinal Plant Leaf Black Alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina, on The Number of Clinical Isolates of Leishmania Major Promastigotes in Vitro

    E Gharirvand Eskandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis has created enormous global health problems. Side effects, drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines had led to the new effective compounds effective of plants. The aim of this study was to introduce a traditional medicinal plant called Black alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina that can be used as a valuable resource against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: In this experimental study, alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil by distillation water method. Leishmania major promastigotes were cultured at 25 ± 2° C in N.N.N culturemedium, then in Schneider and next were cultured in RPMI- 1640. afterward, using MTT (Methyl Thiazole Tetrazolium, the IC50 (Inhibitory Concentrations 50% for extracts, essence and Glucantime were determined. The results using Tukey and t-test were analyzed and were presented by software SPSS16. MTT assay were repeated. 3 times for each sample. Results: IC50 for alfalfa leaf extract and essential oil of black alfalfa and Glucantime against L. major promastigotes was determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours, 240, 130 and 69 micrograms per ml, and 801, 340 and 190 micrograms per ml, also 26, 19 and 11 micrograms per ml , respectively. There was a significant differences between the IC50 plant extract and essential oil and Glucantime after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion: Alcoholic extracts and essential oil the plant had significant anti leishmaniasis effects in vitro. In this way, it can be considered as an anti-leishmaniasis among the herbs.

  13. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Results: Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; ‘convenience customers’ were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; ‘loyal customers’ were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy’s staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; ‘convenience and price-sensitive customers’ were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist’s opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs

  14. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ({sup 3}H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC{sub 50} values >100 {mu} g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase

  15. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ( 3 H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC 50 values >100 μ g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2

  16. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island) for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7) by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 μg/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values 15 mm and MIC values ≤ 250 μg/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 μg/ml). Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide

  17. Identification of the chemical constituents of Chinese medicine Yi-Xin-Shu capsule by molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation.

    Wang, Hong-ping; Chen, Chang; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun; Wu, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    The incomplete identification of the chemical components of traditional Chinese medicinal formula has been one of the bottlenecks in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of chemical substances. Current automatic tandem mass spectrometry acquisition, where precursor ions were selected according to their signal intensity, encounters a drawback in chemical substances identification when samples contain many overlapping signals. Compounds in minor or trace amounts could not be identified because most tandem mass spectrometry information was lost. Herein, a molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation method for complex Chinese medicine chemical constituent analysis was developed. The precursor ions were selected according to their two-dimensional characteristics of retention times and mass-to-charge ratio ranges from herbal compounds, so that all precursor ions from herbal compounds were included and more minor chemical constituents in Chinese medicine were identified. Compared to the conventional automatic tandem mass spectrometry setups, the approach is novel and can overcome the drawback for chemical substances identification. As an example, 276 compounds from the Chinese Medicine of Yi-Xin-Shu capsule were identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. In vitro effect of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants on mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp.

    Tanović Brankica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lavender, anise, chamomile, fennel, geranium, oregano, parsley, and sage essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp. Isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils and then ventilated in order to determine if the effect of the oil was lethal to the pathogen. Oregano and geranium oils were the most toxic, having a fungicidal effect at 0.02-0.08 μl/ml of air, depending on the pathogen. Oregano oil was characterized by high content of carvacrol and thymol, while citranelol and geraniol were the main components of geranium oil.

  19. Cytotoxicity of selected Cameroonian medicinal plants and Nauclea pobeguinii towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cells.

    Kuete, Victor; Sandjo, Louis P; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Seukep, Jackson A; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Malignacies are still a major public concern worldwide and despite the intensive search for new chemotherapeutic agents, treatment still remains a challenging issue. This work was designed to assess the cytotoxicity of six selected Cameroonian medicinal plants, including Nauclea pobeguinii and its constituents 3-acetoxy-11-oxo-urs-12-ene (1), p-coumaric acid (2), citric acid trimethyl ester (3), resveratrol (4), resveratrol β- D -glucopyranoside (5) and strictosamide (6), against 8 drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. The resazurin reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the crude extracts and compounds, whilst column chromatography was used to isolate the constituents of Nauclea pobeguinii. Structural characterization of isolated compounds was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data. Preliminary experiments on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells at 40 μg/mL showed that the leaves and bark extracts from Tragia benthamii, Canarium schweinfurthii, Myrianthus arboreus, Dischistocalyx grandifolius and Fagara macrophylla induced more than 50 % growth of this cell line contrary to the leaves and bark extracts of N. pobeguinii. IC50 values below or around 30 μg/mL were obtained with leaves and bark extracts of N. pobeguinii towards two and five, respectively, of the 8 tested cancer cell lines. The lowest IC50 value was obtained with the bark extract of N. pobeguinii against HCT116 (p53 (-/-) ) colon cancer cells (8.70 μg/mL). Compounds 4 and 6 displayed selective activity on leukemia and carcinoma cells, whilst 1-3 were not active. IC50 values below 100 μM were recorded with compound 5 on all 9 tested cancer cell lines as well as with 4 against 7 out of 8 and 6 against 2 out of 8 cell lines. Collateral sensitivity was observed in CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, MDA-MB-231-BCRP breast adenocarcinoma cells (0.53-fold), HCT116 (p53 (+/+) ) cells, human U87MG.ΔEGFR glioblastome multiforme cells to the methanolic

  20. Essential Tremor

    ... Treatment There is no definitive cure for essential tremor. Symptomatic drug therapy may include propranolol or other beta blockers and primidone, an anticonvulsant drug. Eliminating tremor "triggers" ...

  1. The 'wise list'- a comprehensive concept to select, communicate and achieve adherence to recommendations of essential drugs in ambulatory care in Stockholm.

    Gustafsson, Lars L; Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersén-Karlsson, Eva; Bergman, Ulf; Hasselström, Jan; Hensjö, Lars-Olof; Hjemdahl, Paul; Jägre, Ingrid; Julander, Margaretha; Ringertz, Bo; Schmidt, Daniel; Sjöberg, Susan; Sjöqvist, Folke; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Tryselius, Rolf; Vitols, Sigurd; von Bahr, Christer

    2011-04-01

    The aim was to present and evaluate the impact of a comprehensive strategy over 10 years to select, communicate and achieve adherence to essential drug recommendations (EDR) in ambulatory care in a metropolitan healthcare region. EDRs were issued and launched as a 'Wise List' by the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee in Stockholm. This study presents the concept by: (i) documenting the process for selecting, communicating and monitoring the impact of the 'Wise List'; (ii) analysing the variation in the number of drug substances recommended between 2000 and 2010; (iii) assessing the attitudes to the 'Wise List' among prescribers and the public; (iv) evaluating the adherence to recommendations between 2003 and 2009. The 'Wise List' consistently contained 200 drug substances for treating common diseases. The drugs were selected based on their efficacy, safety, suitability and cost-effectiveness. The 'Wise List' was known among one-third of a surveyed sample of the public in 2002 after initial marketing campaigns. All surveyed prescribers knew about the concept and 81% found the recommendations trustworthy in 2005. Adherence to recommendations increased from 69% in 1999 to 77% in 2009. In primary care, adherence increased from 83% to 87% from 2003 to 2009. The coefficient of variation (CV%) decreased from 6.1% to 3.8% for 156 healthcare centres between these years. The acceptance of the 'Wise List' in terms of trust among physicians and among the public and increased adherence may be explained by clear criteria for drug recommendations, a comprehensive communication strategy, electronic access to recommendations, continuous medical education and involvement of professional networks and patients.

  2. Essential tremor

    ... such as: Smoking and smokeless tobacco Overactive thyroid ( hyperthyroidism ) Suddenly stopping alcohol after drinking a lot for ... from the medicines used to treat your tremor Prevention Alcoholic beverages in small quantities may decrease tremors. ...

  3. KNIME essentials

    Bakos, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    KNIME Essentials is a practical guide aimed at getting the results you want, as quickly as possible.""Knime Essentials"" is written for data analysts looking to quickly get up to speed using the market leader in data processing tools, KNIME. No knowledge of KNIME is required, but we will assume that you have some background in data processing.

  4. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected medicinal plants collected from Khetri copper mines and comparison with those collected from fertile soil in Haridwar, India.

    Maharia, R S; Dutta, R K; Acharya, R; Reddy, A V R

    2010-02-01

    Heavy metal distribution in medicinal plants is gaining importance not only as an alternative medicine, but also for possible concern due to effects of metal toxicity. The present study has been focused on emphasizing the heavy metal status and bioaccumulation factors of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se (essential metals) and Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Pb (potentially toxic metals) in medicinal plants grown under two different environmental conditions e.g., near to Khetri copper mine and those in fertile soils of Haridwar, both in India, using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (relative method) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The copper levels in the medicinal plants from Khetri were found to be 3-4 folds higher (31.6-76.5 mg kg(-1)) than those from Haridwar samples (7.40-15.3 mg kg(-1)), which is correlated with very high copper levels (763 mg kg(-1)) in Khetri soil. Among various heavy metals, Cr (2.60-5.92 mg kg(-1)), Cd (1.47-2.97 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (3.97-6.63 mg kg(-1)) are also higher in concentration in the medicinal plants from Khetri. The essential metals like Mn (36.4-69.3 mg kg(-1)), Fe (192-601 mg kg(-1)), Zn (24.9-49.9 mg kg(-1)) and Se (0.13-0.91 mg kg(-1)) and potentially toxic metals like Ni (3.09-9.01 mg kg(-1)) and As (0.41-2.09 mg kg(-1)) did not show much variations in concentration in the medicinal plants from both Khetri and Haridwar. The medicinal plants from Khetri, e.g., Ocimum sanctum, Cassia fistula, Withania somnifera and Azadirachta Indica were found rich in Ca and Mg contents while Aloe barbadensis showed moderately high Ca and Mg. Higher levels of Ca-Mg were found to correlate with Zn (except Azadirachta Indica). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFS) of the heavy metals were estimated to understand the soil-to-plant transfer pattern of the heavy metals. Significantly lower BAF values of Cu and Cr were found in the medicinal plants from Khetri, indicating majority fraction of these metals are precipitated and were immobilized species

  5. Antiproliferative activity and phenotypic modification induced by selected Peruvian medicinal plants on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.

    Carraz, Maëlle; Lavergne, Cédric; Jullian, Valérie; Wright, Michel; Gairin, Jean Edouard; Gonzales de la Cruz, Mercedes; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2015-05-26

    The high incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru and the wide use of medicinal plants in this country led us to study the activity against HCC cells in vitro of somes species used locally against liver and digestive disorders. Ethnopharmacological survey: Medicinal plant species with a strong convergence of use for liver and digestive diseases were collected fresh in the wild or on markets, in two places of Peru: Chiclayo (Lambayeque department, Chiclayo province) and Huaraz (Ancash department, Huaraz province). Altogether 51 species were collected and 61 ethanol extracts were prepared to be tested. Biological assessment: All extracts were first assessed against the HCC cell line Hep3B according a 3-step multi-parametric phenotypic assay. It included 1) the evaluation of phenotypic changes on cells by light microscopy, 2) the measurement of the antiproliferative activity and 3) the analysis of the cytoskeleton and mitosis by immunofluorescence. Best extracts were further assessed against other HCC cell lines HepG2, PLC/PRF/5 and SNU-182 and their toxicity measured in vitro on primary human hepatocytes. Ethnopharmacological survey: Some of the species collected had a high reputation spreading over the surveyed locations for treating liver problems, i.e. Baccharis genistelloides, Bejaria aestuans, Centaurium pulchellum, Desmodium molliculum, Dipsacus fullonum, Equisetum bogotense, Gentianella spp., Krameria lapacea, Otholobium spp., Schkuhria pinnata, Taraxacum officinale. Hep3B evaluation: Fourteen extracts from 13 species (Achyrocline alata, Ambrosia arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Hypericum laricifolium, Krameria lappacea, Niphidium crassifolium, Ophryosporus chilca, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium pubescens, Passiflora ligularis, Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora and Schkuhria pinnata) showed a significant antiproliferative activity against Hep3B cells (IC50≤ 50µg/mL). This was associated with a lack of toxicity on primary

  6. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    Bednarski Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 μg/ml. Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

  7. Astronomy essentials

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  8. Effect of lactation stage on the concentration of essential and selected toxic elements in milk of Dubrovačka ruda - Croatian endangered breed

    Zvonko Antunović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the lactation stage effect on the concentration of essential and selected toxic elements in the sheep’s milk of Dubrovačka ruda. The research was conducted with 23 sheep, average age of 4 years, of 3rd lactation, while the milk samples were taken during the early (60th day, middle (90th day and late (120th day lactation stage. The sheep were selected according to uniformed body development, adequate health status, body condition, equable age (4 years, parity (3rd lactation, stage of lactation (±7 days and litter size (single. Sheep were reared on the extensive Mediterranean pastures, reared indoors afterwards, fed with hay ad libitum and feed mixtures in average 0.5 kg/day. Milk sample was collected during morning milking from each sheep. The digested samples were analyzed with continuous flow hydride generation technique using inductively coupled plasma for Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Mo, Co, Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations. Significant increase of Mg, Na, Se, Mn, Mo and Cd concentrations were found in milk as well as decrease of K concentration during the lactation. Although the concentration of Ca, Cu, Cr and As in milk during the lactation is increased, the differences between the lactation stages were not observed. Concentrations of P, Fe, Ni, Pb and Hg in milk of Dubrovačka ruda did not differ during the lactation. The low concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, As, Hg in milk indicate the safety for consumers and preserved environment of Dubrovnik-Neretva County.

  9. Essential oils of medicinal plants from the central andes of Argentina: chemical composition, and antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities.

    Lima, Beatriz; López, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Aragón, Liliana; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; López, María L; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela E

    2011-05-01

    The antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Acantholippia seriphioides, Artemisia mendozana, Gymnophyton polycephalum, Satureja parvifolia, Tagetes mendocina, and Lippia integrifolia, collected in the Central Andes area, province of San Juan, Argentina, were investigated. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were inhibited by the EOs of G. polycephalum, L. integrifolia, and S. parvifolia, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 31.2 and 1000 μg/ml. Moreover, all EOs presented moderate activity against the bacteria tested, and the L. integrifolia and G. polycephalum EOs showed excellent repellent properties against Triatoma infestans, the Chagas disease vector, with repellency values between 60 and 100%. The A. seriphioides, G. polycephalum, and L. integrifolia EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The highest number of components (40) was identified in L. integrifolia EO, which, along with that of A. seriphioides, contained important amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (44.35 and 29.72%, resp.). Thymol (27.61%) and carvacrol (13.24%) were the main components of A. seriphioides EO, and borneol, lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one, and terpinen-4-ol (>8.5%) were the principal compounds of L. integrifolia EO. These results support the idea that oxygenated monoterpenes are the bioactive fractions of the EOs. Finally, the study shows that these Andean species might be used to treat superficial fungal infections and to improve the local Chagas disease situation by vector-control. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists.

  11. Interpretive Medicine

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  12. Essentials of Endodontic Microsurgery

    2010-04-01

    Holtzman DJ, et al. Quality of root-end preparations using ultrasonic and rotary instrumentation in cadavers. J Endod 2000;26:281. 39. Peters CI...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Essentials of Endodontic Microsurgery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... Endodontic Program,Harvard School of Dental Medicine,Boston,MA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  13. Determination of the Marker Diarylheptanoid Phytoestrogens in Curcuma comosa Rhizomes and Selected Herbal Medicinal Products by HPLC-DAD.

    Yingngam, Bancha; Brantner, Adelheid; Jinarat, Damrongsak; Kaewamatawong, Rawiwun; Rungseevijitprapa, Wandee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2018-01-01

    A method for quantification of diarylheptanoids in Curcuma comosa rhizomes and selected pharmaceutical preparations was established by using HPLC-diode array detector (DAD). The chromatographic separation of three diarylheptanoids [(3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (1), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (2), and (3S)-1,7-diphenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (3)] was performed on a Luna C 18 analytical column using gradient elution with 0.5% acetic acid in water and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a column temperature of 35°C. The calibration curves for the analytes showed good linearity (R 2 >0.999), high precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) <2%) and acceptable recovery (98.35-103.90%, RSD <2%). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.06-0.22 and 0.18-0.69 µg/mL, respectively. The results of all validated parameters were within the limits according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines. The established method was successfully applied for qualitative and quantitative determination of the three constituents in different samples of C. comosa and some commercial products in capsules. The simplicity, rapidity, and reliability of the method could be useful for the fingerprint analysis and standardization of diarylheptanoids, which are responsible for the estrogenic activity in raw materials and herbal medicinal products of C. comosa.

  14. Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds in medicinal plants and characterizations of a selected compound, eucarvone.

    Sunohara, Yukari; Baba, Yohei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Fujimura, Kaori; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds were performed using 71 medicinal plant species to find new natural compounds, and the characterization of the promising compound was investigated to understand the mode of action. The volatile compounds from Asarum sieboldii Miq. showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the hypocotyl growth of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Great Lakes 366), followed by those from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet and Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC.. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) identified four volatile compounds, α-pinene (2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene), β-pinene (6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane), 3-carene (3,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene), and eucarvone (2,6,6-trimethy-2,4-cycloheptadien-1-one), from A. sieboldii, and three volatile compounds, limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene), menthone (5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-one), and pulegone (5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylidenecyclohexan-1-one), from S. tenuifolia. Among these volatile compounds, eucarvone, menthone, and pulegone exhibited strong inhibitory effects on both the root and shoot growth of lettuce seedlings. Eucarvone-induced growth inhibition was species-selective. Cell death, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation were induced in susceptible finger millet seedlings by eucarvone treatment, whereas this compound (≤158 μM) did not cause the increase of lipid peroxidation and ROS production in tolerant maize. The results of the present study show that eucarvone can have strong phytotoxic activity, which may be due to ROS overproduction and subsequent oxidative damage in finger millet seedlings.

  15. Selection for high oridonin yield in the Chinese medicinal plant Isodon (Lamiaceae using a combined phylogenetics and population genetics approach.

    Eric S J Harris

    Full Text Available Oridonin is a diterpenoid with anti-cancer activity that occurs in the Chinese medicinal plant Isodon rubescens and some related species. While the bioactivity of oridonin has been well studied, the extent of natural variation in the production of this compound is poorly known. This study characterizes natural variation in oridonin production in order to guide selection of populations of Isodon with highest oridonin yield. Different populations of I. rubescens and related species were collected in China, and their offspring were grown in a greenhouse. Samples were examined for oridonin content, genotyped using 11 microsatellites, and representatives were sequenced for three phylogenetic markers (ITS, rps16, trnL-trnF. Oridonin production was mapped on a molecular phylogeny of the genus Isodon using samples from each population as well as previously published Genbank sequences. Oridonin has been reported in 12 out of 74 species of Isodon examined for diterpenoids, and the phylogeny indicates that oridonin production has arisen at least three times in the genus. Oridonin production was surprisingly consistent between wild-collected parents and greenhouse-grown offspring, despite evidence of gene flow between oridonin-producing and non-producing populations of Isodon. Additionally, microsatellite genetic distance between individuals was significantly correlated with chemical distance in both parents and offspring. Neither heritability nor correlation with genetic distance were significant when the comparison was restricted to only populations of I. rubescens, but this result should be corroborated using additional samples. Based on these results, future screening of Isodon populations for oridonin yield should initially prioritize a broad survey of all species known to produce oridonin, rather than focusing on multiple populations of one species, such as I. rubescens. Of the samples examined here, I. rubescens or I. japonicus from Henan province

  16. A selective review of the first 20 years of instrumental variables models in health-services research and medicine.

    Cawley, John

    2015-01-01

    The method of instrumental variables (IV) is useful for estimating causal effects. Intuitively, it exploits exogenous variation in the treatment, sometimes called natural experiments or instruments. This study reviews the literature in health-services research and medical research that applies the method of instrumental variables, documents trends in its use, and offers examples of various types of instruments. A literature search of the PubMed and EconLit research databases for English-language journal articles published after 1990 yielded a total of 522 original research articles. Citations counts for each article were derived from the Web of Science. A selective review was conducted, with articles prioritized based on number of citations, validity and power of the instrument, and type of instrument. The average annual number of papers in health services research and medical research that apply the method of instrumental variables rose from 1.2 in 1991-1995 to 41.8 in 2006-2010. Commonly-used instruments (natural experiments) in health and medicine are relative distance to a medical care provider offering the treatment and the medical care provider's historic tendency to administer the treatment. Less common but still noteworthy instruments include randomization of treatment for reasons other than research, randomized encouragement to undertake the treatment, day of week of admission as an instrument for waiting time for surgery, and genes as an instrument for whether the respondent has a heritable condition. The use of the method of IV has increased dramatically in the past 20 years, and a wide range of instruments have been used. Applications of the method of IV have in several cases upended conventional wisdom that was based on correlations and led to important insights about health and healthcare. Future research should pursue new applications of existing instruments and search for new instruments that are powerful and valid.

  17. Nuclear medicine

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  18. Sclerorhachis Platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech Ex Rech. F.: an Indigenous Medicinal Plant from Northeastern Iran; Essential Oil Composition, Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Sclerorhachis platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech ex Rech. f. (Compositae, growing wild in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The total yield of volatiles was 0.38% (w/w. Sixty- three compounds representing 89.2% of the aerial parts oil were identified.  The main components of the oil were β-pinene (17.5% and γ-terpinene (15.4%. The oil was rich in monoterpenoids, and among them, monoterpene hydrocarbons (48.7% predominated over oxygenated monoterpenes (11.8%. The total flavonoid content of different extracts of the plant was in the range 52.4-172.3 mg/g, with the maximum amount being in the methanol extract. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were also measured based on radical scavenging activity of antioxidants using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results showed that IC50 values of extracts of S. platyrachis are higher than for the standard synthetic antioxidants, BHT, ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  19. Integrating medicinal chemistry, organic/combinatorial chemistry, and computational chemistry for the discovery of selective estrogen receptor modulators with Forecaster, a novel platform for drug discovery.

    Therrien, Eric; Englebienne, Pablo; Arrowsmith, Andrew G; Mendoza-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Corbeil, Christopher R; Weill, Nathanael; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Moitessier, Nicolas

    2012-01-23

    As part of a large medicinal chemistry program, we wish to develop novel selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as potential breast cancer treatments using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. However, one of the remaining difficulties nowadays is to fully integrate computational (i.e., virtual, theoretical) and medicinal (i.e., experimental, intuitive) chemistry to take advantage of the full potential of both. For this purpose, we have developed a Web-based platform, Forecaster, and a number of programs (e.g., Prepare, React, Select) with the aim of combining computational chemistry and medicinal chemistry expertise to facilitate drug discovery and development and more specifically to integrate synthesis into computer-aided drug design. In our quest for potent SERMs, this platform was used to build virtual combinatorial libraries, filter and extract a highly diverse library from the NCI database, and dock them to the estrogen receptor (ER), with all of these steps being fully automated by computational chemists for use by medicinal chemists. As a result, virtual screening of a diverse library seeded with active compounds followed by a search for analogs yielded an enrichment factor of 129, with 98% of the seeded active compounds recovered, while the screening of a designed virtual combinatorial library including known actives yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC) of 0.78. The lead optimization proved less successful, further demonstrating the challenge to simulate structure activity relationship studies.

  20. Medium selection for exopolysaccharide and biomass production in submerged cultures of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey

    Kizilcik, M.; Yamaç, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the exopolysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production of 18 strains of 15 species of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes in submerged culture under four different media. Gloeophyllum abietinum and Schizophyllum commune produced the highest EPS and biomass

  1. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings.

  2. Use of selected complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments in veterans with cancer or chronic pain: a cross-sectional survey

    McEachrane-Gross, F Patricia; Liebschutz, Jane M; Berlowitz, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is emerging as an important form of care in the United States. We sought to measure the prevalence of selected CAM use among veterans attending oncology and chronic pain clinics and to describe the characteristics of CAM use in this population. Methods The self-administered, mail-in survey included questions on demographics, health beliefs, medical problems and 6 common CAM treatments (herbs, dietary supplements, chiropractic ca...

  3. Essential AOP

    De Fraine, Bruno; Ernst, Erik; Südholt, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has produced interesting language designs, but also ad hoc semantics that needs clarification. We contribute to this clarification with a calculus that models essential AOP, both simpler and more general than existing formalizations. In AOP, advice may intercept...

  4. Highcharts essentials

    Shahid, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web developer with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and want to quickly get started with this web charting technology, this is the book for you. This book will also serve as an essential guide to those who have probably used a similar library and are now looking at migrating to Highcharts.

  5. Swift essentials

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Whether you are a seasoned Objective-C developer or new to the Xcode platform, Swift Essentials will provide you with all you need to know to get started with the language. Prior experience with iOS development is not necessary, but will be helpful to get the most out of the book.

  6. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  7. Nuclear medicine

    Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  8. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  9. Effect of essential oils of medicinal plants on leaf blotch in Tanzania grass Efeito de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais sobre a helmintosporiose do capim Tanzânia

    Gil Rodrigues dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spots caused by phyto-pathogenic fungi, can reduce the production of forage plants. The essential oils of medicinal plants have antimicrobial potential. The objective here was to evaluate the fungotoxicity in vitro of the essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, lemon balm (Lippia alba (Mill. NE Br ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae and peppermint (Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae on the fungus Helminthosporium sp. and the in vivo effect of these oils and of commercial neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae on leaf blotch in Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1. The mycelial growth of the fungus was evaluated over five periods (2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 days from incubation and with five concentrations of essential oils (C1 = 250 ppm; C2 = 500 ppm; C3 = 750 ppm; C4 = 1,000 ppm e C5 = 1,250 ppm. As an alternative control, the preventative and curative effect on leaf blotch of five oil-based treatments were evaluated: lemongrass, citronella, lemon balm, peppermint and neem in four concentrations (2,500; 5,000; 7,500 and 10,000 ppm. The essential oils of lemongrass and citronella were the most effective in reducing mycelial growth of Helminthosporium sp. With the essential oil of lemongrass, the pathogen presented the highest growth concentration (1.250 ppm. The results obtained showed that all the essential oils and concentrations tested presented a preventive and curative effect, reducing the severity of leaf blotch.Manchas foliares, causadas por fungos fitopatogênicos, podem reduzir a produção de forrageiras. Óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais apresentam potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade in vitro dos óleos essenciais de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e hortel

  10. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice.

  11. Linux Essentials

    Smith, Roderick W

    2012-01-01

    A unique, full-color introduction to Linux fundamentals Serving as a low-cost, secure alternative to expensive operating systems, Linux is a UNIX-based, open source operating system. Full-color and concise, this beginner's guide takes a learning-by-doing approach to understanding the essentials of Linux. Each chapter begins by clearly identifying what you will learn in the chapter, followed by a straightforward discussion of concepts that leads you right into hands-on tutorials. Chapters conclude with additional exercises and review questions, allowing you to reinforce and measure your underst

  12. Essential SQLAlchemy

    Copeland, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Essential SQLAlchemy introduces a high-level open-source code library that makes it easier for Python programmers to access relational databases such as Oracle, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. SQLAlchemy has become increasingly popular since its release, but it still lacks good offline documentation. This practical book fills the gap, and because a developer wrote it, you get an objective look at SQLAlchemy's tools rather than an advocate's description of all the "cool" features. SQLAlchemy includes both a database server-independent SQL expression language and an object-relational mappe

  13. Prezi essentials

    Sinclair, Domi

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn Prezi, and specifically design within Prezi, this is the book for you. Perhaps you already know a bit about Prezi but have never used it, or perhaps you have used Prezi before but want to learn how to incorporate your own custom design elements. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic design concepts and the use of Prezi, but prior experience is not essential.

  14. The Importance of Medicinal Chemistry Knowledge in the Clinical Pharmacist's Education.

    Fernandes, João Paulo S

    2018-03-01

    Objective. To show why medicinal chemistry must be a key component of the education of pharmacy students, as well as in the pharmacist's practice. Findings. Five case reports were selected by their clinically relevant elements of medicinal chemistry and were explained using structure-activity relationship data of the drugs involved in the case easily obtained from primary literature and in medicinal chemistry textbooks. Summary. This paper demonstrates how critical clinical decisions can be addressed using medicinal chemistry knowledge. While such knowledge may not explain all clinical decisions, medicinal chemistry concepts are essential for the education of pharmacy students to explain drug action in general and clinical decisions.

  15. Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice.

    Irkin, Reyhan; Korukluoglu, Mihriban

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a fundamental concern of both consumers and the food industry. The increasing incidence of foodborne diseases increases the demand of using antimicrobials in foods. Spices and plants are rich in essential oils and show inhibition activity against microorganisms, which are composed of many compounds. In this research, effects of garlic, bay, black pepper, origanum, orange, thyme, tea tree, mint, clove, and cumin essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes AUFE 39237, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Proteus mirabilis AUFE 43566, Bacillus cereus AUFE 81154, Saccharomyces uvarum UUFE 16732, Kloeckera apiculata UUFE 10628, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida oleophila UUPP 94365, and Metschnikowia fructicola UUPP 23067 and effects of thyme oil at a concentration of 0.5% on L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice during +4 degrees C storage (first to fifth day) were investigated. Strong antibacterial and antifungal activities of some essential oils were found. Thyme, origanum, clove, and orange essential oils were the most inhibitory against bacteria and yeasts. Cumin, tea tree, and mint oils inhibited the yeasts actively. It is concluded that some essential oils could be used as potential biopreservatives capable of controlling foodborne pathogens and food spoilage yeasts.

  16. Travel medicine

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  17. Mesopotamian medicine.

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots.

  18. A call to include medical humanities in the curriculum of colleges of osteopathic medicine and in applicant selection.

    Hoff, Gary; Hirsch, Norma J; Means, J Jeffrey; Streyffeler, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    Medicine stands at a crossroad. Disruptive physician behavior has increased, and patient satisfaction has decreased. A growing body of knowledge demonstrates that the medical humanities assist in the creation of compassionate, resilient physicians. Incorporating medical humanities into the medical school curriculum promotes the development of compassionate, culturally sensitive physicians, and also encourages the development of resilience in health care professionals at a time when internal and external pressures on physicians are increasing. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  19. Essential astrophysics

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    Essential Astrophysics is a book to learn or teach from, as well as a fundamental reference volume for anyone interested in astronomy and astrophysics. It presents astrophysics from basic principles without requiring any previous study of astronomy or astrophysics. It serves as a comprehensive introductory text, which takes the student through the field of astrophysics in lecture-sized chapters of basic physical principles applied to the cosmos. This one-semester overview will be enjoyed by undergraduate students with an interest in the physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry, engineering or physics, as well as by any curious student interested in learning about our celestial science. The mathematics required for understanding the text is on the level of simple algebra, for that is all that is needed to describe the fundamental principles. The text is of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare the interested student for more advanced specialized courses in the future. Astronomical examples are provide...

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Allium tuberosum Leaves and Its Selected Major Constituents Against Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Shi, Jizhe; Liu, Xinchao; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate acute toxicity of the essential oil of leaves of Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (Asparagales: Alliaceae) and its major constituents against Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl methyl trisulfide (36.24%), diallyl disulfide (27.26%), diallyl trisulfide (18.68%), and dimethyl trisulfide (9.23%). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves exhibited acute toxicity against Ap. lucorum with an LD50 value of 20.03 μg per adult. Among the main compounds, diallyl trisulfide (LD50 = 10.13 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than allyl methyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.10 μg per adult) and dimethyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.65 μg per adult). The LD50 value of diallyl disulfide against Ap. lucorum was 28.10 μg per adult. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. tuberosum and its major constituents may have a potential to be developed as botanical insecticides against Ap. lucorum. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Seasonal variation of the essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and valepotriates in Valeriana officinalis roots and rhizomes, and the selection of plants suitable for phytomedicines

    Bos, R.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; van Putten, F.M S; Hendriks, H; Scheffer, J.J C

    During the seasons 1989-1993, Voleriana officinalis plants were investigated for their contents of essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and valepotriates. Harvesting of the subterranean parts was started in August of the year in which the seeds were sown, and continued until the last week

  2. The medicine from behind

    Andel, Van Tinde; Onselen, Van Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand

  3. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae family, which has been used in traditional medicine of Iran as anti vaginal infection, anti-sinusitis, sedative, and anti-inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Results showed that a total of 39 components have been identified in the plant sampl oil, representing 81% of the total oil and β-pinene (19.88%, guaiol (8%, shyobunone (6.96%, delta-cadinene (4.65%, α-pinene (3.16 %, β-phellandrene (3.28% and myrtenol (2.8%, were the main essential oil composition, respectively. The results from antibacterial screening (Table 2, were showed that C. albicans (25.2 ± 1.6, Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.6 ± 0.7 mm, Staphylococcus aureus (21.3 ± 0.2 mm, Escherichia coli (16.5 ± 0.8 mm, Bacillus cereus (19.5 ± 0.1 mm, Enterococcus faecalis (17.2 ± 0.8 mm and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ( 17.8 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone and MIC (35.4-112 μg/ml were the most sensitive pathogenes to the plant extract respectively, which followed Shigella (12.3 ± 0.3 mm and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.5 ± 0.2 mm were found to be moderate sensitive bacteria and then the Salmonella typhymorium which completely was resistant to plant root extract. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be concluded that the extract of F. gummosa L. have suitable antimicrobial and anti-Candidacies activity, which can be

  4. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  5. Challenges in integrating component level technology and system level information from Ayurveda: Insights from NMR phytometabolomics and anti-HIV potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants.

    Jayasundar, Rama; Ghatak, Somenath; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Luthra, Kalpana; Singh, Aruna; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2018-01-03

    Information from Ayurveda meeting the analytical challenges of modern technology is an area of immense relevance. Apart from the cerebral task of bringing together two different viewpoints, the question at the pragmatic level remains 'who benefits whom'. The aim is to highlight the challenges in integration of information (Ayurvedic) and technology using test examples of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomics and anti-HIV-1 potential of select Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The other value added objective is implications and relevance of such work for Ayurveda. Six medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica, Zingiber officinale and Symplocos racemosa) were studied using high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy based metabolomics and also evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity on three pseudoviruses (ZM53 M.PB12, ZM109F.PB4, RHPA 4259.7). Of the six plants, T.bellerica and Z.officinale showed minimum cell cytotoxicity and maximum anti-HIV-1 potential. T.bellerica was effective against all the three HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Untargeted NMR profiling and multivariate analyses demonstrated that the six plants, all of which had different Ayurvedic pharmacological properties, showed maximum differences in the aromatic region of the spectra. The work adds onto the list of potential plants for anti-HIV-1 drug molecules. At the same time, it has drawn attention to the different perspectives of Ayurveda and Western medicine underscoring the inherent limitations of conceptual bilinguism between the two systems, especially in the context of medicinal plants. The study has also highlighted the potential of NMR metabolomics in study of plant extracts as used in Ayurveda. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Strategy for Optimal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Dose Selection in Disease Therapeutics: Expert Consensus on Classic TCM Herbal Formula Dose Conversion.

    Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.

  7. Evaluation of Toxic and Essential Metals in Some Selected Chewing Food Products and their Daily Intake by the Population of Karachi, Pakistan

    Shahid Bhutto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on different brands of chewing food products which containing some toxic metals (TMs and essential metals and these samples were analyzed to determine the levels of some toxic metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr and Mn and essential metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn. The samples of gutka (100, sweet supari (63, sweet paan (16 and paan masala (21 were randomly collected from different shops of Karachi, Pakistan. The validity of conventional wet acid digestion method (CAD was assessed by analyzing two certified reference materials (CRM Virgina tobacco leaf (CTA-VTL-2 and Bovine liver (1577b and standard addition recovery test. The limit of detections (LODs, n=10 of the method were found to be 0.144, 14.4, 8.89, 2.76, 4.06, 15.3 and 2.99, 22.9, 9.97, 4.54, 1.89, 1.76 µg L-1 for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The CAD method was successfully applied to real samples for the determination of toxic and essential metals. 

  8. The new final Clinical Skills examination in human medicine in Switzerland: Essential steps of exam development, implementation and evaluation, and central insights from the perspective of the national Working Group

    Berendonk, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since 2011, the new national final examination in human medicine has been implemented in Switzerland, with a structured clinical-practical part in the OSCE format. From the perspective of the national Working Group, the current article describes the essential steps in the development, implementation and evaluation of the Federal Licensing Examination Clinical Skills (FLE CS as well as the applied quality assurance measures. Finally, central insights gained from the last years are presented. Methods: Based on the principles of action research, the FLE CS is in a constant state of further development. On the foundation of systematically documented experiences from previous years, in the Working Group, unresolved questions are discussed and resulting solution approaches are substantiated (planning, implemented in the examination (implementation and subsequently evaluated (reflection. The presented results are the product of this iterative procedure.Results: The FLE CS is created by experts from all faculties and subject areas in a multistage process. The examination is administered in German and French on a decentralised basis and consists of twelve interdisciplinary stations per candidate. As important quality assurance measures, the national Review Board (content validation and the meetings of the standardised patient trainers (standardisation have proven worthwhile. The statistical analyses show good measurement reliability and support the construct validity of the examination. Among the central insights of the past years, it has been established that the consistent implementation of the principles of action research contributes to the successful further development of the examination.Conclusion: The centrally coordinated, collaborative-iterative process, incorporating experts from all faculties, makes a fundamental contribution to the quality of the FLE CS. The processes and insights presented here can be useful for others planning a

  9. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that elevate cardiovascular risk: an examination of sales and essential medicines lists in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

    Patricia McGettigan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (e.g., rofecoxib [Vioxx] increase the risk of heart attack and stroke and should be avoided in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Rates of cardiovascular disease are high and rising in many low- and middle-income countries. We studied the extent to which evidence on cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs has translated into guidance and sales in 15 countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on the relative risk (RR of cardiovascular events with individual NSAIDs were derived from meta-analyses of randomised trials and controlled observational studies. Listing of individual NSAIDs on Essential Medicines Lists (EMLs was obtained from the World Health Organization. NSAID sales or prescription data for 15 low-, middle-, and high-income countries were obtained from Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health (IMS Health or national prescription pricing audit (in the case of England and Canada. Three drugs (rofecoxib, diclofenac, etoricoxib ranked consistently highest in terms of cardiovascular risk compared with nonuse. Naproxen was associated with a low risk. Diclofenac was listed on 74 national EMLs, naproxen on just 27. Rofecoxib use was not documented in any country. Diclofenac and etoricoxib accounted for one-third of total NSAID usage across the 15 countries (median 33.2%, range 14.7-58.7%. This proportion did not vary between low- and high-income countries. Diclofenac was by far the most commonly used NSAID, with a market share close to that of the next three most popular drugs combined. Naproxen had an average market share of less than 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Listing of NSAIDs on national EMLs should take account of cardiovascular risk, with preference given to low risk drugs. Diclofenac has a risk very similar to rofecoxib, which was withdrawn from worldwide markets owing to cardiovascular toxicity. Diclofenac should be removed from EMLs.

  10. Imaging and development of medicines

    Syrota, A.

    2000-01-01

    The last developments in medical imaging allow visualization of medicines in organism. Today, these techniques: positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) play an essential role in the production and the development of new medicines. The medicinal substances labelled with radioisotopes permit to improve the understanding of medicines' action mode. The spectacular advances were observed in the field of medicines acting on the brain (F.M.)

  11. Selective Inhibitors of Protozoan Protein N-myristoyltransferases as Starting Points for Tropical Disease Medicinal Chemistry Programs

    Bell, Andrew S.; Mills, James E.; Williams, Gareth P.; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Parkinson, Tanya; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.; Tate, Edward W.; Holder, Anthony A.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of N-myristoyltransferase has been validated pre-clinically as a target for the treatment of fungal and trypanosome infections, using species-specific inhibitors. In order to identify inhibitors of protozoan NMTs, we chose to screen a diverse subset of the Pfizer corporate collection against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani NMTs. Primary screening hits against either enzyme were tested for selectivity over both human NMT isoforms (Hs1 and Hs2) and for broad-spectrum anti-protozoan activity against the NMT from Trypanosoma brucei. Analysis of the screening results has shown that structure-activity relationships (SAR) for Leishmania NMT are divergent from all other NMTs tested, a finding not predicted by sequence similarity calculations, resulting in the identification of four novel series of Leishmania-selective NMT inhibitors. We found a strong overlap between the SARs for Plasmodium NMT and both human NMTs, suggesting that achieving an appropriate selectivity profile will be more challenging. However, we did discover two novel series with selectivity for Plasmodium NMT over the other NMT orthologues in this study, and an additional two structurally distinct series with selectivity over Leishmania NMT. We believe that release of results from this study into the public domain will accelerate the discovery of NMT inhibitors to treat malaria and leishmaniasis. Our screening initiative is another example of how a tripartite partnership involving pharmaceutical industries, academic institutions and governmental/non-governmental organisations such as Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust can stimulate research for neglected diseases. PMID:22545171

  12. Report: screening of selected medicinal plants for their enzyme inhibitory potential - a validation of their ethnopharmacological uses.

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Yasar; Khan, Abad

    2014-05-01

    In present study four medicinal plants namely Valeriana wallichii, Xanthium strumarium, Achyranthes aspera and Duchesnea indica belonging to different families were collected in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and crude extract and subsequent fractions were analyzed for their inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Valeriana wallichii, Xanthium strumarium and Achyranthes aspera were significantly active against cholinesterases. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions of Valeriana wallichii exhibited significant activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 61μg/ml) and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (IC50: 58μg/ml), respectively. Similarly ethylacetate fraction of Achyranthes aspera showed significant activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 61 μg/ml) and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (IC50: 61 μg/ml), respectively. In case of α-glucosidase enzyme, the chloroform fraction of Xanthium strumarium exhibited significant inhibitory activity (IC50: 72 μg/ml) as compared to the standard compound acarbose (IC50: 483 μg/ml). Duchesnea indica showed no such activities.

  13. Bibliography of selected research reports on occupational medicine in nuclear industry of China (list of subjects, 1958-1988)

    Wu Qi; Sun Jinkai; Zhang Xuzong; Li Guangyu; Chen Shaojia; Ni Xiangting

    1991-10-01

    A bibliography of 648 research reports on occupational medicine in the past 30 years in nuclear industry is presented. It gives only a list of titles with affiliations. It contains four parts. The first part is on experimental study including internal contamination with radionuclides, radiobiology, radiotoxicology and radiohygiene. The second part focuses on epidemiological investigation including radioepidemiological investigation and on-site investigation of occupational detriment. The third part concentrates on radiation injury clinic, including internal contamination with radionuclides, β-ray skin injury radiohematology, emergency handling for radiation accident, as well as silicosis and lung cancer of uranium miners. And the last part gives space to occupational detriment from non-radiation industrial poisonous materials

  14. Selected aspects of radon presence in medicinal waters in Swieradow Spa; Wybrane aspekty obecnosci radonu w wodach leczniczych Swieradowa Zdroju

    Przybilski, T.A. [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the paper results of measurement of radium content in the rocks of the neighbourhood of Swieradow Spa were used to calculate emanating coefficient of rocks. The coefficient was next used to estimate the volume of rocks supplying the intakes with radon; in this estimation radioactive equilibrium between radium and radon in the rocks was assumed. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that such equilibrium is absent and allow estimating its coefficient as 10{sup -6}. It was also proposed to use track detectors to the continuous monitoring of radon concentrations in the ground waters, which was shown on the example of comparison of relative radon concentrations in individual wells of medicinal water intakes. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab.

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers in herbal medicines using molecularly imprinted polymers based on a mimic template.

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Yan, Huijiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Mu, Yan; Guo, Lanping; Wang, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    We describe a solid-phase extraction adsorbent based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), prepared with use of a mimic template. The MIPs were used for the selective extraction and determination of three chlorogenic acids as combined quality markers for Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The morphologies and surface groups of the MIPs were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and selectivity of the MIPs were systematically compared with those of non-molecularly imprinted polymers. The MIPs showed high selectivity toward three structurally similar chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid). A procedure using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the determination of three chlorogenic acids from Lonicera japonica and Lianhua qingwen granules. The recoveries of the chlorogenic acids ranged from 93.1% to 101.4%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three chlorogenic acids were 0.003 mg g -1 and 0.01 mg g -1 , respectively. The newly developed method is thus a promising technique for the enrichment and determination of chlorogenic acids from herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract Mimic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of chlorogenic acids.

  17. Dead end1 is an essential partner of NANOS2 for selective binding of target RNAs in male germ cell development.

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Niimi, Yuki; Shinmyozu, Kaori; Zhou, Zhi; Kiso, Makoto; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles for generating various cell types in many developmental processes, including eggs and sperms. Nanos is widely known as an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein implicated in germ cell development. Mouse NANOS2 interacts directly with the CCR4-NOT (CNOT) deadenylase complex, resulting in the suppression of specific RNAs. However, the mechanisms involved in target specificity remain elusive. We show that another RBP, Dead end1 (DND1), directly interacts with NANOS2 to load unique RNAs into the CNOT complex. This interaction is mediated by the zinc finger domain of NANOS2, which is essential for its association with target RNAs. In addition, the conditional deletion of DND1 causes the disruption of male germ cell differentiation similar to that observed in Nanos2-KO mice. Thus, DND1 is an essential partner for NANOS2 that leads to the degradation of specific RNAs. We also present the first evidence that the zinc finger domain of Nanos acts as a protein-interacting domain for another RBP, providing a novel insight into Nanos-mediated germ cell development. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Transfusion medicine

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application

  19. Availability of medicines in public sector health facilities of two North Indian States.

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-12-23

    Access to free essential medicines is a critical component of universal health coverage. However availability of essential medicines is poor in India with more than two-third of the people having limited or no access. This has pushed up private out-of-pocket expenditure due to medicines. The states of Punjab and Haryana are in the process of institutionalizing drug procurement models to provide uninterrupted access to essential medicines free of cost in all public hospitals and health centres. We undertook this study to assess the availability of medicines in public sector health facilities in the 2 states. Secondly, we also ascertained the quality of storage and inventory management systems in health facilities. The present study was carried out in 80 public health facilities across 12 districts in Haryana and Punjab states. Overall, within each state 1 MC, 6 DHs, 11 CHCs and 22 PHCs were selected for the study. Drug procurement mechanisms in both the states were studied through document reviews and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. Stock registers were reviewed to collect data on availability of a basket of essential medicines -92 at Primary Health Centre (PHC) level, 132 at Community Health Centre (CHC) level and 160 at tertiary care (District Hospital/Medical College) level. These essential medicines were selected based on the Essential Medicine List (EML) of the Department of Health (DOH). Overall availability of medicines was 45.2% and 51.1% in Punjab and Haryana respectively. Availability of anti-hypertensives was around 60% in both the states whereas for anti-diabetics it was 44% and 47% in Punjab and Haryana respectively. Atleast one drug in each of the categories including analgesic/antipyretic, anti-helminthic, anti-spasmodic, anti-emetic, anti-hypertensive and uterotonics were nearly universally available in public sector facilities. On the contrary, medicines such as thrombolytics, anti-cancer and endocrine medicines were available in less

  20. A Student Selected Component (or Special Study Module) in Forensic and Legal Medicine: Design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of an optional module as an addition to the medical undergraduate core curriculum.

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Wilkinson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The General Medical Council (United Kingdom) advocates development of non-core curriculum Student Selected Components and their inclusion in all undergraduate medical school curricula. This article describes a rationale for the design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine. Reference is made to the available evidence based literature pertinent to the delivery of undergraduate medical education in the subject area. A Student Selected Component represents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the legal aspects of medical practice, to raise the profile of the discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine amongst undergraduate medical students and to introduce students to the possibility of a future career in the area. The authors refer to their experiences of design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine at their respective Universities in the Republic of Ireland (Galway) and in the United Kingdom (Oxford). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  2. In vitro efficacy of selected medicinal plants from Cholistan desert, Pakistan, against gastrointestinal helminths of sheep and goats

    Muhammad Asif Raza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths are a major constraint to small ruminants in extensive husbandry systems of tropical regions. Yet, unavailability, high prices, side effects, and development of parasite resistance often limit the use of synthetic anthelmintics. Traditional medicinal plants might be an effective low-cost alternative. Therefore the in vitro anthelmintic activity of leaf extracts of the ligneous plants Capparis decidua, Salsola foetida, Suaeda fruticosa, Haloxylon salicornicum, and Haloxylon recurvum from Cholistan, Pakistan, was investigated against adult worms of Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris ovis, and Paramphistomum cervi. Various concentrations (from 7.8 to 500 mg dry matter ml^(−1 of three extracts (aqueous, methanol, and aqueous-methanol of each plant were tested at different time intervals for their anthelmintic activity via adult motility assay. Plant species (p<=0.01, extract type (p<=0.001, parasite species (p<=0.001, extract concentration (p<=0.001, time of exposure (p<=0.001 and their interactions (p<=0.001 affected the number of immobile or dead helminths. The 50% lethal concentration (LC_(50 values indicated that the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of C. decidua, H. recurvum, and H. salicornicum as well as the methanol extract of S. fruticosa have the potential to be developed into plant-based remedies against the studied helminths. Further studies are needed to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of these extracts, in order to develop effective, cheap and locally available anthelmintics for pastoralists in Cholistan and neighbouring desert regions.

  3. HTA programme response to the challenges of dealing with orphan medicinal products: Process evaluation in selected European countries.

    Nicod, Elena; Annemans, Lieven; Bucsics, Anna; Lee, Anne; Upadhyaya, Sheela; Facey, Karen

    2017-03-28

    Challenges commonly encountered in HTA of orphan medicinal products (OMPs) were identified in Advance-HTA. Since then, new initiatives have been developed to specifically address issues related to HTA of OMPs. This study aimed to understand why these new HTA initiatives in England, Scotland and at European-level were established and whether they resolve the challenges of OMPs. The work of Advance-HTA was updated with a literature review and a conceptual framework of clinical, regulatory and economic challenges for OMPs was developed. The new HTA programmes were critiqued against the conceptual framework and outstanding challenges identified. The new programmes in England and Scotland recognise the challenges identified in demonstrating the value of ultra-OMPs (and OMPs) and that they require a different process to standard HTA approaches. Wider considerations of disease and treatment experiences from a multi-stakeholder standpoint are needed, combined with other measures to deal with uncertainty (e.g. managed entry agreements). While approaches to assessing this new view of value of OMPs, extending beyond cost/QALY frameworks, differ, their criteria are similar. These are complemented by a European initiative that fosters multi-stakeholder dialogue and consensus about value determinants throughout the life-cycle of an OMP. New HTA programmes specific to OMPs have been developed but questions remain about whether they sufficiently capture value and manage uncertainty in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for on-line trace gas analysis in biology and medicine

    Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 77-82 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) * breath analysis * breath metabolities * flowing afterglow mass spectrometry (FA-MS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2007

  5. Polymeric membrane sensors based on Cd(II) Schiff base complexes for selective iodide determination in environmental and medicinal samples.

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Mehtab, Sameena

    2008-01-15

    The two cadmium chelates of schiff bases, N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,4-diaminobutane, (Cd-S(1)) and N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-3,4-diaminotoluene (Cd-S(2)), have been synthesized and explored as ionophores for preparing PVC-based membrane sensors selective to iodide(I) ion. Potentiometric investigations indicate high affinity of these receptors for iodide ion. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based membranes of Cd-S(1) and Cd-S(2) using as hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) cation discriminator and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE), dibutylphthalate (DBP), acetophenone (AP) and tributylphosphate (TBP) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as iodide-selective sensors. The best performance was shown by the membrane of composition (w/w) of (Cd-S(1)) (7%):PVC (31%):DBP (60%):HTAB (2%). The sensor works well over a wide concentration range 5.3x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-2)M with Nernstian compliance (59.2mVdecade(-1) of activity) within pH range 2.5-9.0 with a response time of 11s and showed good selectivity for iodide ion over a number of anions. The sensor exhibits adequate life (3 months) with good reproducibility (S.D.+/-0.24mV) and could be used successfully for the determination of iodide content in environmental water samples and mouth wash samples.

  6. Anticancer Properties and Phenolic Contents of Sequentially Prepared Extracts from Different Parts of Selected Medicinal Plants Indigenous to Malaysia

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different parts of four edible medicinal plants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus, indigenous to Malaysia, were extracted in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 extracts were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29, breast (MCF-7, prostate (DU-145 and lung (H460 cancers. The best anticancer activity was observed for the ethyl acetate (EA extract of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 2.0 μg/mL and its methanolic (MeOH extract showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 μg/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC ranged over 1–40 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH extracts. Among all the extracts analyzed, the MeOH extracts of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05. This study shows that the nature of phenol determines its anticaner activity and not the number of phenols present.

  7. The public production of medicines compared to the National Policy of Medicines and the burden of disease in Brazil

    Tatiana Aragão Figueiredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The public production of medicines in Brazil by Government Pharmaceutical Laboratories has once again become the object of incentives, and Industrial Development Partnerships are one of the mechanisms adopted for the production of strategic medicines for the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. Considering that burden-of-disease studies have been used as a tool to define priority and essential medicines, the article compares the product portfolios of the country’s Official Pharmaceutical Laboratories (OPL and the list of strategic medicines for the SUS and burden of disease in Brazil in 2008. Of the 205 strategic medicines for the SUS and 111 from the portfolios, 73% and 89%, respectively, are on the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME 2014. Some strategic medicines for the SUS are already produced by OPL and feature the selection of cancer drugs and biologicals. The current study contributes to the discussion on the public production of medicines in light of the country’s current industrial policy and highlights the need to define priority drugs and the role of OPL in guaranteeing access to them.

  8. Electroanalytical performance of a terbium(III)-selective sensor based on a neutral ionophore in environmental and medicinal samples

    Gupta, V.K.; Singh, A.K.; Gupta, Barkha [Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Department of Chemistry, Roorkee (India)

    2008-04-15

    A new highly selective terbium(III) electrode was prepared with a polymeric film doped using S-2-benzothiazolyl-2-amino-{alpha}-(methoxyimino)-4-thiazolethiol acetate as an electroactive material, benzyl acetate (BA) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as an anionic site in the percentage ratio 3.17:1.58:63.4:31.7 (ionophore-KTpClPB-BA-PVC, w/w). The electrode exhibited a linear response with a near Nernstian slope of 19.5 mV/decade within the concentration range 1.5 x 10{sup -7}-1.0 x 10{sup -2} M terbium ions, with a working pH range from 2.0 to 8.0, and a fast response time of 10 s and presented satisfactory reproducibility. The limit of detection was 9.3 x 10{sup -8} M. The results show that this electrode can be used in ethanol media up to 30% (v/v) concentration without interference. It can be used for 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potentials. Selectivity coefficients for terbium(III) with respect to many cations were investigated. The electrode is highly selective for terbium(III) ions over a large number of monovalent, bivalent, and trivalent cations. This shows the valuable property of the proposed electrode. The stability constant of the ionophore towards Tb{sup 3+} ions was determined with the sandwich membrane method. It was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric determination of terbium(III) ions with EDTA and in direct determination in tap water and binary mixtures with quantitative results. The utility of the proposed electrode was also determined in the presence of ionic and nonionic surfactants and in the presence of fluoride ions in four pharmaceutical (mouthwash) preparations. (orig.)

  9. Electroanalytical performance of a terbium(III)-selective sensor based on a neutral ionophore in environmental and medicinal samples

    Gupta, V.K.; Singh, A.K.; Gupta, Barkha

    2008-01-01

    A new highly selective terbium(III) electrode was prepared with a polymeric film doped using S-2-benzothiazolyl-2-amino-α-(methoxyimino)-4-thiazolethiol acetate as an electroactive material, benzyl acetate (BA) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as an anionic site in the percentage ratio 3.17:1.58:63.4:31.7 (ionophore-KTpClPB-BA-PVC, w/w). The electrode exhibited a linear response with a near Nernstian slope of 19.5 mV/decade within the concentration range 1.5 x 10 -7 -1.0 x 10 -2 M terbium ions, with a working pH range from 2.0 to 8.0, and a fast response time of 10 s and presented satisfactory reproducibility. The limit of detection was 9.3 x 10 -8 M. The results show that this electrode can be used in ethanol media up to 30% (v/v) concentration without interference. It can be used for 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potentials. Selectivity coefficients for terbium(III) with respect to many cations were investigated. The electrode is highly selective for terbium(III) ions over a large number of monovalent, bivalent, and trivalent cations. This shows the valuable property of the proposed electrode. The stability constant of the ionophore towards Tb 3+ ions was determined with the sandwich membrane method. It was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric determination of terbium(III) ions with EDTA and in direct determination in tap water and binary mixtures with quantitative results. The utility of the proposed electrode was also determined in the presence of ionic and nonionic surfactants and in the presence of fluoride ions in four pharmaceutical (mouthwash) preparations. (orig.)

  10. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  11. Antibacterial Mode of Action of the Essential Oil Obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa Sawdust on the Membrane Integrity of Selected Foodborne Pathogens

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the possible antibacterial mechanism of action of the essential oil obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO sawdust against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The COEO was obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of C. obtusa sawdust. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of COEO against the tested foodborne pathogens including Bacillus cereus ATCC 13061, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 43174 and Escherichia coli ATCC 43889 were found in the range from 62.5 to 500 μg/mL and from 125 to 1000 μg/mL, respectively. At the MIC concentrations, the COEO had potential inhibitory effect on the cell viability of the tested bacteria. In addition, the scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect of COEO by revealing significant morphological alterations or rupture of the cell membranes of B. cereus ATCC 13061 and E. coli ATCC 43889. Moreover, the mode of action of COEO on the cell membrane of both Gram-positive B. cereus ATCC 13061 and Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 43889 bacteria was confirmed by marked release of extracellular adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP and cellular material that absorbs at 260 nm, and by efflux of potassium ions. These findings suggest that COEO holds a broad-spectrum antibacterial efficacy, confirming its influence on the membrane integrity and morphological characteristics of tested foodborne pathogens.

  12. Fumigant Activity of 6 Selected Essential Oil Compounds and Combined Effect of Methyl Salicylate And Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Against Culex pipiens pallens.

    Ma, Wei-Bin; Feng, Jun-Tao; Jiang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Xing

    2014-09-01

    We studied the knockdown activity and lethal toxicity of 6 essential oil compounds-methyl salicylate, linalool, 2-phenethyl alcohol, eugenol, β-citronellol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde-as fumigants against adult female Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory. Of the 6 products tested, trans-cinnamaldehyde was the most toxic (LC50  =  0.26 µl/l air, 24 h) with a slow knockdown time (KT95  =  176.5 min at 0.5 µl/l air). Methyl salicylate displayed a lower toxicity (LC50  =  1.17 µl/l air, 24 h) but the fastest knockdown activity (KT95  =  16.8 min) at the sublethal concentration 0.5 µl/l air. Furthermore, the binary mixture of methyl salicylate and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited a combined effect of fast knockdown activity and high toxicity against Cx. p. pallens adults, showing potential for development as natural fumigants for mosquito control.

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude extracts of 9 selected medicinal plants against UTI causing MDR bacteria

    Monali P. Mishra

    2017-01-01

    , three effective-most plants in controlling MDR-UTI bacteria in vitro were A. acuminata, P. granatum and S. febrifuga, which can be promoted as complementary medicine.

  14. The future is written: impact of scripts on the cognition, selection, knowledge and transmission of medicinal plant use and its implications for ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology.

    Leonti, Marco

    2011-04-12

    Apart from empirically learned medicinal and pharmacological properties, the selection of medicinal plants is dependent on cognitive features, ecological factors and cultural history. In literate societies the transmission of medicinal plant knowledge through texts and, more recently, other media containing local as well as non-local knowledge has a more immediate and a more prolonged effect than oral transmission. Therefore, I try to visualize how field based studies in ethnobiology and especially medical ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology run the risk of repeating information and knowledge and illustrate the importance of differentiating and acknowledging the origin, transmission and rationale of plant use made by humans. Reviewing literature dealing with the traditional parameters (e.g. hot/cold dichotomy, organoleptic properties, doctrine of signatures) influencing the selection and transmission of plant use in a juxtaposition to our recent finding of causal influence of text on local plant use. Discussing the passing down of knowledge by text as a special case of oblique/one-to-many knowledge transmission. Historical texts on materia medica, popular books on plant use, clinical studies, and informants of ethnobotanical field studies generate a circle of information and knowledge, which progressively conditions the results of ethnobotanical field studies. While text reporting on phytotherapeutical trends may cause innovation through the introduction of "new" applications to local customs, persistently repeating well established folk remedies leads to the consolidation of such uses adding a conservative dimension to a local pharmacopoeia, which might not actually be there to that extent. Such a "shaping" of what might appear to be the results of a field investigation is clearly outside the ordinary principles of scientific enquiry. The traditional pillars of ethnobotanical field studies - that is, "input to drug discovery" and "conservation of cultural heritage

  15. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  16. Samii's essentials in neurosurgery

    Ramina, Ricardo; Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Parana, Curitiba; Pires Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Sao Paulo Univ.; Hospital Santa Paula, Sao Paulo; Tatagiba, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    'Samii's Essentials in Neurosurgery' contains selected papers written by internationally recognized contributors who were trained by Professor Madjid Samii in Hannover, Germany. The main topics deal with cutting-edge technology in neurosurgery, skull-base surgery, and specific peripheral nerve, spine, and vascular surgeries. The texts and a wealth of illustrations review and reinforce guidelines on the diagnosis and management of situations that readers are likely to encounter in everyday practice. This book will be of great interest to neurosurgeons, neurologists, ENT surgeons, neuroradiologists, and neurophysiotherapists. (orig.)

  17. The essential David Bohm

    Nichol, Lee

    2002-01-01

    There are few scientists of the twentieth century whose life's work has created more excitement and controversy than that of physicist David Bohm (1917-1992). For the first time in a single volume, The Essential David Bohm offers a comprehensive overview of Bohm's original works from a non-technical perspective. Including three chapters of previously unpublished material, and a forward by the Dalai Lama, each reading has been selected to highlight some aspect of the implicate order process, and to provide an introduction to one of the most provocative thinkers of our time.

  18. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  19. A Feasibility Assessment of Behavioral-based Interviewing to Improve Candidate Selection for a Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Program.

    Tatem, Geneva; Kokas, Maria; Smith, Cathy L; DiGiovine, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    Traditional interviews for residency and fellowship training programs are an important component in the selection process, but can be of variable value due to a nonstandardized approach. We redesigned the candidate interview process for our large pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship program in the United States using a behavioral-based interview (BBI) structure. The primary goal of this approach was to standardize the assessment of candidates within noncognitive domains with the goal of selecting those with the best fit for our institution's fellowship program. Eight faculty members attended two BBI workshops. The first workshop identified our program's "best fit" criteria using the framework of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies and additional behaviors that fit within our programs. BBI questions were then selected from a national database and refined based on the attributes deemed most important by our faculty. In the second workshop, faculty practiced the BBI format in mock interviews with third-year fellows. The interview process was further refined based on feedback from the interviewees, and then applied with fellowship candidates for the 2014 recruitment season. The 1-year pilot of behavioral-based interviewing allowed us to achieve consensus on the traits sought for our incoming fellows and to standardize the interview process for our program using the framework of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. Although the effects of this change on the clinical performance of our fellows have not yet been assessed, this description of our development and implementation processes may be helpful for programs seeking to redesign their applicant interviews.

  20. Enriched cultures of lactic acid bacteria from selected Zimbabwean fermented food and medicinal products with potential as therapy or prophylaxis against yeast infections

    Alec Chabwinja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal activity of crude cultures of putative strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean traditional and commercial food/ medicinal products against yeasts (strains of environmental isolates of Candida albicans and Rhodotorula spp.. Methods: Cultures of putative LAB from our selection of fermented products were enriched in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe and isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar. Results: The crude microbial cultures from the products that showed high antifungal activities (zone of inhibition, mm were as follows: supernatant-free microbial pellet (SFMP from an extract of Melia azedarach leaves [(27.0 ± 2.5 mm] > cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS from Maaz Dairy sour milk and Mnandi sour milk [approximately (26.0 ± 1.8/2.5 mm] > CFCS and SFMP from Amansi hodzeko [(25.0 ± 1.5 mm] > CFCS from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.5 mm], SFMP from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.4 mm] and SFMP from mahewu [(20.0 ± 1.5 mm]. These cultures also showed high tolerance to acidic conditions (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0. However, culture from WAYA LGG (shown elsewhere to harbour antimicrobial activities showed no antifungal activity. The LAB could have inhibited yeasts by either competitive exclusion or the release of antimicrobial metabolites. Conclusions: Our cultures of LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean fermented products, especially Ziziphus mauritiana and fermented milk products have great potential for use as antifungal probiotics against yeast infections. Studies are ongoing to determine the exact mechanisms that are employed by the putative LAB to inhibit Candida albicans.

  1. In vitro inhibitory activities of selected Australian medicinal plant extracts against protein glycation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and digestive enzymes linked to type II diabetes.

    Deo, Permal; Hewawasam, Erandi; Karakoulakis, Aris; Claudie, David J; Nelson, Robert; Simpson, Bradley S; Smith, Nicholas M; Semple, Susan J

    2016-11-04

    There is a need to develop potential new therapies for the management of diabetes and hypertension. Australian medicinal plants collected from the Kuuku I'yu (Northern Kaanju) homelands, Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential. Extracts were tested for inhibition of protein glycation and key enzymes relevant to the management of hyperglycaemia and hypertension. The inhibitory activities were further correlated with the antioxidant activities. Extracts of five selected plant species were investigated: Petalostigma pubescens, Petalostigma banksii, Memecylon pauciflorum, Millettia pinnata and Grewia mesomischa. Enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts was assessed against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Antiglycation activity was determined using glucose-induced protein glycation models and formation of protein-bound fluorescent advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and using the ferric reducing anti-oxidant potential assay (FRAP). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. Extracts of the leaves of Petalostigma banksii and P. pubescens showed the strongest inhibition of α-amylase with IC 50 values of 166.50 ± 5.50 μg/mL and 160.20 ± 27.92 μg/mL, respectively. The P. pubescens leaf extract was also the strongest inhibitor of α-glucosidase with an IC 50 of 167.83 ± 23.82 μg/mL. Testing for the antiglycation potential of the extracts, measured as inhibition of formation of protein-bound fluorescent AGEs, s